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1

Fish population changes in the Volta lake in Ghana during its first sixteen months  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made on changes which have occurred in the fish fauna as a result of the formation of the Volta Lake in Ghana. The data on the relative abundance of fish in the Lake were compared with those obtained from fish landings on the Black Volta and from the Niger river survey, as no observations of fish

T. Petr

1967-01-01

2

Distribution, abundance and food of commercial fish in the Black Volta and the Volta man-made lake in Ghana during its first period of filling (1964–1966). I. Mormyridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

As analysed from fish landings for different parts of the Volta Lake, mormyrids have not established themselves in the new lacustrine environment during the first two years after the formation of the Lake. While they form a substantial part of the fish catches in the Black Volta, especially during the dry season, in the Lake they occur regularly in low

T. Petr

1968-01-01

3

Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the operations research intervention carried out by the Ghana Partnership for Child Development (GPCD) in the Volta Region of Ghana in collaboration with the Ministries of Education and Health and the Ghana Education Service. Ghana was...

J. H. Williams K. Leherr

1998-01-01

4

Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning

D. Adjei-Boateng; J. G. Wilson

5

Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

2005-01-01

6

An evaluation of the genesis and suitability of groundwater for irrigation in the Volta Region, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope data and concentrations of the major cations and anions of groundwater from the northern part of the Volta\\u000a Region, Ghana, were used to determine the source of recharge and the suitability of groundwater in the area for irrigation.\\u000a This study finds that the delta deuterium (?D) and delta Oxygen-18 (?18O) data from the area fall along the global

Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Sandow Mark Yidana; Emmanuel Nti

2009-01-01

7

Analysis of groundwater quality using water quality index and conventional graphical methods: the Volta region, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional graphical and statistical methods were used with water quality indices to characterize the hydrochemistry of\\u000a groundwater from the northern part of the Volta region of Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect\\u000a the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation,\\u000a Voltaian System and the Togo

Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Sandow Mark Yidana; Nti Emmanuel; Thomas Akabzaa; Daniel Asiedu

2009-01-01

8

Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods — the Volta region, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern\\u000a section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation\\u000a of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series\\u000a that

Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Sandow Mark Yidana; Emmanuel Nti

2009-01-01

9

Wetland river flow interaction in a sedimentary formation of the white Volta basin, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in the floodplain wetlands of the White Volta River basin of Ghana is a major source of water for irrigation activities of communities living around and baseflow to sustain the flow of the river. Hydrology of the floodplain wetlands in the basin are complex, characterized by temporally variable storage volumes with erratic contribution to streamflow. For the continual usage of groundwater resources in the floodplains there is a need to study the form of interaction between the main river and floodplain wetlands. The study, adopted the PM-WIN (MODFLOW) model for simulating the interaction between the wetland and stream. Additionally, the lower boundary discharge output from the HYDRUS-1D model is the estimated recharge. This input quantifies the temporal and spatial variations in sub-surfaces discharges in the floodplain wetland. The simulation of the sub-surface hydraulic head of the wetland indicates a systematic variation relative to the White Volta River response to changes in the rainfall pattern. The interaction conditions vary from season to season with March, April, and May showing the least leakage (estimated values of 0.03mm/day, 0.06mm/day, and 0.15 mm/day, respectively) from the river into the floodplain wetland. Notably, the interaction between the wetland and the river as simulated is bidirectional. With most of the flow coming out from the river into the floodplain wetland, this condition persists in the months of August and September.

Nyarko, B. K.; Diekkruger, B.; Van De Giesen, N.; Barry, B.

2011-12-01

10

Groundwater level monitoring and recharge estimation in the White Volta River basin of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge quantification is an important pre-requisite for effectively managing groundwater resources as recharge estimates are needed to determine sustainable yields of groundwater aquifers for rational and sustainable exploitation of the resource. In this study, the water table fluctuation method has been applied in the White Volta River basin of Ghana (approx. 46,000 km2) to estimate seasonal fluctuations in groundwater levels in the basin and subsequently to estimate recharge to the groundwater for the 2006 and 2007 water years. Results show high seasonal and spatial variability in the water level, with a range of 1240-5000 mm in 2006, and 1600-6800 mm in 2007. Seasonal rainfall was found to be the main source of recharge to the aquifers in the basin as water level rise occurred only in the rainfall season. Recharge to groundwater in the White Volta basin was estimated to vary between 2.5% and 16.5% of the mean annual rainfall, with a mean recharge of 7-8%.

Obuobie, Emmanuel; Diekkrueger, Bernd; Agyekum, William; Agodzo, Sampson

2012-08-01

11

Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

2013-11-01

12

Trials of ecological and chemical measures for the control of Schistosoma haematobium transmission in a Volta Lake village  

PubMed Central

Urinary schistosomiasis is highly prevalent along the shores of the Volta Lake in Ghana, where transmission occurs focally in man—water contact sites. The intermediate host, Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi, prefers to harbour in Ceratophyllum, a common aquatic weed in the lake. Removal of this weed reduced the density of both infected and uninfected snails, but not sufficiently to interrupt transmission. Niclosamide was applied at 1, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/l in combination with weed removal at five water contact sites in December, January, and February, respectively. Plastic sheets were used to isolate treated sites from the main body of the lake. Snail surveys were carried out at short intervals to assess the effectiveness of these intervention measures. Niclosamide at 0.5 mg/l applied after weed removal was effective in killing the snails. The overall results indicate that snail control along the entire lake shore is impossible but that focal control of cercarial transmission at water contact sites is attainable and shows promise.

Chu, K. Y.

1978-01-01

13

Periphyton in the Volta Lake. I. Seasonal changes on the trunks of flooded trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the periphyton on the trunks of flooded trees in the Pawmpawm arm of the Volta Lake are reported. Of the three algal groups forming the periphyton, the quantitatively most important species are in such genera as Navicula, Synedra and Melosira (diatoms), Spirogyra, Oedogonium and Stigeoclonium (green algae), and Oscillatoria and Anabaena (blue-green algae). The fluctuations in species

E. K. Obeng-Asamoa; D. M. John; H. N. Appler

1981-01-01

14

Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.  

PubMed

In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

2011-02-13

15

Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in the Volta Clam, Galatea Paradoxa (Born, 1778) in Relation to Their Geoaccumulation in Benthic Sediments of the Volta Estuary, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal accumulation in aquatic ecosystems is a common phenomenon among bivalve filter feeders. This study was carried\\u000a out over an 18-month period at Ada and Aveglo in Ghana, where intense clam fishing represents a major livelihood. The study\\u000a sought to investigate the concentrations of some heavy metals, zinc, manganese, iron and mercury, in whole soft tissues of\\u000a three different

S. Amisah; K. A. Obirikorang; D. Adjei Boateng

2011-01-01

16

Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.  

PubMed

Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system. PMID:20229387

Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Kofi Essumang, David; Eghan, Moses J; Reichert, Barbara; van de Giesen, Nick; Vlek, Paul

2010-03-01

17

Assessment of the Water Quality of the Oti River in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oti river, an important tributary of the Volta lake in Ghana, was chosen as a case study to investigate the variations in the quality of its water at different locations. This was necessitated by the people's reliance on the river for their domestic and agricultural water use. Composite water samples drawn from some sections of the Oti river were analysed

A. Abdul-Razak; A. B. Asiedu; R. E. M. Entsua-Mensah; K. A. A. deGraft-Johnson

18

Simulating the response of a closed-basin lake to recent climate changes in tropical West Africa (Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical changes in the level of Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, have been simulated using a catchment-scale hydrological model in order to assess the importance of changes in climate and land use on lake water balance on a monthly basis for the period 1939-2004. Several commonly used models for computing evaporation in data-sparse regions are compared, including the Penman, the energy budget,

Timothy M. Shanahan; Jonathan T. Overpeck; W. E. Sharp; Christopher A. Scholz; Justice A. Arko

2007-01-01

19

Residents' perceptions of the environmental impacts of tourism in the Lake Bosomtwe Basin, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates residents' perceptions of tourism's physical impacts in the Lake Bosomtwe Basin in Ghana. Data were based on a resident survey conducted in the basin in January 2006. Residents perceived both positive and negative impacts of tourism development, but were more inclined to the positive side. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the district assemblies in

Francis Eric Amuquandoh

2010-01-01

20

The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

21

Population changes in aquatic invertebrates living on two water plants in a tropical man-made lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Gorge region of the Man-made Volta Lake in Ghana the submerged weed Ceratophyllum and the floating Pistia were collected with their associated macroscopic invertebrates between February and November 1965. These collections were studied in order to determine the difference in animal population in both plants and their changes over the year during which they experience a tropical climate

T. Petr

1968-01-01

22

Ghana.  

PubMed

The government of Ghana sees the country's population as a valuable natural resource and emphasizes national population policy as an important part of overall socioeconomic planning and development. A formal system of development planning has been in effect since 1951. Decennial censuses are conducted relatively regularly but vital registration is thought to be incomplete. The current population size is 11,679,000 and the current rate of natural increase (3.1%) is considered too high, constraining the achievement of socioeconomic development. The high rate of growth is taxing on employment and public services. High fertility rates are influenced both by regional norms, such as early and universal marriage, and demographic factors, i.e., an increasingly higher proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group. The government sponsors family planning services which can be obtained free or at subsidized rates and seeks to upgrade the health and living standards of the population. Sterilization is permitted for medical reasons only, and abortions are restricted. Crude death rates have declined steadily and are currently estimated at 21-23/1000 population. The infant mortality rate is approximately 125.7/1000 live births. These rates are considered unacceptable and budget allocations for curative and preventive services have continuously risen. Uneven regional distribution of services continues to be problematic. Efforts to curb immigration in 1969 are thought to have resulted in the current satisfactory situation. Restrictive measures to prevent the emigration of skilled personnel are in effect. 60-65% of the population are urban dwellers and the proportion is expected to increase. The current spatial distribution of the population is considered inappropriate, rapid urbanization is causing rural depopulation, overburdening urban services and accentuating rural-urban disparaties. 2 approaches to the problem have been implemented: the urban increase is accomodated by increasing outlays for services, and new public investments are widely dispersed, particularly in rural areas. The industrial policy is expected to shift to exploitation of the country's natural resources in order to develop the interior. PMID:12263956

1981-09-01

23

Primary and diagenetic carbonates in the anoxic sediments of Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana  

SciTech Connect

Cores of organic-rich muds from the tropical meteorite crater Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, contain laminae of authigenic calcite polyhedra and aragonite needles, as well as scattered diagenetic calcite, Mg-calcite spherulites, and aggregates of dolomite crystals. Their respective origins are traced by analyses of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes. Anoxic dolomite and Mg-calcite formed in pore waters reflecting highest degrees of evaporative concentration and high rates of methanogenesis. Carbon dioxide reduction must have been the dominant methanogenic pathway, producing diagenetic carbonates with ..delta../sup 13/C values up to + 27% PDB. This example shows the inherent problems of interpreting bulk samples with progressive mineralogical sequences of calcite to Mg-calcite to aragonite to dolomite merely in terms of Mg/sup 2 +//Ca/sup 2 +/ in lake waters. It provides a model for the interpretation of ancient lacustrine carbonates from organic-rich environments.

Talbot, M.R.; Kelts, K.

1986-11-01

24

U-Th dating of lacustrine carbonates from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important West African palaeo climate archive for the past 1.08 Ma is recorded in sediments that have accumulated in the impact crater Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana. Direct dating of lacustrine sediments to constrain the chronology of such palaeo climate archives is difficult beyond the limits of 14C. We have explored the feasibility of U-Th dating on authigenic carbonate components of the lake sediment cores. Lake Bosumtwi sediment cores show fine scale laminations, where dark laminae alternate with carbonate-rich lighter laminae. Additionally, in some core sections from shallow-water drill sites, carbonate nodules are found. U-series analyses were conducted on 1-2 mm thick carbonate-rich layers and nodules from various depths of the sediment. A large detrital component in the samples required application of isochron methods for U-series dating. We present our sampling and preparation strategy as well as U-series results. Calculated ages of the four nodule samples analysed in this study are in stratigraphic order and cover an age range between 100 and 400 ka. The results on carbonate layers, however, yield only limited success, and only two of six layers analysed produced U-Th isochron ages. Most carbonate layer samples show significant 230Th excess indicating U mobilisation. Additional elemental analyses on the sediment layers show that non-datable layers are characterised by relatively smaller Ca contents. Furthermore, higher Fe and S concentration of non-datable layers indicate that redox processes might be responsible for U mobilisation and hence 230Th excess.

Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Richards, David A.; Peck, John A.; King, John W.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Scholz, Christopher A.

2010-05-01

25

Mag Lab U: Alessandro Volta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short biography of Alessandro Volta, the 18th-century Italian scientist who proposed the theory that electrical current is generated by contact between different metals. His experimental work resulted in the construction of the "voltaic pile" battery, the first known source of sustainable electric current. The biography includes a link to a Java-based simulation of his voltaic pile device. Mag Lab U is part of a large collection of web-based educational materials for K-20, developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

Neaves, Shannon

2010-05-26

26

Paleoenvironmental changes in West Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum from a geochemical and modeling study of Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Bosumtwi is a 78 m deep, hydrologically isolated lake formed in a 1.07 Ma meteorite impact crater in southwestern Africa. Because of its location and hydrologic properties, it is extremely sensitive to changes in the precipitation/evaporation balance and the strength of the West African monsoon. In 2004, we recovered an extensive set of long (ca. 300 m) sediment cores extending from the surface to bedrock, offering the potential for reconstructing a million year long record of paleoenvironmental variability in West Africa. In the present study, we use a multiproxy approach to reconstruct the most recent, ca. 25 kyr portion of this record in order to understand the sensitivity of Lake Bosumtwi to global climate changes during glacial to interglacial transitions. Elemental variations in sediment cores provide evidence for large and abrupt shifts in the lake water balance, caused by changes in the strength of the monsoon and the position of the ITCZ, and are supported by evidence from paleoterrace reconstructions. Large scale changes in vegetation reconstructed from vascular plant biomarkers indicate that vegetation in West Africa responded directly to changes in the strength of the monsoon and could potentially provide a West African source for some late glacial changes in atmospheric methane production. Simulations of lake level fluctuations using a water balance model provide new constraints on the magnitude of these hydrologic changes. Our results suggest that a detailed record of both paleohydrologic and paleoenvironmental change are contained in the sediments from Lake Bosumtwi. Future work on deep drill cores using these and other proxies can provide additional insights into the nature of West African climate and environmental variability.

Shanahan, T. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Scholz, C.; Hughen, K.; Drenzek, N.; Beck, J. W.

2005-12-01

27

Nutrition and carbon metabolism of Methanococcus voltae.  

PubMed Central

Methanococcus voltae is a heterotrophic, H2-oxidizing methanogenic bacterium. In complex medium, this bacterium has a doubling time of 1.2 h at its temperature optimum of 38 degrees C. In defined medium, optimal growth is obtained with 0.75 mM isoleucine, 0.75 mM leucine, 2.5 mM acetate, 5 mM NH4Cl, 84 mM MgSO4, 0.4 M NaCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 10 microM Fe2O3, and 0.2 microM NiCl2. In addition, pantothenate, sodium selenate, and cobalt stimulate growth. Optimal growth is obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0 with either H2 or formate as the electron donor. The volatile fatty acids 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate can substitute for isoleucine and leucine, respectively. Cellular carbon is derived from acetate (31%), isoleucine (22%), leucine (25%), and carbon dioxide (23%). The amino acids and fatty acids are incorporated almost exclusively into protein. A comparison of the incorporation of U-14C-amino acids and 1-14C-fatty acids indicated that the fatty acids are degraded during incorporation into cell protein. The distribution of carbon from the amino acids suggests that acetyl coenzyme A is not a major intermediate in the degradation of these compounds. Thus, M. voltae may convert isoleucine and leucine to other amino acids by a unique mechanism. The lipid carbon is derived largely from acetate. Thus, the isoprenoid lipids are synthesized de novo from acetate rather than by degradation of leucine. The carbon in the nucleic acids is derived from carbon dioxide (45%), the C-1 of acetate (25%), the C-2 of acetate (22%), and isoleucine and leucine (7%). This labeling pattern is consistent with known biochemical pathways.

Whitman, W B; Ankwanda, E; Wolfe, R S

1982-01-01

28

State Farms in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive report is given of large scale farming in Ghana, including a history of British Colonial efforts up to 1962. Discussed is the establishment of Ghana State Farms Corporation (SFC) in June of 1962 which took over the Ministry of Agriculture'...

M. P. Miracle A. Seidman

1968-01-01

29

Transduction-Like Gene Transfer in the Methanogen Methanococcus voltae  

PubMed Central

Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 × 10?5 (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10?3 (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.

Bertani, Giuseppe

1999-01-01

30

L’effetto volta e la teoria elettronica della pila  

Microsoft Academic Search

8. Conclusione. — Accertata 1’ esistenza dell’ effetto Volta anche nel vuoto, e perció indipendentemente da ogni azione chimica,\\u000a la coppia bimetallica, ad esempio rame-zinco, costituisce un mezzo naturale e perpetuo atto a produrre in uno spazio anche\\u000a di grandi dimensioni un campo elettrostatico; cosí come un magnete permanente (peró con minore stabilitá) crea intorno a sé\\u000a un campo magnetico.

O. M. Corbino

1927-01-01

31

Diagnostic study of the Volta Basin fisheries: Part 1 overview of the fisheries resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Basin Focal Project for the Volta (BFP-Volta) is a research project funded by the Challenge Programme on Water and Food (CPWF). Its aim is to provide an in-depth analysis of the basin through three main thematic issues: water-poverty, water availability\\/use and water productivity. The overall objective of the BFP-Volta is to contribute to the main goal of the CPWF,

32

Genetics of the methanogenic bacterium, Methanococcus voltae with attention to genetic expression mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

For this investigation of methanogen physiology and biochemistry we have studied Methanococcus voltae (M. voltae), a marine bacterium. We are currently analyzing two very important physiological systems: regulated expression of the membrane-associated P-type ATPase gene, and the molecular biology of coenzyme M (CoM) production. The RNA polymerase of M. voltae has been isolated and purified, and is being used to identify transcription factors and the promoter for the P-type ATPase gene. We have cloned and sequenced this gene, and have shown its expression is sodium dependent. We have isolated a CoM deficient mutant, and have cloned DNA which corrects the mutation. Parameters for electroporation of DNA into M. voltae have been determined. Additionally, we have characterized virus-like particles found in M. voltae, and determined that uptake of CoM from the environment may be characteristic of methanogens in an anaerobic marine environment. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Konisky, J.

1991-01-01

33

Ghana: A Country Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The country profile of Ghana is part of a series designed to provide baseline country data in support of the planning and relief operations of the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). Content, scope, and sources have evolved over the course ...

C. L. Mango C. Davis

1985-01-01

34

Area Handbook for Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

Kaplan, Irving; And Others

35

Labor Relations in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labor relations in the Gold Coast (Ghana), or aspects thereof, such as collective bargaining, free trade unions, and arbitration, cannot be discussed as though a free market economy existed there or on the assumption that it will develop as in Europe and in America. The state is the dominant employer of labor and the principal source of capital; without its

R. B. Davison

1957-01-01

36

Occupational injuries in Ghana.  

PubMed

Household interviews were used to survey 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites in Ghana, to determine the nature and extent of their occupational injuries. Annual occupational injury rates were 11.5 injuries/1000 persons in the urban areas and 44.9/1000 in the rural areas. Occupational injuries had higher mortality, longer disability, and higher treatment costs than non-occupational injuries. There were substantial occupational injury rates among children, especially in rural areas. In the urban areas, the largest numbers of injuries were to drivers (12.7% of urban occupational injuries) and traders (19.4%), most of which were road-traffic-related. In the rural areas, most injuries (71.6%) were to farm workers. Occupational injuries are a substantial burden in Ghana. Priorities include improving road safety and improving the prevention and treatment of injuries from nonmechanized farming. PMID:16130964

Mock, Charles; Adjei, Samuel; Acheampong, Frederick; Deroo, Lisa; Simpson, Kate

37

Exchange Rate Management in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of exchange rate management in Ghana is one of the richest and most interesting in Africa. Before most African countries had established their own currencies, a balance of payments crisis in Ghana provoked an adverse terms of trade shock and e...

S. D. Younger

1993-01-01

38

Characterization of guanine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases in Methanococcus voltae.  

PubMed Central

Phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) and nucleoside phosphorylase (NPase) activities were detected by radiometric methods in extracts of Methanococcus voltae. Guanine PRTase activity was present at 2.7 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) and had an apparent Km for guanine of 0.2 mM and a pH optimum of 9. The activity was inhibited 50% by 0.3 mM GMP. IMP and AMP were not inhibitory at concentrations up to 0.6 mM. Hypoxanthine inhibited by 50% at 0.16 mM, and adenine and xanthine were not inhibitory at concentrations up to 0.5 mM. Guanosine NPase activity was present at 0.01 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1). Hypoxanthine PRTase activity was present at 0.85 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) with an apparent Km for hypoxanthine of 0.015 mM and a pH optimum of 9. Activity was stimulated at least twofold by 0.05 mM GMP and 0.2 mM IMP but was unaffected by AMP. Guanine inhibited by 50% at 0.06 mM, but adenine and xanthine were not inhibitory. Inosine NPase activity was present at 0.04 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1). PRTase activities were not sensitive to any base analogs examined, with the exception of 8-azaguanine, 8-azahypoxanthine, and 2-thioxanthine. Fractionation of cell extracts by ion-exchange chromatography resolved three peaks of activity, each of which contained both guanine and hypoxanthine PRTase activities. The specific activities of the PRTases were not affected by growth in medium containing the nucleobases. Mutants of M. voltae resistant to base analogs lacked PRTase activity. Two mutants resistant to both 8-azaguanine and 8-azahypoxanthine lacked activity for both guanine and hypoxanthine PRTase. These results suggest that analog resistance was acquired by the loss of PRTase activity.

Bowen, T L; Lin, W C; Whitman, W B

1996-01-01

39

Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 × Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); São Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.

Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

2010-05-01

40

Animal Traction in Eastern Upper Volta: A Technical, Economic and Institutional Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical, economic, and institutional impacts of the animal traction component of an AID-supported integrated rural development project in Eastern Upper Volta are herein evaluated. Small farming systems in the region that use traditional hoe cultivat...

V. Barrett G. Lassiter D. Wilcock D. Baker E. Crawford

1982-01-01

41

Culture and the environment in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional culture of Ghana stressed a strong relationship with the environment, and a culturally acceptable environmental management resulted from strictures and taboos related to the land. Following its independence in 1957, Ghana has enacted laws that reflect an enlightened environmental policy. These are especially important because of the difficulties Ghana has had in its economic development using Western technology that has damaged the fragile tropical ecosystem. A key aspect of Ghana's policy is the attempt to marry scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs for environmentally sound management of Ghana's resources.

Dyasi, Hubert M.

1985-03-01

42

Surface\\/groundwater interactions in the Bani and Nakambe rivers, tributaries of the Niger and Volta basins, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Niger and Volta rivers exhibit a great and highly contrasting variability of inter-annual runoff. The Bani River, the largest tributary to the Niger River in Mali, shows a dramatic decrease in runoff after the 1970s, with the result that many boreholes in the region have dried up since the drought began. In contrast, the Nakambe River (Upper Volta

GIL MAHE

2009-01-01

43

Water footprint of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity

Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

2009-04-01

44

Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))

1993-06-01

45

Ghana social mobilization analysis.  

PubMed

In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings. PMID:2037495

Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

1991-01-01

46

From Volta's Pile to Ferraris' Motor: A History of Instruments and Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of Volta's pile was initially included into Electrolysis and Chemistry. Only after Oersted's discovery of the magnetic effect of electric currents, Ampére constructed a dynamical theory of their interactions. In the middle of nineteenth century, Faraday's electromagnetic induction represented one of the main effects at the basis of Maxwell's field theory, and, at the same time, the fundamental

S. D'Agostino; S. Leva; A. P. Morando

47

An Analysis of Some Factors That Affect Curriculum Implementation in Upper Volta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposed reforms in the educational system of Upper Volta have brought to the surface a variety of opposing and negative reactions against implementing suggested changes. Factors that have emerged to hamper change are: (1) language of instruction (French vs Voltaic); (2) concentration on productive instruction (e.g., animal husbandry) gives rise…

Ouedraogo, Mathieu R.

