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A study has been made on changes which have occurred in the fish fauna as a result of the formation of the VoltaLake in Ghana. The data on the relative abundance of fish in the Lake were compared with those obtained from fish landings on the Black Volta and from the Niger river survey, as no observations of fish
As analysed from fish landings for different parts of the VoltaLake, mormyrids have not established themselves in the new lacustrine environment during the first two years after the formation of the Lake. While they form a substantial part of the fish catches in the Black Volta, especially during the dry season, in the Lake they occur regularly in low
In this study, pH, total organic carbon, sulphate concentration and mercury concentrations of sediment samples from the VoltaLake at Yeji in the northern part of Ghana were determined. The results indicate that pH ranged from 6.32 to 8.21, total organic carbon ranged from 0.17 to 3.02 g/kg and sulphate concentration from 10.00 to 57.51 mg/kg. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 32.61 to 700 ng/g which is below the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended value of 810 ng/g. Humic substance-bound mercury ranged from 81.15 to 481.31 mg/kg in sediments and its two fractions existed as humic acid-bound mercury > fulvic acid-bound mercury with the ratio of humic substance-bound mercury to fulvic acid-bound mercury as 1.62 on the average. Humic substance-bound mercury and the two fractions fulvic acid-bound mercury and humic substance-bound mercury in sediments were favorably determined and found to correlate significantly positive with total organic carbon (r = 0.538) and total mercury (r = 0.574). However, there were poor correlations between SO(4) (2-) concentrations and humic substance-bound mercury (r = -0.391) as well as the two fractions; fulvic acid (r = -0.406) and humic acid (r = -0.381). By assuming that methyl mercury is mostly formed in sediments, these significant relations suggest that the efficiency of mercury being methylated from a given inorganic form depends on the amount, and most likely biochemical composition of total organic carbon in the lake sediment but not the SO(4) (2-) concentration. PMID:22258497
Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A; Ephraim, J H; Nriagu, J O
Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…
This study was designed to generate information on the microbiological quality of the clam, Galatea paradoxa harvested from the Volta estuary in Ghana. Total Viable Counts (TVC) for heterotrophic bacteria, Total coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) as indicators of faecal contamination, were evaluated in the rainy season (June - August) and in the dry season (January - February). G.
Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern\\u000a section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation\\u000a of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series\\u000a that
Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Sandow Mark Yidana; Emmanuel Nti
The classification of a Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite image helped demonstrate prevailing habitat types and land use intensity in the Volta basin of the Northern Region of Ghana. A geo-referenced data layer comprising the capture results of a cross-sectional survey of Glossina tachinoides Westwood was over-laid on a data layer of habitat types within 500 m of either bank of the Volta river and its tributaries. An evaluation of the relationship between habitat types and the capture results of G. tachinoides suggested a strong preference of G. tachinoides for woodland, followed by shrubland, grassland and flood plains. The findings were used to classify the suitability of habitat types for G. tachinoides as 'high', 'medium' and 'low' and a prediction map for the distribution of G. tachinoides in the entire river network was produced. The usefulness of this method in estimating the potential distribution of G. tachinoides in an area of increasing agricultural expansion is discussed. PMID:15705216
Mahama, C I; Koné, A; de la Rocque, S; De Deken, R; Geerts, S
The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of LakeVolta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two countries concerning shared water resources can take place.
Sustainable livelihood in the semiarid White Volta Basin in Northern Ghana is dependent on the availability and sustainable development and management of water resources for agricultural activities. Currently, almost all agricultural activities are rain-fed and thus depend on the frequency, spatial, and temporal distribution of rainfall. Recent erratic patterns in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in the basin—largely consistent with the effects of a warming climate—have led to dwindling fortunes in the rain-fed agricultural enterprise. On the other hand, surface water bodies in the forms of rivers and streams are ephemeral and therefore do not serve the immediate irrigation needs of the populations especially in the dry seasons. The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources to support local irrigation schemes in the basin has been suggested as a possible buffer against the effects of dwindling rainfall on agriculture in the basin and has the potential of raising the standard of living of the communities dwelling there. Conjunctive surface water/groundwater use involves the balanced application of both groundwater and surface water resources for maximal socio-economic benefit whilst ensuring ecological integrity. However, a detailed assessment of the potentials of the aquifers for commercial development has been constrained by the limited or no understanding of the surface water-groundwater interactions in the basin within the context of climate change/evolving patterns of climate variability and human activities. Here, we present preliminary results from simulations of coupled surface water and groundwater availability and flow over the Volta Basin using an integrated hydrological model.
Rittinger, S. T.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alfa, B.
The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.
A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.
The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.
Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.
The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. PMID:22208085
Quarcoopome, Theodore; Amevenku, Francis; Ofori-Danson, Patrick
We have dated 1060 detrital zircon grains from the Neoproterozoic to lower Palaeozoic Volta basin, Ghana, and from sandstones in the adjoining thrust sheets belonging to the Pan-African Dahomeyide belt. All dated zircons in the lower Voltaian Bombouaka Group are older than ~ 1000 Ma, while samples from the middle Voltaian Oti Group and the upper Voltaian Obosum Group contain numerous zircons of 600-1000 Ma. The samples we have studied from the Dahomeyide thrust sheets (Buem and Togo structural units) have zircon age spectra similar to those from the Bombouaka Group, confirming a correlation of the investigated sandstones with lower Voltaian strata. The Bombouaka Group was deposited between ~ 1000 and 600 Ma, perhaps shortly after 1000 Ma, as suggested by earlier Rb-Sr data on clay minerals. Deposition of the Oti and Obosum Groups took place shortly after 600 Ma, perhaps continuing into the lower Palaeozoic. Most samples contain Palaeoproterozoic zircons with ages of 2000-2200 Ma that probably have been derived from the surrounding crystalline (Birimian) basement. Archaean zircons, present in smaller proportions, may have come from Archaean rocks in the West-African craton. Most zircons of 1000-1900 Ma were probably derived from sources outside the West-African craton, the Amazonian craton being a plausible source region. Zircons with ages around 1200 Ma are believed to have been derived from Grenvillian orogenic belts, perhaps those that fringe the Amazonian craton. If this is so, no major seaways could have been present between these belts and the West-African craton during the early Neoproterozoic. Zircons younger than 1000 Ma were probably derived from an eastern continental block that collided with the West-African craton during the Pan-African orogeny ~ 600 Ma ago.
Effective development and informed management of groundwater resources represent a critical opportunity for improved rural water supply in Ghana and enhanced livelihoods particularly in the northern part of the White Volta Basin, a region already prone to a myriad of water-related infirmities. If adequately developed, the resource will form a sufficient buffer against the effects of climate change/variability and foster food security and sustainable livelihoods among the largely peasant communities in the region. This research presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological conditions and recharge regimes of the aquifers in the Northern parts of the White Volta Basin, Ghana. Results of estimates of groundwater recharge through the conventional isotopic and mass balance techniques are presented. Details of the groundwater flow pattern and preliminary delineation of local and regional groundwater recharge areas are presented from initial simulations of the hydrogeological system with a robust groundwater flow simulation code, MODFLOW, in the Groundwater Modeling System, GMS, version 7.1. The stream flow and evapotranspiration components of the program were activated to incorporate surface flow processes, so that the resulting model represents the conditions of the entire hydrological system. The results of this study form a platform for detailed numerical assessment of the conditions of the aquifers in the area under transient conditions of fluctuating rainfall patterns in the face of climate change/variability.
The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West African savanna. The river feeds LakeVolta, that provides over 95% of the electricity in Ghana and has the largest surface of any man-made lake in the world. The rural population (per capita income US600/year) increasingly turns to small scale irrigation development to improve the returns on their agricultural activities and reduce dependence on the highly variable rainfall. The irrigation development stands in direct competition with the hydropower generation that drives development in the more urbanized South. The GLOWA Volta Projects seeks to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of water resources in the basin under changing global and regional conditions. The DSS is built upon a scientific analysis of all factors that affect water supply and demand. To understand all aspects of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin one needs to take physical (atmosphere, land, water) as well as social aspects (population, economic development, institutions) into account. The major scientific challenge of the GLOWA Volta Project is the integrated analysis of the bio- physical and socio-economic factors that affect the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin. The presentation introduces the GLOWA Volta Project, focusing on activities that integrate different disciplines. Specifically, we present three sets of activities: (1) the coupling between meteorology and hydrology, (2) development of a Common Sampling Frame for the collection of socio-economic and bio-physical data, and (3) a water use optimization model that incorporates economy, hydrology, and institutional analysis. Finally, we look at recent initiatives in the basin that link science, stakeholders, and policy makers.
van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Berger, T.; Iskandarani, M.; Kunstmann, H.; Park, S.; Vlek, P.
We report magnetic hysteresis results from sediment cores obtained from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana. As a hydrologically closed basin, the water budget of Lake Bosumtwi is extremely sensitive to changes in the precipitation\\/evapotranspiration balance. Lake Bosumtwi lies in the path of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ); hence, the lake is ideally situated to study monsoon variability in
John A. Peck; Ryan R. Green; Tim Shanahan; John W. King; Jonathan T. Overpeck; Christopher A. Scholz
Some organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia fish (Tilapiazilli), sediment and water samples from Lake Bosomtwi (the largest natural lake in Ghana) were determined to find out the extent of pesticide contamination and accumulation in the lake. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector. DDE (p,p?-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene) was the predominant residue in all the
Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.
In the Gorge region of the Man-made VoltaLake in Ghana the submerged weed Ceratophyllum and the floating Pistia were collected with their associated macroscopic invertebrates between February and November 1965. These collections were studied in order to determine the difference in animal population in both plants and their changes over the year during which they experience a tropical climate
In the Volta River Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. The Volta basin drains an area of approx. 400 000 km² of the subhumid to semiarid West-African savannah zone and is shared by six riparian countries. The region is characterized by erratic rainfall patterns, and domestic and agricultural water users in the upper regions of the Basin complete with hydropower generation in the south for increasingly scarce water resources. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small, medium and large reservoirs on the water level of LakeVolta. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the coupled climate-hydrological model (MM5/WaSiM) serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN). MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. Furthermore it is possible to up set up climate scenario time series scenarios for an assessment of the consequences of extreme climate conditions. Within a case study analysis the impact of small and medium scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin has been evaluated under different climatic conditions. For the evaluation of the impact of large reservoir development in particular the impact of Bui dam, which is under construction on the Black Volta River in Ghana, on the water level of LakeVolta has been simulated with the VB-WAS model. The VB-WAS model allows a quantified impact assessment of small, medium and large scale reservoir development within the Volta basin and can be used as an objective communication basis for water management issues.
Lake Bosumtwi is one of the most widely studied palaeoclimate archives in West Africa. Results from numerous AMS 14C dates of samples from four piston cores from Lake Bosumtwi show that an abrupt sedimentary transition from a mid-Holocene sapropel to calcareous laminated muds occurred at about 3200 cal yr B.P. High-resolution analyses of the nitrogen isotopic composition of organic matter
Some organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia fish (Tilapiazilli), sediment and water samples from Lake Bosomtwi (the largest natural lake in Ghana) were determined to find out the extent of pesticide contamination and accumulation in the lake. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector. DDE (p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene) was the predominant residue in all the samples analyzed; detected in 82% of water samples, 98% of sediment samples and 58% of fish samples at concentrations of 0.061+/-0.03 ng g(-1), 8.342+/-2.96 ng g(-1) and 5.232+/-1.30 ng g(-1), respectively. DDT (p,p'-1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) was detected in 78% at a mean concentration 0.012+/-0.62 ng g(-1) of water samples analyzed. The mean concentrations of DDT in sediments and fish were 4.41+/-1.54 ng g(-1) and 3.645+/-1.81 ng g(-1), respectively. The detection of lower levels of DDT than its metabolite, DDE, in the samples implies that the presence of these contaminants in the lake is as result of past usage of the pesticides. PMID:18397799
In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of LakeVolta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH) serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN). MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of LakeVolta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.
People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the
Lineu Rodrigues; Aidan Senzanje; Philippe Cecchi; Jens Liebe
Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…
The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast. This is inconsistent with a simple southward shift in the mean position of the monsoon rainbelt, and requires changes in moisture convergence as a result of either a reduction in the moisture content of the tropical rainbelt, decreased convection, or both.
Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W., Jr.; King, John
Methanococcus voltae is a heterotrophic, H2-oxidizing methanogenic bacterium. In complex medium, this bacterium has a doubling time of 1.2 h at its temperature optimum of 38 degrees C. In defined medium, optimal growth is obtained with 0.75 mM isoleucine, 0.75 mM leucine, 2.5 mM acetate, 5 mM NH4Cl, 84 mM MgSO4, 0.4 M NaCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 10 microM Fe2O3, and 0.2 microM NiCl2. In addition, pantothenate, sodium selenate, and cobalt stimulate growth. Optimal growth is obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0 with either H2 or formate as the electron donor. The volatile fatty acids 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate can substitute for isoleucine and leucine, respectively. Cellular carbon is derived from acetate (31%), isoleucine (22%), leucine (25%), and carbon dioxide (23%). The amino acids and fatty acids are incorporated almost exclusively into protein. A comparison of the incorporation of U-14C-amino acids and 1-14C-fatty acids indicated that the fatty acids are degraded during incorporation into cell protein. The distribution of carbon from the amino acids suggests that acetyl coenzyme A is not a major intermediate in the degradation of these compounds. Thus, M. voltae may convert isoleucine and leucine to other amino acids by a unique mechanism. The lipid carbon is derived largely from acetate. Thus, the isoprenoid lipids are synthesized de novo from acetate rather than by degradation of leucine. The carbon in the nucleic acids is derived from carbon dioxide (45%), the C-1 of acetate (25%), the C-2 of acetate (22%), and isoleucine and leucine (7%). This labeling pattern is consistent with known biochemical pathways.
The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…
In Ghana, a dust-laden Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara from November to March. Some of the dust is trapped in the vegetation, in the lakes and other inland waters, while the rest is blown further away into the Ivory Coast or into the Atlantic Ocean. Several methods have been used to trap the Harmattan dust, mainly bowls with or
This study was carried out over a 7-month period at two active clam fishing locations, Ada and Aveglo at the Volta estuary\\u000a in Ghana, to assess the levels of some heavy metals: Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in whole soft tissue of Galatea paradoxa and their suitability for human consumption. The clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) is a commercially important
Ghana, Togo, Dahomey, Nigeria in Africa as seen from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission. Lome, Cot nue, Popta Novo, the Gulf of Guinea, Keta Lagoon, Lake Aheme and Lake Mokous can be seen in the frame.
Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 x 10(-5) (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10(-3) (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.
Inguinal hernia repair and Caesarian section are the two most commonly occurring operations in Africa. Trained surgeons are few, distances between hospitals are large and strangulated hernia is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction. Numerous deaths and cases of permanent disability occur because patients with inguinal hernias requiring elective or urgent surgery are not properly cared for, or they do not actually reach hospital. Operation Hernia was a humanitarian mission between the European Hernia Society and the Plymouth-Takoradi (Ghana) Link conceived specifically to treat and teach groin hernia surgery in the Western region of Ghana. PMID:16912846
Kingsnorth, A N; Oppong, C; Akoh, J; Stephenson, B; Simmermacher, R
A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…
Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B/sub 12/ were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were sued to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per ..mu..g of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.
Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.
Although many soil/water-landscape studies have been published in the last two decades, progress in developing operational tools for supporting landscape planning to minimize land and water degradation in developing regions is still modest. Some of the existing tools are very data demanding and/or too complicated to be useful to data scarce regions. A research group at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn has developed a LAndscape Management and Planning Tool (LAMPT) to facilitate land management decision making and landscape planning by optimization. Firstly, we used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a Distributed Sediment Delivery Model (DSDM) in a GIS environment to estimate the spatial distribution of areas experiencing different levels of soil loss in the White Volta basin. The RUSLE is employed to map the spatial patterns of major sediment source areas based on data calibrated for the study region. As RUSLE only estimates the potential gross erosion of each grid cell, a DSDM is used to estimate the sediment delivery efficiency of each cell using flow distance and velocity along the flow path. The combined models allow a classification of sub-watersheds experiencing different levels of soil loss using a soil tolerance threshold suitable for the study areas (Burkina Faso and Ghana). The result shows that the majority of areas around north-eastern and eastern parts of the White Volta basin (mainly south-eastern Burkina Faso and upper east region of Ghana) are associated with high levels of sediment yield (over 15 t ha-1 yr-1). The main reason could be high population pressure, poor surface cover and relatively high slope of some of the areas in Ghana. On the other hand, the north-western and southern parts of the basin experience low levels of sediment yield (less than 5 t ha-1 yr-1) mainly due to their flat terrain and good surface cover that encourage sediment deposition rather than erosion. We revealed that a GIS-based soil erosion and sediment delivery model can successfully be used for identifying and prioritizing critical sub-watersheds for management purposes. Such a tool can be of significance in developing areas where problems are severe but resources are scarce. Next, we implemented the RUSLE-DSDM model into NetLogo, an agent-based programming platform, producing a LAMPT's prototype. The operational model was designed in such a way that fast and robust sensitivity analyses can be performed, after users are allowed to (i) select and set different physical parameters, and (ii) choose different sets of land-use management and planning options. The physical parameters choice meets the scientific needs of landscape modelers in their exploration of adequate values of the many parameters in soil/sedimentation models that are often not well-calibrated in developing regions. The latter is expected to meet the needs of practitioners in catchment management and planning. As the tool allows front-end users to handle the selection of management/planning options, and provide a fast and responsive outputs (in terms of both maps and graphs), LAMPT can assist in effective multi-stakeholder negotiations over land-use planning where the minimization the degradation of land/water resources is the ultimate goal. The LAMPT model can be easily coupled with LUDAS, an agent-based land-use change model using the same platform, to comprehensively simulate environment-community loops. During the further development of LAMPT, the research team intends to follow a participatory approach to enhance the relevance of the tool to local community needs. To plausibly calibrate LAMPT at the catchment/community levels in the data scarce environment of West Africa, additional long-term research catchments are essential.