48

Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly rainfall data, spanning more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p(sup 2)/P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the ann...

K. Oduro Afriyie

1995-01-01

49

Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa based on the GLOWA Volta Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in the Volta Basin, and represents the first comprehensive, publicly accessible data- and meta-database for the Volta Basin. The Geoportal can be used to search for data, for interactive mapping or the download of ready-made maps, and to publish and share new data and research results. Local institutions are actively involved in acquiring data for the Geoportal, and trained in its operation. For the contributing institutions, the ability to manage data access and use rights (publicly available, available to defined user groups, available upon request) is of great importance. It allows them to publish the existence of their data and facilitate access to it without sacrificing their ownership rights. The Geoportal can be accessed at http://131.220.109.6/Geoportal

Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.

2010-05-01

50

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

2010-12-01

51

Changing morphology of Ghana’s Accra coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal features in Ghana's Accra coast reflect both past and present processes that have been undergoing changes. These changes\\u000a are influenced by a range of morphogenic factors such as geology and climatic conditions. These regimes have shaped the coastal\\u000a geomorphic features through weathering processes that decompose and disintegrate the coastal rock. Sea level rise due to climate\\u000a change is expected

Kwasi Appeaning Addo

52

Cloning of the trp genes from the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae : Nucleotide sequence of the trpBA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cosmid bank of Methanococcus voltae DNA was obtained in Escherichia coli after ligation of partially HindIII-digested M. voltae DNA in the HindIII site of the transferable cosmid pVK100. The bank was used to perform complementation experiments with E. coli auxotrophic mutants. Five cosmids complementing trpA shared three adjacent HindIII fragments of 2.1, 2.3 and 14 kb. Two of these

Lionel Sibold; Marc Henriquet

1988-01-01

53

Domestic Violence in Ghana: The Open Secret  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the findings of a Georgetown Law International Women’s Human Rights Clinic fact-finding team that traveled to Ghana, Africa in March 2003 to investigate domestic violence. The report reviews the contours of the domestic violence problem in Ghana and outlines the ways in which Ghanaian law and procedure was insufficiently addressing the problem at the time. Its chief

Nancy Chi Cantalupo; Lisa Vollendorf Martin; Kay Pak; Sue Shin

2006-01-01

54

Property Valuation in Ghana: Contraints and Contradictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Property valuation is carried out in Ghana for various purposes such as for insurance, payment of compensation for state acquired lands, taxation, rent\\/lease, sale and mortgages among others. It has been recognized over the years that property valuations in Ghana for the various purposes is fraught with a lot of constraining factors, conditions and contradictions which often distort estimated

Theodora Mantebea MENDS

2006-01-01

55

Copyright, folklore and music piracy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problems inadvertently created by modern notions of musical copyright (i.e. based on the individual ownership of specific works) introduced to Ghana via trans-national organisations such as multinational record companies, the business side of international ‘superstars’ and global copyright societies. The resulting conundrums for Ghana's musical evolution that will be examined in this paper, are of three

John Collins

2006-01-01

56

Key motivations for bank patronage in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Banking in Ghana is now an intensely competitive proposition. In a competitive environment, it becomes imperative not just to attract customers, but also to design strategies aimed at maintaining these customers. Drawing on data from over 2,000 retail bank customers in Ghana, this study aims at understanding the key motivations for maintaining accounts with banks in respect of

Robert Hinson; Nana Owusu-Frimpong; Julius Dasah

2009-01-01

57

Isolation and characterization of the 7S RNA gene from Methanococcus voltae.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the 7S RNA of the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae has been isolated. The gene occurs as a single copy within the genome and encodes an RNA molecule approximately 300 nucleotides in length. The M. voltae RNA molecule exhibits a strong similarity to both archaebacterial and eucaryotic 7S RNAs in terms of overall secondary structure, while the primary sequence is conserved to a lesser degree. All 7S RNA molecules possess a specific structural domain which is highly conserved in terms of both primary sequence and secondary structure, possibly representing a functional site of the molecule. Conservation of the 7S RNA molecule suggests that it is the descendant of a subcellular structure present before the divergence of the archaebacterial and eucaryotic kingdoms. The M. voltae 7S RNA gene is flanked both 5' and 3' by regions of extremely A + T-rich DNA. The 5'-flanking region contains several potential promoter sequences for archaebacterial RNA polymerases. One such sequence occurs as three direct repeats and bears a strong similarity to sequences found upstream of other archaebacterial genes. The 3'-flanking region contains a strong signal for the termination of transcription. Images

Kaine, B P; Merkel, V L

1989-01-01

58

Isolation and characterization of an archaebacterial viruslike particle from Methanococcus voltae A3.  

PubMed Central

Small amounts of a 23-kilobase covalently closed circular DNA molecule were isolated from unwashed cells of Methanococcus voltae A3. Further investigation indicated the presence of greater quantities of the circular DNA in the culture supernatant, complexed with protein in a manner rendering the DNA resistant to DNase. Electron-microscopic examination of supernatant material revealed the presence of particles which morphologically resemble virus. Phenol extraction of viruslike particle preparations resulted in the recovery of DNase-sensitive open-circular DNA molecules. As many as 30 viruslike particles per cell were recovered from some cultures. Hybridization data clearly indicated the presence of a chromosomally integrated copy of the viruslike particle DNA. Although M. voltae PS was not observed to produce viruslike particles, DNA homologous to the viruslike particle DNA was detected in its chromosome. A mutant of M. voltae A3 was isolated which produced no particles; its DNA was deleted for 80% of the integrated viruslike particle DNA. Despite any similarities to lysogenic bacteriophages of eubacteria, neither infectivity nor inducibility of the viruslike particles could be demonstrated. Images

Wood, A G; Whitman, W B; Konisky, J

1989-01-01

59

Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 × 106 m3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 × 106 m3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from those local rivers could have significant effects on the coast. There is the need, therefore, to ensure that catchment management plans and coastal management plans are integrated or interconnected.

Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

2012-02-01

60

Energy transduction in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae is based on a sodium current.  

PubMed Central

We provide experimental support for the proposal that ATP production in Methanococcus voltae, a methanogenic member of the archaea, is based on an energetic system in which sodium ions, not protons, are the coupling ions. We show that when grown at a pH of 6.0, 7.1, or 8.2, M. voltae cells maintain a membrane potential of approximately -150 mV. The cells maintain a transmembrane pH gradient (pH(in) - pH(out)) of -0.1, -0.2, and -0.2, respectively, values not favorable to the inward movement of protons. The cells maintain a transmembrane sodium concentration gradient (sodium(out)/sodium(in)) of 1.2, 3.4, and 11.6, respectively. While the protonophore 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide inhibits ATP formation in cells grown at pH 6.5, neither ATP formation nor growth is inhibited in cells grown in medium at pH 8.2. We show that when grown at pH 8.2, cells synthesize ATP in the absence of a favorably oriented proton motive force. Whether grown at pH 6.5 or pH 8.2, M. voltae extrudes Na+ via a primary pump whose activity does not depend on a proton motive force. The addition of protons to the cells leads to a harmaline-sensitive efflux of Na+ and vice versa, indicating the presence of Na+/H+ antiporter activity and, thus, a second mechanism for the translocation of Na+ across the cell membrane. M. voltae contains a membrane component that is immunologically related to the H(+)-translocating ATP synthase of the archaeabacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Since we demonstrated that ATP production can be driven by an artificially imposed membrane potential only in the presence of sodium ions, we propose that ATP production in M. voltae is mediated by an Na+-translocating ATP synthase whose function is coupled to a sodium motive force that is generated through a primary Na+ pump. Images

Dybas, M; Konisky, J

1992-01-01

61

The Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project: A 1 Ma West African Paleoclimate Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Bosumtwi occupies a 1.07 Ma impact crater located in Ghana, West Africa centered at 06*32'N and 01*25'W. This 78 m deep, hydrologically-closed lake has a water budget extremely sensitive to the precipitation\\/evapotranspiration balance and is located in the path of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ. Therefore, Lake Bosumtwi is ideally situated to provide a long record of change

J. A. Peck; C. Heil; J. W. King; C. A. Scholz; T. M. Shanahan; J. T. Overpeck; P. A. Fox; P. Y. Amoako; S. L. Forman; C. Koeberl; B. Milkereit

2005-01-01

62

Initial field studies in Upper Volta with dichlorvos residual fumigant as a malaria eradication technique*  

PubMed Central

In mud houses in Wakara, Upper Volta, dichlorvos dispensers installed at the rate of one dispenser per approximately 500 cubic feet (14 m3) produced 70% or higher average kills of adult Aëdes aegypti, exposed overnight in screen wire cages suspended at levels of 6 feet (1.8 m) and 2 feet (0.6 m), for approximately three months during the wet season and four months during the dry season. Average kills of 96% and 80% were obtained in the dry season at the 6-foot and 2-foot levels, respectively, with 6-hour daytime exposures 17-22 weeks after treatment.

Mathis, W.; Cloud, Arlen St.; Eyraud, M.; Miller, Steve; Hamon, J.

1963-01-01

63

The Elephant, Umbrella, and Quarrelling Cocks: Disaggregating Partisanship in Ghana’s Fourth Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature on Ghanaian partisanship, a healthy debate has arisen between those viewing Ghana’s two dominant parties as cleaved along socioeconomic lines and those suggesting that this cleavage runs along ethnic lines. Using election results, constituency maps, census data, and a survey of voters’ ‘cognitive shortcuts’, this article weighs in with the debate. The findings suggest that ethnicity matters

Kevin S. Fridy

2007-01-01

64

Earth and shadow: substance, medicine and mobility in the history of Ghana's Tongnaab shrines.  

PubMed

Shrines associated with the deity Tongnaab in the Talensi region of northern Ghana formed the centre of a precolonial regional cult that encompassed a variety of peoples in the savannas of the Volta basin. Despite attempts by the British colonial state to destroy the shrines and to suppress ritual activity in the Tong Hills, by the 1920s the cult was spreading beyond its heartland into the Akan forest and the Gold Coast to the south. There it became known as Nana Tongo, one of a wave of anti-witchcraft healing movements. This paper examines the material culture and the mechanics of this history of ritual mobility and metamorphosis. It reflects upon the connection between the metaphysical concept of 'shadow' and the physical substance of earth, both of which were transported in a portable shrine called a bo'artyii and used to empower satellite medicine shrines. As these items traversed cultural frontiers they were subject to local reinterpretation and transformation. PMID:21810041

Parker, John

2011-08-01

65

[Demographic profile of the Xavánte Indian population in Sangradouro-Volta Grande, Mato Grosso].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Xavánte population at the Sangradouro-Volta Grande Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997. The survey included annual censuses and vital statistics from 7 Xavánte villages. Permanent contact with Brazilian national society, established in the 1940s and 50s, caused a population drop due to epidemics and clashes. In 1995 there were 825 individuals in the community. The crude birth rate (57.7/1,000) and death rate (9.1/1,000) were higher than the national averages. The majority (56%) of the population is under 15 years of age (median: 13 years) and the infant mortality rate is high (87.1 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious sanitary conditions in the villages. Other results included the persistence of polygyny; low levels of migration; a dynamic of splits and formation of new villages; traditional housing patterns maintained in the old villages and abandoned in the new ones. The recent demographic recovery in the data from Sangradouro-Volta Grande is similar to that observed in the Pimentel Barbosa community. The study highlights the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data from indigenous populations. PMID:11283766

Souza, L G; Santos, R V

66

Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector: Lessons from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study seeks to assess the contribution of Ghana's emergent parliamentary oversight of the security sector in preventing insecurity and promoting stability. Ghana poses a genuine case of deepening democratic control over the security sector. But while Ghana's experiences are positive, at least in the context of West Africa, Hutchful argues that \\

Kwesi Aning; Ernest Lartey

67

A Modelling of Ghana's Inflation Experience: 1960–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study sought to ascertain the key determinants of inflation in Ghana for the past 40 years. Stylized facts about Ghana’s inflation experience indicate that since the country’s exit from the West African Currency Board soon after independence, inflation management has been ineffective despite two decades of vigorous reforms. Using the Johansen cointegration test and an error correction model, the

Mathew Kofi Ocran

2007-01-01

68

Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking.

Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

2010-01-01

69

Applications of ERTS Products in Range and Water Management Problems, Sahelian Zone, Mali, Upper Volta, and Niger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of a brief field investigation by the writers during April and May 1974 to evaluate application of ERTS imagery to range and water management problems in Mali, Upper Volta, and Niger. The report concludes that the imagery ...

M. E. Cooley R. M. Turner

1975-01-01

70

Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

1982-02-01

71

National waste management infrastructure in Ghana.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643

Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J

1998-12-01

72

Future Climate Modelling for the Volta Basin, West Africa, Wet or Dry?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, a number of climatic models have conflicting predictions over the sign of the variation for the continent of Africa and especially at large regional scales such as for West Africa. Although individual models may disagree on the signs, but there is a consensus on the increase of the frequency of extreme events for the future (Hewitson, and Crane (2006), IPCC-AR4 (2005)). In this study, temporal characteristics of downscaled climate models adopted for the Volta basin, a semi-arid region in West Africa, are investigated in order to assess the impacts on for water resources based on the projections of the selected regional climate models (RCMs) REMO and MM5. For this purpose, the past, present and future rainfall outputs of the RCMs are analysed against gauged rainfall of 1961-2000 for exceedance probabilities, correlation and trends. A drought frequency is developed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) time series between 2006 and 2050 for the northern part of the Volta Basin. Using this analysis the drying trend for the future of 2006-2050 shows an increase of more than double in the occurrence of extreme to severely extreme dry events as a projection of the future compared to the same time space of 1961-2005. With the assertion that integrating the interaction with vegetation cover and albedo considerably improves the simulation of rainfall over the Sahel, the projections of REMO are regarded by this study as more plausible compared to MM5 whose projection were not based on present IPCC scenario projections. Keywords: Modelling, SPI, drought, RCMs

Kasei, Raymond; Diekkrüger, Bernd

2010-05-01

73

Ethnicity and Election Outcomes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is ethnicity the critical determinant of election results in Africa? We investigate this question empirically on the 2004 presidential poll in Ghana. We use variables from several data sources matched at the district level, and perform econometric analysis on the turnout rate and party vote shares, and on their evolution between two similar polls. We test the accuracy of two

Thomas Bossuroy

2011-01-01

74

The enforcement of commercial contracts in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using case studies of manufacturing and trading firms, this paper documents how commercial contracts are enforced in Ghana. Interviews were guided by a conceptual framework emphasizing credible enforcement mechanisms and information asymmetries. Results show that compliance with contractual obligations is mostly motivated by the desire to preserve personalized relationships based on mutual trust. Harassment is the main form of debt

Marcel Fafchamps

1996-01-01

75

Causes of suppurative keratitis in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--Suppurative keratitis is a serious problem in all tropical countries, but very little information is available about the causative organisms in Africa. The objectives were to identify the causative organisms and the proportion of cases caused by fungi in southern Ghana, and to determine whether correct decisions about treatment could be made on the basis of Gram stain in the

M Hagan; E Wright; M Newman; P Dolin; G Johnson

1995-01-01

76

Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

2012-01-01

77

Wage and Productivity Gaps: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 1999This paper studies labor market outcomes in Ghana. The analysis focuses on the formal manufacturing wage sector and, more specifically, on the determinants of wages and productivity for various groups of workers. It tests hypotheses that relate to the impacts of individual and enterprise characteristics on wages. Furthermore, it compares the marginal impact of each of these characteristics on

Dorte Verner

1999-01-01

78

Microbial characterization of dried foods from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the most common methods to preserve vegetables and fish in Ghana are sun-drying and smoking, respectively. Convenience foods also are fairly common, which are foods that are mechanically dehydrated and milled into powders. In this research, the dominant microflora of common Ghanaian dried foods such as vegetables; powders; smoked, salted or sun-dried fish; seasonings; spices and oilseeds were investigated

Bernice Dzifa Kudjawu

2008-01-01

79

Colonialism, legitimation, and policing in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing historiographies of colonial and post-colonial policing in Ghana have focused nearly exclusively on providing a basic understanding of managerial issues—that is, organisational and administrative structure, functions and modes of operation. Our knowledge of issues of police legitimation, and of the ‘quality of policing’ remains very limited. This article discusses these issues and establishes the vital importance of history

Justice Tankebe

2008-01-01

80

Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

81

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1997To improve human capital and reduce the incidence of child labor in Ghana, the country's school systems should reduce families' schooling costs, adapt to the constraints on schooling in rural areas (where most children must work at least part-time), and provide better education (more relevant to the needs of the labor market). If these things are done, more families

Sudharshan Canagarajah; Harold Coulombe

1999-01-01

82

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a simulation application and a sample of five existing office buildings, we parametrically explored building features and measures that could improve the thermal performance of office buildings in Kumasi, Ghana. To improve the reliability of the simulation results, the simulation models were calibrated using long-term continuous measurements on environmental conditions (air temperature, relative humidity) inside and in the immediate

Christian Koranteng; Ardeshir Mahdavi

83

Primary structure and expression of a gene homologous to nifH (nitrogenase Fe protein) from the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Methanococcus voltae, a 3.0 kbp HindIII fragment carrying homology to nifH was recently cloned. In Escherichia coli maxicells, the fragment directed the synthesis of a 30 K polypeptide encoded by the region homologous to nifH. Plasmids carrying the fragment did not complement Klebsiella pneumoniae nifH mutants and did not inhibit the nitrogen fixation of a Nif+ strain. The complete

Nicole Souillard; Lionel Sibold

1986-01-01

84

Report on a preliminary survey by the WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team in Upper Volta  

PubMed Central

The WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team made a survey in Upper Volta during May and June 1960. Data available indicate that S. haematobium is widely scattered throughout the country and that about 50% of the population, or more than 1.5 million people, are infected at some time during their lives. The examination of faeces is not a common practice, and it is therefore impossible to estimate the prevalence of S. mansoni and the intestinal helminths. The available evidence indicates, however, that S. mansoni is more prevalent in the country than is generally suspected. The distribution of the known snail habitats and the bilharziasis foci indicate that most of the major watersheds are infested, but that transmission sites may be rather sharply defined. It will be necessary to take this and various seasonal factors into consideration in planning a bilharziasis control programme. An analysis of the various public health problems in the country indicated that a programme of bilharziasis control would not be of practical value unless it was combined with a general attack on filth- and vector-borne diseases, and that it was essential to consider such a programme in conneixon with plans for the development of water and soil resources.

McMullen, Donald B.; Francotte, Jean

1962-01-01

85

Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data  

PubMed Central

This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ?2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

Opoku-Duah, S.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Burt, T. P.

2008-01-01

86

Section 39 (Population and Development) Title: Rapid Population Growth and Development in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's Demographic and Health Surveys 1988 and 1993, and Ghana's 1984 Population Census report were used to examine the effect of rapid population growth on 4 key sectors in Ghana. The population issue in Ghana concerns the high rate of growth and not the number of people. The rapidly increasing expenditure on education is associated with sharp increases in the

Eric Adjei Boadu

87

History of Community Psychology in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter traces the emergence and practice of community psychology in Ghana. We begin with a discussion of the early stages\\u000a of the development of community psychology in the country. Having been foreshadowed by the activities of nongovernmental organizations\\u000a (NGOs), community psychologists mainly use the classroom as a catalyst for promoting the values and principles of the field.\\u000a The classroom

CHARITY S. AKOTIA; KOFI B. BARIMAH

88

Understanding the health and nutritional status of children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data set of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS, round 1, 1987\\/1988) was utilized to analyse the principal determinants (publicly and privately) of health and nutrition of children under five in Ghana. While in most health and nutrition studies the emphasis is either on health-related factors such as occurrence of illness, immunization, accessibility to light (electricity), the role of

W. K. Asenso-Okyere; F. A. Asante; M. Nubé

1997-01-01

89

Education and training of the future librarian in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that a sound library education is of paramount importance to the image and prestige of the library profession. Although in the past, a number of training programmes have been organised for librarians in Ghana, argues that present-day job expectations require a new look at the training and education of the future librarian in Ghana. Various proposals are made in

A. A. Alemna

1998-01-01

90

Household dietary practices and family nutritional status in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying household dietary practices, quality of diets and family nutritional status of rural Ghana. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessments and anthropometry was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained was analyzed using

Christina A. Nti

2008-01-01

91

Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the environmental impact of artisanal mining of gold with mercury (Hg) in Ghana. In spite of its positive socio- economic contributions, it is well known that artisanal mining of gold contributes in no small measure to land degradation, loss of biodiversity and natural resources, deforestation, water pollution, etc. In Ghana, these environmental problems remain poorly studied. In

A. K. Donkor; V. K. Nartey; J. C. Bonzongo; D. K. Adotey

92

The Progressivity Of Health Care Services In Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the incidence of public health subsidies in Ghana using the Ghana Living Standards Survey. Using a combination of (uniform) benefit incidence analysis and a discrete choice model, our results give a clear evidence of progressivity with consistent ordering: postnatal and prenatal services are the most progressive, followed by clinic visits, and then hospital visits. Children health care

Mawuli Gaddah; Alistair Munro

2011-01-01

93

Ghana: Background and U.S. Relations (February 14, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This short report, which will be updated as events warrant, provides background information on current developments in Ghana and U.S. bilateral relations with Ghana. In mid-February 2008, President and Mrs. Bush are slated to travel to five African countr...

N. Cook

2008-01-01

94

Sustainable Vocational Skills Development for Poverty Reduction in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of the youth, in terms of unemployment, in Northern Ghana is manifest by persistent migration streams to Southern Ghana and its attendant negative effects, such as high crime rate. Vocational skills development has been identified as one effective means of tackling the unemployment problem of the area, which could ultimately reduce the inherent migration trends. This paper analyses

Braimah Imoro; Kwame Obeng Nti

2009-01-01

95

The Determinants of Girls' Educational Enrollment in Ghana. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the determinants of school enrollment in Ghana, considering historical and social information to formulate an econometric model of school enrollment patterns for households. Data came from a 1989 survey of households in Ghana. The survey collected basic information about community characteristics, health and school facilities,…

Johnson, Rebecca; Kyle, Steven

96

Ghana residential energy use and appliance ownership survey: Final Report on the Potential Impact of Appliance Performance Standards in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government of Ghana, through the Ministry of Mines and Energy is committed to improving the national energy infrastructure and market in Ghana. This report presents the results of a survey and analysis of household energy use and appliance ownership i...

S. Constantine A. Denver S. Hakim J. E. McMahon G. Rosenquist

1999-01-01

97

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment;…

Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

98

CONNECTICUT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

99

Ghana. Selective versus comprehensive primary health care.  

PubMed

The choice between selective vs. comprehensive primary health care (PHC) affects program planning, implementation, financing, and the achievement of health policy goals in Ghana. Comprehensive PHC unites health with the total development of the community. It promotes community participation, intersectoral collaboration, and use of appropriate technology. It stresses the development of horizontal institutional structures. This type of institutional development allows for management of emerging new health problems without establishing new and extra structures. Major problems with comprehensive PHC are that results are not readily detectable in the short term and costs are too high for developing countries, due to its extensive coverage and the number of trained personnel needed to sustain it. Selective PHC focuses on prevention or treatment of the few diseases that cause the most mortality and morbidity and for which there are effective interventions. Decision makers should consider prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and feasibility of control when selecting targeted diseases. The advantages of selective PHC include: a rational, cost-effective way to prioritize disease problems; narrow scope, making it affordable for developing countries; and readily detectable results in the short term. For Ghana, however, selective PHC poses major problems. Since it is disease oriented, it encourages the ingrained misconception that only the Ministry of Health is responsible for health. Reduction in the mortality of a few diseases does not necessarily mean reduction of overall mortality. Often unreliable and inconsistent mortality data do not form a basis for determining health priorities. Economic rationality is not always justifiable on ethical grounds. Ghana is working to dismantle the vertical system and towards integration and decentralization. This restructured system should accommodate both strategies. PMID:8009622

Amofah, G K

1994-04-01

100

Maritime Cultural Resource Investigation, Management, and Mitigation in Coastal Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in coastal Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged sites in coastal Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck site is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in coastal Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.

Horlings, Rachel L.

2012-10-01

101

Beliefs on epilepsy in Northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Stigma associated with any chronic disease is one of the greatest challenges to the treatment of the disease. Stigma in health is a complex concept, and it causes people with a stigmatizing disease to conceal their disorder. Epilepsy is one such condition with numerous outdated, sometimes inhumane, and sometimes absurd perceptions that tend to fuel its stigma. Health-care workers who participated in an epilepsy training program as part of a World Health Organization/Ghana Health Service collaboration were asked to compile the perceptions associated with epilepsy in their communities. The comments they gathered are presented here. PMID:24025488

Adjei, Patrick; Akpalu, Albert; Laryea, Ruth; Nkromah, Kojo; Sottie, Cynthia; Ohene, Sammy; Osei, Akwasi

2013-09-08

102

Rainfall and Streamflow Variability in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to investigate the variability of rainfall and streamflow over Ghana. Analyses of rainfall shows larger daily variability and maxima amounts in the southern coastal belt than in either the middle or northern parts of the country. The high variability in rainfall at the coast is associated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) changes over the Guinea coast. This is related to the evolution of the cold tongue over the Atlantic during the rainfall season. The results indicate that the extreme rainfall events occur as single events, but there are occasions when they occur sequentially, and some of these events could continue for more than 5 days. We note that the average SSTs over the equatorial Atlantic favor the occurrence of extreme rainfall over the coastal and middle belt, while relatively cold SSTs favor the occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the northern belt. This study also shows the presence of eastward moving convective signals which are associated with Kelvin waves that impact the rainfall in spring over Ghana. Kelvin waves account for ~70% of the extreme rainfall events during boreal spring compared to 25%-35% in summer. The reason for this is that the rainfall in southern Ghana peaks in spring when the frequency of propagation of these waves is the highest. Analysis of streamflow and rainfall suggested that both rainfall and streamflow exhibit a bimodal pattern. Although the peak in rainfall occurs during the major season, the peak in streamflow occurs during the minor season. Extreme rainfall events are more associated with flooding in the rivers than continuous non-extreme rainfall events. Additionally, we note a decreasing trend in rainfall and streamflow over the southern part of Ghana. But, the decrease in streamflow is larger than for the rainfall. It is to be noted, however, that the draw of water from the two rivers by the communities for domestic and irrigation use are very difficult to quantify and could be the cause of the disparity between the trends in rainfall and streamflow.

Tanu, Michael M.

103

Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global issue that affects health, economic, and social development. The problem has been attributed to misuse of antimicrobial agents. Purpose To identify the agents of bacterial infection in Ghana, determine their antibiogram, and the possibility of setting up a surveillance program. Patients and methods A prospective quantitative study set in various hospitals including two teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, and two district hospitals in Ghana. A total of 5099 bacterial isolates from various clinical specimens were collected over a period of 1 year, including data related to the patients. Susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby–Bauer method. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of multidrug-resistant isolates of epidemiological significance was also determined using the E-test. Results A wide range of bacterial isolates were identified in both teaching and regional hospitals. High percentage of resistance was observed for tetracycline (82%), cotrimoxazole (73%), ampicillin (76%), and chloramphenicol (75%). Multidrug resistance was observed to a combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. On the other hand, a lower percentage of resistance was observed for ceftriaxone (6.3%), ciprofloxacin (11%), and amikacin (9.9%). Conclusion Generally, the prevalence of multidrug resistance was widespread among the various isolates. Some multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) had high MIC to cefuroxime (>256), gentamicin (>256), and ciprofloxacin (>32).

Newman, Mercy J; Frimpong, Enoch; Donkor, Eric S; Opintan, Japheth A; Asamoah-Adu, Alex

2011-01-01

104

Water, Koko, and Appetite. Complementary Feeding Practices in Kumasi, Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one of two studies of complementary feeding practices conducted in West Africa in Ghana and Mali. Both studies examined the process of complementary feeding of infants in a context of high childhood malnutrition. Both studies compared the interact...

2003-01-01

105

CSR in Ghana? Diversity should not mean dumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore corporate social responsibility in context of the dumping of electronic waste (e-waste), inferior products and second-hand goods, and related activities of multinational corporations' (MNCs') subsidiaries in Ghana. It aims to suggest examples and recommendations to help curb the negative effects of dumping in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Research into specific e-waste

Emmanuel Ndzibah

2009-01-01

106

Small scale mining in Ghana - Techniques and environmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989 when small scale mining in Ghana was legalised, a lot of interest has been generated in the sector because of it's socio-economic benefits However, owing to lack of the necessary training and inadequate financial base on the part of small scale operators, most operations are poorly managed environmentally. The paper describes the state-of-the-art in Ghana, makes a critical

Newton A. Amegbey; J. B. K. Dankwa; S. Al-Hassan

1997-01-01

107

Development of Visitor Identity through Study Abroad in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summers of 2006–2009, groups of U.S. college students completed a cross-disciplinary study abroad experience in Ghana, West Africa, entitled ‘Landscapes in Ecotourism.’ Beyond topical issues of community landscape design and sustainable tourism development, broad themes were explored including (a) cultural awareness of Ghana and Africa, (b) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (TAST), and (c) the concept of African Diaspora.

Kofi Boone; Carol Kline; Laura Johnson; Lee-Anne Milburn; Kathleen Rieder

2012-01-01

108

Agricultural land use efficiency and food crop production in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the low productivity of the extensive agriculture system, Ghana recorded the largest reduction of undernourishment\\u000a in the past two decades. We used biophysical analysis to determine the efficiency and potentials of the extensive system and\\u000a its future sustainability. The results indicate that food production in Ghana has increased steadily over the past two decades\\u000a and correlated highly with cropped

Amos K. Quaye; Charles A. S. Hall; Valerie A. Luzadis

2010-01-01

109

AglC and AglK are involved in biosynthesis and attachment of diacetylated glucuronic acid to the N-glycan in Methanococcus voltae.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the field of prokaryotic N-glycosylation have established a foundation for the pathways and proteins involved in this important posttranslational protein modification process. To continue the study of the Methanococcus voltae N-glycosylation pathway, characteristics of known eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal proteins involved in the N-glycosylation process were examined and used to select candidate M. voltae genes for investigation as potential glycosyl transferase and flippase components. The targeted genes were knocked out via linear gene replacement, and the resulting effects on N-glycan assembly were identified through flagellin and surface (S) layer protein glycosylation defects. This study reports the finding that deletion of two putative M. voltae glycosyl transferase genes, designated aglC (for archaeal glycosylation) and aglK, interfered with proper N-glycosylation. This resulted in flagellin and S-layer proteins with significantly reduced apparent molecular masses, loss of flagellar assembly, and absence of glycan attachment. Given previous knowledge of both the N-glycosylation pathway in M. voltae and the general characteristics of N-glycosylation components, it appears that AglC and AglK are involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of diacetylated glucuronic acid within the glycan structure. In addition, a knockout of the putative flippase candidate gene (Mv891) had no effect on N-glycosylation but did result in the production of giant cells with diameters three to four times that of wild-type cells. PMID:18978056

Chaban, Bonnie; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John F; Jarrell, Ken F

2008-10-31

110

[Levels and trends of child mortality in some rural regions of West Africa: Kongoussi-Tikare, Mariatang, Reo (Upper Volta), and the Dayes plateau (Togo) (1950-1974)].  

PubMed

Results of four surveys on infant and child mortality in Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) and Togo are presented. The data concern the period 1950 to 1974. They suggest a decline in mortality over time up to the 1970s, when a leveling-off occurred. Differences in mortality by region and by sex are considered. (summary in ENG, SPA) PMID:12313815

Pilon, M

1984-01-01

111

Site-Directed Mutagenesis Analysis of Amino Acids Critical for Activity of the Type I Signal Peptidase of the Archaeon Methanococcus voltae  

PubMed Central

Site-directed mutagenesis studies of the signal peptidase of the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus voltae identified three conserved residues (Ser52, His122, and Asp148) critical for activity. The requirement for one conserved aspartic acid residue distinguishes the archaeal enzyme from both the Escherichia coli and yeast Sec11 enzymes.

Bardy, Sonia L.; Ng, Sandy Y. M.; Carnegie, David S.; Jarrell, Ken F.

2005-01-01

112

Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.  

PubMed Central

A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme.

Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

1994-01-01

113

A comparative study of ethnic residential segregation in Ghana’s two largest cities, Accra and Kumasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of urbanization is far more rapid in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other major region of the world. However, little\\u000a is known about patterns of ethnic residential segregation in rapidly urbanizing African cities. This paper is crafted to make\\u000a an important contribution through its focus on Ghana’s two largest cities: Accra and Kumasi. Making use of the most

George Owusu; Samuel Agyei-Mensah

2011-01-01

114

Mass media effects on AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior in Africa with special reference to Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shows, in detail, how many African countries have concentrated on prevention of HIV through changing their citizens sexual behaviours with Ghana being spotlighted. Posits that Ghana is at the mid-stage of the epidemic and uses data to explain this. Uses tables to show the lack of knowledge, by the citizens of Ghana, to AIDS prevention. Concludes that this study has

Kofi D. Benefo; Baffuor K. Takyi

2002-01-01

115

The Political Economy of Dependence and Underdevelopment in Ghana (1844-1966)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the problems of development and underdevelopment in the Third World. It specifically examines the causes and consequences of dependence and underdevelopment. Historical data on the political economy of Ghana between 1844 to 1966 is used in testing the hypothesis that 1. the initial underdevelopment of Ghana was caused mainly by the historical expansion of capitalism into Ghana,

David Nathaniel Brown

1981-01-01

116

LAKE FORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

117

Mormon Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is recommended that Mormon Lake be established as a scenic and recreation natural area. The area has a long history of disturbance and is heavily used by humans at present. The area is dominated by intermittant Mormon Lake itself and typical Transition...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

118

Lake Pillsbury, Lake County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Annual total phosphorus and total nitrogen loadings to the lake were estimated and subdivided according to either point or non-point source origion. An assessment of the lake's trophic condition and limiting nutrient is also provided. All data collected b...

1978-01-01

119

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

120

Lake Taneycomo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant changes in the fishery of 1,730-acre Lake Taneycomo resulted from the construction of Table Rock Dam immediately upstream on White River because water, released through the dam from a relatively low level, is consequently quite cool. Discharge temperatures range from 40 to 60 F, and the cold water influences a large portion of Lake Taneycomo.Netting indicated an excellent population

James P. Fry; Willis D. Hanson

1968-01-01

121

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

122

Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.  

PubMed

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme. PMID:21483707

Hayman, David T S; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R; Banyard, Ashley C; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R

2011-04-05

123

Biochar/compost project in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

2012-04-01

124

Reaching out to new clients in Ghana.  

PubMed

AVSC supports vasectomy services in Ghana. The author tells the story of a 57-year-old man who underwent vasectomy 4 years ago, and now travels around his region to speak publicly about the matter. He believes that more people should be informed about vasectomy, a family planning option which is largely unknown in his community. In his community, women are typically responsible for dealing with family planning. This man was one of the first men to undergo vasectomy at the local hospital in Kumasi, to which he has since referred 5 men. Many people in his village believe that vasectomy and castration are the same thing. AVSC trains both male and female clients to become experts in public speaking, basic contraceptive technology, and teamwork. Once trained, they talk to people both informally and during outreach visits with local doctors and nurses. They also sometimes escort friends or family members to hospitals and clinics to get more information about family planning, and also tell their stories on the radio. It is important that such family planning experiences be shared with satisfied clients' peers, for trust is important in decision making on reproductive health. PMID:12321871

Mahony, E; Kanlisi, N

1998-01-01

125

Corporate social responsibility activity reportage on bank websites in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has witnessed a resurgence in the management literature in recent years. This might be due to a renewed focus on corporate governance and ethical practices of companies the world over. This current study seeks to focus on how banks operating in Ghana communicate their CSR programmes and intentions via their corporate

Robert Hinson; Richard Boateng; Nnamdi Madichie

2010-01-01

126

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

127

Biopesticides in Ghana: Vegetable Farmers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates farmers’ perceptions of pests, pest control practices and their Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a new biopesticide in Ghana. The survey results suggest a rising trend in vegetable pest intensity with significant variation in farmers’ pest control practices, especially their choice of pesticide(s). Farmers are willing to pay a substantial price premium for improved agricultural environmental safety

Ramatu Al-Hassan; John Baptist D Jatoe; Irene S Egyir

2010-01-01

128

Biological Review of Draft Environmental Impact Statement Akyem Project, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This document is a review of the biological aspects of the April 2008 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) of the proposed Akyem gold mine in Eastern Ghana. The DEIS is an inadequate assessment of existing biodiversity in the Akyem project area and is not an acceptable documentation of probable environmental impacts of the proposed mine. Information in the DEIS

Scott G. Cardiff

2008-01-01

129

Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most modern mines in the developing world are located in rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This creates the potential of negative spillovers to farmers through competition for key inputs (such as land) and environmental pollution. To explore this issue, we examine the case of gold mining in Ghana. Through the estimation of an agricultural production

Fernando Aragon; Juan Pablo Rud

2012-01-01

130

Evaluation of Cocoa Land Use Management in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is a result of a study which was made to explore the possibilities of improving the administration, planning and management of the cocoa industry in Ghana. It discusses the present situation of identification of cocoa farms and farmers and the ...

P. H. van Oorschot W. L. M. Sosef

1990-01-01

131

Race Portrayals in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa Television Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines racial portrayals in television advertisements from Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. Whites are over-represented relative to their actual demographic presence in all three countries, and both Blacks and Whites are depicted as over-employed. In general, however, depictions are not significantly different for either race, though there is a hint that a stereotyped portrayal of Blacks as

Laura M. Milner

2007-01-01

132

Behavioral Change Communications on Malaria Prevention in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed

Ernest Yaw Tweneboah-Koduah; Mahama Braimah; Priscilla Ntriwaa Otuo

2012-01-01

133

Mercury pollution in Ghana (West Africa) coastal commercial fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total mercury concentrations are reported here for 100 individuals representing 10 species of Ghana commercial coastal fish. The sampling sites were Tema, Accra, Cape Coast, Elimina and Takoradi. The concentrations of mercury in the species were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedure and were found to be well below the 0.5 ?gg limit recommended by the World Health Organization

W. J. Ntow; Mahmood A. Khwaja

1989-01-01

134

Spatio-Temporal Rainfall Patterns in Northern Ghana, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall reliability in West Africa has important societal consequences. However, our understanding of the rainfall generating processes in this region remains incomplete. This study aims at the detection of different rainfall producing processes and their characteristics during the later part of the rainy season in Northern Ghana. Rainfall in this region has three main origins: monsoonal advection, local convection, and

J. Friesen; N. van de Giesen

2002-01-01

135

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2012-01-01

136

Decentralisation in education, institutional culture and teacher autonomy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana has seen several recent attempts to devolve control over the curriculum to the local level. The present study focuses on a single reform, the Local Content Curriculum (LCC). Analysis of local responses to this reform provides insights into the state’s influence on the actions and attitudes of Ghanaian teachers not previously detailed in research on educational decentralisation. These insights

George M. Osei; Colin Brock

2006-01-01

137

Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2010-01-01

138

Ethnicity and Electoral Politics in Ghanas Fourth Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana since 1992, when it embarked on a period of democratic transition and consolidation, has made major progress. Important questions, however, such as the influence of ethnicity on voter alignment, have yet to be explored and answered. There is a general perception that ethnic undercurrents play a major role in elections in Ghana’s Fourth Republic, but research has focused on

Peter Arthur

2009-01-01

139

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

140

Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

Fischer, Karin

2007-01-01

141

Liquefied Petroleum Gas as an Alternative Vehicle Fuel in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the advantages and disadvantages of three types of fuels: petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Two surveys were conducted; one in the Tarkwa Municipality in the Western Region of Ghana to assess the type of fuels that taxis run on, and the other at Suame Magazine in Kumasi and Kokompe in Takoradi to verify the cost

Anthony Simons; Solomon Nunoo

2009-01-01

142

Analysis of WWW traffic in Cambodia and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an analysis of HTTP trac cap- tured from Internet caf es and kiosks from two dieren t de- veloping countries { Cambodia and Ghana. This paper has two main contributions. The rst contribution is a anal- ysis of the characteristics of the web trace, including the distribution and classication of the web objects requested by

Bowei Du; Michael J. Demmer; Eric A. Brewer

2006-01-01

143

Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-01-01

144

Situation Report--Ghana, India, and South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, India, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics: general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic groups,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

145

Nutrient content of the moist tropical forest of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The total weight of vegetation on an area of just over 1 acre of old secondary forest in the moist forest zone of Ghana has been determined, and found to be equivalent to roughly 150 tons per acre dry weight. The nutrient content of each component of the vegetation was also determined and showed that the amounts of the

D. J. Greenland; J. M. L. Kowal

1960-01-01

146

Poverty profile and correlates of poverty in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper's purpose is to examine the nature and correlates of poverty in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using the most recently published household living standards survey; the paper computes poverty indicators using the Foster et al., and Theil's inequality indicators to examine the nature of poverty. It also does a qualitative analysis on the nature of poverty by examining

Charles K. D. Adjasi; Kofi A. Osei

2007-01-01

147

Employee Motivation in University Libraries in Ghana: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of motivational preferences of the staff of two university libraries in Ghana indicates that age groups and professional positions of the workers in a survey determine their motivational factor preferences. Respondents from the two sites have different motivational values. Different strategies are therefore required to motivate the workers and it is suggested that library managers avoid the assumption that

Edwin Ellis Badu

2005-01-01

148

Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)|

William, Musah; Preston, Christine

1998-01-01

149

Asian great lakes, especially Lake Biwa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological and biological history of Asian great lakes, especially Lake Biwa in Japan, are reviewed. The origins and affiliations of endemic flora and fauna are interpreted in light of current understanding of Lake Biwa. Recent historical changes in the lake, including detrimental impacts on native fauna and water quality are summarized. The social and cultural values associated with Asian

Hiroya Kawanabe

1996-01-01

150

Premarital relationships and livelihoods in Ghana.  

PubMed

This study is based on interviews with a sample of 400 single women aged 18-25 years from the Fante ethnic group in Cape Coast, Ghana, in 1991, and on focus groups. This case study illustrates the importance of economic and living arrangement support expected from partners in premarital relationships. Support may be for living and maintenance ('chopmoney', provisions, household items, and rent); for financial security (provision of capital); and for clothing and hairdressing. Women did not always require economic support in premarital relationships. Women expect boyfriends to provide 'chopmoney' (money for food and general upkeep) and contribute some money for the rent. Only 36% of sexually active women expected their boyfriends to supply food provisions. Premarital sexual relationships are used to obtain start-up capital. The author refers to evidence that senior government officials engaged in sexual transactions with clients before loans and credit facilities were offered. 87% of sexually experienced women expected their partners to pay for at least part of clothing expenses. The study revealed that there was considerable disparity between women's expectations and actual receipt of economic support. 56% desired, but only 36% received, 'chopmoney' in full. 40% expected their partners to pay for household furnishings in full, while only 10% did so. 55% expected capital, but only 15% received it. The three most frequently received benefits in full were hair dressing, shoes, and dresses. Men provided most non-negotiable items as a means of "boosting their egos." Many young women rely on the support of men in order to improve their status. Ghanaian men control financial resources and economic power. Mothers of adolescent daughters encourage premarital sexual behavior. Prostitution is considered different from sexual exchange relationships. It is argued that gender inequalities and domestic abuse are perpetuated through sexual exchange relationships. PMID:12347714

Ankomah, A

1996-10-01

151

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

PubMed

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-02-19

152

Revitalization of the Sugar Industry of Ghana for Ministry of Trade and Industry, Accra, Ghana. Volume 1 of 4. Final.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, conducted by F.C. Schaffer and Associates, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Ghana's Ministry of Trade and Industry. The report shows the results of a study conducted to assess the sugar and by-products mar...

1994-01-01

153

Great Lakes Restoration Crosscut.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This crosscut budget provides information on Federal funding for Great Lakes restoration work in the following formats: Total Federal funding by agency, which includes national and Great Lakes programs, as well as Great Lakes projects, FYs 2004 enacted-20...

2008-01-01

154

Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

Edsall, Thomas A.

1998-01-01

155

Determination of optimum planting date and growing season of maize in the northern savanna zone of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern savanna zone of Ghana is mostly semiarid. The irregular onset and distribution of the rains in this part of Ghana makes interpretation of agronomic experiments difficult. This report seeks to determine the optimum time of planting of maize (Zea mays L.) in relationship with the length of the growing season in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. By

J. J. AFUAKWA

156

Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Poverty Profile for Ghana, 1987-88.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the paper is to present a baseline poverty profile for Ghana in 1987-88. The Ghana Living Standards Survey, (GLSS) conducted by the Ghana Statistical Service with the support of the World Bank provides detailed information on the living cond...

E. O. Boateng K. Ewusi R. Kanbur A. McKay

1990-01-01

157

TEACH Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Education And Curriculum Home site (TEACH) is a new component of the Great Lakes Information Network, with a focus on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond. TEACH features mini-lessons on Great Lakes topics: environment, history and culture, geography, pollution, careers, and business. Geared for elementary through high school students, the modules are continually expanded and updated and include links to a glossary to help explain scientific terms and acronyms. Also included is a section for questions and answers, and education links. Specific topics within the site include: Great Lakes native flora, water levels on the Great Lakes, native peoples of the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes law and policy, introduction to the Great Lakes, how the lakes were formed, Great Lakes shoreline geology, non-native species, and urban sprawl.

158

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust\\u000a and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized\\u000a in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities\\/consumptive deprivations, each of which a separate outcome (food,\\u000a water, medical care, cooking fuel, and cash income). Five

Isaac Addai; Jelena Pokimica

159

Under colonialism to democratization: Early childhood development in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work chronicles the phases of early childhood development in Ghana. This West African country experienced a change in\\u000a education after the inception of colonialism. Education of the very young became a part, though limited, of the missionary-based\\u000a education system under colonialism. The country moved from colonialism to a republic form of government in 1957. The republic\\u000a was determined and

Johnetta Wade Morrison

2000-01-01

160

Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women.…

Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

2012-01-01

161

Pattern of road traffic injuries in Ghana: Implications for control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic injuries and fatalities are increasing in Ghana. Police-collected crash and injury data for the period 1994-1998 were aggregated and analyzed using the MAAP5 accident analysis package developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. Published results of recent transport-related epidemiological and other surveys provided an additional data source. According to the 1994-1998 police data, road traffic crashes were a

Francis K. Afukaar; Phyllis Antwi; Samuel Ofosu-Amaah

2003-01-01

162

Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant action of medicinal herbs used in Ghana for treating various ailments was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Five plants, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera arrecta, Trema occidentalis, Caparis erythrocarpus, and Thonningia sanguinea were tested for their free radical scavenging action by their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of these five plants, only Thonningia sanguinea was found to scavenge the DPPH

Maxwell Afari Gyamfi; Masato Yonamine; Yoko Aniya

1999-01-01

163

Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic\\u000a well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs\\u000a logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on economic well-being. Results demonstrate\\u000a that ethnicity is an important determinant of both

Isaac Addai; Jelena Pokimica

2010-01-01

164

Lianas may be favoured by low rainfall: evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the evidence in support of the hypotheses that (i) lianas are now increasing in tropical forests and (ii) lianas\\u000a are more abundant in the drier tropical forests. There is good evidence to support both hypotheses, including a new analysis\\u000a of data from Ghana. In this dataset, there is a linear increase in the percentage of species that are

Michael D. Swaine; John Grace

2007-01-01

165

Management of Acid Mine Drainage at Tarkwa, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses a natural wetland in Tarkwa, south west Ghana to identify the most sustainable way to remediate acid mine\\u000a drainage (AMD). The investigation involved mineralogical and bacteria analysis among others. The study traced the AMD occurrence\\u000a to the presence of acid producing sulphides (pyrite) in a waste rock and the occurrence was found to be catalysed by sulphur

V. E. Asamoah; E. K. Asiam; J. S. Kuma

166

MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME TRADITIONAL PLANT MEDICINES USED IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plant medicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie

2002-01-01

167

Analysis of fatal road traffic crashes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005–2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed

Williams Ackaah; David O. Adonteng

2011-01-01

168

Tackling Poverty-migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result\\u000a nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants\\u000a and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature and introduces a conceptual\\u000a model to

Rachel Sabates-Wheeler; Ricardo Sabates; Adriana Castaldo

2008-01-01

169

Housing demand in the urban fringe around Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research utilizes empirical data to explore the sources of demand and their effects on urban fringe housing around Kumasi,\\u000a Ghana. The research found that housing demand on the urban fringe has accelerated due to changing values ascribed to traditional\\u000a rural and modern urban locations and to preferences for single-family homes, strengthened by the Ghanaian expatriate housing\\u000a demand back home.