Vlek, Lulseged Tamene, Quang Bao Le, Jens Liebe, Paul L. G.
The ultrastructure and chemical composition of the cell wall of the marine archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae were studied by negative-staining and freeze-etch electron microscopy and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. M. voltae possesses a single regularly structured (RS) protein layer external to the plasma membrane. Freeze-etch preparations of cells indicated that the protein subunits are hexagonally arranged with a center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 nm. The extracted RS protein had a molecular weight of 76,000. It was present on envelopes prepared by shearing in a French press, osmotic lysis, or sonication, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. NaCl was not required for attachment of the RS protein to the underlying plasma membrane. The hexagonal array could be demonstrated by platinum shadowing and freeze-etching of envelopes, but negative staining in the abscence of NaCl failed to stabilize the array. The RS protein could be solubilized by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, dithiothreitol, and several detergents, including Nonidet P-40, Triton X-100, and Tween 20. However, the most specific release of the wall protein from envelopes occurred after a heat treatment in HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer at 50 to 60 degrees C. Images
The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow
Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.
A method for direct dc measurement of the Volta potential is presented. High intensity synchrotron x-ray beams were used to locally irradiate the atmosphere adjacent to the metal surface and produce a conducting path between a sample and a reference probe. The direct measurements of potential in the ionized air could be made at probe heights of around 1 mm compared to less than 0.1 mm for the Kelvin probe. The measurements were similar to traditional Kelvin probe measurements, but had a poorer spatial resolution. In contrast to the Kelvin probe methods, the approach described allows observation of the current as a function of impressed voltage. Methods to improve the special resolution of the technique and applications to corrosion under coating will be presented.
ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.; AND ENERGY SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT; JEFFCOATE, C.S.
The upper Niger and Volta rivers exhibit a great and highly contrasting variability of inter-annual runoff. The Bani River, the largest tributary to the Niger River in Mali, shows a dramatic decrease in runoff after the 1970s, with the result that many boreholes in the region have dried up since the drought began. In contrast, the Nakambe River (Upper Volta
Background Mothers are encouraged to practice exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a child’s life. The general objective of the study was to assess the predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Ghana. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The study sample (n = 316) was based on infants (0–5 months old) during the survey period; extracted from the individual (women) data set. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between selected independent variables. Results In general, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 64 percent. Marital status, region and place of delivery were found to be associated with the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. The logistic regression model illustrated mothers from the Volta Region, those who delivered in a government health facility, and mothers who perceived their infants to be average in size were more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Appropriate health education programmes by the Ministry of Health targeting mothers who are less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding are recommended.
Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity
Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.
The disastrous state of Ghanaian finances immediately before and after the coup against Nkrumah has had the effect of virtually eliminating community development and health services, particularly in non-urban areas of Ghana. It is hoped that new regional and district structure and improved staff morale can now bring about more effective programs.…
Long-term historical records of rainfall (P), runoff (Q) and other climatic factors were used to investigate hydrological variability and trends in the Volta River Basin over the period 1901 2002. Potential (Ep) and actual evaporation (E), rainfall variability index (delta), Budyko's aridity index (IA), evaporation ratio (CE) and runoff ratio (CQ) were estimated from the available hydroclimatological records. Mann-Kendall trend
Philip G. Oguntunde; Jan Friesen; Nick van de Giesen; Hubert H. G. Savenije
The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power...
The first version of a decision-support tool (DST) for the management of the transboundary water resource of the Volta Basin is presented in this article. The DST coupled a hydrologic model with the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) water?allocation model. It was calibrated and validated by reproducing observed river flows and water stored in the hydropower reservoirs, respectively. It considered
Devaraj de Condappa; Anne Chaponnière; Jacques Lemoalle
Soil moisture is the key variable in the hydrological cycle. In the Volta Basin, West Africa, where rainfed agriculture forms the main source of income for the majority of the population; productivity relies on available soil moisture or \\
JAN FRIESEN; HESSEL C. WINSEMIUS; ROB BECK; KLAUS SCIPAL; WOLFGANG WAGNER; NICK VAN DE GIESEN
A herpetofaunal survey of Muni-Pomadze Lagoon, during the main rainy season (May–June), recorded a total of 32 species (13 amphibians and 19 reptiles). Three species are the first records for coastal habitats in Ghana: Kinixys homeana, Calabaria reinhardti, and Bothrophthalmus lineatus. None of the surveyed species are restricted to Ghana. The most diverse herpetofaunal community occurs in grassland thicket, with
This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…
Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.
A cosmid bank of Methanococcus voltae DNA was obtained in Escherichia coli after ligation of partially HindIII-digested M. voltae DNA in the HindIII site of the transferable cosmid pVK100. The bank was used to perform complementation experiments with E. coli auxotrophic mutants. Five cosmids complementing trpA shared three adjacent HindIII fragments of 2.1, 2.3 and 14 kb. Two of these
Seventy cocoyam accessions collected from the eastern and Volta regions of Ghana were studied using RAPD technique. Ten primers were used to study the genetic diversity and structure of the experimental material and a total of 120 different bands were detected. Levels of polymorphic fragments detected by the ten primers ranged from 69.2% to 100%. In the accessions from the eastern region, the mean observed and effective number of alleles per individual per population and mean Nei's gene diversity were 1.99+/-0.01, 1.53+/-0.12 and 0.312+/-0.05, respectively. Mean observed and effective number of alleles per individual per population and Nei's gene diversity were 1.76+/-0.17, 1.44+/-0.16 and 0.264+/-0.08, respectively for the accessions from the Volta region. Considering the entire collections, the mean observed and effective number of alleles per individual per population and Nei's gene diversity for primers were 1.99+/-0.02, 1.54+/-0.12 and 0.319+/-0.05, respectively. In terms of Nei's F-statistics in the subdivided populations for all primers, the overall gene diversity (Ht) ranged from 0.230 to 0.396 with a mean of 0.313+0.06, within sample gene diversity (Hs) ranged from 0.214 to 0.372 with a mean of 0.286+0.06, gene differentiation (Gst) ranged between 0.005 and 0.178 with a mean of 0.086. Geneflow estimate ranged between 2.309 and 99.500 with a mean of 5.314. The accessions grouped into three main clusters. Accession BD96/183 was the most diverse and may be incorporated into cocoyam breeding programs. The 70 accessions did not cluster into their distinct geographical regions suggesting that there may have been movement of germplasm across the two regions. PMID:15061789
Long-term historical records of rainfall (P), runoff (Q) and other climatic factors were used to investigate hydrological variability and trends in the Volta River Basin over the period 1901–2002. Potential (Ep) and actual evaporation (E), rainfall variability index (?), Budyko’s aridity index (IA), evaporation ratio (CE) and runoff ratio (CQ) were estimated from the available hydroclimatological records. Mann-Kendall trend analysis
Philip G. Oguntunde; Jan Friesen; Nick van de Giesen; Hubert H. G. Savenije
The Volta region is a climate-sensitive semiarid to subhumid region in West Africa. To investigate the impact of expected global climate change on regional water availability, regional climate modeling was performed. Two time slices (1991-2000 and 2030-2039) of the ECHAM4 scenario IS92a were dynamically downscaled with MM5 to a spatial resolution of 9 km. The quality of MM5 simulations in
The observed water productivity (WP, kilograms of crop per cubic metre of rain) of cereals is very low in the Volta Basin: mean WP barely reaches 0.15 kg\\/m for maize (±0.05), with a mean yield of 1.25 t\\/ha (±0.58). We sought to explain these observations by using simulation modelling to develop a frequency analysis along a 9° transect on the
Isabelle Terrasson; Myles J. Fisher; Winston Andah; Jacques Lemoalle
The Volta region is a climate-sensitive semiarid to subhumid region in West Africa. To investigate the impact of expected global climate change on regional water availability, regional climate modeling was performed. Two time slices (1991–2000 and 2030–2039) of the ECHAM4 scenario IS92a were dynamically downscaled with MM5 to a spatial resolution of 9 km. The quality of MM5 simulations in
A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and a water pump was installed in the remote West African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta. Village characteristics as well as system design, hardware, installation and operation to date are described. The PV system cost is discussed. A baseline socio-economic study performed and a follow-up study is planned to determine the impact of the system on the villagers.
Small amounts of a 23-kilobase covalently closed circular DNA molecule were isolated from unwashed cells of Methanococcus voltae A3. Further investigation indicated the presence of greater quantities of the circular DNA in the culture supernatant, complexed with protein in a manner rendering the DNA resistant to DNase. Electron-microscopic examination of supernatant material revealed the presence of particles which morphologically resemble virus. Phenol extraction of viruslike particle preparations resulted in the recovery of DNase-sensitive open-circular DNA molecules. As many as 30 viruslike particles per cell were recovered from some cultures. Hybridization data clearly indicated the presence of a chromosomally integrated copy of the viruslike particle DNA. Although M. voltae PS was not observed to produce viruslike particles, DNA homologous to the viruslike particle DNA was detected in its chromosome. A mutant of M. voltae A3 was isolated which produced no particles; its DNA was deleted for 80% of the integrated viruslike particle DNA. Despite any similarities to lysogenic bacteriophages of eubacteria, neither infectivity nor inducibility of the viruslike particles could be demonstrated. Images
Background Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental change (e.g. deforestation), with potential disease consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in southern Ghana and report changes observed with reference to historical data collated from 1971 to 2005 and new identifications made between 2006 and 2011. Methods/Results Larvae were collected from riverine breeding sites, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and chromosome preparations made. Cytotaxonomic identifications from 1,232 samples (including 49 new samples) were analysed. We report long-term stability in cytospecies distribution in the rivers Afram, Akrum, Pawnpawn and Pru. For the rivers Oda, Ofin and Tano we describe (for the first time) patterns of distribution. We could not detect cytospecies composition changes in the upper Pra, and the lower Pra seems to have been stable. The elimination of the Djodji form of S.?sanctipauli in the Volta Region seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S.?yahense. There has been a recent increase in the occurrence of savannah cytospecies in the river Asukawkaw, and this might be related to continuing deforestation. Conclusions Cytospecies’ distributions have not been stable from 1971 to 2011. Although there are no obvious causes for the temporary appearance and subsequent disappearance of cytospecies in a particular location, a major influence has been vector control and migration patterns, probably explaining observed changes on the Black Volta and lower Volta rivers. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savannah cytospecies in southern Ghana (1975–1997). Our data had little power to support (or refute) suggestions of a continuing increase, except in the Asukawkaw river basin.
We provide experimental support for the proposal that ATP production in Methanococcus voltae, a methanogenic member of the archaea, is based on an energetic system in which sodium ions, not protons, are the coupling ions. We show that when grown at a pH of 6.0, 7.1, or 8.2, M. voltae cells maintain a membrane potential of approximately -150 mV. The cells maintain a transmembrane pH gradient (pH(in) - pH(out)) of -0.1, -0.2, and -0.2, respectively, values not favorable to the inward movement of protons. The cells maintain a transmembrane sodium concentration gradient (sodium(out)/sodium(in)) of 1.2, 3.4, and 11.6, respectively. While the protonophore 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide inhibits ATP formation in cells grown at pH 6.5, neither ATP formation nor growth is inhibited in cells grown in medium at pH 8.2. We show that when grown at pH 8.2, cells synthesize ATP in the absence of a favorably oriented proton motive force. Whether grown at pH 6.5 or pH 8.2, M. voltae extrudes Na+ via a primary pump whose activity does not depend on a proton motive force. The addition of protons to the cells leads to a harmaline-sensitive efflux of Na+ and vice versa, indicating the presence of Na+/H+ antiporter activity and, thus, a second mechanism for the translocation of Na+ across the cell membrane. M. voltae contains a membrane component that is immunologically related to the H(+)-translocating ATP synthase of the archaeabacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Since we demonstrated that ATP production can be driven by an artificially imposed membrane potential only in the presence of sodium ions, we propose that ATP production in M. voltae is mediated by an Na+-translocating ATP synthase whose function is coupled to a sodium motive force that is generated through a primary Na+ pump. Images
Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking.
Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter
The report describes the results of a brief field investigation by the writers during April and May 1974 to evaluate application of ERTS imagery to range and water management problems in Mali, Upper Volta, and Niger. The report concludes that the imagery ...
The fluorite ore deposits of Volta Grande and Sete Barras in Parana show similar REE distribution patterns. Fluorite ores from other regions in Parana e Santa Catarina show marked differences in the REE pattern which suggest different modes of origin. (At...
This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…
In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177
de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges
A membrane-associated ATPase with an M(r) of approximately 510,000 and containing subunits with M(r)s of 80,000 (alpha), 55,000 (beta), and 25,000 (gamma) was isolated from the methanogen Methanococcus voltae. Enzymatic activity was not affected by vanadate or azide, inhibitors of P- and F1-ATPase, respectively, but was inhibited by nitrate and bafilomycin A1, inhibitors of V1-type ATPases. Since dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibited the enzyme when it was present in membranes but not after the ATPase was solubilized, we suggest the presence of membrane-associated component analogous to the F0 and V0 components of both F-type and V-type ATPases. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the alpha subunit showed a higher similarity to ATPases of the V-type family than to those of the F-type family. Images
The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.
Laboratory and simulated field tests have shown that dichlorvos, a volatile insecticide, can be prepared in a solid formulation which releases the dichlorvos vapour over a period of several months at a relatively uniform rate high enough to kill adult anopheline mosquitos but low enough to have no effect on man and the higher animals. A field experiment is in progress in Wakara, Upper Volta, to evaluate the residual fumigant technique under practical field conditions. Chemical, biological, toxicological and epidemiological data obtained during the first nine months indicate that the method produced dichlorvos vapours in a concentration effective against mosquitos for 3 to 5 months per treatment, that the occupants of the treated dwellings showed no detectable effects from the insecticidal vapours, and that the malaria rates were reduced by 38%-55% among the population of the treated village as compared with a nearby untreated control village. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2
The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.
This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…
The Association of Childless Couples of Ghana (ACCOG) is a Ghanaian non-faith based Non-Governmental Organization. ACCOG provides a platform for childless couples to find options for accessible infertility care. It provides counselling and other support services to childless couples to enable them to cope with their situation.
In this paper we investigate the choices involved in the tradeoff between a child's labor outside of household work and their schooling hours from a sample of data from Ghana in the late 1980's. While households are interviewed only once during the survey, the data were collected over an 11 month period for both the Northern and Southern regions of
The epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa, and its relevance to transfusion were newly assessed. A total of 1324 plasma samples from five Ghanaian populations, including 529 children (<6 y old, pre-transfusion) and 795 adults (236 blood donors, 226 HIV-infected or non-infected pregnant women, 203 HIV symptomatic patients, and 130 AIDS patients) were screened for WNV RNA. No WNV RNA was detected, but 4.8% (13/271) and 27.9% (127/455) carried specific IgG in children and adults, respectively, and 2.4% (4/167) of the children had IgM. The prevalence of IgG antibody to WNV increased progressively and peaked around 30% between ages 1 and 30 y, then stabilized. The absence of viremia in four WNV IgM-positive children, and of reactivation in HIV-infected patients suggests that once host immunity is established, it appears to be robust. In addition, there were no clinical reports of WNV infection in the hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, suggesting that WNV epidemiology in Ghana differs from that seen in the U.S. Most infections occur early in life, and as the window for infection is quite short, the risk of transmission by transfusion appears to be low, and the risk of pathogenicity in immunocompetent recipients appears to be limited in an endemic area such as Ghana. PMID:19210224
The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222
The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID). The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 microg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 microg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 microg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 microg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 microg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 microg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, and benzo(j,k)fluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime. PMID:20526527
In Methanococcus voltae, a 3.0 kbp HindIII fragment carrying homology to nifH was recently cloned. In Escherichia coli maxicells, the fragment directed the synthesis of a 30 K polypeptide encoded by the region homologous to nifH. Plasmids carrying the fragment did not complement Klebsiella pneumoniae nifH mutants and did not inhibit the nitrogen fixation of a Nif+ strain. The complete
The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863
A survey of 8 274 people in the Ghana-2101 project area showed that 12% were passing ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the urine, the infection rate rising to a peak of 34% in males 15-19 years of age. S. mansoni, despite the wide distribution of its potential intermediate host, was not encountered in 1 698 boys examined for it. Urinary schistosomiasis in northern Ghana is focal in character and is usually contracted in standing water during the dry season. A method of control was developed that depends on the identification of localities subject to relatively intense and prolonged transmission, followed by dry season mollusciciding of the water sources in each locality infested with the snail hosts. Two such control cycles were carried out in 30 localities. The results suggest that selective, dry season, focal control of schistosomiasis can be effective in reducing transmission.
This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ?2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.
The country, with an area of 92,100square miles and a population of about 18 million, is situated on the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa; and has accordingly a generally hot and humid climate in the south and hot dry climate in the northern parts. Ghana's neighbours are all francophone: La Cote D'Ivoire to the west, Togo to the east, and
Background:Developing countries are at high risk of epidemic increases in tobacco smoking, but the extent of this problem is not clearly defined because few collect detailed smoking data. We have surveyed tobacco smoking in the Ashanti region of Ghana, a rapidly developing African country with a long-established tobacco industry.Methods:We took a random sample of 30 regional census enumeration areas, each
E Owusu-Dabo; S Lewis; A McNeill; A Gilmore; J Britton
Approximately half of Ghana’s overall population has access to electricity and, of this, much of it is in urban areas. Often in regions where modern energy is not available, kerosene lamps, for example, are used for indoor lighting. This produces harmful emissions, leading to poor respiratory effects. Implementation of hydrokinetic power (HKP) within nearby streams can provide low impact, robust
Veronica B. Miller; Emmanuel W. Ramde; Robert T. Gradoville; Laura A. Schaefer
Ethnopharmacological relevanceAlthough traditional antimalarial plant remedies in herbal markets are a very important component of the health care system in Ghana this has not been previously studied to allow for the formulation of effective strategy for malaria control in Ghana.