Justice K. Owusu-Ansah; Kevin B. O’Connor

2010-01-01

170

The Games Children Play: A Look at Children's Past Times in Southern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Independent Study Project will focus on children throughout Ghana. It will be compiled by using notes, observations, journal entries, lecturers, and conversations of the author. I wish to pinpoint the everyday life and activities of a child in Ghana, oftentimes more specifically in Cape Coast in Komenda. This paper will be divided into three chapters. The first chapter will

Johanna H. Coleman

1999-01-01

171

Prevalence of smoking in secondary schools in the greater Accra region of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is fast becoming a public health problem in Ghana and the youth are at a greater risk of becoming victims of it. A survey of nine secondary (high) schools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana showed that 31.1% of students have smoked before and that 10.3% smoke cigarettes regularly. A significant number of those who had ever

R. Amonoo-Lartson; Matilda E. Pappoe

1992-01-01

172

Exploring voter alignments in Africa: core and swing voters in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and analyses voter alignments in the new democracy of Ghana in two recent elections, 1996 and 2000. These elections are a part of the Fourth Republic that began with a ' founding ' election in 1992, ushering Ghana into Africa's new wave of democratisation. First the size of the core voting population is established to be about

Staffan I. Lindberg; Minion K. C. Morrison

2005-01-01

173

Are there Emerging West African Criminal Networks? The Case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper situates discussions about emerging African Criminal Networks (ACN) within Ghana specifically, and West Africa generally, and seeks to present the initial results of an empirically based study on the activities of transnational organised criminal (TOCs) groups in Ghana. The paper argues that the nature of state and statehood in Africa and its inability to establish effective regulatory mechanisms

Kwesi Aning

2007-01-01

174

Private Returns to Education in Ghana: Implications for Investments in Schooling and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance

Sackey

2008-01-01

175

Restructuring the delivery of clean water to rural communities in Ghana: the institutional and regulatory issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean water is an important natural resource. In recent times, there has been a radical change in the institutional and regulatory mechanism for providing clean water to the rural communities of Ghana. The object of this paper is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the two regimes for providing water to rural communities in Ghana. These are the traditional

Kwadwo B Mensah

1998-01-01

176

Drive left, look right: the political economy of urban transport in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car usage in Ghana is growing at an alarming rate. Logically, a growth in total number of cars must be because either (a) population is increasing or (b) car ownership per capita is rising or both. However, these do not sufficiently explain the increasing car population in Ghana. The article argues that the high demand for mobility in the country

Franklin Obeng-Odoom

2010-01-01

177

Democratic consolidation in Ghana: the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a democratic transition in 1992, Ghana has made significant efforts to promote a liberal democratic culture and system of government. This paper provides an analysis of the extent to which Ghana's liberal democratic process is being consolidated, focusing on the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state political institutions to this process. It is argued that

Peter Arthur

2010-01-01

178

The determination of exclusion: evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991–2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE ‘zones of exclusion’ model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period was marked by large?scale quantitative access gains in

Caine Rolleston

2009-01-01

179

Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-01-01

180

Borders that Divide: Education and Religion in Ghana and Togo since Colonial Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

When European powers partitioned Africa, individuals of otherwise homogeneous communities were divided and found themselves randomly assigned to one coloniser. This provides for a natural experiment: applying a border discontinuity analysis to Ghana and Togo, we test what impact coloniser’s policies really made. Using a new data set of men recruited to the Ghana colonial army 1908-1955, we find literacy

Denis Cogneau; Alexander Moradi

2011-01-01

181

Better Dead Than Dishonored: Masculinity and Male Suicidal Behavior in Contemporary Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the

Mensah Adinkrah

182

School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

2013-01-01

183

Displaced Women in Northern GhanaIndigenous Knowledge About Ethnic Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of field research in Ghana in 2002 about internal displacement stemming from multiethnic violence in northern Ghana in 1994, known as the “Guinea Fowl War.” Indigenous, gender-specific knowledge from displaced Ghanaian women is presented in the context of feminist perspectives on the consequences of regional wars on non-combatants. The research generated indigenous material for social

Brenda Faye McGadney-Douglass; William K. Ahadzie

2008-01-01

184

Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

2011-01-01

185

Constrained gravity models and structural evolution of the Ashanti Belt, southwest Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeoproterozoic terrane of southwest Ghana comprises a sequence of folded sedimentary\\/volcaniclastic rocks which separate a series of northeast trending volcanic belts. While the stratigraphy and structure of the belts are similar, the Ashanti Belt is characterised by a more tectonised northwest margin along which most of the major epigenetic Au deposits in Ghana are located. Early models of the

S. D. Barritt; J. S. Kuma

1998-01-01

186

Ghana's Vanishing Past: Development, Antiquities, and the Destruction of the Archaeological Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's past is being destroyed at a rapid rate. Although the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board has in some instances successfully intervened to stop the illicit trading of antiquities, the destruction of archaeological sites as a consequence of development over the past two decades has been staggering and the pace is accelerating. The potential of the legislation that established the

Benjamin W. Kankpeyeng; Christopher R. DeCorse

2004-01-01

187

The quest for inclusion and citizenship in Ghana: challenges and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's tortuous journey to democracy received a major boost in the year 2006 with the enactments of two human-rights-related pieces of legislation. In this article the author contends, on the one hand, that the recent enactments of an amendment to the law on representation of the people and the persons with disability law in Ghana constituted a noteworthy landmark in

Franklin Oduro

2009-01-01

188

Effectiveness and profitability of integrated pest management for improving yield on smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pests, especially capsid bugs, infest cocoa and contribute to low yields in producing countries. In Ghana, synthetic pesticides are recommended for controlling the insect pests, and a combination of synthetic pesticides and cultural practices for diseases and weeds. However, the farmers in Ghana are not motivated to adopt these recommendations due to the high cost of pesticides and low

E. N. A. Dormon; A. van Huis; C. Leeuwis

2007-01-01

189

The establishment of the Catholic University College of Ghana: Refounding identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988, the Ghana Catholic Bishops' Conference decided to establish the first Catholic University College of Ghana (CUCG). While it took the bold step to commence on March, 10, 2003, the Catholic University College held its first matriculation of 50 pioneer students on May, 3, 2003. Later, on November, 13, 2003, the University was officially inaugurated. ^ This historical study

Augustine Owusu-Addo

2007-01-01

190

The Role of Science and Technology in the Economic Development of Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of Ghana's development is divided into the colonial era, the Nkrumah period, and the post Nkrumah period. The role of science and technology in the development of Ghana is explored in each period and recommendations given for the improvement o...

E. S. Ayensu

1978-01-01

191

The Development of a Scale Measuring Consumers' Selection of Retail Banks in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana, one of the fastest growing liberalized developing economies in Africa, has, in recent years, established a nationwide rural bank system and has witnessed an increase in the entry of foreign retail banks. Although there are increased activities and interest about bank offerings and bank–customer relationships in Ghana (Dadzie, Akaah, and Dunson, 1989), to date, researchers have overlooked the factors

Charles Blankson; Chris H. N. Mbah; Lambert Yaw Owusu-Frempong

2009-01-01

192

Criminal Prosecution of Suicide Attempt Survivors in Ghana.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

Adinkrah, Mensah

2012-08-24

193

IWRM and developing countries: Implementation challenges in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990, there has been growing theoretical consensus on the need for integrated water resource management. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientific consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM in the developed and the developing countries, although the nature of the implementation challenges may differ in the different contexts. Against this background, this paper investigates into the nature of the empirical challenges to implementing integrated water resource management in Ghana. It describes the actual implementation process and contrasts eleven elements of the substantive content of IWRM with the implementation practice in Ghana. The paper then concludes that Ghana, like other developing countries often adopts such paradigm shifts in the management of their water resources primarily as a result of exogenous pressures (and to a limited extent endogenous factors) but that (a) lack of domestic ownership and leadership of the concept, (b) limited resources, and (c) institutional mis-matches, often results in an implementation of the ideas that is limited to implementation in form rather than practice.

Agyenim, Joseph Boateng; Gupta, Joyeeta

194

Traditional herbalists and cancer management in Kumasi, Ghana.  

PubMed

Cancer incidence rates are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) are involved in cancer management. Little is known about the specific role that TMPs play in cancer management in Ghana; we hypothesize that an understanding of the practices of TMPs with regard to cancer patients would help to enhance literacy about cancer amongst TMPs and would contribute to the diagnosis of cancer at earlier stages, by avoiding the detrimental delays while enlisting their help in certain activities that enhance cancer care. To elucidate the nature of the involvement of TMPs in cancer management, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 TMPs who practice in Kumasi, Ghana. The interviews elicited information about their knowledge and practices regarding cancer management and interactions with local hospitals. The results showed that TMPs tended to identify cancers as diseases of visible masses, fungating lesions, ulceration, and bleeding reflecting the advanced stages and types of cancers they usually encounter. TMPs identified certain causes of cancer and believed that they can treat and prevent cancer. These results indicate that TMPs are significant health service delivery resources in Ghana for patients potentially affected with cancer. Our work suggests that dedicated efforts to further integrate TMPs into the overall health care system would be beneficial to patients. Future research should examine the role of cancer education and training programs for TMPs to enhance their knowledge, strengthen their ability to complement allopathic practitioners, and increase early detection and treatment efforts through appropriate and timely referrals. PMID:22549472

O'Brien, Kieran S; Soliman, Amr S; Annan, Kofi; Lartey, Richard N; Awuah, Baffour; Merajver, Sofia D

2012-06-01

195

Tyee Lake project: Alaska's second lake tap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally, as well as in terms of pure water energy efficiency, lake taps are an ideal source of power. The basic concept is to tap into the bottom of a high mountain lake to use the high static head of water to spin turns. The Lake Tyee project starts with a tunnel at the lowest possible topographic point and uses

1983-01-01

196

Lake Trout Rehabilitation in Lake Ontario 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Each year we report ,on the ,progress toward rehabilitation of the ,Lake Ontario lake trout population covering the results of stocking, annual assessment surveys, creel surveys, and evidence of natural reproduction observed from all standard surveys performed by USGS and NYSDEC. During 2005, the number of yearling lake trout stocked in May was 45% below the target level of

B. f. Lantry; S. E. Prindle

197

Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake

Beery, Tom; And Others

198

Sustaining water supply through a phased community management approach: lessons from Ghana’s “oats” water supply scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system

2011-01-01

199

Hazardous crater lakes studied  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crater lakes usually sit on top of volcanic conduits and act as condensers of magmatic vapor. Studies of crater lakes can therefore provide information on both deep magmatic activity and variations in the degassing state of a shallow magmatic body. The Lake Nyos gas disaster of August 1986 and a similar event in August 1984 at Lake Monoun, both in

Minoru Kusakabe

1993-01-01

200

Technologies for lake restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention

Helmut KLAPPER

2003-01-01

201

Rediscovery of lake balls in Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the first time in 70 years, the occurrence of a 'lake ball' in Lake Michigan is here reported in the literature. According to a published system of classification, the object we collected in 1978 was a 'false' lake ball. Dissection revealed that it was colonized by 5 chironomid larvae and 162 oligochaetes. The species and numerical proportions of the oligochaetes indicated that it was formed in or near the mouth of a eutrophic tributary rather than in the open waters of Lake Michigan where it was found. Because of their mobility, false lake balls may be ecologically important, serving as natural vehicles for the dispersal of invertebrates.

Schloesser, Donald W.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.; Owens, Randall W.

1983-01-01

202

The Lakes of Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This information about Canadian lakes includes a general overview of the lakes, which are divided into four quadrants. In each area the origins and general characteristics of the lakes are discussed. The site also features an interactive map. At each lake location there is information on the physical attributes, general description, and watershed of the lake. Four additional chapters contain detailed information, which distinguishes lakes from other aquatic environments, explains the mechanisms by which lakes in Canada were created, discusses lake morphology, distribution of light and heat, and water movement, and discusses seasonal distribution as well as variations in distribution and concentration of oxygen. Aspects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon cycling that pertain to lakes are addressed. In addition, one chapter provides statistical facts about different Canadian lakes.

203

Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

1998-01-01

204

Two Antarctic desert lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical and biological propertics of ice-covcrcd Lakes Vanda and Bonncy, Antarctica, were observed during two austral summers. The lakes arc among the clearest known, with extinction coefficients as low as 0.031 for blue light in Lake Vanda and 0.069 for green light in Lake Bonney. Temperature and conductivity measurements in a shallow lake on Cape Evans, Antarctica, suggest a

CHARLES R. GOLDMAN; DAVID T. MASON; JOHN E. HOBBIE

1967-01-01

205

Earthquake catalogue of Ghana for the time period 1615-2003 with special reference to the tectono-structural evolution of south-east Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is situated on the West Africa Craton and far away from any plate boundary. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. The continental and coastal area of southeast Ghana is dominated by the Akwapim fault zone and coastal boundary fault. The Akwapim fault zone represents overthrusts of Neoproterozoic age, but there are also indications of recent faulting on some sections of the fault zone. The coastal boundary fault commenced to become tectonically active in Jurassic times and is probably still active. The two fault systems intersect some tens of kilometers to the southwest of Accra and it is at this intersection where most of the seismic activity has been observed.Historical documents describing damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. The two major destructive earthquakes which struck Southern Ghana occurred close to the capital city Accra in 1862 (intensity IX) and 1939 (intensity VIII). The surveillance of the seismic activity of Southern Ghana with seismometers has been discontinuous with irregular long periods of disruption. All known earthquakes from 1615 to 2003, based on historical documents and instrumental recordings are collected in a data catalogue and compiled in a computer readable format. Based on macroseismic maps and detailed descriptions of the damages, the epicentral intensity of some strong events as well as the radii of different isoseismals could be newly estimated. The catalogue can be the basis for a deterministic seismic hazard assessment for Southern Ghana to develop a building code for this region.

Amponsah, Paulina; Leydecker, Günter; Muff, Rolf

2012-10-01

206

[Current aspects of human salmonellosis in Upper Volta. Study carried out at Centre Muraz (Bobo-Dioulasso) from 1966 to 1977: isolation of 1,013 Salmonella strains].  

PubMed

In a long term research programme of Centre Muraz a study on salmonellosis in Upper Volta has been carried out, at Bobo-Dioulasso, from 1966 to 1977. Investigations have been executed at Centre Muraz, at Bobo-Dioulasso hospital and at Ouagadougou hospital. All the strains of Salmonella were collected at Centre Muraz by biology laboratory, which is a reference service for Upper Volta. This country is include; among the 32 countries which collaborate with W.H.O. and are involved in the world epidemiological surveillance of salmonellosis. For twelve years, 1.013 Samonella strains have been isolated : 1.002 from man and only 11 from animals. The study, which is presented, deals with human salmonellosis. These diseases have been considered from several points of view : bacteriology, clinic, treatment and epidemiology. The various origins of these strains have been specified. The different technics used for diagnosis are discussed briefly : hemoculture (for typhoïd fever and few other types of salmonellosis), coproculture (for "minor" salmonellosis) are the most common and useful methods. Among the 1.013 which have been found, S. typhi is highly predominant (67 p. 100). In the other hand, S. dublin and S. typhi murium play an important role in the various serotypes which occured. A total of 76 serotypes, already known elsewhere, but found for the first time in Upper Volta, have been observed. Three new serotypes have been described : S. bobo, S. kua and S. farakan. As far as clinical problem is concerned, two main aspects are frequent : either typhoid fever syndrome (caused by S. typhi and, scarcely, by other germs, like S. dublin) or gastrointestinal infections, which present different forms and are more or less severe. Up to now, one single strain of S. typhi murium, suspected to be resistant to chloramphenicol has been isolated in 1977. Such a problem would need more complete research in a reference centre. Otherwise, no epidemic multiresistance has been observed. Checking strictly all the strains by systematic antibiograms is now absolutly essential in the plan of a steady epidemiological surveillance. PMID:395406

Ricosse, J H; Saliou, P; Albert, J P; Menard, M; Le Mao, G; Schollhammer, G; Trotobas, J; Morvan, D; Meyran, M

207

Effect of maternal HIV infection on child survival in Ghana.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure the association between maternal HIV infection and infant mortality in Ghana. Using a censored synthetic cohort life table based on the birth history of 3639 childbirths during 1999-2003 obtained from the interviews of a nationally representative sample of 5691 women age 15-49 in 6251 households in the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The survey collected demographic, socioeconomic, and health data of the respondents as well as obtained voluntary counseling test for HIV infection from all eligible women. The effects of maternal HIV status and other factors on infant mortality were estimated using multivariate survival regression analysis and the results are presented as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confident interval (95% CI). Children born to HIV infected mothers were three times as likely to die during infancy as those born to uninfected mothers (HR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.64, 5.50). Controlling for other factors affecting infant mortality further sharpens this relationship (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.87, 6.61). Not receiving antenatal care, low birth weight, and living in households that use high pollution cooking fuels were associated with a higher risk of infant mortality. Maternal HIV status is a strong predictor of infant mortality in Ghana, independent of several other factors. The results of this study suggest that HIV/AIDS epidemic has had great impact on child well-being and child survival. This impact tends to increase as the HIV/AIDS epidemic matures and infection in adults increases. PMID:17269311

Hong, Rathavuth; Banta, James E; Kamau, James K

2007-02-01

208

Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. Methods We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N?=?5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Findings Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR?=?3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Conclusions Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.

2013-01-01

209

The hydrochemical framework of surface water basins in southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.

Yidana, Sandow Mark

2009-04-01

210

The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.

Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

2012-01-01

211

Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

1999-12-10

212

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to meningitis in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016

Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul

2013-06-17

213

Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

McKay, W. A.

2001-05-01

214

Thermal regimes of Florida lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water column temperatures were determined monthly for 24 lakes and bimonthly for 5 lakes in peninsular Florida during 1979. Three geographical groups (north, central, south) were delineated from mean monthly water column temperatures for individual lakes. On a monthly basis, northern lakes were least similar to southern lakes, while central Florida lakes displayed greater affinity to the southern than to

John R. Beaver; Thomas L. Crisman; James S. Bays

1981-01-01

215

Genetics of the methanogenic bacterium, Methanococcus voltae, with attention to genetic control mechanisms: Progress report, January 15, 1988--January 14, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of our program is to both develop a genetic system and understand mechanisms of gene expression for the methanogen, Methanococcus voltae. During the past year we have made progress in several areas. During the last several months, we have had very promising results with regard to the utilization of electroporation for the introduction of DNA into Mc.voltae. In summary, we have been able to demonstrate an approximately 2 to 5 fold increase in transformation via electroporation as compared to the frequency obtained via natural transformation. In the coming year, we intend to further optimize this system and to make a serious effort to introduce plasmid and VLP genome DNA. In our efforts to characterize gene expression in methanogens, we have collaborated with T. Demarco and Ralph Wolfe in cloning an enzyme of the C1 cycle. To catalyze the interconversions mediated by the novel coenzymes of methanogenesis, several enzymes exist which have no common analog in non-methanogenic bacteria. One of these enzymes, formylmethanofuran: tetahydromethanopter in fiormyltransferase was cloned into E. coli HB101. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (H) DNA digested with BAM H1 was ligated into pBR329 and probed with a synthetic oligonucleotide directed against the portion of the gene encoding the amino terminus of the enzyme. The cloned 5.0-kilobase genomic insert contained the entire gene for this polypeptide as well as 200 bp of the upstream region. A ribosome binding site just upstream of the initiation codon was identified, however a promoter was not clearly visible owing to the naturally high A plus T content of this intergenic region. 4 refs.

Konisky, J.

1989-02-01

216

Lake Barkley Regional Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lake Barkley Regional Plan includes (a) land use recommendations for the unincorporated portions of Lyon and Trigg Counties affected by the Lake, (b) seperate recommendations for revisions to the Cadiz General Plan, (c) recommendations for coordinatio...

D. P. Fogle

1965-01-01

217

The Pantanal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a More than anything else, the Pantanal is a land of lakes. There exists no census, but a prudent estimate would put the number\\u000a of lakes in the tens of thousands. Most of them are small lakes of 500 to 1000 m diameter. On the lands of one farm alone\\u000a (Fazenda Nhumirim), there are some 100 such small lakes (Mourão et

F. D. Por

218

Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana: Mapping Neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The overall objective of our research project is to understand the spatial inequality in health in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We also utilize GIS technology to measure the association of adverse health and mortality outcomes with neighborhood ecology. We approached this in variety of ways, including multivariate analysis of imagery classification and census data. A key element in the research has been to obtain in-person interviews from 3,200 female respondents in the city, and then relate health data obtained from the women to the ecology of the neighborhoods in which they live. Detailed maps are a requirement for these field-based activities. However, commercially available street maps of Accra tend to be highly generalized and not very useful for the kind of health and social science research being undertaken by this project, The purpose of this paper is to describe street maps that were created for the project's office in downtown Accra and used to locate households of respondents. They incorporate satellite imagery with other geographic layers to provide the most important visual interpretation of the linkage between imagery and neighborhoods. Ultimately, through a detailed analysis of spatial disparities in health in Accra, Ghana, we aim to provide a model for the interpretation of urban health inequalities in cities of urbanizing and often poor countries. PMID:23505395

Verutes, Gregory M; Fiocco, Magdalena Benza; Weeks, John R; Coulter, Lloyd L

2012-11-15

219

Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-06-01

220

Further observations on Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus rohlfsi (Clessin) in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes.

McCullough, Fergus S.

1962-01-01

221

Secondary Wood Processing in Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the secondary wood processing industry in Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. It covers forestry, forest product processing, financial aspects, economic conditions, cost-benefit analysis, training, marketing, and regional cooperat...

G. E. Gresham

1990-01-01

222

Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)|

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

2000-01-01

223

Transferred and Adapted Models of Secondary Education in Ghana: What Implications for National Development?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary-education models implemented in Ghana since colonial times constitute a classic case of "educational transfer and adaptation". Transferred from England, and in recent years the United States of America and Japan, these models have had a significant impact on Ghana's development in diverse ways. Yet educational research on Ghana has under-recognized this important issue of "educational transfer and adaptation", especially the relationship between these transferred models and national development. This study addresses such neglect by first focusing on those institutions that served as prototypes. Second, it appraises the models pointing out their implications for national development. It is contended that the foreign models that were adapted (indigenised) have been significant instruments for the human- resource and socio-political development of Ghana. However, their emphasis on the academic type of education ultimately has tended to create a situation of dependency particularly with respect to techno-scientific and economic development.

Quist, Hubert O.

2003-09-01

224

Case Study on the Costs and Financing of Immunization Services in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study estimates the current and future costs of Ghana's immunization program, including the additional costs proposed for improvements to the program, both to assist planning and to inform the international community about global immunization costs. ...

A. Levin S. England J. Jorissen B. Garshong J. Teprey

2001-01-01

225

Agricultural Cooperatives and Quasi-Cooperatives in Ghana, 1951-1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report traces the history of cooperatives in Ghana from 1928 to 1965, bases on government records. From the beginning the movement has suffered from government domination, inept management and instability. Single or multi-purpose cooperatives have eng...

M. P. Miracle A. Seidman

1968-01-01

226

Decentralization: Improving Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1988, Ghana passed legislation that established a program of political and administrative decentralization to the district level. The report evaluates the impact of the program to date. Research and interviews were conducted in three rural districts wh...

C. Schwabe D. Green F. Fiadjoe T. West

1992-01-01

227

Lake Layers: Stratification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

Brothers, Chris; And Others

228

Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)|

Delfino, Joseph J.

1976-01-01

229

Quantifying anoxia in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anoxic factor (AF, days per year or per season) can be used to quantify anoxia in stratified lakes. AF is calculated from oxygen profiles measured in the stratified season and lake surface area (A,) as AF represents the number of days that a sediment area, equal to the whole-lake surface area, is overlain by anoxic water. Average AF for

Gertrud K. Niirnberg

1995-01-01

230

Great Minds? Great Lakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

231

A Killer Lake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved…

Horvath, Thomas

2005-01-01

232

Food security and climate change in drought-sensitive savanna zones of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desertification, climate variability and food security are closely linked through drought, land cover changes, and climate\\u000a and biological feedbacks. In Ghana, only few studies have documented these linkages. To establish this link the study provides\\u000a historical and predicted climatic changes for two drought sensitive agro-ecological zones in Ghana and further determines\\u000a how these changes have influenced crop production within the

Frederick A. Armah; Justice O. Odoi; Genesis T. Yengoh; Samuel Obiri; David O. Yawson; Ernest K. A. Afrifa

2011-01-01

233

Public relations in Ghana: Work-related cultural values and public relations models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores cultural influences on public relations practices in Ghana. This survey research brief reports data collected from Ghanaian public relations practitioners (n=64) and describes work-related cultural values as well as the practices of public relations models in Ghana. The result reveals that Ghanaian public professionals tend to utilize international public relations and two-way communication models. The study extends

Ming-Yi Wu; Kwame Baah-Boakye

2009-01-01

234

Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. PMID:23847431

Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

2013-07-01

235

Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana.

Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

2013-01-01

236

Joint 15. biennial conference of the West African Science Association and 19. biennial conference of Ghana Science Association: Book of abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains abstracts of the joint fifteenth biennial conference of the West African Science Association and the nineteenth biennial conference of the Ghana Science Association,held at the University of Cape Coast,Ghana in September 1995. The...

1995-01-01

237

A comparative study of Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati and Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati in the management of "Essential Hypertension"  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major public health problem of this era. Hypertension related morbidity and mortality rates have dramatically increased over the last 25 years. Stressful life style is one of the leading causes of Hypertension. The treatment of hypertension remains a primary goal in the effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, stroke and kidney disease. In this study, 20 patients were randomly divided in two groups and treated along with restricted diet pattern for 8 weeks. Patients of Group A received poly-herbal compound formulation Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day). It was found that, relief in overall symptoms (63.93%) elevated blood pressure (8.91% in Systolic blood pressure and 8.44% in diastolic blood pressure). In group-B, with Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day) the percent relief was better on elevated blood pressure (12.00% in Systolic blood pressure and 11.02% in diastolic blood pressure). When data is subjected in between both the groups, it is found that, both drugs are equally effective.

Mishra, Jyoti; Joshi, Nayan P.; Pandya, Dilip M.

2012-01-01

238

Mono Lake Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mono Lake Web Site is the homepage of the Mono Lake Committee and offers helpful information regarding the unique hypersaline and alkaline environment. Visitors will find information about the Mono Lake Committee, natural and political histories of the area, related water policies, a photo gallery with image descriptions, and links to related sites- including a clearinghouse. Those interested in Mono Basin birds will find sightings, counts, bird walks, and other related information. An additional feature, Mono Lake Live, offers up-to-the-minute data on road conditions, satellite images, weather, lake level, bird sightings, snow pack, and earthquakes.

Reis, Greg; Committee, Mono L.

239

Hazardous crater lakes studied  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crater lakes usually sit on top of volcanic conduits and act as condensers of magmatic vapor. Studies of crater lakes can therefore provide information on both deep magmatic activity and variations in the degassing state of a shallow magmatic body. The Lake Nyos gas disaster of August 1986 and a similar event in August 1984 at Lake Monoun, both in Cameroon, resulted from the accumulation of magmatic CO2 in the bottom layers of the lakes. Geochemical monitoring of crater lakes is a promising tool for forecasting not only limnic but also volcanic eruptions. Acid-mineralized waters formed by condensation of hot magmatic volatiles in crater lakes are thought to bear some resemblance to hydrothermal fluids acting in the genesis of acid-sulfate alteration and Au-Cu-Ag mineralization of volcanic-hosted precious metal deposits.

Kusakabe, Minoru

240

Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

1988-01-01

241

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.

1995-01-01

242

Large Lake Sampling Program Assessment Report for Leech Lake, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Large Lake Monitoring Program was implemented to monitor and evaluate fish populations within Minnesota's large walleye lakes. For Leech Lake, this program includes annual fish population monitoring, natural reproduction checks, water quality monitori...

N. A. Haukos

1995-01-01

243

Light trap collections of ovipositing Simulium squamosum in Ghana.  

PubMed

At a site near Boti waterfalls in southern Ghana a total of 14 644 female and two male Simulium squamosum were caught in four nights in Monks Wood light traps. The highest catch, of 6520 females, was obtained in a single night with an ultraviolet light tube that had a one-second flash rate. About 12% of the females caught were gravid and dissections of non-gravids showed that they had oviposited very recently. The traps were clearly catching females before or soon after oviposition. The same traps caught none or very few blackflies when placed in two other localities near Akosombo. Trap location appeared very important in sampling ovipositing females of S. squamosum. PMID:534449

Service, M W

1979-10-01

244

Health education in rural settings in Ghana: a methodological approach.  

PubMed

Although the search for appropriate methodology in educating and training rural community populations is on going, previous efforts have yielded few results, some of which have not been successful with consequences for scarce resources. This paper, based on field reports from the Population Communication Project in Ghana, demonstrates that community learning theory can offer understanding of appropriate methodology in rural learning, education and training. The report shows steps used in educating people in Wusuta (a rural community) on health and environmental issues in the community using a mix of traditional and modern approaches. The result shows that the community internalized learning activity and were able to relate their learning experiences to existing traditional values and the need for action. The paper thus offers the method as a solution to rural population training and learning methodology. PMID:17897929

Gokah, Theophilus Kofi

2007-09-25

245

The changing rainy season climatology of mid-Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily rainfall data are examined through the temporal analysis of various definitions of variable temporal units (VTUs) consisting of combinations of various starting dates and durations over mid-Ghana. These VTUs are independent of, yet encompass, the starting dates and durations of the major and minor rainy seasons. Within each VTU, total rainfall and number of rainy days are calculated to describe the rainfall characteristics of the unit. Means and variances of each variable are calculated for each unit over two 20-year periods, 1951-1970 (P1) and 1981-2000 (P2). In P2, the major and minor rainy seasons have undergone varying degrees of desiccation. This reduction in rainfall is, however, not temporally or spatially uniform. The widespread decline of mean rainfall totals and number of rainy days during the minor rainy season, often associated with greater inter-annual variability, is particularly threatening to the production of a second crop.

Owusu, Kwadwo; Waylen, Peter R.

2013-05-01

246

The development of community water supplies in Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives.

Ferguson, W. R. W.

1962-01-01

247

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69...93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall...

2010-01-01

248

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69...93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall...

2009-01-01

249

Tyee Lake project: Alaska's second lake tap  

SciTech Connect

Environmentally, as well as in terms of pure water energy efficiency, lake taps are an ideal source of power. The basic concept is to tap into the bottom of a high mountain lake to use the high static head of water to spin turns. The Lake Tyee project starts with a tunnel at the lowest possible topographic point and uses the elevation differential between the lake bottom and originating point of the tunnel to multiply the height of the hydrostatic head. The water will generate 20 MW with a capacity to take on another 10-MW generator. The power generating system will be concealed inside the mountain with a small powerhouse and tail race visible. The cost of the project was over $60 million.

Sieber, O.V.

1983-12-01

250

Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts.

Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

251

Pattern of road traffic injuries in Ghana: implications for control.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries and fatalities are increasing in Ghana. Police-collected crash and injury data for the period 1994-1998 were aggregated and analyzed using the MAAP5 accident analysis package developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. Published results of recent transport-related epidemiological and other surveys provided an additional data source. According to the 1994-1998 police data, road traffic crashes were a leading cause of death and injuries in Ghana. The other leading causes of death and injuries are occupational injuries which involve non-mechanized farming and tribal conflicts. The majority of road traffic fatalities (61.2%) and injuries (52.3%) occurred on roads in rural areas. About 58% more people died on roads in the rural areas than in urban areas, and generally more severe crashes occurred on rural roads compared with urban areas. Pedestrians accounted for 46.2% of all road traffic fatalities. The majority of these (66.8%) occurred in urban areas. The second leading population of road users affected was riders in passenger-ferrying buses, minibuses and trucks. The majority of these (42.8%) were killed on roads that pass through rural areas. Pedestrian casualties were overrepresented (nearly 90%) in five regions located in the southern half of the country. Efforts to tackle pedestrian safety should focus on the five regions of the country where most pedestrian fatalities occur in urban areas. Policies are also needed to protect passengers in commercially operated passenger-ferrying buses, minibuses and trucks because these vehicles carry a higher risk of being involved in fatal crashes. PMID:12772488

Afukaar, Francis K; Antwi, Phyllis; Ofosu-Amaah, Samuel

252

Is Lake Prespa Jeopardizing the Ecosystem of Ancient Lake Ohrid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Prespa and Lake Ohrid, located in south-eastern Europe, are two lakes of extraordinary ecological value. Although the\\u000a upstream Lake Prespa has no surface outflow, its waters reach the 160 m lower Lake Ohrid through underground hydraulic connections.\\u000a Substantial conservation efforts concentrate on oligotrophic downstream Lake Ohrid, which is famous for its large number of\\u000a endemic and relict species. In this

A. Matzinger; M. Jordanoski; E. Veljanoska-Sarafiloska; M. Sturm; B. Müller; A. Wüest

2006-01-01

253

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

2002-01-01

254

Great Lakes Monthly Hydrologic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate hydrologic data (over-land precipitation, over-lake precipitation, runoff, lake evaporation, net basin supplies, connecting channel flows, diversion flows, beginning-of-month lake levels, and changes in storage) are required for simulation, forec...

T. E. Croley T. S. Hunter

1994-01-01

255

Art at the Crossroads: The Contested Position of Indigenous Arts in Ghana's Post-Colonial Education Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Ghana, as in many areas of the world, the meanings attached to indigenous art forms are based on larger philosophical foundations. Those meanings are at the crux of the ongoing struggle in the minds of many Ghanaians over the appropriateness of Ghana's traditional arts in their contemporary education system. The indigenous arts are caught in…

Ross, Mariama

2004-01-01

256

Pro-poor tourism: residents' expectations, experiences and perceptions in the Kakum National Park Area of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Ghana's evolving tourism policies with special reference to its spatial and pro-poor impacts. Using a sample of 182 respondents around the Kakum National Park in Ghana's Central Region, an area which is rich in tourism assets but economically poor, it examines residents’ expectations, experiences and perceptions about tourism development in the area. While some expectations were too

Oheneba Akwasi Akyeampong

2011-01-01

257

A National Vision for Girls' Education in Ghana and a Framework for Action: Charting the Way Forward.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a national vision for girls' education in Ghana and a strategic framework for achieving that vision. The vision statement is: "All Ghana's girl-children and their brothers are healthy, attend safe, welcoming schools, are well-taught by qualified teachers who understand their needs, achieve according to their potential,…

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

258

The Effects of Integrated Pest Management Techniques (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on Groundnut Productivity: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of Integrated Pest Management-Farmer Field School (IPM-FFS) programs on groundnut production in Ghana. The program was conducted in the groundnut regions of Ghana with the goal to improve groundnut agriculture through the dissemination of information and technology to the producers. Several approaches are used to control for selection and endogeneity on household level data collected

Eric Carlberg; Genti Kostandini; Awere Dankyi

2012-01-01

259

African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

260

African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

261

Self-Reported Suicidal Behavior and Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Psychology Students in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes

Heidi Hjelmeland; Charity S. Akotia; Vicki Owens; Birthe L. Knizek; Hilmar Nordvik; Rose Schroeder; Eugene Kinyanda

2008-01-01

262

Great Lakes water levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new publication, Great Lakes Water Levels, 1860-1970, has been issued by the Lakes Survey Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. \\u000a\\u000aThe book contains tabular records of monthly and annual average water surface elevations for each of the more than 50 permanent gages in the Lake Survey network. There are also summaries of the average and extreme levels

Anonymous

1971-01-01

263

Big lake records preserved in a little lake’s sediment: an example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar\\u000a (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the\\u000a floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the\\u000a study area

Timothy G. Fisher; Walter L. Loope; William Pierce; Harry M. Jol

2007-01-01

264

Great Lakes Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

2011-03-01

265

Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

266

WOMEN IN AGRO-PROCESSING IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF THE STATE OF WOMEN IN SMALL-SCALE FISH SMOKING IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of women in food production, processing and marketing has become more relevant as a way of fighting poverty and ensuring food security in Africa. This study was undertaken to assess the state of women in small-scale fish smoking in the Central Region of Ghana. The study involved 150 women fish processors. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to

Ernest L. Okorley; Moses M. Zinnah; Albert Obeng Mensah; Michelle Owens

267

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: AN APPLICATION IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA RESPONSABILITÉ SOCIALE DE LA CORPORATION: UNE APPLICATION DANS LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DU TOURISME AU GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972 UNESCO recognized 1) the Elmina Castle alias St George's Castle located in Elmina, 2) the Fort St Jago located in Elmina, and 3) the Cape Coast Castle alias Carolsburg Castle located in Cape Coast as World Heritage Sites (slave dungeons during transatlantic slave trade). Tourism was introduced in Elmina and Cape Coast in Ghana, West Africa, as a

Christina KOUTRA

268

Ichthyouris voltagrandensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from Myleus tiete Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil.  

PubMed

The present work studied helminth parasites of "pacu-manteiga", Myleus tiete (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil. Fishes with 142.6 +/- 24.7 g weight and 17.3 +/- 1.0 cm total length were collected. Five out six analysed fish (prevalence 83.3%) were parasitized in the intestine with an average of 535.6 +/- 334.6 oxyurid nematodes per fish. The helminth was identified as Ichthyouris voltagrandensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae). It differs from I. brasiliensis (Moravec et al., 1992a) by the absence of lateral alae, higher measures of tail and caudal alae of males, esophageal isthmus length, distance of excretory pore from anterior end and spicule length. In addition, eggs were provided by two long filaments in just one pole and by the first time the authors observed flagellate spermatozoa from dissected males. The authors exposes comparative table of measures of the five described species of the genus Ichthyouris. PMID:11514898

Martins, M L; Yoshitoshi, E R; Umekita, H

2001-05-01

269

Correlates of HIV testing among women in Ghana: some evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.  

PubMed

Ghana's strategic framework for controlling HIV/AIDS endorses voluntary HIV testing as an important strategy toward risk reduction and HIV/AIDS prevention. Yet, like other sub-Saharan African countries, utilization of testing services in Ghana is very low. Using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys and applying both complementary and negative log-log models, this study investigates the correlates of HIV testing among women aged 15-49. Two major dependent variables are considered, "ever tested for AIDS" and "wanting to test for AIDS." Results show that majority of Ghanaian women have not tested for HIV but say they want to do so. Having tested for HIV is strongly related to respondents' knowledge about someone dead of AIDS and other socio-economic and demographic variables such as education, region of residence, rural-urban residence, religion, and marital status. Majority of Ghanaian women do not know where to get an HIV test, although knowing where to get a test was significantly related to wanting to get the test done. To increase voluntary testing for HIV among women in Ghana it is recommended that testing services be made more accessible and visible especially to those residing in rural areas who may be economically disadvantaged. Interventions, including routine checking of HIV serostatus among patients seeking healthcare in clinics and home/work-based testing programs, must be encouraged as ways of expanding access among women in Ghana. PMID:20390509

Tenkorang, Eric Y; Owusu, Gertrude A

2010-03-01

270

Selective Sweeps and Genetic Lineages of Plasmodium falciparum Drug -Resistant Alleles in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background. In 2005, Ghana adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for primary treatment of falciparum malaria. A comprehensive study of the drug-resistance–associated mutations and their genetic lineages will lead to a better understanding of the evolution of antimalarial drug resistance in this region. Methods. The pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhps, and dhfr mutations associated with chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance and the microsatellite loci flanking these genes were genotyped in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Ghana. Results. The prevalence of mutations associated with both CQ and SP resistance was high in Ghana. However, we observed a decrease in prevalence of the pfcrt K76T mutation in northern Ghana after the change in drug policy from CQ to ACT. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation at microsatellite loci flanking all 4 genes indicated that they have been under strong selection, because of CQ and SP use. The triple-mutant pfcrt and dhfr alleles in Ghana were derived from Southeast Asia, whereas the double-mutant dhfr, dhps, and pfmdr1 alleles were of African lineage. Conclusion. Because of the possible role of pfmdr1 in amodiaquine and mefloquine resistance, demonstrating selection on pfmdr1 and defining lineages of resistant alleles in an African population holds great importance.

de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Vinayak, Sumiti; Griffing, Sean M.; Poe, Amanda C.; Duah, Nancy O.; Ghansah, Anita; Asamoa, Kwame; Slutsker, Laurence; Wilson, Michael D.; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Koram, Kwadwo A.

2011-01-01

271

Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of nonmarine organisms, and thus the evolution of freshwater organisms, can occur in a short geologic timespan. Because of their unique and varied conditions, the evolution of nonmarine organisms may be linked to lake basin type as well as lake longevity.

Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

2001-12-01

272

Lessons from a Lake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)|

Goethals, Susan

1997-01-01

273

Conservation of salt lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt lakes have a variety of important uses and values, including especially both economic and scientific ones. These uses and values have been and are increasingly subject to degradation from a variety of impacts: diversion of inflows, pollution, agricultural practices, and introduction of exotic species are among the more important. Recognition of these impacts upon salt lakes has led to

W. D. Williams

1993-01-01

274

Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

Reid, Ron

275

Evaporation From Lake Superior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

2009-05-01

276

Lake Nyos Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the

S. J. Freeth

1988-01-01

277

The Great Lakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

Seasons, 1987

1987-01-01

278

Great Lakes: chemical monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses a symposium sponsored by the 10th Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS) that addressed various aspects of the theme ''Chemistry of the Great Lakes''. The symposium attempted to gather together environmental information produced by chemists, and included: watershed studies, involving investigation of the sources, transport, and fate of sterols in the Menomonee River;

Joseph J. Delfino

1976-01-01

279

Great Lakes: Great Gardening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

280

Lake circulation and sediment transport in Lake Myvatn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake circulation and sediment transport in Lake Myvatn have been calculated using AQUASEA, a numerical model developed by Vatnaskil Consulting Engineers. The goal of the modelling was to calculate changes in sediment transport within the lake due to changes in lake bathymetry caused by diatomite mining. The model uses the Galerkin finite element method and consists of a hydrodynamic flow

Snorri Páll Kjaran; Sigurdur Lárus Hólm; Eric Matthew Myer

2004-01-01

281

Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994-1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs that Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

1999-01-01

282

Lake Trout Rehabilitation in Lake Erie: A Case History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the

Floyd C. Cornelius; Kenneth M. Muth; Roger Kenyon

1995-01-01

283

Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: insights from members, administrators and health care providers.  

PubMed

The Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was established as part of a poverty reduction strategy to make health care more affordable to Ghanaians. It is envisaged that it will eventually replace the existing cash-and-carry system. This paper examines the views of NHIS administrators, members/enrollees, and health care providers on how the Scheme operates in practice. It is part of a larger evaluation project on Ghana's NHIS, sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Development Network as part of a two-year global research. We rely primarily on qualitative data from focus group discussion in the Brong Ahafo and the Upper East regions respectively. Our findings suggest that the NHIS has improved access to affordable health care services and prescription drugs to many people in Ghana. However, there are concerns about fraud and corruption that must be addressed if the Scheme is to be financially viable. PMID:23974406

Barimah, Kofi Bobi; Mensah, Joseph

2013-08-01

284

Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.  

PubMed

In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496

Adinkrah, Mensah

2010-10-29

285

Factors associated with abortion-seeking and obtaining a safe abortion in Ghana.  

PubMed

Although Ghana's abortion law is fairly liberal, unsafe abortion and its consequences remain among the largest contributors to maternal mortality in the country. This study analyzes data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to identify the sociodemographic profiles of women who seek to induce abortion and those who are able to obtain safe abortion services. We hypothesize that women who have access to safe abortion will not be distributed randomly across different social groups in Ghana; rather, access will be influenced by social and economic factors. The results confirm this hypothesis and reveal that the women who are most vulnerable to unsafe abortions are younger, poorer, and lack partner support. The study concludes with policy recommendations for improving access to safe abortion for all subgroups of women, especially the most vulnerable. PMID:23239247

Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela

2012-12-01

286

Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.  

PubMed

This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way. PMID:19252064

Boakye, Kofi E

2009-02-27

287

Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

2003-01-01

288

Healthy Firms: Constraints to Growth among Private Health Sector Facilities in Ghana and Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business and health facility.

Burger, Nicholas E.; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P.; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

2012-01-01

289

SOMARC teams with private distribution firm to implement CSM program in Ghana.  

PubMed

SOMARC, together with a private manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceutical products (Danafco, Limited), is launching a new contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program designed to make low cost, modern contraceptive products widely available in Ghana's cities. Danafco will directly implement the CSM program. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the government of Ghana will provide support to the program. James R. Kirland, USAID Population Officer, will assume overall responsibility for coordination and monitoring of CSM program activities. By a special amendment to the Pharmacy and Drug Act of 1961, the Ghanaian government has enabled the CSM program to conduct a demonstration project. Under the project, chemical sellers and retailers who successfully complete a special training session will be entitled to dispense oral contraceptives (OCs) without prescription. With the successful completion of this project, it is hoped that the Ghanaian government will further amend the Pharmacy Act to make contraceptives available nationwide on a nonprescription basis. Initially, the Ghana CSM program will market 3 products: a standard dosage OC; a foaming vaginal tablet; and an uncolored condom. Market research is now underway to determine product names for the OCs and vaginal tablets. The condom will be marketed under the name Panther. The project plans to conduct a retail audit to define current prices in the Ghanaian contraceptive market. Danafco will subcontract with Lintas Ghana Limited to provide advertising, package design, and promotion for the Ghana CSM program. Overall campaign efforts will focus on generating a positive climate for the program among influentials in government, religion, education, and health as well as consumers. The advertising campaign will include radio, television, print, and outdoor media. SOMARC, in collaboration with the USAID/Accra mission, hopes to establish an appropriate climate prior to the advertising launch by promoting a conference on the role of family planning in the national reconstruction of Ghana. In subsequent years, product extension may be considered. PMID:12280423

1985-01-01

290

Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic.

2010-01-01

291

Eutrophication factors in north central Florida lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient loading rates were estimated for Anderson-Cue Lake in Florida. The lake was artificially spiked with phosphorus. Nutrient budgets for the lake and other lakes were compared. Nutrient sources and sinks for lakes were identified. A partial nutrient budget for Anderson-Cue lake was prepared, and the chemical composition of the lake's water was compared to rainwater. 5 tables.

P. L. Brezonik; W. H. Morgan; E. E. Shannon; H. D. Putnam

1969-01-01

292

Silica dynamics in a pampean lake (Lake Chascomús, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica dynamics in a pampean lake, Lake Chascomús (Chaco-Pampa plain, Argentina) is described. Pampean lakes are shallow alkaline ecosystems, with circulation pattern corresponding to polymictic lakes, due to the nearly continuous vertical mixing that promotes a high concentration of suspended particulate matter and low transparency. A silica budget was calculated in Lake Chascomús in 1999–2000 using a one-box model that

Patricia Miretzky; Alicia Fernández Cirelli

2004-01-01

293

The meanings of suicidal behaviour to psychology students in Ghana: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine psychology students' attitudes toward suicidal behaviour and the meanings they assign to the act. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 final year psychology students at a university in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the students had a generalized negative attitude toward suicide. Religious beliefs and family harmony are cultural contexts influencing the interpretation of suicidal behaviour as breach of divine and communal moralities. The implications of these meanings of suicidal behaviour for suicide prevention in Ghana are discussed. PMID:22021107

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-10-22

294

Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.  