In Ghana, shade for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is becoming a critical issue because of extensive deforestation. Unlike in some other cacao-growing countries, cacao is not grown under the shade of coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Ghana. An experiment to compare the merits of four cacao-coconut intercropping systems with the traditional cultivation of cacao under Gliricidia sepium shade was undertaken at
K. Osei-Bonsu; K. Opoku-Ameyaw; F. M. Amoah; F. K. Oppong
To improve geographical accessibility to health facilities in rural Ghana, it has been recommended that additional health facilities be built. Resource constraints make this recommendation infeasible. Using location-allocation models, this paper demonstrates that in the Suhum District of Ghana substantial improvements in accessibility can be achieved with better locational choices and without additional facilities. Also, additional facilities will produce little
In a world where policy co-ordination among countries is paramount, the growth of one depends on the behaviour of another in terms of policy instruments being pursued. One important question this study sought to answer was whether international economic spillovers emanating from all trading partners mattered for Ghana’s growth. The study therefore investigated the spillover effects emanating from three of
The paper develops hedonic analyses of the pricing of leasehold versus freehold estates in Ghana. The motivation of the paper is the passage of Act 267(5) in 1992 that effectively abolished outright sale of stool lands in Ghana. Stool lands are lands controlled by tribal \\
Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011. PMID:23661832
Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W
This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…
Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced.
Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR?=?1.7 at p?0.05). Number of children in household was significantly related to stunting. Children in households with 5–8 children were 1.3 times more likely to be stunted compared to those with 1–4 children (p?.05). Mother’s age was a significant predictor of stunting with children whose mothers were aged 35–44 years being more likely to be stunted. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions and policies should be put in place to minimise the effects of the distal, proximal and intermediate factors on stunting among under 5 children in Ghana.
Scientists studying large lakes in northern and tropical latitudes are finding that rising water temperatures are affecting the ecosystems of these lakes. "Changing Planet " is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.
Background Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global issue that affects health, economic, and social development. The problem has been attributed to misuse of antimicrobial agents. Purpose To identify the agents of bacterial infection in Ghana, determine their antibiogram, and the possibility of setting up a surveillance program. Patients and methods A prospective quantitative study set in various hospitals including two teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, and two district hospitals in Ghana. A total of 5099 bacterial isolates from various clinical specimens were collected over a period of 1 year, including data related to the patients. Susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby–Bauer method. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of multidrug-resistant isolates of epidemiological significance was also determined using the E-test. Results A wide range of bacterial isolates were identified in both teaching and regional hospitals. High percentage of resistance was observed for tetracycline (82%), cotrimoxazole (73%), ampicillin (76%), and chloramphenicol (75%). Multidrug resistance was observed to a combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. On the other hand, a lower percentage of resistance was observed for ceftriaxone (6.3%), ciprofloxacin (11%), and amikacin (9.9%). Conclusion Generally, the prevalence of multidrug resistance was widespread among the various isolates. Some multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) had high MIC to cefuroxime (>256), gentamicin (>256), and ciprofloxacin (>32).
Newman, Mercy J; Frimpong, Enoch; Donkor, Eric S; Opintan, Japheth A; Asamoah-Adu, Alex
Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.
Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah
The northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and West Regions) cover Latitudes N (8 50.333 to 11 04. 146) and Longitudes E (0 02.540) to W (2 42.272). The Northern Region of Ghana alone covers 70,380 km2 of land, corresponding to 29.5 % of the total country's area. The region is located in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone. The
Occupational exposure to radiation in medical practice in Ghana has been analysed for a 10-y period between 2000 and 2009. Monitored dose data in the medical institution in Ghana from the Radiation Protection Institute's database were extracted and analysed in terms of three categories: diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. One hundred and eighty medical facilities were monitored for the 10-y period, out of which ~98% were diagnostic radiology facilities. Only one nuclear medicine and two radiotherapy facilities have been operational in the country since 2000. During the 10-y study period, monitored medical facilities increased by 18.8%, while the exposed workers decreased by 23.0%. Average exposed worker per entire medical institution for the 10-y study period was 4.3. Annual collective dose received by all the exposed workers reduced by a factor of 4 between 2000 and 2009. This is seen as reduction in annual collective doses in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine facilities by ~76, ~72 and ~55%, respectively, for the 10-y period. Highest annual collective dose of 601.2 man mSv was recorded in 2002 and the least of 142.6 man mSv was recorded in 2009. Annual average values for dose per institution and dose per exposed worker decreased by 79 and 67.6%, respectively between 2000 and 2009. Average dose per exposed worker for the 10-y period was least in radiotherapy and highest in diagnostic radiology with values 0.14 and 1.05 mSv, respectively. Nuclear medicine however recorded average dose per worker of 0.72 mSv. Correspondingly, range of average effective doses within the diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine facilities were 0.328-2.614, 0.383-0.728 and 0.448-0.695 mSv, respectively. Throughout the study period, an average dose per medical institution of 3 mSv and an average dose per exposed worker of 0.69 mSv were realised. Exposed workers in diagnostic radiology primarily received most of the individual annual doses >1 mSv. The entire study period had 705 instances in which exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. On thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) return rates, facilities in Volta and Eastern Regions recorded highest return rates of 94.3% each. Ashanti Region recorded the least TLD return rate with 76.7%. PMID:21743072
Hasford, F; Owusu-Banahene, J; Amoako, J K; Otoo, F; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Arwui, C C; Adu, S
The rate of urbanization is far more rapid in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other major region of the world. However, little\\u000a is known about patterns of ethnic residential segregation in rapidly urbanizing African cities. This paper is crafted to make\\u000a an important contribution through its focus on Ghana’s two largest cities: Accra and Kumasi. Making use of the most
A.I.D.'s Urban Functions in Rural Development project in Upper Volta is aimed at identifying ways to promote rural development by improving the effectiveness of service functions in central villages or towns. To this end, the project undertook to identify...
Background: Developing countries are at high risk of epidemic increases in tobacco smoking, but the extent of this problem is not clearly defined because few collect detailed smoking data. We have surveyed tobacco smoking in the Ashanti region of Ghana, a rapidly developing African country with a long-established tobacco industry. Methods: We took a random sample of 30 regional census enumeration areas, each comprising about 100 households, and a systematic sample of 20 households from each. These were visited, a complete listing of residents obtained and questionnaire interviews on current and past smoking, age at smoking uptake, sources of cigarettes and other variables carried out in all consenting residents aged 14 or over. Results: Of 7096 eligible individuals resident in the sampled households, 6258 (88%; median age 31 (range 14–105) years; 64% female) participated. The prevalence of self-reported current smoking (weighted for gender differences in response) was 3.8% (males 8.9%, females 0.3%) and of ever smoking 9.7% (males 22.0%, females 1.2%). Smoking was more common in older people, those of Traditionalist belief, those of low educational level, the unemployed and the less affluent. Smokers were more likely to drink alcohol and to have friends who smoke. About 10% of cigarettes were smuggled brands. About a third of smokers were highly or very highly dependent. Conclusions: Despite rapid economic growth and a sustained tobacco industry presence, smoking prevalence in Ghana is low, particularly among younger people. This suggests that progression of an epidemic increase in smoking has to date been avoided.
Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.
The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.
It is recommended that Mormon Lake be established as a scenic and recreation natural area. The area has a long history of disturbance and is heavily used by humans at present. The area is dominated by intermittant Mormon Lake itself and typical Transition...
Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme.
Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.
Geomagnetic secular variation, excursions, and reversal records can provide an excellent means for high resolution correlation of sedimentary climate records. Recent drilling projects on Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, and Lake Malawi, Malawi, have provided the opportunity to study long African climate records (<1 Ma). Magnetic studies of these sedimentary archives indicate that high quality SV records are preserved through most of the sequence despite the fact that anoxia is the usual condition of bottom waters in both lakes. We compare the magnetic records of Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Malawi to test our ability to correlate between West African and East African lakes. In addition, we compare the magnetic record of Lake Malawi to records from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa and the Indian Ocean region, and the record of Lake Bosumtwi to that of Lake Barombi Mbo in West Africa. Correlations within regions are straightforward and highly useful for intrasite correlation. Correlation between East and West Africa is also possible, although the resolution of the correlation is more limited.
These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.
Preliminary studies: Focus group discussions with community members in Nsawam District, Ghana, identified poor roads, scarce transport and exorbitant fees for emergency transport as barriers to reaching the district hospital for treatment of an obstetric complication. Interventions: To minimize delay in the event of a complication, a maternity waiting home (MWH) was established in Nsawam in 1994. One ward of
J. B Wilson; A. H. K Collison; D Richardson; G Kwofie; K. A Senah; E. K Tinkorang
Discusses the computerization of the library of the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG) using ADLIB software. Describes the process of selection, acquisition and installation of the software, the training of library staff, the impact of computerization on the staff, the users and the institute, and problems encountered.
Reflects on a social studies teacher's experiences during a Fulbright professorship in Ghana. Relates how, as an outsider from the United States, she learned about Ghanian perspectives of history, economics, women's issues, and culture, and was reminded of the dominating power of Western cultural and economic imperialism. (DSK)
Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest at present in exploring the potential of social health insurance to increase access to and affordability of health care in Africa. A number of countries are currently experimenting with different approaches. Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was passed into law in 2003 but fully implemented from late 2005. It has already reached impressive coverage
Purpose – The study aims to examine how communication, provider courtesy, support\\/care, environment of the facility and waiting time significantly predict patients' satisfaction with quality of healthcare in two hospitals located in northern Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory study of which 324 respondents were selected using stratified and convenient sampling techniques. Results are presented using a multiple regression model. Findings
Roger Ayimbillah Atinga; Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah; Kwame Ameyaw Domfeh
Municipal solid waste management in Accra, Ghana, is at present delivered in an unsustainable manner. Due to uncontrolled urbanisation, large quantities of waste are generated daily in Accra, and this exerts much pressure on an over strained solid waste management system. Coupled with weak institutional capacity, and lack of resources, both human and capital, the city authorities face difficulties in
The Korle Lagoon in Accra, Ghana, has become one of the most polluted water bodies on earth. It is the principal outlet through which all major drainage channels in the city empty their wastes into the sea. Large amounts of untreated industrial waste emptied into surface drains has led to severe pollution in the lagoon and disrupted its natural ecology.
Notes the need for education on fertility in rural Ghana. Notes the success of the adult literacy group approach which provides family planning information and increases literacy. Discusses the significance and activities of the literacy facilitator (usually a woman) within this system who works with groups and individuals as a member of the…
During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer.
A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango\\/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb,Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage.Centrosema pubescens was preferred toPueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence.
We analyze the political economy of timber taxation in Ghana. Our results show that politicians maintain control over allocation of timber rights, that taxation constitutes an insignificant share of the value of the timber resource, and that the distribution of timber revenues hardly contributes towards the official forest policy justifications. Our analysis suggests that politicians wield control over rent-seeking opportunities
Examines the causes and impacts of agricultural decline in Ghana. Presents a macroeconomic overview and discusses the nature of decline. Emphasizes the roles of prices and migration. Examines changes in incomes and access to food as both a result and a cause of poor performance in agriculture. (CH)
A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision…
Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212
Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth
An account is given of how a national diabetes care and education programme was developed in Ghana, a developing country, through international collaboration of medical schools, industry and government health care institutions. The approach is by way of trained diabetes teams consisting of physicians, dietitians and nurse educators at two tertiary institutional levels (teaching hospitals) who in turn trained teams
A. G. B Amoah; S. K Owusu; J. W Acheampong; K Agyenim-Boateng; H. R Asare; A. A Owusu; M. F Mensah-Poku; F. C Adamu; R. A Amegashie; J. Terry Saunders; W. L Fang; J. G Pastors; C Sanborn; E. J Barrett; M. K. A Woode
A community-based survey of children aged 0 to 5 years in Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 5.4 percent were purposefully inflicted. Perpetrators were mostly friends (43 percent), siblings (37 percent), and traditional healers (6 percent). Healers inflicted burns on children who were comatose after convulsions. (Author/DB)
This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…
The paper attempts a diagnosis of poverty at institutional and community levels. This diagnosis entails an examination and comparison of various articulations of poverty in the formal, official and\\/or so- called high places of government and global institutions as well as at the grassroots such as households, individuals and communities within northern Ghana. The goal is to foster a better
Rainfall reliability in West Africa has important societal consequences. However, our understanding of the rainfall generating processes in this region remains incomplete. This study aims at the detection of different rainfall producing processes and their characteristics during the later part of the rainy season in Northern Ghana. Rainfall in this region has three main origins: monsoonal advection, local convection, and
The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…
This study seeks to provide information on water pricing in Ghana. It looks at the experiences in water pricing practices, the problems and successes encountered in the country. It outlines the reforms instituted in the water sector for the provision and sustainability of urban, rural, and agricultural water supplies to address the problems. Also discussed are the institutional arrangements put
During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346
Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc
This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…
Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)
This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…
Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…
With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…
Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.
This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…
The Lake Temperatures Monograph provides a composite of measurements taken by surface craft, aircraft and intakes. Also included are detailed analyses of surface temperatures by months vs. air temperatures, by cumulative frequencies vs. distance offshore ...
This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.
Rainfall variability plays a major societal and environmental role in semi-arid regions. Especially, where rainfall is limited to a few months of the year, its distribution and origin are of utmost importance to society and the natural environment. The presented study is located in the Volta Basin, West Africa and examines a north - south transect including 3 sites where rainfall intensity was collected by means of high-resolution tipping bucket gages. Rainfall within the basin is dominated by three processes: convective, monsoon, and squall line induced rainfall. Building on a study conducted for the 2001 season, the 2002 data is classified into these three rainfall types. Special emphasis is put on rainfall generated by squall lines, being crescent shaped cloud systems that move eastwards over West Africa. Their main features lie in generally high rainfall rates, which range up to 300 mm/hr, and their bimodal intensity pattern as they have a high intensity part in the beginning followed by a comparably very low intensity tail part. The main output is an extended database of the three rainfall types, including their statistical features and a large number of intensity charts. Results show the distribution of the different rainfall types' occurrences throughout the basin. Moreover, a tremendous contribution of squall line induced rainfall towards the total seasonal rainfall for all three sites is evident. These range from 50% in the south to 80% in the north.
Background African trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted between mammalian hosts by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or T. brucei gambiense, while African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is caused mainly by T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae,T. evansi and T. brucei brucei. Trypanosomiasis is of public health importance in humans and is also the major constraint for livestock productivity in sub-Saharan African countries. Scanty information exists about the trypanosomiasis status in Ghana especially regarding molecular epidemiology. Therefore, this study intended to apply molecular tools to identify and characterize trypanosomes in Ghana. Methods A total of 219 tsetse flies, 248 pigs and 146 cattle blood samples were collected from Adidome and Koforidua regions in Ghana in 2010. Initial PCR assays were conducted using the internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) primers, which can detect most of the pathogenic trypanosome species and T. vivax-specific cathepsin L-like gene primers. In addition, species- or subgroup-specific PCRs were performed for T. b. rhodesiense, T. b. gambiense, T. evansi and three subgroups of T. congolense. Results The overall prevalence of trypanosomes were 17.4% (38/219), 57.5% (84/146) and 28.6% (71/248) in tsetse flies, cattle and pigs, respectively. T. congolense subgroup-specific PCR revealed that T. congolense Savannah (52.6%) and T. congolense Forest (66.0%) were the endemic subgroups in Ghana with 18.6% being mixed infections. T. evansi was detected in a single tsetse fly. Human infective trypanosomes were not detected in the tested samples. Conclusion Our results showed that there is a high prevalence of parasites in both tsetse flies and livestock in the study areas in Ghana. This enhances the need to strengthen control policies and institute measures that help prevent the spread of the parasites.
Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086
Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C
This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.
During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa. PMID:24783491
The limnology program provides information on key environmental factors that influence the food chain and fish of the Great Lakes. The annual monitoring of the Great Lakes began in 1983 for Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie; in 1986 in Lake Ontario; and in 1992 for Lake Superior. T...
The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.
Learn, Windows T.; National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)
The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.
The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.
This MPEG shows lake effect precipitation resulting when cold air masses pass over the relatively warm Great Lakes, pick up moisture, and then precipitate when again encountering the cold land surface. Note the bands of lake effect snow apparent over Lake Superior and the lack of snow on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The animation can be replayed to stress important points.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal
Frank P Mockenhaupt; George Bedu-Addo; Christiane von Gaertner; Renate Boyé; Katrin Fricke; Iris Hannibal; Filiz Karakaya; Marieke Schaller; Ulrike Ulmen; Patrick A Acquah; Ekkehart Dietz; Teunis A Eggelte; Ulrich Bienzle
Objective:To assess factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in Accra, Ghana.Design, subjects, setting:Data on current and past infant feeding patterns, sociodemographic, biomedical and biocultural factors were collected using a cross-sectional design, from a sample of 376 women with infants 0–6 months, attending maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Accra. EBF was defined in two ways: (a) based on a
The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plant medicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder
Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie
Road traffic injuries and fatalities are increasing in Ghana. Police-collected crash and injury data for the period 1994-1998 were aggregated and analyzed using the MAAP5 accident analysis package developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. Published results of recent transport-related epidemiological and other surveys provided an additional data source. According to the 1994-1998 police data, road traffic crashes were a
Francis K. Afukaar; Phyllis Antwi; Samuel Ofosu-Amaah
This work chronicles the phases of early childhood development in Ghana. This West African country experienced a change in\\u000a education after the inception of colonialism. Education of the very young became a part, though limited, of the missionary-based\\u000a education system under colonialism. The country moved from colonialism to a republic form of government in 1957. The republic\\u000a was determined and
Intentional (inflicted) injury to children through burns has been studied and mentioned extensively in the literature, although much less so in developing countries. A community-based survey of children aged 0–5 years in the Ashanti Region of Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 35 (5.4%) were purposefully inflicted. The perpetrators were mostly friends (43%) and siblings (37%) of the victims,
Macdonald, M. A. 1980. Observations on Wilson's Widowfinch and the Pintailed Whydah in southern Ghana, with notes on their hosts. Ostrich 51:21-24.Information on the two viduines occurring at Cape Coast, southern Ghana, was collected casually between 1975 and 1978. Wilson's Widowfinch Vidua wilsoni and the Pintailed Whydah V. macroura were both common, the former in residential areas and the latter
Purpose – While corruption has long been recognized as a destructive social problem, the subject has not yet been given much attention in the literature of the management of procurement of infrastructure projects in Ghana. The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss corruption practices inherent in public procurement of infrastructural projects in Ghana with the aim of
In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…
Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie
The introduction of vermicomposting as a cost effective method of managing organic waste in Ghana depends on the suitability of local earthworms. At nine locations across Accra, the capital of Ghana, the soil-litter layer was sampled to evaluate the occurrence and abundance of surface dwelling earthworms (0 - 10 cm depth) and to investigate the relationship between earthworm abundance and
Nana-Osei K. Mainoo; Joann K. Whalen; Suzelle Barrington; Ste Anne de Bellevue
Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have
Ghana, one of the fastest growing liberalized developing economies in Africa, has, in recent years, established a nationwide rural bank system and has witnessed an increase in the entry of foreign retail banks. Although there are increased activities and interest about bank offerings and bank–customer relationships in Ghana (Dadzie, Akaah, and Dunson, 1989), to date, researchers have overlooked the factors
Charles Blankson; Chris H. N. Mbah; Lambert Yaw Owusu-Frempong
This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…
This article presents the findings of field research in Ghana in 2002 about internal displacement stemming from multiethnic violence in northern Ghana in 1994, known as the “Guinea Fowl War.” Indigenous, gender-specific knowledge from displaced Ghanaian women is presented in the context of feminist perspectives on the consequences of regional wars on non-combatants. The research generated indigenous material for social
This study investigates information utilization for policy decision making by assembly members in Ghana’s local government system. The survey method using questionnaires was used to collect data from 200 respondents drawn from a sample of 278 (72 percent response). The study revealed that the information needs of assembly members were related to their legislative and policy-making tasks within the assembly.