PubMed

Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

2013-09-11

295

Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota  

PubMed Central

Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

296

Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.  

PubMed

As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818

Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

2008-02-01

297

Lay reporting of elephantiasis of the leg in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Within a large scale community trial in northern Ghana lay interviewers were trained to inquire about and identify elephantiasis of the leg by the use of local terms and simple examination of respondents. This was repeated a year later after moving the interviewers to different geographical areas. The proportions of extended family compounds reported to have at least one member with elephantiasis of the leg were 12.2% and 12.1 % respectively in the first and second surveys (kappa = 0.60). 'Blind' re-examination of a sub-sample by a physician showed a high level of agreement with the lay interviewer's findings in the first and second surveys (kappa = 0.67 and 0.82 respectively). This study has shown that lay people, even with minimal training, can obtain repeatable and valid estimates of the prevalence of elephantiasis of the leg, at least within an area where local terms for the condition are available. This method could potentially be used for other diseases with visible manifestations. PMID:8594671

Gyapong, J O; Dollimore, N; Binka, F N; Ross, D A

298

Controlling Sickle Cell Disease in Ghana--ethics and options.  

PubMed

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for "crimes" only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels--preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

2011-10-03

299

Guinea worm disease outcomes in Ghana: determinants of broken worms.  

PubMed

In 2006, Ghana ranked second in Guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence and reported a previously undocumented 20% prevalence of worm breakage. A prospective study was conducted in 2007 to validate and describe worm breakage and determinants. Among 221 patients with known outcomes, the worm breakage rate observed was 46%. After controlling for demographics, worm and wound presentation, and treatment course and provision, worm breakage was associated with narrow-diameter worms (< 2 mm) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-7.53). Protective factors against worm breakage included antibiotic ointment use (AOR 0.31; 95% CI = 0.14-0.70), bandage protocol compliance (AOR: 0.38; 95% CI = 0.16-0.89), intact bandages (AOR 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82), and bloody compared with dry wounds (AOR 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.7). The high worm breakage rate observed warrants improvement in case management and patient care. Adherence to established treatment protocols should be facilitated through improved provider training and supervision to reduce the disabling consequences of broken worms. PMID:19635889

Glenshaw, Mary T; Roy, Sharon; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Downs, Philip; Williamson, John; Eberhard, Mark

2009-08-01

300

HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 104 adults from the four sub-districts in Kumasi was conducted. Results Four stigma constructs, employment-based discrimination, screening and identification of HIV positive people, revelation of HIV status and social contact stigma were determined based on reliability measures from responses to the questionnaire. Regression analysis showed that participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to favor policies denying employment to PLWHA (p<0.05), but disapproved of revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Muslims were more likely than Christians to agree with identifying PLWHA (p<0.05) and more likely to advocate revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Males were more likely to favor revealing HIV status (p<0.05). Employed persons were more likely to have social contact with PLWHA (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions against HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi.

Ulasi, Chijioke I; Preko, Peter O; Baidoo, Joseph A.; Bayard, Budry; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

2009-01-01

301

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

302

Ghana's army goes into combat readiness against HIV.  

PubMed

Ghana's professional army of 12,000 men were joined by the national police in launching a campaign of education about AIDS which promotes condom use. The campaign received some funding from USAID and AIDS Tech/Family Health International. 94% of the soldiers had 7 years of education and 95% were married. 47% had never used the condom, 37% used it only occasionally, and only 19% used it regularly. An AIDS Awareness Day was followed up by 3000 posters, 1800 bumper stickers, 1500 T-shirts, 300 press packs, 1000 keychains and a video. Comic books in the local pidgin English idiom also proved popular for promotion. In a social marketing scheme, condoms were made available in barracks, army shops, and canteens for a modest price. The sales of condoms rose from about 500 a month in 1991 to 6000-7000 by January 1992. The army AIDS policy spelled out that HIV positivity will be revealed to the infected soldier. HIV-positive soldIers will not be sent abroad, curtailing the chances of disease transmission. They are kept in active service as long as they are capable of meeting their duties. Nevertheless, this policy hinges on the outcome of the AIDS education campaign whose failure could result in a policy of dismissing HIV-infected soldiers. PMID:12317821

303

Information quality in a remote rural maternity unit in Ghana.  

PubMed

The collection of accurate maternal outcome data enables causes of morbidity and mortality to be identified, which in turn permits interventions to be targeted appropriately. It also allows estimates to be made about the importance of various indicators in predicting birth outcome. These indicators can then be compared between health services, across time and against programme objectives, thus ensuring a management information system that informs policy and provides for real change. A review was done of data collection at the antenatal clinic and maternity ward in a remote rural hospital in northern Ghana. The data collected came from maternity ward records and participant observation, and they highlight deficiencies in the record management procedures. It is argued that exhorting staff to greater accuracy, although obvious, may not be the only solution, because of the structural impediments that often give an illusion of accuracy. The best data need to be collected within the constraints of the equipment and the people. Furthermore, to make the task more meaningful, regular feedback needs to be provided so that the process of record keeping is relevant to those who do it. Ministries of health need to conduct regular audits, like this microanalysis, so that policies are not based on data that are analyzed under a presumption of accuracy. PMID:10837040

Allotey, P A; Reidpath, D

2000-06-01

304

A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.  

PubMed

A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis. PMID:3492300

Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

1986-01-01

305

A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area  

PubMed Central

A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis.

Remme, J.; Ba, O.; Dadzie, K. Y.; Karam, M.

1986-01-01

306

33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The regulations in...connecting Lake Huron to Lake Erie (including the River Rouge) to prevent...navigation channels at the head of Lake Erie. District...

2009-07-01

307

33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The regulations in...connecting Lake Huron to Lake Erie (including the River Rouge) to prevent...navigation channels at the head of Lake Erie. District...

2010-07-01

308

SIGNIFICANCE OF REGIONAL LAKE QUALITY PATTERNS TO MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION OF SPECIFIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding regional lake quality patterns is important to lake management and restoration. t puts specific lake conditions into perspective, provides basis for establishing lake quality goals, assists identification of lakes most likely to benefit from protection and restorati...

309

Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly different from those of the metasediments, or compared to target rocks from outside the crater rim. So far, no evidence for a meteoritic component has been detected in polymict impact breccias during this study, in agreement with previous work.

Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

310

Great Lakes Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an assessment of the present water quality of the Great Lakes and their connecting channels and critically examines the data collection and analysis programs available for this evaluation. The status of remedial programs being implemen...

1974-01-01

311

Great Lakes Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first Annual Report of the International Joint Commission pursuant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada signed April 15, 1972. The Commission's report takes cognizance of significant development...

1972-01-01

312

The Lake Erie Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiences, or "lab puzzles," which will help students develop problem-solving skills in a laboratory setting. Outlines procedures for developing techniques, setting boundaries, and finding the number of molecules of water in Lake Erie. (RT)|

Wherley, James M.

1989-01-01

313

Limnology of Lake Champlain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an exhaustive compilation of existing physical, chemical, and biological data on Lake Champlain. As a reference document, the report assembles both published and unpublished information. Data presentation is through text tables, illus...

G. E. Myer G. K. Gruendling

1979-01-01

314

Limnology of Lake Minnetonka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluctuations of population densities of phytoplankton in 4 basins of Lake Minnetonka in Minnesota were inferred from changes of concentrations of chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon during the ice-fee season. Concentrations of chlorophyll a durin...

R. O. Megard

1974-01-01

315

Mormon Lake Cliffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An establishment of a scientific or educational natural area on the east side of Mormon Lake has been proposed. The area supports an unusual floral assemblage and may be important to vertebrates (especially migrating songbirds) as well. The cliffs include...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

316

Great Lakes literacy principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages

Rosanne W. Fortner; Lyndsey Manzo

2011-01-01

317

Mercury and arsenic in the gold mining regions of the Ankobra River basin in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The river Ankobra flows through the principal gold mining centres in Western Ghana, draining a total area of 8272 km^2 to join the Atlantic ocean. Mercury is used by thousands of small-scale miners in the region to amalgamate gold. Ores mined in some deep shafts and surface mines are arsenopyrites and the region is marked by the presence of heaps

W. Bannerman; M. Potin-Gautier; D. Amoureux; S. Tellier; A. Rambaud; M. Babut; A. Adimado; C. Beinhoff

2003-01-01

318

Implementation of Innovations in Higher Education: The Case of Competency-Based Training in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that…

Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

2012-01-01

319

Determinants of utilisation of health services by women in rural and urban areas in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the factors that influence the utilisation of health services by women in the rural and urban areas in Ghana. The systematic sampling procedure was used to draw the sample from women aged 18 and above with diverse backgrounds from Ahafo-Ano South district, representing the rural districts and Kumasi metropolis, representing the urban districts. The research instruments used

Daniel Buor

2005-01-01

320

Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…

Thomas, Paul

2012-01-01

321

Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students’ perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to

Cyril D. Boateng; Edem Cudjoe Bensah; Julius C. Ahiekpor

2012-01-01

322

Estimates of the maternal mortality ratio in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong- Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. Methods Indirect estimates of the MMR were calculated from data collected in 1995 by Family Health International (FHI) on 5202 women aged 15-49 years,

Jason B. Smith; Judith A. Fortney; Emelita Wong; Ramesh Amatya; Nii A. Coleman; Joseph de Graft Johnson

323

Locally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana. Education Research Paper. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The needs of grassroots farmers in Uganda and Ghana for locally developed print materials were examined through a postal survey of nearly 200 organizations and examinations of 75 autonomous farmer groups and 95 organizations sharing agricultural information in both countries. Both printed agricultural information relevant to grassroots farmers and…

Carter, Isabel

324

The effects of normative social belief systems and customer satisfaction on rural savings programs in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of normative social beliefs, customer satisfaction with service quality and demographic variables on the long-term savings behavior of rural households some 15 years after the 1981 large-scale promotion of the rural bank program in Ghana. The results show that considerations of these influences beyond income alone provide stronger predictive power, over and above that of

Kofi Q. Dadzie; Evelyn Winston; Kofi Afriyie

2003-01-01

325

Macroeconomic uncertainty and conditional stock-price volatility in frontier African markets : Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of macroeconomic uncertainty on stock-price volatility in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The method of analysis is in two stages. The first stage estimates univariate volatility models for each macroeconomic variable; namely consumer price index (proxy for inflation), exchange rate, money supply, interest rates, oil price, gold price, and cocoa

Charles K. D. Adjasi

2009-01-01

326

"Traditions" and Cultural Production: Character Training at the Achimota School in Colonial Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the educational philosophy and practices of Achimota School, which was established in the Gold Coast Colony (the southern part of today's Ghana) in 1927 as the governmental model school for leadership education. Achimota's education aimed to develop leaders who were "Western in intellectual attitude", "African in sympathy".…

Yamada, Shoko

2009-01-01

327

Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered…

Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

2007-01-01

328

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

329

The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…

Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

2011-01-01

330

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with…

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

331

Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity Structures and Social Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.…

Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary

2009-01-01

332

Indications of heritability of resistance of a cocoa cultivar to Phytophthora palmivora pod rot in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The cocoa cultivar Y44, a local selection from Ghana showed the least susceptibility to black pod infection in the jîeld among 20 types tested in a clonal trial. Resistant breeding lines segregated from its jirst generation pro- geny grown in the jïeld. The seecllings of the F1 and F, generation inbreds tested arti$cially in the green house segregated into

A. ASARE NYAKO; J. D. AMPONSAH

333

Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…

Agbenyega, Joseph

2008-01-01

334

The power of Akan folk music in teaching adults about HIV\\/AIDS in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of music in communicating important messages and disseminating information cannot be underestimated. Since time immemorial the rhythms of African music and drums not only entertained the masses of the people but also provided them with food for thought regarding social issues in their communities. This article examines Akan folk music popularly dubbed Hi-life in Ghana and how it

Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour

2007-01-01

335

Predatory elites, rents and cocoa: a comparative analysis of Ghana and Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the way in which the cocoa sector shaped the rent-seeking behaviour of ruling elites and rural producers in Ghana and Ivory Coast. Analysis of their rent-seeking behaviour is done in two different contexts. The first context is a boom period in which the exploitation of the rent generated from cocoa production leads elites and rural producers to

Dwayne Woods

2004-01-01

336

Labour standards application among Chinese and Indian firms in Ghana: typical or atypical?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the current interest in the growing amount of Chinese and Indian investments in African countries, little is known on the impact of such investments on the employment conditions of African workers. This study investigates the employment practices of a Chinese-owned and an Indian-owned manufacturing company in Ghana in relation to the national labour laws and international labour standards. This

Angela Dziedzom Akorsu; Fang Lee Cooke

2011-01-01

337

Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

Morley, Louise

2011-01-01

338

"Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

Hilson, Gavin

2010-01-01

339

Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

340

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

341

Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

2012-01-01

342

An evaluation of the effectiveness of televised road safety messages in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of recent televised advertisements conducted by the National Road Safety Commission in Ghana. These concerned speeding and alcohol-impaired driving and were targeted towards commercial drivers. Focus group discussions were conducted with 50 commercial drivers in four cities. Discussions addressed coverage, clarity and appropriateness of messages, including suggestions for improvements. Most discussants indicated that

Jones Blantari; Godfried Asiamah; Noble Appiah; Charles Mock

2005-01-01

343

BASIC PLASTIC SURGERY SKILLS FOR DISTRICT AND COMMUNITY DOCTORS TO MANAGE BURULI ULCER IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The increase in incidence of Buruli ulcer in Ghana has also been complicated by problems in the care of the patients including lack of knowledge and training by staff, unwillingness of the staff to handle the cases for fear of contracting the disease. Method: An evaluation of training workshop on basic plastic surgery skills. Results: Three basic plastic surgery

P. Agbenorku; M. Agbenorku; R. Adator; L. Tuuli; E. Brobbey

344

Negotiating Broadcasting PolicyCivil Society and Civic Discourse in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the nature of civil society and civic discourse in Ghana as they are reflected in the process by which broadcasting policy in that country is currently being negotiated. It is grounded in the notions that civil society is constituted by and in communication and that vital civil society and public discourse are essential aspects of a truly

Carla W. Heath

1999-01-01

345

Mercury and arsenic pollution in soil and biological samples around the mining town of Obuasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of soils, plantain (Musa paradisiaca), water fern (Ceratopteris cornuta), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and mud fish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) were collected from Obuasi and its environs, which is the most active gold mining town in Ghana. The distribution of mercury and arsenic in these samples from fourteen sampling sites was determined. The annual average surficial soil concentrations

E. H. Amonoo-Neizer; David Nyamah; S. B. Bakiamoh

1996-01-01

346

Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

2009-01-01

347

Structural analysis of the southern Ashanti Belt, Ghana, using airborne geophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Ashanti Greenstone Belt, in Ghana, is an area of major economic importance for West Africa, where many companies are actively exploring for gold. As a consequence, a significant geological data set has been collected over the years, but it has not always been subjected to an integrated interpretation, especially away from the main Ashanti fault system and the

Stéphane Perrouty; Mark Jessell; Lenka Baratoux; Laurent Aillères; Yan Bourassa

2010-01-01

348

A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Realist evaluation offers an interesting approach to evaluation of interventions in complex settings, but has been little applied in health care. We report on a realist case study of a well performing hospital in Ghana and show how such a realist evaluation design can help to overcome the limited external validity of a traditional case study. METHODS: We developed

Bruno Marchal; McDamien Dedzo; Guy Kegels

2010-01-01

349

Towards a multi-criteria approach for priority setting: an application to Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting in health, but their relative importance has not yet been determined in a way that allows a rank ordering of interventions.Methods: In an explorative study, a discrete choice experiment was carried out to determine the relative importance of different criteria in identifying priority interventions in Ghana. Thirty respondents chose between

R. M. P. M. Baltussen; Elly Stolk; Dan Chisholm; Moses Aikins

2006-01-01

350

Food Price Changes and Consumer Welfare in Ghana in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse the effect of food price changes on household consumption in Ghana during the 1990s and assess the extent to which changes can be explained by trade and agricultural policy reforms. The measurement of the total household welfare effect, one that jointly considers (static) first order effects as well as (dynamic) consumption responses, is the object

Charles Ackah; Simon Appleton

351

Identity Construction in Development Practices: The Government of Ghana, Civil Society, Private Sector, and Development Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the return to multiparty representative government in Ghana under the Fourth Republic, an impetus to modify the political system emerged from a combination of political will among elites and expanded opportunities for political expression resulting partly from donor interventions and partly from pressure exerted by citizens. Political liberalisation produced a shift in the relationships between donors, the government and

Lindsay Whitfield

352

Examining relationships between customary and state institutions in Ghana's decentralized system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional authorities are powerful leaders alongside the state in Ghana. The chieftaincy has been resilient to “modernization”—maintaining land rights, allegiance from citizens, and influence in rural communities. Nonetheless, there are few rules defining their official role in the local government structure. It is empirically acknowledged that chiefs seriously impact the development of their communities. Hence, this study looks for factors

Cory Belden

2010-01-01

353

Measuring Market Potential for Fresh Organic Fruit and Vegetable in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the market potential for fresh organic lettuce and water melon with a recently collected data on consumers from Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. Using a doublebounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation technique, consumer’s willingness to pay is estimated with a Tobit model to address the zero willingness to pay responses in the sample data. As much as 71% of

Victor Owusu; Michael Anifori Owusu

2010-01-01

354

Determinants of modern health care use by families after a childhood burn in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study examined determinants of modern health care use by families after their child aged 0-5 years sustained a burn injury in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. METHODS: A community based survey of children aged 0-5 years was conducted in 50 enumeration areas in the region. Mothers of all children with scars as evidence of a burn were selected

S. N. Forjuoh; B. Guyer; D. M. Strobino

1995-01-01

355

Attitudes Toward Rape and Victims of RapeA Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about

Kofi E. Boakye

2009-01-01

356

Civil Society as Idea and Civil Society as Process: The Case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of civil society contains a set of assumptions about the unity of civil society, the civility of civil society, the 'separateness' of civil society and the state, and the intrinsic relationship between civil society and democracy. All of these assumptions can be questioned by examining civil society in a specific country context. In the case of Ghana, processes

Lindsay Whitfield

2003-01-01

357

Traditional Representations of the Natural Environment and Biodiversity Conservation: Sacred Groves in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local cosmologies and traditional perceptions of the natural environment, especially forests, have been a major influence in the management of the natural resources and biodiversity amongst rural communities in the transitional zone of Ghana. Sacred groves, which are typical outputs of traditional conservation practices, derive from indigenous religious beliefs and perceptions of forest. Sacred groves are believed to be the

Paul Sarfo-Mensah; William Oduro; Fredrick Antoh Fredua; Stephen Amisah

2010-01-01

358

Stakeholders Perception of Current Health Education Situation under Ghana's Health Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Education is one of the critical eight essen tial pillars of the primary health care (PHC) adopt ed world-wide by WHO member countries in 1978. After over two decades of health education to support PHC implementation, th e epidemiological profile of Ghana continues to be dominated by communicable diseases, and environmental sanitation is p roblematic in both urban and

K. B. Antwi

359

Chasing spirits: Clarifying the spirit child phenomenon and infanticide in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Kassena-Nankana District of Ghana, researchers and health interventionists describe a phenomenon wherein some children are subject to infanticide because they are regarded as spirit children sent “from the bush” to cause misfortune and destroy the family. This phenomenon remains largely misunderstood and misrepresented. Based upon both ethnographic research and verbal autopsy data from 2006 to 2007 and 2009,

Aaron R. Denham; Philip B. Adongo; Nicole Freydberg; Abraham Hodgson

2010-01-01

360

Aetiology of suppurative corneal ulcers in Ghana and south India, and epidemiology of fungal keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A multicentre study was carried out in Ghana and southern India to determine the aetiology of suppurative keratitis in two regions located at similar tropical latitudes. Studies of fungal keratitis from the literature were reviewed.Methods: Patients presenting at rural and urban eye units with suspected microbial keratitis were recruited to the study. Corneal ulceration was defined as loss of

A K Leck; P A Thomas; M Hagan; J Kaliamurthy; E Ackuaku; M John; M J Newman; F S Codjoe; J A Opintan; C M Kalavathy; V Essuman; C A N Jesudasan; G J Johnson

2002-01-01

361

Creating safety nets through semi-parametric index-based insurance: A simulation for Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, farm income is highly exposed to risks from crop failure in the drier, inland areas, and from fluctuations in (world market) prices in the wetter coastal areas. As individuals and even extended families are poorly equipped to deal with these, provision of social safety nets is required Our paper reviews the situation in Ghana and the way

Vasco Molini; Michiel A. Keyzer; Bart van den Boom; Wouter Zant

2007-01-01

362

Reaching Underserved Populations with Basic Education in Deprived Areas of Ghana: Emerging Good Practices. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achieving Education for All (EFA) in Ghana and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa remains an elusive goal. Extensive research in diverse countries has revealed that formalized systems that work on fixed timetables, a loaded curriculum, and trained teachers, are often not performing as well in rural environments in providing basic literacy, numeracy,…

2003

363

Student Achievement and Schooling Choice in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present new evidence on the impact of school characteristics on student achievement using an unusually rich data set from Ghana. We deal with two potentially important selectivity issues in the developing country context: the sorting of higher ability children into better schools, and the high incidence of both delayed school enrollment and early leaving. Our empirical

Paul Glewwe; Hanan Jacoby

1994-01-01

364

Effect of training on the clinical management of malaria by medical assistants in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria accounts for over 40% of all outpatient consultations in Ghana. A common drug use problem associated with its treatment with chloroquine is over- and under-dosage and a preference for the intramuscular route of administration. Inadequate treatment is an important factor in the selection of resistant strains of malaria parasites. To ensure the proper management of diseases at health centres

David Ofori-Adjei; Daniel K. Arhinful

1996-01-01

365

"Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

Hilson, Gavin

2010-01-01

366

From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…

Skinner, Kate

2010-01-01

367

Innovative financing (IF) of infrastructure projects in Ghana: conceptual and empirical observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods of financing have failed to resolve Ghana's infrastructure deficit. Innovative financing (IF) solutions are being encouraged to alleviate this, but presently IF knowledge is limited. This study provides an overview and maps the evolution of IF solutions to conceptually model their characteristics and application to major infrastructure projects, especially in the context of LDCs. An inductive methodology draws

Edward Badu; De-Graft Owusu-Manu; David John Edwards; Gary David Holt

2011-01-01

368

Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda

Maye A Omar; Andrew T Green; Philippa K Bird; Tolib Mirzoev; Alan J Flisher; Fred Kigozi; Crick Lund; Jason Mwanza; Angela L Ofori-Atta

2010-01-01

369

Dealing with difference: ethnicity and gender in the context of schooling in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on findings of a longitudinal study examining the broader systemic and structural processes of schooling for local youth in Ghana. Specifically, the paper examines how Ghanaian schools address the question of difference and diversity within the student population. Particular focus is on ethnicity and gender as sites of difference. The paper highlights educators and students’ experiences

George J. Sefa Dei

2004-01-01

370

ARTISTIC-AESTHETIC INPUT OF SONG LEADERS IN AFRICAN ENSEMBLES: A CASE OF ZIGI IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural values of Ghanaian indigenous culture are best expressed in the musical arts that are performed and displayed in the community. To comprehend the meaning of what goes on in the different ethnic groups of Ghana, the 'musical arts' (music, dance, drama, poetry, and costume arts) become a powerful tool for the outsider in this particular culture. Zigi, a

Mary Dzansi-McPalm

371

Concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a bi...

J. K. N. Gbagbo

1997-01-01

372

Providing instruction to students with special needs in inclusive classrooms in Ghana: Issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the instructional practices of teachers in inclusive classrooms in Ghana. It also assessed the influence of selected teacher background variables on inclusive practices. Thirty-seven (37) teachers from 20 primary schools in two districts completed a background information questionnaire and were observed during instruction in their classrooms. The data were analysed employing descriptive statistics, t-tests

Ahmed Bawa; Ishwar Desai

373

Corporate governance, ownership structure and performance of SMEs in Ghana: implications for financing opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to assess how the adoption of corporate governance structures affects the performance of SMEs (small to medium-sized enterprises) in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Regression analysis is used to estimate the relationship between corporate governance and ownership structure and performance. Findings – The results show that board size, board composition, management skill level, CEO duality, inside ownership,

Joshua Abor; Nicholas Biekpe

2007-01-01

374

WIDENING ACCESS TO TERTIARY EDUCATION FOR WOMEN IN GHANA THROUGH DISTANCE EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education - age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana has not

Olivia Adwoa; Tiwaah Frimpong

2007-01-01

375

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal

C. J. Hapke; A. D. Ashton; G. Wiafe; K. A. Addo; S. Ababio; K. A. Agyekum; T. C. Lippmann; J. Roelvink

2010-01-01

376

Civil Service Reform in Ghana: A Case Study of Contemporary Reform Problems in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the factors determining the success or failure in Civil Service Reform (CSR) are high level political administrative commitment; and the motivation and in- volvement of civil servants themselves in a bureaucratic system that is too weak to impose central top-down reform. The article evaluates Ghana's Civil Service Reform Programme (CSRP), which was intended to make the civil service a

Joseph R. A. Ayee

2001-01-01

377

Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with…

Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

2010-01-01

378

The Effects of Parental Education and Household Resources on Children's Education in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses cross-sectional data from the 1992 and 1999 Ghana living standards surveys to examine the effects of parental education and household resources on the education of children. The results show that parental education and household resources exert positive impacts on children's school attendance. While parental schooling impact appears to have fallen over time, the impact of school quality

Harry A. Sackey

2004-01-01

379

From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…

Skinner, Kate

2010-01-01

380

The need for the collection and bibliographic control of grey literature in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper stresses the importance of grey literature to a developing country like Ghana. Present attempts at grey literature acquisition, storage and organisation are discussed. The writer is of the view that these attempts have failed due to reasons such as funding and staffing. A Centralised Documentation Centre such as a National Library is recommended for the country. Failing this,

A. A. Alemna

2001-01-01

381

Subjective realities: Perceptions of identity and conflict in Ghana and Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on perceptions survey research conducted in Ghana and Nigeria, this article explores whether differences in the salience of ethnic and religious identities and interethnic and religious attitudes and interaction, might contribute to explaining the different histories of violence and conflict in these two countries. Based on the finding that ethnic identities are more salient in the Nigerian sampled communities

Arnim Langer; Ukoha Ukiwo

2009-01-01

382

Diversity and discord: Ethnicity, horizontal inequalities and conflict in Ghana and Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introduction provides an overview of the special issue. The papers in this issue contribute to our understanding of the contrasting histories of Ghana and Nigeria. The papers confirm the importance of horizontal inequalities as a source of political instability and violent conflict, and show that they are particularly likely to lead to conflict where political and socio-economic exclusion run

Arnim Langer; Abdul Raufu Mustapha; Frances Stewart

2009-01-01

383

Pedological characteristics related to groundwater occurrence in the Tarkwa area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) and textural characteristics of soil have been determined by infiltration and particle size distribution tests, respectively, at 56 sites. These soil tests were conducted in the B-horizon during a groundwater resources survey in the Tarkwa area, Ghana. It was observed, in general, that extremely poorly sorted soils exhibited low porosity and relatively higher Ks, while relatively

J. S. Kuma; P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

384

Feedback Relationships between New Technology Use and Information Networks: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine the relationship between social network con- nections and profitability of a newly introduced agricultural commod- ity in Ghana. Using vector autoregression techniques, I illustrate the bidirectional causality between the dynamics of profits earned from a new agricultural crop and information obtained from one's social net- work. In particular, the data suggest both that greater information

Emma C. Stephens

385

The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

2011-01-01

386

Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental

Shoba Raja; Sarah K Wood; Victoria de Menil; Saju C Mannarath

2010-01-01

387

Superstition, witchcraft and HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belief in superstition and witchcraft is central to many African conceptions of illness, disease causation and etiology. While a number of anthropological studies have alluded to a theoretical link between such beliefs and HIV prevention in particular, there is limited empirical assessment of the association. Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying random-effects logit models,

Eric Y. Tenkorang; Stephen O. Gyimah; Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale; Jones Adjei

2011-01-01

388

Ethnicity and Infant Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is premised on the hypothesis that ethnic specific socio-cultural practices such as dietary taboos and food avoidances on mothers and infants, as well as perceptions of disease aetiology and treatment patterns may be salient to infant mortality differentials in Ghana. To inform policy the paper explores if there are significant ethnic differences in the risk of infant death,

Stephen Obeng Gyimah

2002-01-01

389

The effect of capital structure on profitability: an empirical analysis of listed firms in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability of listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) during a five-year period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Regression analysis is used in the estimation of functions relating the return on equity (ROE) with measures of capital structure. Findings – The results reveal a significantly positive relation between the

Joshua Abor

2005-01-01

390

Perceptions of health and environmental impacts of e-waste managementin Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the perception of health and environmental concerns of workers and residents living close to e-waste recycling sites in Ghana using both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The social constructionist approach and a logit regression model were adopted to examine the rationale of their claims and concerns which have hitherto been unknown and unexplored. We find that workers’

Samuel Agyei-Mensah; Martin Oteng-Ababio

2012-01-01

391

Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Basic Education in Ghana: Challenges and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing private-sector participation in basic education service delivery in many developing countries has led to calls for greater partnership arrangements with the public sector to improve access for poor and disadvantaged groups. In Ghana there is some interest in forging closer public-private partnerships to improve access for children who have…

Akyeampong, Kwame

2009-01-01

392

Gender, Sexuality and Schooling: Everyday Life in Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana and Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the focus is upon daily school practices in Junior Secondary Schools in Ghana and Botswana. The data from 12 ethnographic case studies have been used to explore how the institution of schooling is gendered. The analysis focuses predominantly on the informal practices of the hidden curriculum through a theoretical perspective that…

Dunne, Mairead

2007-01-01

393

Evolution of gold mineralization in the Ashanti Gold Belt, Ghana: Evidence from carbonate compositions and parageneses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ankerite, siderite, calcite and magnesite occur in variable proportions within all host and mineralized rocks of the Bogosu and Prestea mining districts of the Ashanti Gold Belt, Ghana. The compositions of coexisting ankerite-siderite grains establish that complex rhythmically zoned growth banding and replacement textures are present. This compositional variation is attributed to episodic fluctuation in the temperature and composition

A. Hamid Mumin; M. E. Fleet

1995-01-01

394

Savannah Woodland Degradation Assessments in Ghana: integrating ecological indicators with local perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the measurement of land degradation within savannah woodlands, in a complex semi- arid environment, in the Upper East Region of Ghana. In a region where inhabitants depend upon natural resources for their livelihoods, degradation of such resources is a serious threat to the sustainability of a subsistence lifestyle. A central problem for academics, researchers and decision

Reyna C. O'Higgins

395

The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

2011-01-01

396

School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers

Irene Ayi; Daisuke Nonaka; Josiah K Adjovu; Shigeki Hanafusa; Masamine Jimba; Kwabena M Bosompem; Tetsuya Mizoue; Tsutomu Takeuchi; Daniel A Boakye; Jun Kobayashi

2010-01-01

397

Grandfathers, Google, and Dreams: Medical Pluralism, Globalization, and New Healing Encounters in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across contemporary Africa, pluralistic medical fields are becoming increasingly complex, giving rise to newly emerging constellations of healing practices and a vast array of therapeutic possibilities. We present portraits of four ‘traditional’ healers in southern Ghana who selectively adapt, adopt and modify elements of biomedical, ‘local’ and ‘exotic’ healing practices in eclectic and creative ways, positioning themselves strategically in a

Kate R. Hampshire; Samuel Asiedu Owusu

2012-01-01

398

The Institutional and Policy Framework for Regulation and Competition in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history to regulation in Ghana, dating back to the colonial days when the regulation of mining land was perceived to be a tool used by the colonial government to protect large mining concessionaires from the intrusive activities of indigenous small scale and informal mining operations. Throughout the long period beginning from the 1960s to the early

Ernest Aryeetey

2002-01-01

399

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Food Vendors in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

he operation and patronage of fast-food joints, restaurants, and chop bars have increased and become common in the Ghanaian community, especially in urban areas. Despite the benefits derived from these food joints, their operation raises public health issues, since food vendors could be a major transmission source for intestinal parasitic infections. The environmental risk factors of these practices in Ghana

Ayeh-Kumi PF; Quarcoo S; Kwakye-Nuako G; Osafo-Kantanka A

400

Natural market segments: religion and identity – the case of “zongos” in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – “Zongos” are a part of the urban phenomena in Ghana that have escaped critical social inquiry. The purpose of this paper is three fold. It seeks insight into the reasons zongos continue to attract new dwellers despite their “unattractive” reputation; the role of religion in the choice of residential locations; and the role of Islamic marketing vis-à-vis zongos.

Paul Sergius Koku

2011-01-01

401

National health insurance in Ghana : evaluation of the Nzema-East Natural Health Insurance Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Insurance is one of the main mechanisms of health care financing prominent on the global policy agenda. In 2004, Ghana implemented a health financing reform to replace user-fees with a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Prior to its implementation, access to healthcare was solely based on ability to pay, emanating from a policy in 1985 which introduced user-fees, popularly

K. B. Boakye

2008-01-01

402

Technology In the Hands of the Extension Officers--Agricultural Extension in Jamaica and Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a technology-based research pilot project undertaken by The Commonwealth of Learning with Jamaica and Ghana to investigate the use of video in demonstrating farming techniques. Maintains that video production done at the regional level will allow farmers to relate to information relevant to their own agricultural situations. (Contains 3…

Walker, David

2000-01-01

403

Capsid control for organic cocoa in Ghana : results of participatory learning and action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, compared to Ivory Coast and Malaysia, two other major producing countries, yields are extremely low. The causes of low yields are many. They inc!ude low producer price offered until recently by the government costs of labour, poor tree husbandry practices, and pest and diseases. The recent increase in producer price

G. K. Ayenor

2006-01-01

404

Locally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana. Education Research Paper. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The needs of grassroots farmers in Uganda and Ghana for locally developed print materials were examined through a postal survey of nearly 200 organizations and examinations of 75 autonomous farmer groups and 95 organizations sharing agricultural information in both countries. Both printed agricultural information relevant to grassroots farmers…

Carter, Isabel

405

An examination of pharmaceutical supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapies in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the pharmaceutical supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study employed an inductive approach in examining the dynamics of the pharmaceutical supply chain. The study also used analytical hierarchical process in identifying factors that are detrimental to the ACT supply chain. Findings – The study

David Asamoah; Patience Abor; Martin Opare

2011-01-01

406

Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings dams at Obuasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and decommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and Zn using atomic absorption

P. Antwi-Agyei; J. N. Hogarh; G. Foli

407

MANIFESTATION AND OUTCOME OF SEVERE MALARIA IN CHILDREN IN NORTHERN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of severe malaria and their contribution to mortality were assessed in 290 children in northern Ghana. Common symptoms were severe anemia (55%), prostration (33%), respiratory distress (23%), con- vulsions (20%), and impaired consciousness (19%). Age influenced this pattern. The fatality rate was 11.2%. In mul- tivariate analysis, circulatory collapse, impaired consciousness, hypoglycemia, and malnutrition independently predicted death. Children

FRANK P. MOCKENHAUPT; STEPHAN EHRHARDT; JANA BURKHARDT; SAMUEL Y. BOSOMTWE; STEPHEN LARYEA; SYLVESTER D. ANEMANA; ROWLAND N. OTCHWEMAH; JAKOB P. CRAMER; EKKEHART DIETZ; SABINE GELLERT; ULRICH BIENZLE

2004-01-01

408

Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

409

Structural relations of the sex trade and its link to trafficking: The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex trade in Ghana is perceived as women's business. The legal definition of prostitution in the Ghanaian criminal code of 1960 limits sex work and stipulates prostitution as females' activity. Hence, punishment for it is meted out only to females who offer their bodies for sale but not the males who demand the offers or participate in any other

Nancy Ansah

2006-01-01

410

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

411

RAPID ASSESSMENT AS AN EVALUATION TOOL FOR POLIO NATIONAL IMMUNISATION DAYS IN BRONG AHAFO REGION, GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite reported high coverage of National Immunization Days (NIDs) campaign in many countries children are still being missed during these campaigns. This is a study of a rapid assessment done to determine OPV coverage during an immunization campaign. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, regional supervisors in Brong Ahafo region of Ghana visited randomly selected houses during the first

T. M. Akande; M. Eshetu; G. Bonsu

412

Delineation of pona complex of yam in Ghana using SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yam (Dioscorea spp), a multi-species, polyploid, and vegetatively propagated tuber crop, is cultivated widely in the tropics and subtropics. Over 95% of the world's yam production occurs in West and Central Africa where white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) is the most important among cultivated species. The most popular landrace cultivar of yams on the market in Ghana is called 'Pona'.

E. Otoo; R. Akromah; M. Kolesnikova-Allen; R. Asiedu

2009-01-01

413

Making theory and practice in subsistence markets: An analytic autoethnography of MASAZI in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper responds to the need for greater research in subsistence markets that engage new and innovative approaches to scholarship, in particular those that involve initiatives based on interactions between scholars and communities. On the basis of an analytic autoethnography conducted at a social venture in Accra, Ghana, the author empirically explores third space, or third space at work. Third

Benét DeBerry-Spence

2010-01-01

414

An investigation into the thermal performance of office buildings in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper comprises the outcome of a long-term monitoring of the thermal conditions in a selected number of office buildings in Kumasi, Ghana. The observed data was not only used to assess indoor environmental conditions in these offices, but also to calibrate a number of thermal simulation models of the buildings. Thus, a simulation-based exploration of thermal retrofit options towards

Christian Koranteng; Ardeshir Mahdavi

2011-01-01

415

Malaria and anaemia among children in two communities of Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia). The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine whether this parasite rate difference was consistent over time. Secondary objectives were to compare prevalences of clinical malaria, anaemia, intestinal parasite infections, and malnutrition between these communities; and to

Lisa A Ronald; Sarah L Kenny; Eveline Klinkenberg; Alex O Akoto; Isaac Boakye; Guy Barnish; Martin J Donnelly

2006-01-01

416

Safe Schools Program: Ghana Assessment Report, January 6-16, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From January 6 through 16, a five-person team from the Washington, D.C.-based Safe Schools Program (SSP) traveled to Ghana. The overall objectives of this first exploratory trip were to: o Inform the team of the extent of the problem of school-related gen...

2004-01-01

417

Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

418

TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999....

419

Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

1995-01-01

420

Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food preparation at the household or "chop" bar (street restaurant). PMID:16328619

Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Abaidoo, R C; Ntow, W J

2005-11-15

421

Maternal mortality and related factors in Ejisu District, Ghana.  

PubMed

A community-based survey on maternal mortality was carried out in the Ejisu health district of Ghana in January and February 1990 to identify all women who died in pregnancy, delivery or the puerperium from January 1985 to December 1989, determine their characteristics, the presumptive causes of death and related factors. Forty-four women who died in pregnancy, delivery or the puerperium were identified over the stated period. 59% were aged between 20 and 34 years. Eighty-two percent were married and sixty-six percent had at least primary education. Based on an average crude birth rate of 40 per 1000 population for the district over the period, the lowest maternal mortality rate occurred in 1988, 120 per 100,000 total births and the highest occurred a year later, 235 per 100,000 total births. The main presumptive causes of maternal mortality in the district were postpartum haemorrhage 45.5%, jaundice in pregnancy 22.7%, obstructed labour 6.8%, eclampsia 6.8% and fever 4.6%. 59% of them died in a hospital, 2% died at a Government Maternity Home and 7% died during referral from health facilities in the district. Thirty-four percent of the women who died did not attend any antenatal clinic. The actual number of deaths may be underestimated due to the sampling method used and the difficulties encountered in linking survey data with hospital records. Based on the survey findings and other related PMM research, plans have been developed to reduce maternal mortality in the district as outline in the conclusion. PMID:7821246

Martey, J O; Djan, J O; Twum, S; Browne, E N; Opoku, S A

1994-10-01

422

Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

2010-01-01

423

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations.

Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

2012-01-01

424

Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

2013-07-01

425

Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, M.L.

1991-01-01

426

Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large, fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

Janssen, J.; Jude, D. J.; Edsall, T. A.; Paddock, R. W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

2006-01-01

427

Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path  

PubMed Central

Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system.

2010-01-01

428

Satellite view of Swim Lake and nearby lakes.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Satellite view of Swim Lake (upper right) and nearby lakes in Polk County, Florida, surrounded by citrus groves. Courtesy Florida State University, 2008; Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008....

2009-06-12

429

Hydrogeologic Controls on Lake Level at Mountain Lake, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain Lake in Giles County, Virginia has a documented history of severe natural lake-level changes involving groundwater seepage that extend over the past 4200 years. Featured in the 1986 movie Dirty Dancing, the natural lake dried up completely in September 2008 and levels have not yet recovered. A hydrogeologic investigation was undertaken in an effort to determine the factors influencing lake level changes. A daily water balance, dipole-dipole electrical resistivity surveying, well logging and chemical sampling have shed light on: 1) the influence of a fault not previously discussed in literature regarding the lake, 2) the seasonal response to precipitation of a forested first-order drainage system in fractured rock, and 3) the possibility of flow pathways related to karst features. Geologic controls on lake level were investigated using several techniques. Geophysical surveys using dipole-dipole resistivity located possible subsurface flowpaths both to and from the lake. Well logs, lineament analysis, and joint sampling were used to assess structural controls on lake hydrology. Major ions were sampled at wells, springs, streams, and the lake to evaluate possible mixing of different sources of water in the lake. Groundwater levels were monitored for correlation to lake levels, rainfall events, and possible seismic effects. The hydrology of the lake was quantified with a water balance on a daily time step. Results from the water balance indicate steady net drainage and significant recharge when vegetation is dormant, particularly during rain-on-snow melt events. The resistivity survey reveals discrete areas that represent flow pathways from the lake, as well as flowpaths to springs upgradient of the lake located in the vicinity of the fault. The survey also suggests that some flowpaths may originate outside of the topographic watershed of the lake. Chemical evidence indicates karst may underlie the lakebed. Historical data suggest that artificial intervention to mitigate seepage would be required for lake level recovery in the near future.

Roningen, J. M.; Burbey, T. J.

2011-12-01

430

Sensitivity of Lake-Enhanced Snowfall to Lake Ice Cover in the Great Lakes Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Lakes exert a significant influence on the regional climate of northern United States and southern Canada, including enhancement of cold-season precipitation on and downwind of the leeward shores. Lake-enhanced snowfall occurs when air that is significantly colder than the lake's surface temperature travels over the lake. Enhanced surface sensible and latent heat fluxes relative to the surrounding land surface result in moistening and destabilization of the atmosphere and subsequent development of low-level convection. In the Great Lakes region, lake-enhanced snow occurs during late fall through early winter, with decreasing numbers of events in the late winter due to the formation of widespread lake ice. Lake ice reduces both sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface, thereby increasing atmospheric stability and reducing lake induced convection. The degree to which ice coverage may change in future climate scenarios is largely unknown, but it is clear that any change to the fraction and duration of lake ice coverage will have an effect on lake-atmosphere interaction and the development and intensity of lake-enhanced precipitation. This study uses the NCAR Weather, Research, and Forecasting (WRF) model to examine how changes in Great Lakes fractional ice coverage affect the presence, intensity, and quantity of lake-enhanced precipitation. Sensitivity studies are used to evaluate the evolution and change in intensity of lake-enhanced snowfall in the Great Lakes region for scenarios that include (1) lake ice cover obtained from analysis fields (control simulation), (2) ice-free lakes, and (3) 100% ice coverage. Distinct lake-effect snow bands were observed in both the control and ice-free simulations, with placement of these bands further to the south and propagating further inland in the ice-free case. Melted precipitation totals increased on the order of 10 mm for ice-free lakes along the southern edges of Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and the eastern coast of Lake Ontario, while complete ice coverage extinguished nearly all lake-effect snow bands.

Wright, D. M.; Posselt, D. J.; Steiner, A. L.

2011-12-01

431

42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

432

Biogeochemical silica mass balances in Lake Michigan and Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica budgets for Lake Michigan and Lake Superior differ in several respects. Mass balance calculations for both lakes agree with previous studies in that permanent burial of biogenic silica in sediments may be only about 5% of the biogenic silica produced by diatoms. Because dissolution rates are large, good estimates of permanent burial of diatoms can not be obtained indirectly

Claire L. Schelske

1985-01-01

433

Socioeconomic Aspects of Lake Trout Rehabilitation in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and 1950s, the major fisheries for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Great Lakes declined precipitously because of predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus and overfishing. The need to control the sea lamprey and rehabilitate lake trout resulted in the establishment of institutional arrangements among the responsible state, provincial, and federal fishery agencies. The early arrangements were

Randy L. Eshenroder

1987-01-01

434

Phytoplankton periodicity in a subtropical lake (Lake Kinneret, Israel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake kinneret is a subtropical monomictic lake characterized by a Pyrrhophyta-Chlorophyta assemblage, supplemented by Cyanophyta in some years. Concerning their abundance and seasonal occurrence, the phytoplanktonic algae belong to two groups: algae appearing in quantity at a definite annual period and algae present throughout the year. Four stages of algal succession occur in the lake. There is a marked periodicity

Utsa Pollingher

1986-01-01

435

Swan Lake Restoration. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shallowness, siltation/sedimentation, low water levels, and dense algal blooms in Swan Lake, Iowa have dropped oxygen concentrations below levels that can support fish. The recommendations are: lake deepening (dredging), reduction of shallow areas, expans...

R. Bachmann B. Lohnes D. Bonneau

1982-01-01

436

Great Lakes Monthly Hydrologic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the monthly hydrologic data currently used by the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory in their hydrologic and water resource studies of the Great Lakes. The data consist of precipitation, runoff, evaporation, connecting ch...

F. H. Quinn R. N. Kelley

1983-01-01

437

Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an excursion lower in the core at about 40,000 yrs B.P. that he identifies as the Laschamp Excursion. The paths of VGPs for the Irminger Basin and the younger half of the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin are similar in that they are counterclockwise loops and nearly adjacent to each other, and quite different from the VGP path for the Laschamp Excursion.

Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

2007-05-01

438

Lake Nyos Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the Lake Nyos gas disaster, which killed an estimated 1700 people in August 1986, presented a paper on the potential for disastrous failure of the Lake Nyos dam to the AGU Fall Meeting. Part of what they said was subsequently reported in New Scientist (December 10, 1987, p. 18). They have placed on record their view that the dam is only 400 years old and are reported to have stated that it is eroding away at the alarming rate of 1.5 m/yr. If their figures are correct, then surely the dam will fail within a decade or two at the most, and there is indeed cause for alarm and immediate action. However, teams from Cameroon, France, Italy, Japan , Switzerland, Britain, Nigeria, and Germany also visited Lake Nyos in the immediate aftermath of the gas disaster, and none of their reports have suggested that the dam is in itself an imminent threat.

Freeth, S. J.

439

33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220...Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake...that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

2010-07-01

440

33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220...Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake...that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

2009-07-01

441

Living with the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The topics discussed include, grain size, langmuir circulation, longshore current, beach drift, river plumes, lake stratification, and waves. Lesson plans can be found on the following subjects: lake levels, sediments, stream flow, and water quality. Also included is a virtual flight along the Eastern Lake Michigan Shoreline which includes topo maps, 3D maps, and photos. A directory of related links is also available.

Videtich, Patricia

442

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

443

Living With the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The links provide materials on basic earth science concepts, a set of lesson plans on the lakes, and other Great Lakes topics. Concepts covered include Langmuir circulation, longshore current and beach drift, sediments, stream flow, seasonal stratification and water quality.