2 Regional Programmes DivisionEnvironmental Protection Agency, Sunyani - Ghana. Accepted 31 January, 2008 A water quality study was carried out on streams and boreholes which serve as drinking water sources in farming communities in the Brong Ahafo region of the Republic of Ghana. The objective of this research was to determine concentrations of different forms of nitrogen in drinking water
This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance
Examines the social origins and professional status of librarians in Ghana. Topics discussed include personal characteristics, i.e., age, sex, and marital status; types of libraries; parental influences on career choice; satisfaction with current status; the role of the Ghana Library Association; and the training of nonprofessional staff. (19…
This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…
Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775
The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.
Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system
The Great Lakes of northern Canada are relatively understudied ecosystems in comparison to the better-investigated Laurentian Great Lakes. This chain of lakes extends north from Lake Winnipeg (a shallow prairie lake) to Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca (moderately deep arboreal lakes) to Great Slave Lake (a deep subarctic lake) to Great Bear Lake (a deep lake located in the Arctic
This Sierra Webpage is dedicated to Mono Lake, CA. It offers a brief description of Mono Lake, including photos and sightseeing tips, and features numerous writings by Mono Lake Park Ranger David Carle. Subjects include the Mono Lake environment, visiting the lake, and the water issue. An entry of particular interest is Strange Water- Mono Lake Gourmet: An Unusual Recipe. It includes 'Mock Mono Lake Soup' and 'Tufa Porridge Extraordinaire'- two recipes designed to illustrate the composition of Mono Lake and the chemical processes involved in tufa formation.
Ghana is situated on the West Africa Craton and far away from any plate boundary. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. The continental and coastal area of southeast Ghana is dominated by the Akwapim fault zone and coastal boundary fault. The Akwapim fault zone represents overthrusts of Neoproterozoic age, but there are also indications of recent faulting on some sections of the fault zone. The coastal boundary fault commenced to become tectonically active in Jurassic times and is probably still active. The two fault systems intersect some tens of kilometers to the southwest of Accra and it is at this intersection where most of the seismic activity has been observed. Historical documents describing damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. The two major destructive earthquakes which struck Southern Ghana occurred close to the capital city Accra in 1862 (intensity IX) and 1939 (intensity VIII). The surveillance of the seismic activity of Southern Ghana with seismometers has been discontinuous with irregular long periods of disruption. All known earthquakes from 1615 to 2003, based on historical documents and instrumental recordings are collected in a data catalogue and compiled in a computer readable format. Based on macroseismic maps and detailed descriptions of the damages, the epicentral intensity of some strong events as well as the radii of different isoseismals could be newly estimated. The catalogue can be the basis for a deterministic seismic hazard assessment for Southern Ghana to develop a building code for this region.
The Education And Curriculum Home site (TEACH) is a new component of the Great Lakes Information Network, with a focus on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond. TEACH features mini-lessons on Great Lakes topics: environment, history and culture, geography, pollution, careers, and business. Geared for elementary through high school students, the modules are continually expanded and updated and include links to a glossary to help explain scientific terms and acronyms. Also included is a section for questions and answers, and education links. Specific topics within the site include: Great Lakes native flora, water levels on the Great Lakes, native peoples of the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes law and policy, introduction to the Great Lakes, how the lakes were formed, Great Lakes shoreline geology, non-native species, and urban sprawl.
Great Lakes and Lake Effect Snow. This animation is a dissolve between 2 different SeaWiFS images taken in 1999. One image is taken in the spring,April, and the second image is taken in the winter, December. The December 1999 image shows a traditional lake effect snow storm. This animation shows the difference between the seasons in the Great Lakes region.
Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in
Joseph H. Elrod; Robert O’Gorman; Clifford P. Schneider; Thomas H. Eckert; Ted Schaner; James N. Bowlby; Larry P. Schleen
Native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were driven to extirpation in Lake Champlain in the early 1900s. Possible causes include overharvest, predation on adults by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and predation on fry by rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery began in 1972 when a coordinated stocking program was initiated. Attempts to control sea lamprey populations
Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round oflampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from
Randy L. Eshenroder; N. Robert Payne; James E. Johnson; Charles Bowen II; Mark P. Ebener
This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…
The Hyland Lake Restoration Project improved the quality of the lake water for recreation and improved the lake's scenic qualities and waterfowl habitat. Specifically, it was hoped that the restored lake would support a fish population and would be an att...
Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633
Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.
Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The epidemiology of malaria in special areas, such as mining areas needs to be monitored and controlled. Newmont Ghana Gold Limited is conducting mining activities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana that may have an impact on the diseases such as malaria in the mining area. Methods Prior to the start of mining activities, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to determine malaria epidemiology, including malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among children < 5 years and monthly malaria transmission in a mining area of Ghana. Results A total of 1,671 households with a child less than five years were selected. About 50% of the household heads were males. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia was 22.8% (95% CI 20.8 - 24.9). Plasmodium falciparum represented 98.1% (95% CI 96.2 - 99.2) of parasitaemia. The geometric mean P. falciparum asexual parasite count was 1,602 (95% CI 1,140 - 2,252) and 1,195 (95% CI 985 - 1,449) among children < 24 months and ? 24 months respectively. Health insurance membership (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.80, p = 0.001) and the least poor (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.90, p = 0.001) were protected against malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was high among children < 24 months compared to children ? 24 months (44.1% (95% CI 40.0 - 48.3) and 23.8% (95% CI 21.2 - 26.5) respectively. About 69% (95% CI 66.3 - 70.9) of households own at least one ITN. The highest EIRs were record in May 2007 (669 ib/p/m) and June 2007 (826 ib/p/m). The EIR of Anopheles gambiae were generally higher than Anopheles funestus. Conclusion The baseline malaria epidemiology suggests a high malaria transmission in the mining area prior to the start of mining activities. Efforts at controlling malaria in this mining area have been intensified but could be enhanced with increased resources and partnerships between the government and the private sector.
The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.
This is an online version of the text, The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. Taking an ecosystem approach, the Atlas helps readers understand the Great Lakes and other natural resources in the Great Lakes region as an interdependent system across an international border. Its purpose is to demonstrate how the Great Lakes are affected by use and to increase public appreciation for the importance of these lakes as a North American and global resource. A French version is available.
The International Lake Environment Committee (ILEC) works to advance international cooperation for sustainable management of the world's lakes and reservoirs through the collection and provision of environmental data, the promotion of scientific research, and the promotion of interchange with government agencies and research institutes. The World Lake Database is particularly interesting and gives the user the ability to navigate to lakes around the world providing facts about each lake.
...Sheffield Lake Fireworks, Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH AGENCY...temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH. This...vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Sheffield Lake Fireworks...Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast...
On the south-east border of the Dorsale of Leo (Lower and Middle Proterozoic in age), the first sediments of the Volta Basin were deposited on a peneplaned surface, although irregular in detail. The Infratillitic Upper Precambrian Supergroup can be regarded as a major cycle. It is composed of three very well-defined phases: (1) progressive invasion of the basin by water (1100-960 Ma); (2) individualization of a subaqueous environment while the supply areas are more distant (approx. 960 Ma); sedimentary filling of the basin (960-650 Ma). The study and analysis of a great number of sedimentary structures allow the definition of the main facies and also the specification of both the nature of the environment and the conditions of sedimentation.
The present work studied the prevalence and histopathology of Neoechinorhynchus curemai Noronha, 1973 (Acanthocephala; Neoechinorhynchidae) from curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836. Eighteen fishes with averages of 46.7 +/- 1.1 cm length and 1,674.8 +/- 75.6 g weight were collected with net, bimonthly from December 1995 thru December 1996 in the hydroelectric power station of Volta Grande Reservoir (Cemig), Minas Gerais, Brazil. From analysed fishes, 15 were infected with acanthocephalans in the intestine (prevalence 83.3%). The greatest mean intensity occurred in August 1996 with 66.5 (16 to 208) parasites. Histopathological analysis showed complete desquamation of the intestinal epithelium with severe hyperplasia and hypertrofia of the goblet cells. Severe inflammatory reaction at the submucosa, displacement of their sheaf, associated with oedema and mononuclear and eosinophilic infiltration were observed. PMID:11706580
Martins, M L; de Moraes, F R; Fujimoto, R Y; Onaka, E M; Quintana, C I
Methanococcus voltae harbors genetic information for two pairs of homologous [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Two of the enzymes contain selenocysteine, while the other two gene groups encode apparent isoenzymes that carry cysteinyl residues in the homologous positions. The genes coding for the selenium-free enzymes, frc and vhc, are expressed only under selenium limitation. They are transcribed out of a common intergenic region. A series of deletions made in the intergenic region localized a common negative regulatory element for the vhc and frc promoters as well as two activator elements that are specific for each of the two transcription units. Repeated sequences, partially overlapping the frc promoter, were also detected. Mutations in these repeated heptanucleotide sequences led to a weak induction of a reporter gene under the control of the frc promoters in the presence of selenium. This result suggests that the heptamer repeats contribute to the negative regulation of the frc transcription unit.
New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Ghana are presented. One new subgenus, Vietsclio n. subgen., is erected to accommodate Monatractides uniscutatus (K. Viets, 1925), characterized by the presence of swimming setae on leg II-IV. Seven new species are described: Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) erato n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) euterpe n. sp., M. (M.) melpomene n. sp., M. (M.) polyhymnia n. sp., M. (M.) thalia n. sp., M. (M.) terpsichore n. sp., M. (M.) urania n. sp. Torrenticola calliope is established as the new name for previously reported populations of T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956 from Ethiopia. The first description of the female is given for Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914) and M. (Vietsclio) uniscutatus K. Viets 1925. The subgenus Allotorrenticola Cook, 1967, previously known only from Asia, is reported for the first time from the Afrotropical region. Additionally, first records for Ghana are given for Torrenticola anomallela Cook, 1966, T. bomiensis Cook, 1966, T. fasciata (K. Viets, 1916), T. motasi Cook, 1966, T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956, Pseudotorrenticola mitchelli Cook, 1966, Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914), M. (M.) convexiscutata (K. Viets, 1958), M. (M.) koenikei (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) stigeophora (Cook, 1966), M. (M.) ventriosus (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) microstoma Koenike, 1898-species complex, and M. uniscutatus (K. Viets 1925). PMID:24943805
Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.
McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.
Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.
Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes.
We previously reported a rickettsial heartwater-like disease in vipers from Ghana that resembled heartwater in its gross lesions, that was apparently transmittedby ticks (Aponomma and Amblyomma), and responded clinically favorably to early treatment with ...
C. Andrews D. Martinez J. E. Parker J. L. Kiel Y. Gonzalez
The report traces the history of cooperatives in Ghana from 1928 to 1965, bases on government records. From the beginning the movement has suffered from government domination, inept management and instability. Single or multi-purpose cooperatives have eng...
This paper examines the relationship between child mortality and fertility in two neighboring West African countries: Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. We first explore separately the reduced form determinants of fertility and child mortality, as explained by indi...
An infra-red view of Lake Chad, Africa (13.5N, 14.5E) showing the sparse vegetation still remaining on the shores and dry bed of this almost extinct lake. First noticed about 25 to 30 years ago that the lake was undergoing change and was drying up, astronauts since then have been photographing it on a regular basis to record the diminishing lake bed. This lake was once the aproximate size of Lake Erie but is now only about half that size.
HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana.
The publication contains abstracts of the joint fifteenth biennial conference of the West African Science Association and the nineteenth biennial conference of the Ghana Science Association,held at the University of Cape Coast,Ghana in September 1995. The...
We quantified the distance that lake troutSalvelinus namaycushmoved in northwestern Lake Michigan and examined (1) the directional preference and (2) the effect of population density on movement. Lake trout were captured in spring and fall 1983-1996, tagged with Floy anchor tags, and recaptured during subsequent agency sampling and by commercial fishers and anglers during 1983-1997. Angler recaptures were used to
Patrick J. Schmalz; Michael J. Hansen; Mark E. Holey; Patrick C. McKee; Michael L. Toneys
You will review these five websites and complete a flow chart for each of the five Great Lakes. Project Organizer: Flow Chart First, you will learn about Lake Huron. Go to Lake Huron to learn more about this great lake.Complete a Flow Chart Flow Chart for Lake Huron. Write "Lake Huron" under Topic and include five supporting details you learned ...
Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...
Background Poor mental health is a leading cause of disability worldwide with considerable negative impacts, particularly in low-income countries. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on its national prevalence in low-income countries, particularly in Africa, is limited. Additionally, researchers and policy makers are now calling for empirical investigations of the association between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We therefore sought to estimate the national prevalence of poor mental health in Ghana, explore its correlates on a national level, and examine associations between empowerment and poor mental health among women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Ghana in 2009–2010. Interviews were conducted face-to-face with participants (N?=?9,524 for overall sample; n?=?3,007 for women in relationships). We used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) to measure psychological distress and assessed women’s attitudes about their roles in decision-making, attitudes towards intimate partner violence, partner control, and partner abuse. We used weighted multivariable multinomial regression models to determine the factors independently associated with experiencing psychological distress for our overall sample and for women in relationships. Results Overall, 18.7% of the sample reported either moderate (11.7%) or severe (7.0%) psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress was higher among women than men. Overall, the prevalence of psychological distress differed by gender, marital status, education, wealth, region, health and religion, but not by age or urban/rural location. Women who reported having experienced physical abuse, increased partner control, and who were more accepting of women’s disempowerment had greater likelihoods of psychological distress (P-values?0.05). Conclusions Psychological distress is substantial among both men and women in Ghana, with nearly 20% having moderate or severe psychological distress, an estimate higher than those found among South African (16%) or Australian (11%) adults. Women who are disempowered in the context of intimate relationships may be particularly vulnerable to psychological distress. Results identify populations to be targeted by interventions aiming to improve mental health.
Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.
Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.
The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)
This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.
A physical model of a generic lava lake system is developed. We derive the requisite conditions for the existence of an ‘equilibrium lava lake’ in which magmastatic pressure at the base of the conduit balances the pressure in the underlying magmatic reservoir. The stability of this lava lake system is tested by investigating the response of the system to perturbation.
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…
Part of the larger Water on the Web project, this Lake Ecology Primer "is intended to provide a general background to Water on the Web by introducing the basic concepts necessary to understand how lake ecosystems function." The extensive site contains information on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of lakes, and processes including formation, stratification, and eutrophication.
The anoxic factor (AF, days per year or per season) can be used to quantify anoxia in stratified lakes. AF is calculated from oxygen profiles measured in the stratified season and lake surface area (A,) as AF represents the number of days that a sediment area, equal to the whole-lake surface area, is overlain by anoxic water. Average AF for
article title: Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region ... Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent ...
The report contains an inventory of completed and in-progress studies concerned with all or part of the Lake Champlain-Lake George Region. The reports are listed alphabetically by county, region and adjacent areas within and without the State of New York....
Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives.
The past 20 years have seen a shift in conservation approaches to realize the importance of people in conservation and wildlife management (CWM). To this extent, in most conservation circles the concept of community involvement is no longer debated. The following factors have influenced the growth of CWM, especially in Africa: (i) recent developments in postcolonial governments have made them unable to manage and control the use of natural resources in the restrictive manner mandated by the legislation of the colonial past still in place; (ii) successes, particularly in southern Africa, of approaches that involved devolution of greater access rights and responsibilities to communities have led to these approaches being used by other countries; (iii) donor agencies, encouraged by the success of these approaches, have allocated more of their resources to community-based projects; and (iv) changes in international perceptions have been heavily influenced by the growing voice of the "South" in international fora. While there has been some success, there have also been failures. In Ghana, there has been considerable effort to develop programs that incorporate community aspirations into specific objectives; one inherent problem with these programs-not exclusive to Ghana-is the tendency for conservation programs to try to fit community aspirations into conservation objectives as opposed to finding ways of using conservation to help fulfill community aspirations. When community-based programs fail to recognize this, they are generally unable to deliver on their expected outputs. Some critics have used this to dismiss the community approach, which poses a dangerous reversion to a paradigm that has significantly failed in Africa, and much of the developing world, especially in regard to wildlife outside of protected areas. PMID:12381557
Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent the development of severe depression among these patients should be considered.