444

Exploring Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

While subglacial lakes have been suspected, and speculated about, for more than 50 years, recent analyses of historical and new data have shown that liquid water environments are common beneath the vast Antarctic Ice Sheet. Airborne radar surveys have now documented more than 145 subglacial lakes, the largest being Lake Vostok located 4 km beneath the vast East Antarctic Ice

J. C. Priscu; M. C. Kennicutt III; R. E. Bell; S. A. Bulat; J. C. Ellis-Evans; V. V. Lukin; J.-R. Petit; R. D. Powell; M. J. Siegert; I. Tabacco

2005-01-01

445

Great Lakes: Great Decisions (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the few remaining producers of lead additives must decide whether to continue producing them for use abroad. Banned in the United States, lead additives were still legal in developing nations. Ellie Shannon, the division manager overseeing bromine production for the Indiana-based Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (Great Lakes), must advise Great Lakes' directors on whether the company should 1)

R. Freeman; Andrew Wicks; Patricia Werhane; Jenny Mead

446

Ecological study of Ghodaghodi lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands comprise 5% of world's total land areas of Nepal. The present study Ghodaghodi Lake in the Far-West Nepal Terai manifested the physicochemical contamination in the lake. All the parameters were within the WHO guideline values except for Phosphate and Dissolved Oxygen. Water depth varies form 1-4 m. High phosphate level suggested that the lake is hypertrophic. Dissolved oxygen was

J. Diwakar; S Barjracharya; U. R. Yadav

2009-01-01

447

Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annual lake-volume model and a statistical water mass-balance model were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. Comparison of the models indicates upper exceedance levels of the water mass-balance model increase much more rapidly than those of the annual lake-volume model. For simulation year 5, the 99-percent exceedance is 1,417.6 feet above sea level for the annual lake-volume model and 1,423.2 feet above sea level for the water mass-balance model.

Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

1996-01-01

448

Viruses in Antarctic lakes.  

PubMed

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:11543124

Kepner, R L; Wharton, R A; Suttle, C A

1998-11-01

449

Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with federal, state, tribal, and local agencies and groups, this is a major gateway to information and data on Lake Tahoe and its basin. The primary goal of this clearinghouse is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin, and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Users have access to a wide range of data and GIS products. Examples include: high quality digital maps for the Lake Tahoe area (including Tahoe hydrography, roads, vegetation cover, forests, timber, soils), digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital elevation models. Some of the data resides on the USGS server at the Western Mapping Center, Menlo Park, California. The bulk of the data and information, located in databases maintained by the partnering agencies, is accessible via hypertext links.

Evans, Alexander

450

Lake Mead Shrinks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lake Mead reservoir is nestled between Arizona and Nevada and runs up to the Hoover Dam. The reservoir stores Colorado River water and supplies it to farms, homes and business in Southern Nevada, Arizona, southern California and northern Mexico. Scientists at NASA are releasing dramatic pictures of the dwindling water supplies in the drought-stricken western United States. According to the Bureau of Reclamation, the Colorado Basin is in its fourth year of drought and computer models project water levels will go down another 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6.1 m) by next year. Despite low water levels, The National Park Service says there is still plenty of water for recreation. The Landsat 7 satellite captured images of Lake Mead May 2000, and May 2003. The 2003 image clearly shows a shrinking lake.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2003-07-22

451

Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. Methods In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PD) were analysed. Results In peripheral blood, P. falciparum was observed in 19%, 34%, and 53% by microscopy, HRP2 test, and PCR, respectively. For placental samples, these figures were 35%, 41%, and 59%. Irrespective of diagnostic tool, P. falciparum infection increased the risk of anaemia. Positive peripheral blood results of microscopy and PCR were not associated with LBW or PD. In contrast, the HRP2 test performed well in identifying women at increased risk of poor pregnancy outcome, particularly in case of a negative peripheral blood film. Adjusting for age, parity, and antenatal visits, placental HRP2 was the only marker of infection associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.5 (95%CI, 1.0–2.2)) and, at borderline statistical significance, PD (aOR, 1.4 (1.0–2.1)) in addition to anaemia (aOR, 2.3 (1.7–3.2)). Likewise, HRP2 in peripheral blood of seemingly aparasitaemic women was associated with PD (aOR, 1.7 (1.0–2.7)) and anaemia (aOR, 2.1 (1.4–3.2)). Conclusion Peripheral blood film microscopy not only underestimates placental malaria. In this highly endemic setting, it also fails to identify malaria as a cause of foetal impairment. Sub-microscopic infections detected by a HRP2 test in seemingly aparasitaemic women increase the risks of anaemia and PD. These findings indicate that the burden of malaria in pregnancy may be even larger than thought and accentuate the need for effective anti-malarial interventions in pregnancy.

Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Bedu-Addo, George; von Gaertner, Christiane; Boye, Renate; Fricke, Katrin; Hannibal, Iris; Karakaya, Filiz; Schaller, Marieke; Ulmen, Ulrike; Acquah, Patrick A; Dietz, Ekkehart; Eggelte, Teunis A; Bienzle, Ulrich

2006-01-01

452

33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and...

2009-07-01

453

33 CFR 207.170c - Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Kissimmee River, navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation...navigation locks between Lake Tohopekaliga and Lake Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration, and...

2010-07-01

454

Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A

Gary H. Heinz; H. Franklin Percival; Michael L. Jennings

1991-01-01

455

Mechanism and control of lake eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review about lake naturally eutrophicating, the internal loading of nutrients from lake sediment as well as the mechanism\\u000a of algal blooms and the control practices was made, especially the eutrophication problem of shallow lakes since seventy percent\\u000a of fresh water lakes in China are shallow lakes. It was found that shallow lakes are apt toward eutrophication than deep lakes.

Boqiang Qin; Liuyan Yang; Feizhou Chen; Guangwei Zhu; Lu Zhang; Yiyu Chen

2006-01-01

456

Institutional aspects of lake management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major barriers to successful lake management are institutional. However, in contrast to the technical and limnological dimensions of lake management, the institutional aspects of managing lakes have received little attention. The institutional factors that are important for successful lake management outcomes are: overlapping areal jurisdiction among governmental units, fragmented functional program responsibilities, ineffective coordination, limited authority, financial constraints, private sector roles, and inadequate public awareness and consensus. The range of typical institutional problems confronting lake management are well illustrated through experiences from the state of Wisconsin, USA. Because lake management programs with institutional shortcomings rarely realize their goals, it is critical to assimilate, evaluate, and apply our experience to date with the institutional arrangements necessary to effectively manage lake resources.

Born, Stephen M.; Rumery, Carolyn

1989-01-01

457

33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162...162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a) Radio listening...

2010-07-01

458

33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162...162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a) Radio listening...

2009-07-01

459

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics...Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each...

2013-01-01

460

Placental malaria and the relationship to pregnancy outcome at Gushegu District Hospital, Northern Ghana.  

PubMed

One complication of malaria infection during pregnancy is the sequestration of parasites in the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine the association between placental malaria and pregnancy outcome. This study was conducted at the Gushegu District Hospital in Ghana from June to August 2010. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was used as intermittent preventative treatment (IPT) during pregnancy. All mothers reporting for delivery were enrolled, except in cases of multiple pregnancies. The data was documented using a questionnaire. A placental blood sample was collected and analysed for malaria parasites. There were 56/107(52%) malaria positive samples. In women with placental malaria perinatal mortality was higher, duration of pregnancy shorter and birth weight lower. These results were statistically significant. In primigravidae the negative effects were more obvious. IPT is extensively implemented in Ghana, but this study found no evidence for an association between the number of doses and the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:22431824

van Spronsen, Joanne H M; Schneider, Tom A J; Atasige, Stephen

2012-04-01

461

Does Where You Live Influence What You Know? Community Effects on Health Knowledge in Ghana  

PubMed Central

This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual’s education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person’s health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa.

Andrzejewski, Catherine S.; Reed, Holly E.; White, Michael J.

2008-01-01

462

What has faith got to do with it? Religion and child survival in Ghana.  

PubMed

Using pooled children data from the 1998 and 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examines religious differences in child survival in Ghana. Guided by the particularized theology and selectivity theses, a piecewise constant hazard model with gamma-shared frailty is used to explore if there are denominational differences in child mortality, and whether these could be explained through other characteristics. At the bivariate level, children whose mothers identified as Muslim and Traditional were found to have a significantly higher risk of death compared with their counterparts whose mothers identified as Christians. In the multivariate models, however, the religious differences disappeared after the mediating and confounding influence of socioeconomic factors were controlled. The findings provide support for the selectivity hypothesis, which is based on the notion that religious variations mainly reflect differential access to social and human capital rather than religious theology per se. PMID:17359561

Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

2007-03-15

463

Religion, HIV/AIDS and sexual risk-taking among men in Ghana.  

PubMed

Although a growing body of research has linked religious involvement with HIV/AIDS protective behaviour in Africa, the focus has mainly been on women. Given the patriarchal nature of African culture, this paper argues for the inclusion of men, a critical group whose sexual behaviours have increasingly been linked to the spread and sustenance of the virus in the region. Drawing on different theoretical discourses and using data from the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, this paper examines how religious affiliation influences men's risky sexual behaviours. While the results from the bivariate analysis suggested that Muslims and Traditionalists were significantly less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour compared with Christians, those differences disappeared once socioeconomic variables were controlled, rendering support for the selectivity thesis. This finding could benefit programmatic and policy formulation regarding AIDS prevention in Ghana. PMID:20211045

Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Takyi, Baffour K; Adjei, Jones; Fosu, Gabriel

2010-03-09

464

Relationship between land use and groundwater quality in six districts in the eastern region of Ghana.  

PubMed

The chemical quality of groundwater in six district of the eastern region beneath the different types of land use areas of Ghana was examined to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater. Analyses indicate that groundwater in the studied area is fresh and generally suitable for most uses. The groundwater is generally characterised by a chemical facies of Ca-HCO3-, Na-Cl and mixed Na-Ca-HCO3 types and is weakly mineralised. Anthropogenic disturbances have had and continue to have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem of Ghana. High concentration of Cl- and TDS were found in wells in high residential areas while the highest levels of Na, Ca, SO4(2-) and NO3- were found in agricultural and high density residential areas. About 50% of boreholes sampled have elevated level of NO3(-)-N emanating from agricultural runoff. PMID:18622711

Fianko, J R; Osae, S; Adomako, D; Achel, D G

2008-07-12

465

Does where you live influence what you know? Community effects on health knowledge in Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual's education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person's health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18603464

Andrzejewski, Catherine S; Reed, Holly E; White, Michael J

2008-05-23

466

Impacts of surface gold mining on land use systems in Western Ghana.  

PubMed

Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought. PMID:21848141

Schueler, Vivian; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Schröder, Hilmar

2011-07-01

467

Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method

E. G. Kordesch; L. E. Park

2001-01-01

468

Choking Lake Winnipeg  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake

J. M. Byrne; L. J. Little; K. A. Dodgson; R. J. MacDonald; J. Graham

2009-01-01

469

Great Minds? Great Lakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and…

Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

470

LAKE TAHOE VISIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Visibility monitoring and airborne particulate sampling in the Lake Tahoe Basin were used to document visual air quality levels and to assess the relative impacts of major contributing emission source categories. Visibility data were obtained by long path contrast and particle sc...

471

The lakes of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for

E. R. Stofan; C. Elachi; J. I. Lunine; R. D. Lorenz; B. Stiles; K. L. Mitchell; S. Ostro; L. Soderblom; C. Wood; H. Zebker; S. Wall; M. Janssen; R. Kirk; R. Lopes; F. Paganelli; J. Radebaugh; L. Wye; Y. Anderson; M. Allison; R. Boehmer; P. Callahan; P. Encrenaz; E. Flamini; G. Francescetti; Y. Gim; S. Hensley; W. T. K. Johnson; K. Kelleher; D. Muhleman; P. Paillou; G. Picardi; F. Posa; L. Roth; R. Seu; S. Shaffer; S. Vetrella

2007-01-01

472

Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

473

Pictures of Mono Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site briefly introduces the history and ecology of Mono Lake. It is comprised of 27 professional photographs, each offering a visual insight into the community's unusual landscape. All images are accompanied with a brief description. Downloads and wallpaper are available with a paid membership.

Luong, Quang-Tuan; Terra Galleria Photography, QTL@terragalleria.com

474

POLLUTION IN LAKES (OUTLINE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of two interconnected reservoirs and solutes flowing into them. We derive a system of dierential equation for the time- dependent concentrations of solutes in the two reservoirs. Then we apply our model to simulate concentration of pollutants in lakes Erie and Ontario. This project is based on a case study in the course's textbook (1) with

ROUBEN ROSTAMIAN

475

Lake Michigan: Nearshore Variability  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan at a 20 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The nearly 1200 km survey was conducted Sep 8-15, 2010. We also conducted six cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixed stat...

476

Predation of lake trout and lake whitefish embryos by crayfish: Implications of shifts in crayfish dominance in Lake Simcoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared predation rates of two Lake Simcoe crayfish, Orconectes virilis and Orconectes propinquus, on lake trout and lake whitefish eggs and alevins in laboratory experiments and assessed the potential impact of predation on egg survival in the lake. Experiments were conducted at 4 and 8°C on gravel and one or three layers of cobble substrate. Predation rates on lake

Kristine Mason; David O. Evans

2011-01-01

477

Comparative environmental analyses of paddy fields in two lake catchment areas: Lake Taihu, China and Lake Biwa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication in Taihu Lake has become a serious environmental problem. In this paper, environmental conditions in paddy fields in Taihu Lake's catchment area were compared with those in Lake Biwa's catchment area, which revealed issues on social development at different stages and raised questions over restoration of Taihu Lake from an environmental sociology perspective. Keywords-lake; eutrophication; paddy field; non-point source;

Yang Ping; Zhu Wei; Tan Xiao

2011-01-01

478

Activation analysis of some essential elements in five medicinal plants used in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied tomultielement determination of five medicinal plants which are used to curevarious diseases in Ghana. These are: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Aphrodisiacpowder, Blighia powder and Olax powder. Concentrations of fifteen elementsAl, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mn, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, V and Zn have beendetermined by short, medium,

E. K. Osae; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie

2001-01-01

479

E-Learning and E-Library Services at the University of Ghana: prospects and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the prospects and challenges of using an e-learning platform, Knowledge Environment for Web-based Learning, (KEWL) by the teaching staff of the Faculty of Social Studies, University of Ghana. It also highlights the need for interoperability of e-library services within the e-learning platform. Data collected through survey questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to examine faculty awareness and

Perpetua S. Dadzie

2009-01-01

480

Maternal Mortality Decline in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective In the absence of an adequate vital registration system in Ghana, the Navrongo demographic surveillance system (NDSS) established\\u000a in 1993 presents a viable alternative to monitor, in a poor rural district, the UN Millennium Development Goal on maternal\\u000a health (MDG) of reducing maternal mortality by 75% between 1990 and 2015. Methods Of the 518 women aged 12–49 years identified in

Samuel Mills; John E. Williams; George Wak; Abraham Hodgson

2008-01-01

481

Transient analysis of Ghana Research Reactor1 using PARET\\/ANL thermal–hydraulic code  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARET\\/ANL (Version 7.3 of 2007) thermal–hydraulic code was used to perform transient analysis of the Ghana Research Reactor-1. The reactivities inserted were 2.1mk, 4mk and 6.71mk. The results obtained are similar to experiment and theoretical studies performed to demonstrate that the reactor is safe to operate. The PARET\\/ANL (Version 7.3 of 2007) could not simulate the reactivities above 5mk insertions

E. Ampomah-Amoako; E. H. K. Akaho; S. Anim-Sampong; B. J. B. Nyarko

2009-01-01

482

Non-farm income, gender, and inequality: evidence from rural Ghana and Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how the distribution of earnings in rural Ghana and Uganda differs by income type and by gender. We find that non-farm earnings contribute to rising inequality, but that lower income groups also benefit due to strong overall growth in non-farm earnings. The inequality-inducing effect is driven by self-employment income; wage income, on the other hand, reduces inequality.

S. Canagarajah; C. Newman; R. Bhattamishra

2001-01-01

483

Influence of Religious Factors on Attitudes Towards Suicidal Behaviour in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this qualitative study was to understand how religion influences lay persons’ attitudes towards suicide in\\u000a Ghana. Twenty-seven adults from both rural and urban settings were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was\\u000a used to analyse the data. Results showed that the participants are committed to core and normative religious beliefs and practices\\u000a they perceived as life preserving. Such an

J. Osafo; B. L. Knizek; C. S. Akotia; H. Hjelmeland

484

Relationship between land use and groundwater quality in six districts in the eastern region of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical quality of groundwater in six district of the eastern region beneath the different types of land use areas of\\u000a Ghana was examined to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater. Analyses indicate that groundwater in the studied\\u000a area is fresh and generally suitable for most uses. The groundwater is generally characterised by a chemical facies of Ca-HCO3

J. R. Fianko; S. Osae; D. Adomako; D. G. Achel

2009-01-01

485

Decline of placental malaria in southern Ghana after the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has been adopted as policy by many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on the post-implementation effectiveness of this measure are scarce. METHODS: Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed among women delivering at a district hospital in rural southern Ghana in the year 2000 when pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis was recommended (n =

Lena Hommerich; Christa von Oertzen; George Bedu-Addo; Ville Holmberg; Patrick A Acquah; Teunis A Eggelte; Ulrich Bienzle; Frank P Mockenhaupt

2007-01-01

486

Nutrition, labour productivity and labour supply of men and women in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficiency?wage relation and a nutritional status production function are estimated in conjunction with Hausman?type preferences for food and leisure time. A non?linear FIML estimator is used to account for simultaneity. The estimates reveal that hourly earnings of men and women in Ghana are similar and respond positively to food consumption and, to a lesser extent, to nutritional status and

G. J. M. van den Boom; M. Nubé

1996-01-01

487

Teacher training in early childhood education: The case of Ghana, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher training in early childhood education in Ghana, West Africa is more of a grassroots effort rather than a formal system that is fully supported financially by the Ministry of Education. Formal teacher?training college or university?based early childhood teacher training has yet to be realized for the thousands of teachers of children 3–5 years old in government or government?supported primary

Johnetta Wade Morrison

2002-01-01

488

Potential of some Neotropical Albizia species as shade trees whenreplanting cacao in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana has embarked on studies to support the replanting of cacao (Theobroma cacao L) in areas, which previously carried the crop but are now degraded. A key component of the studies is to identify fast growing\\u000a tree species capable of ameliorating degraded soils and ultimately providing suitable shade for cacao. A screening trial involving\\u000a ten

G. J. Anim-Kwapong

2003-01-01

489

Prevalence and genotype of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women and blood donors in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was evaluated in blood donors and antenatal clinic attenders in Kumasi, Ghana and seropositive subjects were tested for hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall seroprevalence among Ghanaians was 2–8% but there was a significantly higher prevalence in males (4·6%) than in females (1·0%). No risk factor for

M. H. Wansbrough-Jonesl; E. Frimpong; B. Cant; K. Harris; M. R. W. Evans; C. G. Teo

1998-01-01

490

Equity and Democratic Education in Ghana: Towards a Pedagogy of Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines equity and democratic education in Ghana, focussing on the practice and pedagogy of [social] difference.\\u000a It is based on the findings of a longitudinal study in selected Ghanaian schools, colleges and universities, in which students,\\u000a educators, school administrators and policy officials in the local Ministry of education reflect on how their schools deal\\u000a with ethnic, gender, class,

George J. Sefa Dei; Riyad Shahjahan

491

Characterizing air pollution in two low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of urban population growth in the world, with a large number of urban residents living in low-income “slum” neighborhoods. We conducted a study for an initial assessment of the levels and spatial and\\/or temporal patterns of multiple pollutants in the ambient air in two low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. Over a 3-week period we

Raphael E. Arku; Jose Vallarino; Kathie L. Dionisio; Robert Willis; Hyunok Choi; J. Gaines Wilson; Christina Hemphill; Samuel Agyei-Mensah; John D. Spengler; Majid Ezzati

2008-01-01

492

Determinants of condom use to prevent HIV infection among youth in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify the psychosocial and behavioral factors that influence condom use to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among young men in Ghana.Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which data on a community-based sample of 601 young men, 15–24 years of age, were collected by a household survey instrument. For a conceptual framework, the

William K Adih; Cheryl S Alexander

1999-01-01

493

Lamb and Kid Mortality in Village Flocks in the Coastal Savanna Zone of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort study was designed to observe and follow up mortality in lambs and kids in 88 flocks of sheep and goats under the traditional production system in five villages within the coastal savanna zone of Ghana over a 2-year period. The overall mortality rates for kids and lambs were 30.8% and 33.5%, respectively. Significantly higher proportions of kids (80.2%)

P. K. Turkson

2003-01-01

494

LCA of the timber sector in Ghana: preliminary life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Most life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approaches in life cycle assessment (LCA) are developed for western countries. Their\\u000a LCIA approaches and characterization methodologies for different impact categories may not be necessarily relevant to African\\u000a environmental conditions and particularly not for the timber sector in Ghana. This study reviews the relevance of existing\\u000a impact categories and LCIA approaches, and uses the

John Frank Eshun; José Potting; Rik Leemans

2011-01-01

495

Improving nutrition and health through non-timber forest products in Ghana.  

PubMed

Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p < 0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana. PMID:21608423

Ahenkan, Albert; Boon, Emmanuel

2011-04-01

496

Factors Affecting Macrobenthic Fauna in a Tropical Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon in Ghana, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrobenthic fauna in the large, hypersaline, shallow Keta lagoon in Ghana was sampled at 20 stations in the wet (September\\u000a 2002) and dry seasons (March 2003) to elucidate the effects of abiotic factors on community patterns. The macrobenthic fauna\\u000a was low in density and species diversity and numerically dominated by bivalves and capitellid polychaetes. These organisms\\u000a appear able to

Emmanuel Lamptey; Ayaa Kojo Armah

2008-01-01

497

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu

Andrew A Adjei; Yao Tettey; John T Aviyase; Clement Adu-Gyamfi; Samuel Obed; Julius AA Mingle; Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi; Theophilus K Adiku

2009-01-01

498

The Cost-Effectiveness of Glaucoma Interventions in Barbados and Ghana  

PubMed Central

Purpose More than 90% of blindness worldwide exists in the developing world, but information on the social and economic burden and the cost-effectiveness of treatment in these settings is often limited or nonexistent. We demonstrate the use of computer modeling to simulate the current and future epidemiology, outcomes, and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma in high-incidence developing world populations. Methods A previously validated vision model was modified to simulate the incidence progression and social and economic outcomes of glaucoma in Barbados, which was the source of epidemiology data; and Ghana, which has similar propensity for glaucoma but lower socioeconomic development. We then assessed the cost-effectiveness of hypothetical case-finding and treatment scenarios, including U.S. guideline-level care and one-time laser surgery. Results Barbados incurs relatively greater social and economic burden from glaucoma than Ghana. In Barbados, population screening followed by U.S. guideline levels of care appears to be highly cost-effective. Due to a younger population with higher mortality at younger ages, glaucoma appears to cause less visual impairment and blindness in Ghana than in Barbados, resulting in lower per capita disability and productivity losses. Population screening or guideline-level treatment scenarios were generally not cost-effective in Ghana, but treating self-referring patients with a hypothetical one-time laser surgery was highly cost-effective relative to WHO willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusions The social and economic burden of glaucoma is higher in more developed nations due to increased life expectancy, an older population age profile, and higher per capita gross domestic product. Likewise, lower mortality rates and higher per capita gross domestic product increase the relative cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment interventions intended to mitigate glaucoma burden.

Wittenborn, John S.; Rein, David B.

2013-01-01

499

Rhodophyta Seaweed Species as Bioindicators for Monitoring Toxic Element Pollutants in the Marine Ecosystem of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six seaweed species of the Rhodophyta family were sampled for atwo-year period from June 1996 to August 1998 along the Atlanticcoast of Ghana (part of the Atlantic Ocean). The species wereanalysed to determine the levels of eleven chemicalelements namely: Al, As, Br, Cd, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Hg, V and Zn byInstrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Al, Br, Ni, andZn

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. K. Osae; D. Carboo; S. Anim-Sampong; F. Seku

2001-01-01

500

Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and

R. K. Amankwah; C. Anim-Sackey

2003-01-01