This study demonstrates the strength of R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis in determining spatial groundwater salinity groups in southeastern Ghana. Three hundred and eighty three (383) groundwater samples were taken from six hydrogeological terrains and surface water bodies and analyzed for the concentrations of the major ions, electrical conductivity and pH. Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis and R-mode factor analysis were respectively used to spatially classify groundwater samples and determine the probable sources of variation in groundwater salinity. The quality of groundwater for irrigation was then determined using three major indices. The analyses revealed two major sources of variation in groundwater salinity: silicate mineral weathering on one hand, and seawater intrusion and anthropogenic contamination on the other. A plot of the factor scores for the two major sources of variation in the salinity revealed trends which can be used in hydrogeological mapping and assist in drilling potable water boreholes in southeastern Ghana. This study also revealed four major spatial groundwater groups: low salinity, acidic groundwaters which are mainly derived from the Birimian and Togo Series aquifers; low salinity, moderate to neutral pH groundwaters which draw membership mainly from samples of the Voltaian, Buem and Cape Coast granitoids; very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes and are mainly from the Keta Basin aquifers; and intermediate salinity groundwaters consisting of groundwater from the Keta basin aquifers with minor contributions from the other major terrains. The major water type identified in this study is the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which degrades into predominantly Na-Cl-SO 4 more saline groundwaters towards the coast.
Rainfall reliability in West Africa has important societal consequences. However, our understanding of the rainfall generating processes in this region remains incomplete. This study aims at the detection of different rainfall producing processes and their characteristics during the later part of the rainy season in Northern Ghana. Rainfall in this region has three main origins: monsoonal advection, local convection, and squall lines. Different processes dominate during different parts of the rainy season, which runs from May through October. Rainfall measurements were taken with tipping-bucket rain gages with high temporal resolution. A total of 16 rain gages were used, organized in two nested grids covering areas of 9x9 km and 3x3 km, respectively. The recorded rainfall events were classified according to their origin primarily on the basis of intensity, duration, and spatial pattern and distribution. As local convective and squall line rainfall show similar characteristics, TRMM Precipitation Radar imagery was analyzed visually to help further distinguish between these two types. The main result is a procedure that allows to differentiate rainfall origins and a set of characteristic rainfall events. Special attention is paid to squall line induced rainfall. Squall lines are crescent shaped atmospheric disturbances that move from East to West over the sub-continent and are associated with violent wind gusts and high rainfall intensities of up to 300 mm/h. These squall lines are mainly caused by interaction between the monsoonal air layer and the African Easterly Jet. In Northern Ghana, line squalls produce most of the annual rainfall. At the end of the wet season, rain almost exclusively originates from squall lines. Because of their high intensities, squall lines and convective storms are hydrologically important for understanding runoff generation.
Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts.
Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth
Mono Lake Web Site is the homepage of the Mono Lake Committee and offers helpful information regarding the unique hypersaline and alkaline environment. Visitors will find information about the Mono Lake Committee, natural and political histories of the area, related water policies, a photo gallery with image descriptions, and links to related sites- including a clearinghouse. Those interested in Mono Basin birds will find sightings, counts, bird walks, and other related information. An additional feature, Mono Lake Live, offers up-to-the-minute data on road conditions, satellite images, weather, lake level, bird sightings, snow pack, and earthquakes.
Four gene clusters were identified inMethanococcus voltae which probably all encode hydrogenases of the [NiFe] type. One of these contains four genes, including those for the three subunits of the known [NiFeSe] hydrogenase capable of reducing the natural deazaflavin cofactor F420. In a second homologous cluster, the gene encoding the subunit corresponding to that which contains selenium in the know
Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout.
Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent.
The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections.
Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms.
Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by undersize (less than 17 inches) lake trout.
Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.
This document presents a national vision for girls' education in Ghana and a strategic framework for achieving that vision. The vision statement is: "All Ghana's girl-children and their brothers are healthy, attend safe, welcoming schools, are well-taught by qualified teachers who understand their needs, achieve according to their potential,…
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
This study investigates SERQUAL Dimensions in the delivery of satisfied services in the domestic airline industry in Ghana. Questionnaires were distributed to four hundred and fifty (450) customers from three domestic airlines namely Antrak Air, Fly 540 and Star Bow using the convenience sampling technique. The responses from the field indicate that domestic airlines operating in Ghana fall short in
Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes
Heidi Hjelmeland; Charity S. Akotia; Vicki Owens; Birthe L. Knizek; Hilmar Nordvik; Rose Schroeder; Eugene Kinyanda
This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…
Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
The global food crisis led to upward trends in food prices across the world. The millions of impoverished people living in developing countries including Ghana were the worst affected by the phenomenal increases in world food prices. This paper examines the implications of the global food crisis on the trends of food prices in the Upper East Region of Ghana.
Sweep of Lake Chad, February 2001: Located on the edge of the Sahara and bordering four countries--Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger--the immense area of this land locked lake has nearly disappeared in recent years. Persistent drought has caused the lake to drop from its former sixth place position in the list of worlds largest lakes; it is now one tenth its former size. The basin of the lake is not naturally deep, so the surface area of the lake tended to spread out, keeping the total depth to little more 23 feet (7 meters). In recent years, rainfall patterns have begun to change, and tributaries to Lake Chad have not been refilling the basin as rapidly as they used to. The lush, productive flora and fauna fed by the wetlands of the shallow lake have suffered as a result. This has led to significant changes for various communities of people that live in the vicinity of the lake. While for some the now exposed lake bed has enabled new land to be cultivated, much of the available fresh water that might have been used for irrigation is no longer dependable. As rainfall rates appear to be declining year after year, people living nearby develop even greater dependence on the lake, draining it even faster.
Thomson, Joycelyn; Snodgrass, Stuart; Coe, Michael
In 2003 the Government of Ghana established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to improve health care access for Ghanaians and eventually replace the cashand- carry system. This study evaluates the NHIS to determine whether it is fulfi lling its purpose in the context of the Millennium Development Goals #4 and #5 which deal with the health of women and
Joseph Mensah; Joseph R. Oppong; Christoph M. Schmidt
The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been hindered by various biological and physiological impediments. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions, there is little evidence of recruitment of naturally-produced fish in annual fall assessments. Spawning occurs
The lake trout Salvelinus namaycush is the focus of an international effort by fishery management agencies to restore this once-native species to Lake Ontario. Evaluation of reproductive success and comparisons among stocked lake trout strains require genetic markers. We used allozyme variation to make genetic comparisons among strains of lake trout stocked into Lake Ontario. Forty-two proteins presumed to be
Charles C. Krueger; J. Ellen Marsden; Harold L. Kincaid; Bernie May
Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019
Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos
In this paper, the frequencies of droughty and wet weather patterns are investigated. For this reason, a multi objective fuzzy rule - based classification method has been applied. This classification conditions daily rainfall time series to large-scale atmospheric weather patterns. First, weather patterns within the sector 40°W10°S to 30°E60°N, which are significantly linked to past (1961-1990) droughty and wet weather situation of 5 different regions within the Volta basin, are identified. Therefore, several meteorological predictor variables of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set have been tested towards usability. The occurrence frequencies of the extreme weather patterns are analyzed at inter-annual and decadal time scale using the best performing predictor variable for each region. Second, frequency distribution of extreme weather patterns of the 1961-1990 period is compared to the 2011-2040 period. The analysis of the future time slice has been conducted using the A1B driven ECHAM5 data set. The impact of climate change on the frequency change of droughty and wet circulation patterns is presented and discussed. Keywords A1B scenario, Droughty and Wet Weather Patterns, ECHAM5, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, Weather Pattern Analysis
... false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69...93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall...
... false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69...93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall...
In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496
This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899
We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana.
Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi
This resource describes the shorelines of the Grate Lakes from the wetlands along the Lake Ontario shore, to the sand dunes along Lake Michigan, to the rocky shore of Lake Superior, which abounds in diversity. Students will discover that millions of years of glacial formation, wind, lava flows, and changing lake levels have sculpted a unique and ever changing shoreline. The first section describes the work of the glaciers while the second explains the formation, composition, and importance of beaches and continues to the third which describes sand dunes. The next section contains detailed information about the wetlands associated with the Great Lakes. The glaciated rocky shore of Isle Royale is the next topic and the site ends with a statement regarding human impact on the shoreline. Each section contains links to sites for more information.
Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.
A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: email@example.com Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 ?m-25 ?m.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 ?g/m3 to 1344 ?g/m3 with an average of 532 ?g/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 ?m to 2.43 ?m with an average of 1.5 ?m ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 ?m. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.
The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data. Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior. Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n?=?238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n?=?129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n?=?32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n?=?22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n?=?17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9–52.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1–29.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1–8.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5–6.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8–4.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered.
Nielsen, Maja Verena; Sarpong, Nimako; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Loag, Wibke; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Marks, Florian; Huenger, Frank; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jurgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg
Title : Underground Freezer at Lake Bonney Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : January 05 ... the surface of the lake (located about 30 meters from the freezer). Current lake water chemistry ...
There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118
Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business and health facility.
Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.
This highly interactive mapping tool features rivers and streams, watershed boundaries, water depth, political boundaries, elevation and land cover of the Great Lakes region. Students, volunteers and others can upload quantitative measurements and field notes, and share this with others around the globe. This type of learning provides a rich geographic context that allows participants to gain a better understanding of how they are connected to the Great Lakes. National Geographic partnered with Michigan Sea Grant to develop Great Lakes FieldScope to encourage the exploration and investigation of Great Lakes science and education.
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs showing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity measurements for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to solve the problem.
The Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse Web site is part of the US Geological Survey's Lake Tahoe Initiative. The agency's goal for the site is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental-management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Products available include Digital Elevation Models, Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles, Digital Line Graphs, Digital Raster Graphics, maps and soil information of the area, and much more. The downloads include clear descriptions and examples for those unsure of the particular data types, making their use a snap for researchers, professionals, or anyone interested in the Lake Tahoe region. [JAB
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake located in Cameroon, Africa, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people and countless livestock and other animals in the area. This case, intended for use in a limnology or an aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts related to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs containing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity data for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to understand what happened.
This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.
There are two major categories of traditional healers in contemporary Ghana. The traditionalists still adhere to the basic concepts and methods of traditional healing. A significant proportion of healers have, however, adopted a new approach to healing. These new-style healers are rejecting some of the traditional beliefs about etiology of illness, and are reorganizing their medical practice. They have more education, live in cities, and acquire “modern” medical knowledge through formal training at Traditional Medical Training Centers. This new development has had a significant impact on the contributions of traditional medicine in health care delivery in Ghana.
The objective of this study was to examine psychology students' attitudes toward suicidal behaviour and the meanings they assign to the act. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 final year psychology students at a university in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the students had a generalized negative attitude toward suicide. Religious beliefs and family harmony are cultural contexts influencing the interpretation of suicidal behaviour as breach of divine and communal moralities. The implications of these meanings of suicidal behaviour for suicide prevention in Ghana are discussed. PMID:22021107
Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe Loa
"When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana [the 1988-1989 Ghana Living Standards Survey], we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters)." PMID:12294784
A study of the immunization determinants of children aged 12 to 18 months was conducted in 1991 in the Eastern Region of Ghana, using structured interviews of mothers and fathers. The completion of immunization schedules by one year, among the 294 children, was positively associated (P < 0.005) with the town of residence of the child and mother, the ability of the mother to speak English, the target child having been treated for illness at the local hospital, the child's mother having given birth to less than 5 children, the possession of a sewing machine by the mother, and the birth of the child in the current town of residence. Significantly higher immunization coverage levels were achieved where the Under Fives' Clinic was an affordable and acceptable service, integrating preventive and curative care, and where measures were implemented by the community to increase attendance levels at the Clinic. This was achieved among a target group who were otherwise at a relatively high risk of failing to complete immunization schedules on-time. PMID:10151849
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for "crimes" only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels--preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596
Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554
McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J
Objective This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives. Materials and methods Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments. Results Findings showed that students had little knowledge of contraceptives. The male and female condoms were the main contraceptive types reported out of the many modern and traditional methods of contraceptives. The main benefits of contraceptives were; ability to protect against STIs, abortions, unwanted pregnancy and psychological trauma. Whilst most respondents preferred future use of pills, side-effects of contraceptives were mostly reported for condoms than other contraceptive methods. Results showed that participants had bad attitudes towards unmarried contraceptive users. Conclusion Generally, our findings show that detailed knowledge about contraceptives is low. There is a little gap of information on contraception knowledge, timing, and contraceptive types among university diploma students. Reproductive and maternal services should be available and accessible for tertiary students.
Age differences between partners, where females are relatively younger than their male partners, can negatively affect power dynamics and subsequent negotiations for safe sex practices with implications on unplanned pregnancies and STIs transmission. This paper examines the effects of age differentials on condom use at first sex. Using a weighted sample of 925 women drawn from the fifth round of Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying complementary log-log model, the probability of first sex being protected vis-a-vis partner age differences are estimated. The results suggest that females' being ten or more years younger than their male partners at first sex was a significant indicator of non-protection while at age intervals 1-4 and 5-9 years, the probability of protected sex inflates significantly. The results demonstrate that large age disparities between partners pose a significant barrier to protection during first sex and strategies have to be developed to altering wrong perceptions associated with intergenerational sex, particularly, in settings such as Africa where gerontocratic tendencies pervade not only social relationships but sexual as well. PMID:23444544
The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of nonmarine organisms, and thus the evolution of freshwater organisms, can occur in a short geologic timespan. Because of their unique and varied conditions, the evolution of nonmarine organisms may be linked to lake basin type as well as lake longevity.
A series of 33 charts is presented to illustrate the ice cover on the Great Lakes for three classifications of winter; mild, normal and severe. Six ice charts are provided for each of the Great Lakes. Two charts show the maximum extent of ice cover during...
This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…
Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.
Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)
The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.
Stofan, E. R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K. L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.
The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity
Jinjun Kan; Scott Clingenpeel; Richard E Macur; William P Inskeep; Dave Lovalvo; John Varley; Yuri Gorby; Timothy R McDermott; Kenneth Nealson
We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…
This 9-page PDF examines the importance of Yellowstone Lake to humans in prehistoric times. The shorelines around the lake have been eroding and exposing artifacts that remain hidden elsewhere in the Park. The archeological sites expose artifacts, mostly rock chips, which point to seasonal occupations such as stone procurement, tool manufacture and repair.
RadA is an archaeal orthologue of human recombinase Rad51. This superfamily of recombinases, which also includes eukaryal meiosis-specific DMC1 and remotely related bacterial RecA, form filaments on single-stranded DNA in the presence of ATP and promote a strand exchange reaction between the single-stranded DNA and a homologous double stranded DNA. Due to its feasibility of getting crystals and similarity (> 40% sequence identity) to eukaryal homologues, we have studied RadA from Methanococcus voltae (MvRadA) as a structural model for understanding the molecular mechanism of homologous strand exchange. Here we show this protein's ATPase and strand exchange activities are minimal at pH 6.0. Interestingly, MvRadA's pH dependence is similar to the properties of human Rad51 but dissimilar to that of the well-studied E. coli RecA. A structure subsequently determined at pH 6.0 reveals features indicative of an ATPase- inactive form with a disordered L2 loop. Comparison with a previously determined ATPase-active form at pH 7.5 implies that the stability of the ATPase-active conformation is reduced at the acidic pH. We interpret these results as further suggesting an ordered disposition of the DNA-binding L2 region, similar to what has been observed in the previously observed ATPase-active conformation, is required for promoting hydrolysis of ATP and strand exchange between singleand double-stranded DNA. His-276 in the mobile L2 region was observed to be partially responsible for the pH-dependent activities of MvRadA. PMID:24654848
This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of 'tucunaré', but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for 'tucunaré' might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir. PMID:19347164
Martins, M L; Pereira, J; De Chambrier, A; Yamashita, M M
Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994-1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs that Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.
Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.
Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the
Spectral irradiance has been measured as a function of depth in Crater Lake, Oregon, and Lake Tahoe, California. In Lake Tahoe, Secchi disk observations and submarine pho- tometer measurements have been recorded year round since July 1967. Also, in Lake Tahoe, beam transmittance has been measured as a function of depth. From these data the radiant energy input and certain
RAYMOND C. SMITH; JOHN E. TYLER; CHARLES R. GOLDMAN
Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild
Mark E. Holey; Ronald W. Rybicki; Gary W. Eck; Edward H. Brown Jr.; J. Ellen Marsden; Dennis S. Lavis; Michael L. Toneys; Tom N. Trudeau; Ross M. Horrall
Dissolved oxygen cycling patterns in a tropical lake (Weija Lake) were shown to be useful as a potential indicator of biodegradable organic pollution, by dosing with liquid malt to give an additional organic burden of 2.5 and 5.0 mg l-1 TOC, and monitoring the DO values continuously for 140 h. These loadings were added to water columns (in tubes) suspended from a raft in a lake in south-east Ghana. The addition of organic pollution burden to the lake water produced two main effects: the mean DO value was lowered, and the amplitude of the DO cycle decreased as organic loading increased from 2.5 to 5.0 mg l-1 TOC. There was also an indication of heterotrophic respiration associated with organic inputs for the 5.0 mg l-1 added TOC suggesting a P/R ratio of well below 1.0. Taking the results of a DO cycling computer model together with those from the lake raft experiments, it can be concluded that dissolved oxygen cycles can be a good indicator of biodegradable organic pollution load. PMID:10472131
A physical model of a generic lava lake system is developed. We derive the requisite conditions for the existence of an 'equilibrium lava lake' in which magmastatic pressure at the base of the conduit balances the pressure in the underlying magmatic reservoir. The stability of this lava lake system is tested by investigating the response of the system to perturbation. We develop a graphical method, based on the system's pressure-depth profile, to predict the subsequent behaviour of the system. Despite the simplicity of the modelled system, we find a broad behavioural spectrum. Initially, the rise of bubbles through the magma is ignored. In this case, both stable, long-lived lava lakes, and unstable lakes that are prone to sudden draining, are predicted. The stability of the system is shown to be controlled by lake-conduit geometry, the solubility and gas expansion laws and the magma's volatile content. We show that an unstable lake must collapse to a new, stable equilibrium. Subsequent recharge of the system by, for example, conduit overturn, would promote a return to the original equilibrium, giving rise to cyclic behaviour. Such a mechanism is consistent with lava lake behaviour during the 1983-1984 Pu'u 'O'o eruption of Kilauea. When the rise of bubbles through the magma is considered, our model predicts that stable lakes must drain over time. We, therefore, deduce that persistently degassing, stable lava lakes, such as those observed at Mt. Erebus, Antarctica, and Mauna Ulu, Kilauea, Hawaii, must have an effective conduit convection mechanism or an exogenous supply of bubbles from depth.
Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.
In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…
Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…
Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.
This study was undertaken to examine the instructional practices of teachers in inclusive classrooms in Ghana. It also assessed the influence of selected teacher background variables on inclusive practices. Thirty-seven (37) teachers from 20 primary schools in two districts completed a background information questionnaire and were observed during…
This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…
This paper investigates the respective roles of spatial integration and transport costs in explaining price changes in Ghana. We introduce a model of price formation and market integration that incorporates the price transmission process between local and central markets and also captures the implications for volatility of local prices. We explore the implications of the model for the time-path of
In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…
This paper traces the development of special education in Ghana, with a particular focus on the education of people with learning difficulties. The influence of the British perspective is recognized as having played a critical role in its initial development; but while trends are increasingly shifting towards inclusive practices, the institutionalization of people with learning difficulties and others with disabilities
Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…
Sixty-one samples of canned tomato paste comprising seven brands originating from three countries and sold in local markets in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana were analysed for levels of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and for levels of mercury (Hg) by direct mercury analyzer. Mean heavy metal concentrations varied
Nathaniel Boadi; John Mensah; Sylvester Twumasi; Mercy Badu; Irene Osei
Despite the fact that French remains a foreign language in Ghana, it plays an important role in many social sectors in the Ghanaian contemporary society. Therefore, this language deserves official support from the Ghanaian government such that funding can be procured for its promotion. In our research work, we have stressed the importance of being able to communicate fluently in
The perennial political and social upheavals in major oil-producing regions, the increasing energy demand from emerging economies, the global economic crisis and even environmental disasters, like the recent major oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, all contribute to price fluctuations and escalations. Usually price instability affects the least-developed countries with the most fragile economies, like Ghana, the most. This
The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have
Ghana is dealing with extensive urban periphery settlements due to the massive migration of rural inhabitants to the cities, especially to the political and economic capital, Accra and other regional capitals including Cape Coast. This phenomenon has culminated in indiscriminate solid waste disposal. With no effective municipal solid waste collection system in place, heaps of refuse have become ubiquitous in
Isaac M. BRYANT; Frederick A. ARMAH; Alex N. M. PAPPOE
Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over
Nana O. K. Mainoo; Suzelle Barrington; Joann K. Whalen; Luis Sampedro
Slums are examples of localized communities within third-world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana, by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The study objectives are
Ghana's capital Accra, has a resident population of about 1.6 million and an annual growth rate of 3.4 %. With a 5% poverty index, there are 90000 people earning less than 1 USD per day. The increasing demand for and use of domestic water in the city, simultaneously translates into wastewater generation. What is little known in most developing cities,
Ernest Mensah Abraham; Daan van Rooijen; Olufunke Cofie; Liqa Raschid-Sally
The temporary suspension of diamond exports in Ghana in 2006 and 2007 is arguably the most significant move to address mounting criticisms of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), an international initiative aimed at stemming the flow of rough diamonds used to finance wars. The ban, which took effect in November 2006, was much praised, particularly in civil society circles,
Pre-service teacher training has been identified as one of the key factors in the promotion of inclusive education. In this study, 200 final-year pre-service teachers from three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed about their views and knowledge on inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN). The results showed that almost all…
From January 6 through 16, a five-person team from the Washington, D.C.-based Safe Schools Program (SSP) traveled to Ghana. The overall objectives of this first exploratory trip were to: o Inform the team of the extent of the problem of school-related gen...
Ten years after the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) was first reported in Ghana, it continues to spread throughout the country following patterns that are rare in other African countries. HIV is seen in twice as many females as males, more frequently in rural than urban regions, and regions with high rates of polygamy have significantly lower rates. The evidence presented
In West Africa, farm income is highly exposed to risks from crop failure in the drier, inland areas, and from fluctuations in (world market) prices in the wetter coastal areas. As individuals and even extended families are poorly equipped to deal with these, provision of social safety nets is required Our paper reviews the situation in Ghana and the way
Vasco Molini; Michiel A. Keyzer; Bart van den Boom; Wouter Zant
This article analyses land use and vegetation change in the savanna contexts of central Zimbabwe and coastal Ghana. The results of analyses based on field surveys, time series aerial photographs\\/satellite images and GIS methods challenge current assumptions of linear vegetation change under social dynamics in these two contexts. The evidence from these areas rather points to multi-directional and patch dynamic
Analysis of a sample of 1,636 11- to 20-year olds from the Ghana Living Standards Survey showed the following: no strong selectivity bias in the sorting of higher ability children into better schools; indirect effects of improving school quality on student achievement; and repairing classrooms as a cost-effective investment compared to providing…
This study investigated why the primary school enrollment of children in poor countries is often delayed despite the prediction made by human capital theory that schooling will begin at the earliest possible age. Using data from the 1988-89 Ghana Living Standards Survey household questionnaire, the study examined the age of enrollment,…
This paper summarises findings and lessons from a recently conducted evaluation of an adult functional literacy program in Ghana. The study attempted to assess learners' literacy and numeracy skills, and ascertain participants' knowledge and skills in various development aspects as well as their impact. The literacy and numeracy skills assessment…
This paper explores the use of informal credit as a strategy for managing risks by market women in northern Ghana. A broad concept of the costs of risk management strategies is introduced and encompasses both a time and monetary dimension. Based on qualitative data, the analysis reveals that market women invest a considerable amount of time in maintaining complex networks
This study examines employment relations in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. This is done through in-depth case studies of three private firms in the service sector. A review of the extant literature on SMEs revealed a dearth of knowledge on employment relations in SMEs in Africa. Previous research into SMEs in developing countries – and Africa in particular
R-mode hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis (PCA) were simultaneously applied to surface water hydrochemical data from three different locations, Ankwaso, Dominase and Prestea, along the Ankobra Basin, Ghana, to extract principal factors corresponding to the different sources of variation in the hydrochemistry, with the objective of defining the main controls on the hydrochemistry at the basin scale. Using the
Sandow M. Yidana; Duke Ophori; Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo
This paper explores three main issues in the context of Ghana: constraints on the delivery of effective special educational needs (SEN); the range of information and communication technologies (ICT)-based needs identified by teachers, pupils and organizations involved in the delivery of SEN; and existing practices in the use of ICTs in SEN in the country. It concludes that people with
Among the factors determining the success or failure in Civil Service Reform (CSR) are high level political administrative commitment; and the motivation and in- volvement of civil servants themselves in a bureaucratic system that is too weak to impose central top-down reform. The article evaluates Ghana's Civil Service Reform Programme (CSRP), which was intended to make the civil service a
This paper explores the linkages at the family level between sustained high fertility and children's schooling in Ghana, in the context of a constrained economic environment and rising school fees. The unique feature of the paper is its exploration of the operational significance of alternative definitions of “sib size” – the number of “same-mother” siblings and “same-father” siblings – in
This paper examines the gendered implications of Africa's transport gap (the lack of cheap, regular and reliable transport) for young people in rural Ghana, with particular reference to the linkages between restricted mobility, household work demands, access to education and livelihood potential. Our aim is to show how mobility constraints, especially as these interact with household labour demands, restrict young
Gina Porter; Kate Hampshire; Albert Abane; Augustine Tanle; Kobina Esia-Donkoh; Regina Obilie Amoako-Sakyi; Samuel Agblorti; Samuel Asiedu Owusu
This paper investigates the educational philosophy and practices of Achimota School, which was established in the Gold Coast Colony (the southern part of today's Ghana) in 1927 as the governmental model school for leadership education. Achimota's education aimed to develop leaders who were "Western in intellectual attitude", "African in sympathy".…
This paper is a theoretical and empirical investigation into the impact of the structural adjustment programme on forest loss in Ghana between the period 1965-95. A dynamic optimal contro l problem approach is used to derive a rec ursive model consisting of forest loss, cocoa land, maize land and timber production equations. The first equation being a function of the
The effects of climate change and variability on water availability in Ghana is being felt throughout the country. Coping with water scarcity has become a major issue. Most communities in the Offin River basin are rural with no pipe-borne water, and consist predominantly of farmers who depend on irrigation for their crops. The basin provides the communities with water for
Benjamin Apraku Gyampoh; Monica Idinoba; Steve Amisah
Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…
* Author for correspondence SUMMARY Objectives - To explore the degree of agreement on issues surrounding the proposals for dental health personnel requirements among key oral health personalities who are central to determining policy on oral health personnel requirements for Ghana and to make recommendations to assist in the future development of dental health personnel requirements. Design - A review
E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…
Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.
This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…
Alfisols and Ultisols of the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana are known to be moderately acid and very low in plant available phosphorus (P). These soils need to be fertilized to increase crop production but due to economic reasons local farmers are unable to afford water-soluble P fertilizers. Instead of expensive superphosphates, the use of less expensive phosphate rocks such
Large quantities of P fertilizer are applied to savanna soils of northern Ghana to increase crop yield. Little is known about the influence of this fertilizer on the activity of nitrifying bacteria in these soils. This study was conducted to ascertain the possibility of using the population of nitrifying bacteria as an index of the effect of applied P on
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of ownership structure and corporate governance on corporate liquidity policy from a developing country perspective, Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors adopt multiple regression analysis in estimating the relationship between ownership structure, corporate governance and corporate liquidity policy as well as the impact of corporate governance
Godfred A. Bokpin; Zangina Isshaq; Francis Aboagye-Otchere
We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.
Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian
We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767
Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix
Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…
This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…
This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…
Partnership and sector-wide approaches have become common denominators for success in educational development. It is, however, far easier to agree on the rhetoric than to implement the underlying principles. The comparative analysis of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique highlights how far governments and agencies still have to go in order to…
The purpose of this inquiry was to investigate the perceptions of former service personnel, students and their parents about the organizational effectiveness of the Ghana National Service Scheme (GNSS). The inquiry addressed the following questions: How do the participants perceive the effectiveness of the national service program on the Ghanaian society? What are the perceptions of school administrators who worked
This study investigates the apparent contradiction between the high propensity of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana who identify finance as their primary constraint and the view of banks that SME lending remains low in part for lack of b...
E. Aryeetey T. Duggleby A. Baah-Nuakoh H. Hettige W. F. Steel
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
This paper, based on the findings of a qualitative study, discusses the influence of Ghana's recently introduced English-only language-in-education policy on pupils' classroom communicative practices and learning generally. It highlights how the use of English--an unfamiliar language--creates anxiety among students and stalls effective classroom…
Across contemporary Africa, pluralistic medical fields are becoming increasingly complex, giving rise to newly emerging constellations of healing practices and a vast array of therapeutic possibilities. We present portraits of four ‘traditional’ healers in southern Ghana who selectively adapt, adopt and modify elements of biomedical, ‘local’ and ‘exotic’ healing practices in eclectic and creative ways, positioning themselves strategically in a
This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a bi...
BACKGROUND: Information on the epidemiology of malaria is essential for designing and interpreting results of clinical trials of drugs, vaccines and other interventions. As a background to the establishment of a site for anti-malarial drugs and vaccine trials, the epidemiology of malaria in a rural site in central Ghana was investigated. METHODS: Active surveillance of clinical malaria was carried out
Seth Owusu-Agyei; Kwaku Poku Asante; Martin Adjuik; George Adjei; Elizabeth Awini; Mohammed Adams; Sam Newton; David Dosoo; Dominic Dery; Akua Agyeman-Budu; John Gyapong; Brian Greenwood; Daniel Chandramohan
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. The current strategy of the National Malaria Control Programme is based on effective case management and the use of insecticide treated bed nets among vulnerable groups such as children under-five years of age and pregnant women. Resistance to pyrethroids by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus has been reported in
Francis Anto; Victor Asoala; Thomas Anyorigiya; Abraham Oduro; Martin Adjuik; Seth Owusu-Agyei; Dominic Dery; Langbong Bimi; Abraham Hodgson
As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...
Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…
The effect of prophylactic vitamin A supple- mentation on child growth was studied in two randomized, place- bo-controlled trials carried out in adjacent areas of northern Ghana between 1989 and 1991. In the Health Study, the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and weight of the ? 1500 children (aged 6-59 mo) in the trial were measured every 4 wk for up
Betty R Kirk; David A Ross; Paul Arthur; Saul S Morris; Nicola Dollimore; Fred N Binka; Rosie P Shier; Hutton A Addy; Peter G Smith
The study was undertaken at the Muni-Pomadze coastal wetland in the Central Region of Ghana. The wetland, located about 56 km west of Accra, is an important habitat for wildlife of both local and global conservation significance. This study investigated the effects of human activities (e.g. farming, hunting, fuelwood harvesting, etc.) on the environment and biodiversity conservation in the area,
Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education--age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana…
This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…
This study compares simple fish communities of ten oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario. Species densities and population size structure vary significantly among these lake communities depending on fish species present beyond the littoral zone. Lake whitefish are fewer and larger in the presence of lake herring than in their absence. Diet analysis indicates that lake whitefish shift from feeding on both plankton and benthic prey when lake herring are absent to a primarily benthic feeding niche in the presence of lake herring. When benthic round whitefish are present, lake whitefish size and density decline and they move lower in the lake compared to round whitefish. Burbot are also fewer and larger in lakes with lake herring than in lakes without herring. Burbot, in turn, appear to influence the population structure of benthic coregonine species. Lower densities of benthic lake whitefish and round whitefish are found in lakes containing large benthic burbot than in lakes with either small burbot or where burbot are absent. Predation on the pelagic larvae of burbot and lake whitefish by planktivorous lake herring alters the size and age structure of these populations. As life history theory predicts, those species with poor larval survival appear to adopt a bet-hedging life history strategy of long-lived individuals as a reproductive reserve.
Background Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. Methods This work was based on the World Health Organization’s multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Results Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR?=?1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR?=?1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR?=?1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR?=?1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher in the 70+ years age group, in women, among urban residents and in those with at least secondary education. Quitting tobacco use also increased with increasing income levels. Conclusions Tobacco use among older adults in Ghana was associated with older men living in rural locations, chronic ill-health and reduced life satisfaction. A high proportion of older adults have stopped using tobacco, demonstrating the possibilities for effective public health interventions. Health risk reduction strategies through targeted anti-smoking health campaigns, improvement in access to health and social protection (such as health insurance) will reduce health risks among older persons who use tobacco.
Visceral Leishmaniasis has been showing remarkable epidemiological changes in recent decades, with marked expansion and an emergence of cases in urban areas of the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. The Kala-azar cases reported here, despite being very characteristic, presented a great difficulty of diagnosis, because the disease is not endemic in Volta Redonda. The child underwent two hospitalizations in different hospitals, but got the correct diagnosis only after 11 months of symptom onset. In this report we discuss the main differential diagnoses and call attention to the suspected symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, even in areas not traditionally endemic for the disease.
Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Lima, Sebastiao Roberto de Almeida; de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Cardoso, Daniela Trindade; Mello, Jurema Nunes; do Espirito Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Tavares, Walter
As part of The Great Lakes Information Network, The Education And Curriculum Homesite (TEACH) "focuses on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond." The Introduction to the Great Lakes pages contain an overview of the watershed, including maps, photographs, and descriptions; other sections take a more detailed look at the five individual lakes. Additional links for further information are also provided -- such as Great Lake geography, history and culture, pollution, and more -- giving kids or anyone interested a well-designed introduction to the lakes.
The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food preparation at the household or "chop" bar (street restaurant). PMID:16328619
Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27-0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture-recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture-recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358
Hayman, David T S; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A; Rowcliffe, J Marcus
Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations.
Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus
Lake Bosumtwi is a hydrologically closed lake occupying a 1.07 Ma impact crater in Ghana, West Africa. The lake lies beneath the path of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ and therefore can provide a sedimentary record of monsoon variability in West Africa. Scientific drilling recovered a 291-m long sediment section that spans the full 1 Ma history of the lake. This long continental record is ideal for comparison to long marine and ice-core records at both glacial-interglacial and abrupt-change timescales. Oxygen-isotope stratigraphy, derived from calcareous fossils, often provides age control and a way to place individual marine sediment cores into a global stratigraphic framework. Lacking a direct tie-in to the marine oxygen-isotope stratigraphy, individual lacustrine basins can present challenges for global correlation. Through radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and paleomagnetic dating, limited age control has been established for the 1 Ma Lake Bosumtwi sediment sequence. Within a Bosumtwi sediment sequence that is mostly laminated occur intervals of non-laminated sediment having increased density, decreased organic content and a high-coercivity magnetic mineral assemblage. Some of these massive layers contain slump-folding and intraformational clasts. These lithologies are interpreted to represent lake-level lowstands when a diminished West African summer monsoon resulted in decreased moisture balance and lake-level regression. Some Bosumtwi lake-level lowstands match intervals of increased sea surface salinity in the Gulf of Guinea resulting from reduced river discharge (Weldeab et al. 2007, Science, 316, 1303-1307). However, during other intervals (MIS2) there are differences between the two records. Corresponding to glacial stages and stadials, increased amounts of high-coercivity magnetic minerals are present in the Lake Bosumtwi sediment. Elevated aerosol dust export from arid Sahel sources, possibly accompanied by enhanced magnetic-mineral diagenesis during lake- level lowstands, is interpreted to have produced this magnetic signature. The Bosumtwi dust proxy record displays variability similar to that of published dust records from marine and polar settings. Comparing this continental dust record to a marine dust record off the coast of West Africa provides additional constraints on identifying glacial-interglacial variability in the 1 Ma long lacustrine sediment sequence.
Peck, J. A.; Shanahan, T. M.; King, J. W.; Overpeck, J. T.; Scholz, C. A.; Heil, C.; Forman, S. L.; Amoako, P. Y.
Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.
Before 1920, Ghana did not have any organized modern maternal and child health (MCH) services. Since then, substantial developments have taken place in all aspects of life in Ghana. Hospitals and maternity centers were established, and a campaign against maternal and infant mortality was initiated. The infant mortality rate fell from 360 in 1915 to the current country average of 121. However, the decline is not attributed solely or even mainly to MCH services, which has many weaknesses and problems relating to distribution of services, personnel development, and coordination with related agencies. In the north of Ghana, infant mortality rate is estimated at 234/1000 while in the south, the urban city of Accra has an estimated 85/1000. Trained midwives deliver only about 25% of babies; this is probably a valid measure of the outreach of services. Accra, accounting for only 10% of the population of Ghana, appears to utilize 30% of the health services: 1/3 of all deliveries and of all immunizations take place in Accra, and 28% of all public health nurses but only 15% of the community health nurses are in Accra. Another problem of MCH is the lack of amenities in the rural areas, such as safe water supplies, electricity, or educational facilities for children. It appears that the only hope of servicing these areas is by the use of lesser trained persons. Large numbers of local persons should be given training. Another alternative is to make better use of already exisiting MCH personnel by giving them resources to do their jobs effectively and enabling them to work more closely with their local communities. Ghana's MCH services have done well in urban areas. A major task now is to improve the quality of life in the rural and disadvantaged areas. PMID:7033560
In Ghana, West Africa, the prevalence of dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections remains to be clarified, and HIV viral load measurement is yet to be established. Conventional assays for HIV-1 RNA measurements have been limited specifically to HIV-1 subtype B, preventing their utilization for Ghana where HIV-1 subtypes A, D and G are prevalent. Therefore, we set out to distinguish the types of HIV infection existing in Ghana so as to determine the extent of actual dual infections, and to measure plasma HIV-1 RNA. Blood samples were collected from 563 sick and healthy Ghanaians who visited hospitals in 1996 and 1997. After T cells were counted, HIV antibody was screened and confirmed by six different commercial assays and one in-house test. Nested PCR was then used to verify HIV-1 and HIV-2 presence by type-specific primers. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was measured by an improved commercial RT-PCR assay, sensitive to all HIV-1 group M subtypes. HIV-1 alone (89%) clearly dominated over HIV-2 alone (2%), and HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infections were found in 9%. Valid viral load measurements were obtained on test plasma representing the main HIV-1 subtype (A) prevailing in Ghana. A high amount of HIV-1 RNA (5.9 mean log10 RNA copies/ml) was observed in the typical stages of HIV infection represented by groups of CD44 cell counts. We have clarified the seroprevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 amongst HIV seropositives, and the high viral load of HIV-1 reflects its influence on AIDS in Ghana. PMID:12160214
Ampofo, W K; Koyanagi, Y; Brandful, J; Ishikawa, K; Yamamoto, N
Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.
Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE
Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system.
Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead. In this harsh desert environment, color infrared photography readily penetrates haze, detects and portrays vegetation as shades of red.
The bathymetry survey of Crater Lake by scientists from the USGS, University of New Hampshire's Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, and the National Park Service, began on July 28, 2000. This site houses the first images gained from the high-resolution multi-beam technology survey. Various digital data such as digital raster graphics and digital line graphs may be viewed as .jpeg and .gif images or downloaded as .zip files. Besides the bathymetric data, the site features information on the geology, ecology, and history of Crater Lake, and beautiful .gif images of the lake and surrounding areas.
An establishment is recommended for an educational and recreational natural area at the south end of Watson Lake near Prescott, Arizona. The site hosts a large variety of breeding and wintering bird species and represents a much exploited fairly uncommon ...
The TEACH Great Lakes Web site is provided by the Great Lakes Information Network (last mentioned in the September 15, 1995 Scout Report). The site features online lessons specific to Great Lakes subjects such as the environment, geography, and pollution. Students can begin with the Introduction to the Great Lakes module and then move on to learn about water levels, shoreline geology, water pollution, and even explore the history and culture or careers and business areas as well. Geared for elementary through high school students, the activities present easily read material along with good photographs and other interesting graphics. Overall, the site provides good information on interesting topics with which students will enjoy becoming familiar as part of their science related curriculum.
The problems in Lake Merritt, California include nuisance growth of algae and widgeon grass. The study evaluates treatment combinations including: Dredging, riprap of the shoreline, harvesting, control of the water level fluctuations, and herbicides. Any ...
Fluctuations of population densities of phytoplankton in 4 basins of Lake Minnetonka in Minnesota were inferred from changes of concentrations of chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon during the ice-fee season. Concentrations of chlorophyll a durin...
The Beal Lake Restoration Project (the project) is located on Havasu National Wildlife Refuge in Needles, California, within the historic floodplain of the lower Colorado River. When completed, it will include over 200 acres of cottonwood, willow and mesq...
An establishment of a scientific or educational natural area on the east side of Mormon Lake has been proposed. The area supports an unusual floral assemblage and may be important to vertebrates (especially migrating songbirds) as well. The cliffs include...
Determining the effects of morphological conditions, turbidity and watershed land use / land cover patterns on nutrient levels in Central Plains lakes and reservoirs. The study involves intensive field monitoring for the calibration and verification of basin and watershed models...
One of the deepest and most ancient lakes in the world, Lake Baikal is situated in the south of Eastern Siberia. Its age and complicated evolutionary history make it home to a wide variety of plants and animals. This site describes ecological problems, climatic conditions, geology, and cultural aspects of the region, and includes detailed maps and photographs. Portions of the site are translated into French and German.
Sedimentary basins of late Precambrian age have been identified beneath Lake Superior using seismic reflection profiles leased by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., from Grant Norpac, Inc. [McGinnis et al., 1989]. These data, along with 650 km of Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program for Crustal Evolution (GLIMPCE) profiles [Behrendt et al., 1988], are being used to develop an understanding of failed rift processes, from initial plate separation, through basin evolution, to final quiescence.
The mineral-resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in northeastern Wisconsin was evaluated. Only a strip along the southwest corner of the wilderness is assessed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the massive sulfide type. The geologic terrain precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources. Sand and gravel and peat in swampy lowlands are the only resources of the Whisker lake Wilderness.
Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch
Once a great inland lake, Lake Chad (13.0N, 14.0E) in the Sahara Desert at the intersection of the African nations of Chad, Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon, is now in decline. The larger northern lobe is almost totally dry and slowly filling in with encroaching sand dunes. The southern lobe, still retains some water in the lower center but the water surface area is less than 2000 square kilometers and sand dunes are filling in the north end.
The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.
This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.
Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center
Lake Creede was moderately saline closed-basin lake that developed in the 26.9 Ma Creede caldera in the San Juan Mountains in the southwest Colorado. The volcaniclastic sediments deposited within the late Oligocene lake were first described and named as the Creede Formation by Emmons and Larsen (1923). The lake and its sedimentary fill are of interest first as representatives of a caldera-hosted lake in a silicic volcanic terrane, and second because of the likely involvement of lake fluids or related pore waters in the deposition of the 25 Ma silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district north of the Creede caldera (Fig. 1), as proposed Bethke and Rye (1979). Much of the material presented in this volume is based on observation of core samples and on downhole geophysical measurements obtained as part of a U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program in the moat of the Creede caldera. These core and downhole studies are supplemented by outcrop studies, some initiated in support of the drilling program (Bethke and Lipman, 1987), and by conceptual studies of the evolution of the Creede caldera and its surrounding landscape. Not surprisingly, not all authors agree on all interpretation. Most disagreements are pointed out in this overview chapter, and may present opportunities for future study.
These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students are presented with data on a particular lake that they must synthesize in order to determine the cause of an event that occurred in 1986 in Cameroon, Africa. The case centers on Cameroon's Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake which released a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1700 people, livestock, and wildlife in the area. The case can be used in a limnology or an aquatic biology course and was intended to introduce and reinforce the concepts of thermal stratification and use students' curiosity about this event to get them to think about how layers of water develop. The case could also be extended to cover or review other concepts such as lake formation (in this case, volcanism as a lake-forming process) or gas solution (in this case, carbon dioxide solution). The case could also be used throughout a limnology course because it deals with many aspects of the subject: lake origins, thermal stratification, gases, water movements, and applied limnology (remediation of problems). Instructors can introduce the case early in a course and refer back to it when each new topic comes up. The case also allows students to synthesize different types of limnological data to solve a serious problem.
Many of the large lakes of the world have been exposed to the introduction of exotic species. We have reviewed here the introduction of aquatic species in 18 large lakes on five continents (Laurentian Great Lakes, African Great Lakes, several Canadian lakes, Lake Titicaca, Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Gatun Lake, and Lake Biwa). We found that human activities, social preferences,
Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.
Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.
This Mercury Emission Reduction Strategy was developed at the direction of the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration (GLRC). The GLRC was convened by federal agencies, Great Lakes governors, Great Lakes mayors, Great Lakes tribes, and members of the Great La...
The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999....
Background Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. Methods In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PD) were analysed. Results In peripheral blood, P. falciparum was observed in 19%, 34%, and 53% by microscopy, HRP2 test, and PCR, respectively. For placental samples, these figures were 35%, 41%, and 59%. Irrespective of diagnostic tool, P. falciparum infection increased the risk of anaemia. Positive peripheral blood results of microscopy and PCR were not associated with LBW or PD. In contrast, the HRP2 test performed well in identifying women at increased risk of poor pregnancy outcome, particularly in case of a negative peripheral blood film. Adjusting for age, parity, and antenatal visits, placental HRP2 was the only marker of infection associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.5 (95%CI, 1.0–2.2)) and, at borderline statistical significance, PD (aOR, 1.4 (1.0–2.1)) in addition to anaemia (aOR, 2.3 (1.7–3.2)). Likewise, HRP2 in peripheral blood of seemingly aparasitaemic women was associated with PD (aOR, 1.7 (1.0–2.7)) and anaemia (aOR, 2.1 (1.4–3.2)). Conclusion Peripheral blood film microscopy not only underestimates placental malaria. In this highly endemic setting, it also fails to identify malaria as a cause of foetal impairment. Sub-microscopic infections detected by a HRP2 test in seemingly aparasitaemic women increase the risks of anaemia and PD. These findings indicate that the burden of malaria in pregnancy may be even larger than thought and accentuate the need for effective anti-malarial interventions in pregnancy.
Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Bedu-Addo, George; von Gaertner, Christiane; Boye, Renate; Fricke, Katrin; Hannibal, Iris; Karakaya, Filiz; Schaller, Marieke; Ulmen, Ulrike; Acquah, Patrick A; Dietz, Ekkehart; Eggelte, Teunis A; Bienzle, Ulrich
Teachers of grades 4-10 or informal settings and scientists from universities, federal agencies, state agencies, and not-for-profit organizations are invited to take part in innovative and cutting edge science education. Participants will experience the Lake Superior ecosystem firsthand with experts through: field and classroom activities, classroom activity idea sharing, learning how to use cutting edge research, data, and technology with their students, and making peer connections.
The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large, fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.
Janssen, J.; Jude, D. J.; Edsall, T. A.; Paddock, R. W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.
We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Fisher, T. G.; Loope, W. L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H. M.
Satellite view of Swim Lake (upper right) and nearby lakes in Polk County, Florida, surrounded by citrus groves. Courtesy Florida State University, 2008; Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008....
This activity is an on-line research activity in which students research different Minnesota lakes and determine their physical characteristics, chemical characteristics, and the overall health of the lake.
Meteotsunamis, or meteorological induced tsunamis, are meteorological in origin but exhibit long-period tsunami characteristics. Both meteotsunamis and seismic tsunamis have wave periods of 2 minutes to 2 hours and undergo resonant amplification that transforms relatively small waves in the open water into destructive forces at the coast. There are a number of amplification mechanisms including Proudman resonance, edge wave Greenspan resonance, as well as shoaling and harbor resonance. In this talk, we discuss several incidences of meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes. In Lake Michigan, an unexpected and destructive meteotsunami event occurred on June 26, 1954 when a 3 meter high wave struck the Chicago waterfront, resulting in seven fatalities. Ten days later on July 6, 1954, another meteotsunami event in southern Lake Michigan resulted in edge waves in excess of 1 m height. Nevertheless, these two events were generated by storms of vastly different size and propagation direction. More recently, in 2008 at least 25 meteotsunamis events with amplitudes of to 30 ~ 45 cm were observed in several major Lake Michigan harbors and were correlated with high-frequency pressure fronts passing along the west coast of Lake Michigan. Historical water level and meteorological records are analyzed to determine the mechanisms responsible for these meteotsunami events. Finally, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is employed to simulate select events to further explore in detail the possible meteotsunami mechanisms in the Great Lakes. Our ultimate goal is to provide real-time warning system to assess the coastal hazard and risk areas associated with meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes.
Wu, C.; Bechle, A.; Schwab, D. J.; Anderson, E. J.; Roebber, P. J.
Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team
This study provides the first long-term climatological analysis of lake-effect precipitation events that de- veloped in relation to a small lake (having a surface area of #1500 km2). The frequency and environmental conditions favorable for Lake Champlain lake-effect precipitation were examined for the nine winters (October-March) from 1997\\/98 through 2005\\/06. Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from Burlington, Vermont, were
Mountain Lake in Giles County, Virginia has a documented history of severe natural lake-level changes involving groundwater seepage that extend over the past 4200 years. Featured in the 1986 movie Dirty Dancing, the natural lake dried up completely in September 2008 and levels have not yet recovered. A hydrogeologic investigation was undertaken in an effort to determine the factors influencing lake level changes. A daily water balance, dipole-dipole electrical resistivity surveying, well logging and chemical sampling have shed light on: 1) the influence of a fault not previously discussed in literature regarding the lake, 2) the seasonal response to precipitation of a forested first-order drainage system in fractured rock, and 3) the possibility of flow pathways related to karst features. Geologic controls on lake level were investigated using several techniques. Geophysical surveys using dipole-dipole resistivity located possible subsurface flowpaths both to and from the lake. Well logs, lineament analysis, and joint sampling were used to assess structural controls on lake hydrology. Major ions were sampled at wells, springs, streams, and the lake to evaluate possible mixing of different sources of water in the lake. Groundwater levels were monitored for correlation to lake levels, rainfall events, and possible seismic effects. The hydrology of the lake was quantified with a water balance on a daily time step. Results from the water balance indicate steady net drainage and significant recharge when vegetation is dormant, particularly during rain-on-snow melt events. The resistivity survey reveals discrete areas that represent flow pathways from the lake, as well as flowpaths to springs upgradient of the lake located in the vicinity of the fault. The survey also suggests that some flowpaths may originate outside of the topographic watershed of the lake. Chemical evidence indicates karst may underlie the lakebed. Historical data suggest that artificial intervention to mitigate seepage would be required for lake level recovery in the near future.
The Eastern Lake Survey was conducted by the US EPA in the fall of 1984. Lakes were selected at random, based on a rigorous statistical design that permits estimates of the chemical and physical status of lake populations in specified regions of the survey. Complete chemical char...
42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
The Moses Lake Clean Lake Project represents a five-year effort designed to identify and control non-point pollution sources affecting Moses Lake water quality. The predominant land use in the watershed is agriculture. Urban areas have developed around mu...
Online previews of posters and data of the lake floor topography of Lakes Erie and Sinclair are available from the National Geophysical Data Center. Here users can view full-color .jpeg images of the bathymetry, meter-scale lake floor topography, and partial samples of gridded and vector data.
Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision.
The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers) in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs > 10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana. PMID:21647393
This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual’s education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person’s health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa.
Andrzejewski, Catherine S.; Reed, Holly E.; White, Michael J.
A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m(-2) and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m(-2) for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. PMID:22262818
Deatanyah, P; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Asiedu, G O; Adjei, D N; Dwapanyin, G O; Amoatey, E A
Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly prevalent in Ghana. Using qualitative methods, this paper draws from the political ecology of health theoretical framework to examine perceptions and understandings of HBV in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The findings reveal that extremely low levels of knowledge and pervasive lay misconceptions about the disease within this geographic context are shaped by large scale structural influences. Furthermore, in this context there is essentially no access to HBV immunizations, testing or treatment services which reinforces potential routes for the spread of HBV. An explosive spread of HBV is brewing with the potential to diffuse across space and time while, within the institutional contexts, it is the HIV epidemic that is largely consuming both policy attention and intervention. PMID:23811012
The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an excursion lower in the core at about 40,000 yrs B.P. that he identifies as the Laschamp Excursion. The paths of VGPs for the Irminger Basin and the younger half of the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin are similar in that they are counterclockwise loops and nearly adjacent to each other, and quite different from the VGP path for the Laschamp Excursion.
A lake evaluation index (LEI) is proposed to express the overall quality of lake water based on a mathematical combination of the commonly measured limnological variables total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll, Secchi depth, dissolved oxygen, and macrophyte coverage. Value...
Title : Packet radio tests, Lake Fryxell Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : January 09 ... Memorandum (Satellite Packet Radio Tests at Lake Fryxell) To: Files S.7 (Environment) During the ...
This portal provides access to an extensive collection of resources on Oregon's Crater Lake, featuring sections on digital data, science, and general interest. The digital data section features links to a variety of imagery and datasets such as bathymetry, Digital Raster Graphics (DRG), Digital Line Graphs (DLG), Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of topography and other cartographic information; Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), orthoscopically corrected aerial photos in which ground features are displayed in their true positions; and a link to ArcView coverages of federal lands and counties in Oregon. The science section contains information on the formation and geologic history of the lake, lake ecology, physiographic information (lake depth, diameter, surface area, etc.), satellite imagery, and a glossary of volcano terminology and landform features pertinent to the lake. The general interest section contains an image gallery, information on cultural history, links to information on plants and wildlife, a location map and directions, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to external sites with additional information.
Tropical primary rainforests of Africa are an enormous reservoir of carbon (C), most of which, in the common perception, is\\u000a stored in the biomass. We studied one of these forests, Ankasa, in the south-western part of Ghana, in terms of quantity and\\u000a 14C activity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to elucidate the little known important role of soil in storing
Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination) in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i) to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii) to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47%) hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD) of 12%. Ten (59%) hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%). Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18%) were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%). Eight health centres (47%) were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres) in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms.
Osei, Daniel; d'Almeida, Selassi; George, Melvill O; Kirigia, Joses M; Mensah, Ayayi Omar; Kainyu, Lenity H
The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and
OBJECTIVE To determine whether integrating family planning (FP) messages and referrals into facility-based, child immunization services increase contraceptive uptake in the 9- to 12-month post-partum period. METHODS A cluster-randomized trial was used to test an intervention where vaccinators were trained to provide individualized FP messages and referrals to women presenting their child for immunization services. In each of 2 countries, Ghana and Zambia, 10 public sector health facilities were randomized to control or intervention groups. Shortly after the introduction of the intervention, exit interviews were conducted with women 9-12 months postpartum to assess contraceptive use and related factors before and after the introduction of the intervention. In total, there were 8892 participants (Control Group Ghana, 1634; Intervention Group Ghana, 1129; Control Group Zambia, 3751; Intervention Group Zambia, 2468). Intervention effects were evaluated using logistic mixed models that accounted for clustering in data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with vaccinators, and a process assessment was completed mid-way through the implementation of the intervention. RESULTS In both countries, there was no significant effect on non-condom FP method use (Zambia, P = 0.56 and Ghana, P = 0.86). Reported referrals to FP services did not improve nor did women's knowledge of factors related to return of fecundity. Some providers reported having made modifications to the intervention; they generally provided FP information in group talks and not individually as they had been trained to do. CONCLUSION Rigorous evidence of the success of integrated immunization services in resource poor settings remains weak. PMID:23570834
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied tomultielement determination of five medicinal plants which are used to curevarious diseases in Ghana. These are: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Aphrodisiacpowder, Blighia powder and Olax powder. Concentrations of fifteen elementsAl, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mn, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, V and Zn have beendetermined by short, medium,
E. K. Osae; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie
Purpose: To identify the psychosocial and behavioral factors that influence condom use to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among young men in Ghana. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which data on a community-based sample of 601 young men, 15-24 years of age, were collected by a household survey instrument. For a conceptual framework,
. When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and\\u000a time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male\\u000a bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana,\\u000a we
Micro-enterprises are a key component in rural enterprise creation and income generation. In rural areas far removed from grid-electricity, public solar photovoltaic (PV) electrification projects have served useful purposes by contributing to improve the economic activities of micro-enterprises beyond daylight hours. Through fee-for-service approach some rural micro-enterprises in Ghana were provided with access to solar PV systems to enhance their
This study explores whether an entrepreneur’s ability to assemble and leverage human capital, particularly specific human\\u000a capital relating to prior business ownership experience, is associated with seven types of product and work practices innovation\\u000a in an emerging region, namely, Ghana. Logistic regression estimation revealed that portfolio entrepreneurs were more likely\\u000a than novice entrepreneurs to report ‘innovation tried’. Multinomial logistic regression
Paul J. A. RobsonCharles; Charles K. Akuetteh; Paul Westhead; Mike Wright
Purpose Stigma is a frequent accompaniment of mental illness leading to a number of detrimental consequences. Most research into the\\u000a stigma connected to mental illness was conducted in the developed world. So far, few data exist on countries in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa and no data have been published on population attitudes towards mental illness in Ghana. Even less is known about the
In post-colonial populations the retention of the nuclear family concept of collectivism as the basis for decision-making\\u000a is associated with familial and cultural survival. Collectivism within familial contexts provides intergenerational access\\u000a to experience, information, resources, and sound decision making during times of conflict or dealing with the consequences\\u000a of poverty. In contemporary Ghana inter-ethnic wars and conflict have marginalized minority
BACKGROUND: Adequate feeding is essential to realizing the potential of small ruminants to alleviate poverty among smallholder farmers. This study was conducted in two villages in the Ejura-Sekyedumase District of Ghana and was motivated by farmers' non-adoption of modern feed technologies, but more importantly by the need to understand the small ruminant feed system considering farmers' different socio-economic backgrounds and
Stephanie Duku; Akke J van der Zijpp; Patricia Howard
Abstract Problem Birth registration remains far from complete in many developing countries. This was true of Ghana before a major registration campaign was undertaken. Approach This study, based on survey data, assesses the results of a registration campaign initiated in 2004–2005 in Ghana. Key strategies included: extending the legal period for free registration of infants; incorporating registration in child health promotion weeks; training community health workers to register births; using community registration volunteers; registering children during celebrations, and piloting community population registers. This paper discusses the contribution of these strategies to the increase in registration rates and shows the degree of association between birth registration and various health-care access indicators and family characteristics. Local setting The Ghana Births and Deaths Registry worked together with international organizations, mainly Plan International and the United Nations Children’s Fund, to implement the birth registration campaign. Relevant changes Unlike many other sub-Saharan African countries, Ghana saw a substantial rise in registration rates over the campaign period. Campaign strategies improved accessibility and shortened distance to registration centres. Survey data show that the registration rate for children younger than 5 years rose from 44% in 2003 to 71% in 2008. Lessons learnt Incorporation of birth registration into community health care, health campaigns and mobile registration activities can reduce the indirect costs of birth registration, especially in poorer communities, and yield substantial increases in registration rates. The link between the health sector and registration activities should be strengthened further and the use of community population registers expanded.
Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p<0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana.
Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ?6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission.
Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jurgen; Drosten, Christian
This paper argues that poverty assessments that use standard money-metric indicators of poverty overlook the welfare of communities highly vulnerable to weather-related extremes, and that an assessment of vulnerability to climate change should be an integral part of poverty assessment. Using Ghana as a case study, this paper evaluates to what extent the standard money-metric measures of poverty represent the
A study was undertaken to measure the sulphate-S in some representative soils cropped to cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and coffee (Coffea canephora var. robusta) in Ghana using five extraction methods at two soil-extractant ratios. The least extracting power was shown by 0.1 N HCL. A soil-extractant ratio of 1:10 extracted higher amounts of SO42--S than a 1:5 ratio. There were highly
Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of interventions on health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Both Ghana and Cameroon require a comprehensive and integrative approach to chronic disease intervention that combines structural, community and individual strategies. We outline research and practice gaps and best practice models within and outside Africa that can instruct the development of future interventions.
This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The topics discussed include, grain size, langmuir circulation, longshore current, beach drift, river plumes, lake stratification, and waves. Lesson plans can be found on the following subjects: lake levels, sediments, stream flow, and water quality. Also included is a virtual flight along the Eastern Lake Michigan Shoreline which includes topo maps, 3D maps, and photos. A directory of related links is also available.
Addressing school dropout has been one of the most controversial elements of policy since the introduction of free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana. However, research that utilises qualitative biographical detail surrounding irregular attendance and the critical events in the process that lead to dropout in Ghana is limited. I…
California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance of…
Malaria remains a public health problem in Ghana, with Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus as the predominant vectors. While much information exists on the species composition of An. gambiae, very little exists for An. funestus. This study was carried out to determine the species composition of An. funestus Giles populations from three ecological areas in Ghana and investigate their role in malaria transmission. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing and pyrethrum spray methods. A total of 10,254 Anopheles individuals were collected, out of which An. funestus constituted 53.6% (5,496). An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles lessoni were identified as the only members of the An. funestus group in all three ecological areas. All 62 sporozoite positive specimens that were identified as An. funestus s.s. were highly anthropophilic with a human blood index in the range of 80-96%, whereas more than 83% of the An. leesoni had fed on either bovine, goat, or sheep. Malaria transmission was higher in the Sahel savannah area than the rest of the ecological zones, with An. funestus s.s. being implicated as a vector of malaria in all ecological zones. Anopheles leesoni occurred in all the ecological areas but played no role in malaria transmission. The study established the importance of An. funestus s.s. in malaria transmission in Ghana. PMID:23701614
Dadzie, Samuel K; Brenyah, Ruth; Appawu, Maxwell A
ABSTRACT Cocoa farming provides employment for over 800,000 households in rural Ghana, with the country currently touted as the second largest producer of cocoa worldwide. Agriculture is one of the riskiest occupations for the eyes due to the numerous ocular hazards on farms. The authors conducted an ocular health assessment among cocoa farmers at Mfuom, a rural community in the Central Region of Ghana, to examine the ocular health status and the ocular safety measures used by cocoa farmers. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate demographic characteristics, ocular injuries, and utilization of eye care services and ocular protection, and a clinical examination was used to evaluate their ocular status. Cocoa farmers were at high risk for ocular injuries and farm-related vision disorders and utilized eye care services and ocular protection poorly. Ocular condition identified were mainly refractive error (28.6%), cataract (20.0%), glaucoma (11.7%), conjunctivitis (13%), pterygium (2.7%), and cornea opacity (2.2%). There is a need for the introduction of an interventional eye care program to help address the ocular health challenges identified among the farmers. This can be done through collaborative efforts by educational institutions, government, and other role players in the agricultural industry to improve the quality of life of the vulnerable cocoa farmers in rural Ghana. PMID:24911692
Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Hansraj, Rekha; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Ocansey, Stephen; Kyei, Samuel
The number of pedestrians who have died as a result of being hit by vehicles has increased in recent years, in addition to vehicle passenger deaths. Many pedestrians who were involved in road traffic accident died as a result of the driver leaving the pedestrian who was struck unattended at the scene of the accident. This paper seeks to determine the effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Using pedestrian accident data extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, a binary logit model was employed in the analysis. The results from the estimated model indicate that fatal accidents, unclear weather, nighttime conditions, and straight and flat road sections without medians and junctions significantly increase the likelihood that the vehicle driver will leave the scene after hitting a pedestrian. Thus, integrating median separation and speed humps into road design and construction and installing street lights will help to curb the problem of pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. PMID:23357033
Aidoo, Eric Nimako; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Ackaah, Williams
Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care.
One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study.
Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa
Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Ghanaian women where over 60% of patients report with either stage 3 or 4 of the disease. This cross-sectional study aimed at exploring breast cancer related knowledge and practices in order to develop an appropriate socio-economic and cultural specific model to improve breast cancer care in Ghana. Methods The study which was conducted in Accra and Sunyani in Ghana used both quantitative and qualitative methods and employed the theory of planned behavior as a communication and educational model. Information was collected from 474 women using questionnaires. In addition semi-structured interviews were conducted on 10 breast cancer patients; 10 breast clinic attendants; 3 Oncology Consultants and 2 herbalists. Results Generally, the respondents displayed knowledge deficit about the disease. However, higher levels of education was associated with better appreciation of the disease (rs =0.316, N465, p < 0.001). The respondents’ attitudes include fear of the disease which was linked to death in most cases; denial and guilt; as well as supernatural attributes. The self-reported breast cancer screening rate (BSE 32%, CBE 12% and mammogram 2%) was poor, however, higher educational of the respondents was very significant for breast cancer screening practices. Conclusion The study found that routine mammography screening is not feasible in Ghana at the moment which therefore requires a different approach
Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N?=?97) tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es). Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es) sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV. PMID:21966471
Hayman, David T S; Wang, Lin-Fa; Barr, Jennifer; Baker, Kate S; Suu-Ire, Richard; Broder, Christopher C; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N
In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts, including the intermittent of mother tongue in early childhood schooling to facilitate English language and literacy instruction, prospects for a bold move towards multilingual education have emerged from a coalescence of forces inside and outside of Ghanaian education policy circles. This article discusses how the inertia of a dated language policy and a historic disregard for Ghana's multilingual landscape by the country's own policy makers are being overcome, at least partially, by progressive powers of change, albeit not without challenge. It undertakes an analysis of how a policy environment that supports bilingual education was created in order to implement a comprehensive and innovative multilingual programme, the National Literacy Acceleration Program (NALAP), which was rolled out across the nation's schools in early 2010. Having been involved in the process of designing NALAP, the authors describe the development of standards of learning and materials, as well as innovative aspects of a constructivist teacher education approach. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research, including combining a change process for key stakeholders and randomised language and literacy assessment with social marketing research in a unified approach.
Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie
Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility.
While subglacial lakes have been suspected, and speculated about, for more than 50 years, recent analyses of historical and new data have shown that liquid water environments are common beneath the vast Antarctic Ice Sheet. Airborne radar surveys have now documented more than 145 subglacial lakes, the largest being Lake Vostok located 4 km beneath the vast East Antarctic Ice
J. C. Priscu; M. C. Kennicutt III; R. E. Bell; S. A. Bulat; J. C. Ellis-Evans; V. V. Lukin; J.-R. Petit; R. D. Powell; M. J. Siegert; I. Tabacco
A sub-bottom profiling study using an air gun has been completed for central, northern and eastern Lake Champlain giving sediment thicknesses and bedrock topography of the Lake basin. Four major depositional basins have been recognized in the central Lake...
The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially fewer exotic species (N=48) than the Great Lakes (N>180), in part due to its isolation from commercial traffic. Exotic species have been introduced by authorized and unauthorized stocking, bait buckets, use of ornamental plants, and through the Champlain and Chambly canals that link the lake to the Hudson River, Mohawk River, Erie Canal, and
This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.
Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.
Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…
This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The links provide materials on basic earth science concepts, a set of lesson plans on the lakes, and other Great Lakes topics. Concepts covered include Langmuir circulation, longshore current and beach drift, sediments, stream flow, seasonal stratification and water quality.
Evidence is presented to show that Lake Victoria is triply stratified the whole year round. The conclusions of FISH (1957) that a uninodal internal seiche operates in the lake is shown to be invalid, and the oscillations of isotherms at E.A.F.R.O. Open Lake Station observed over some years are explained by the day to day wind changes.
Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.
Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)
Created and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with federal, state, tribal, and local agencies and groups, this is a major gateway to information and data on Lake Tahoe and its basin. The primary goal of this clearinghouse is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin, and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Users have access to a wide range of data and GIS products. Examples include: high quality digital maps for the Lake Tahoe area (including Tahoe hydrography, roads, vegetation cover, forests, timber, soils), digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital elevation models. Some of the data resides on the USGS server at the Western Mapping Center, Menlo Park, California. The bulk of the data and information, located in databases maintained by the partnering agencies, is accessible via hypertext links.
Lake Mead reservoir is nestled between Arizona and Nevada and runs up to the Hoover Dam. The reservoir stores Colorado River water and supplies it to farms, homes and business in Southern Nevada, Arizona, southern California and northern Mexico. Scientists at NASA are releasing dramatic pictures of the dwindling water supplies in the drought-stricken western United States. According to the Bureau of Reclamation, the Colorado Basin is in its fourth year of drought and computer models project water levels will go down another 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6.1 m) by next year. Despite low water levels, The National Park Service says there is still plenty of water for recreation. The Landsat 7 satellite captured images of Lake Mead May 2000, and May 2003. The 2003 image clearly shows a shrinking lake.
When Grace Greenwood encountered Lake Tahoe in the 1870s, she remarked that "Tahoe is the most beautiful lake I have ever beheld. It is an emerald on the brow of the mountain. Marvellously clear and sparkling, it is surrounded by the most enchanting scenery, and is altogether a surprise, a wonder, a delight." Generations of tourists and locals have enjoyed its charms since. And this remarkable digital collection provides over 1,000 images of the surrounding area. The collection was created by the University of Nevada-Reno's Special Collections Department. Visitors can search the entire collection by keywords and they may also wish to just use the "View All Images" link. It is amazing to think about the changes around the area that have occurred in the past several decades alone, and it is neat to see some of the early resorts that began to pop up on the lake's shores in the early 20th century.
Lake Tahoe is quite the sight anytime of year. As traveler Grace Greenwood noted in 1873, the lake "is an emerald on the brow of the mountain." This splendid digital collection from the University of Nevada-Reno brings together hundreds of photographs documenting this unique body of water that sits on the California and Nevada border. All told, there are over 1,000 items here that document the lake's transformation from placid and pristine to buzzing with tourism activity by the mid 20th century. Along the way, visitors can view items by date of creation, category, and photographer. Keyword searches can be quite revealing and first-time visitors might like to start with "beach," "casino," or "Emerald Bay."
A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.
Backwash from a major ~10 km3 landslide in Lake Tahoe washed away Tioga age (21 ka) moraines (Schweickert, et al 2000; Howle, 2012). Coring in the lake demonstrates a 7700-8000 yr Mt. Mazama ash is widely distributed in lake sediments that overlie the landslide blocks. Moreover, core stratigraphy and radiocarbon ages indicate that all of the sediments cored (to about 3 m depth reaching back 12 ka) were deposited after the landslide (Smith et al., 2013). The age of the landslide is hence constrained at 12-21 ka. Fifteen major subaqueous sand wave channels 2.5 to 10.2 km in length originate from subaqueous delta-terraces at depths of 5-28 m on the margins of the lake. The channels, apparently formed by turbidity currents, are distinctly erosional in their upper part, and transform to deposition aprons in their lower part as they approach the flat lake floor at 500 m depth. The channels contain wave forms (giant ripple marks) convex upstream with maximum wavelengths of 450 m. The lower depositional aprons are surfaced by sand waves convex downstream with maximum wavelengths of 100-300 m. Sand wave convexity mimics the contour of the substrate. The sand wave channel systems are mantled by the post-slide 12 ka sediments and hence have been inactive since that time. These channel-fan structures were apparently produced by backwash from the giant Tahoe landslide, which splashed ~5 km3 of water onto the surrounding countryside thereby lowering lake level by ~10 m. The sediment-charged backwash first deposited the delta-terraces at the lowered lake level and then partly eroded them to generate the sand wave channels, within minutes or hours, while seiche activity resurfaced the delta-terraces. A remarkably similar, though smaller, presently-forming system of turbidity sand wave channels has been imaged at the mouth of the Squamish River in British Columbia (Hughes Clark et al., 2012). The Tahoe splash-induced backwash was briefly equivalent to more than fifteen Squamish Rivers in full flood and would have decimated life in lower parts of the Lake Tahoe basin.
We determined maturity schedules of male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan from nearshore populations and from an offshore population on Sheboygan Reef, which is located in midlake. Gill nets and bottom trawls were used to catch lake trout in fall 1994 and 1995 from two nearshore sites and Sheboygan Reef. Each lake trout was judged immature or mature, based on visual examination of gonads. Probit analysis, coupled with relative potency testing, revealed that age-at-maturity and length-at-maturity were similar at the two nearshore sites, but that lake trout from the nearshore sites matured at a significantly earlier age than lake trout from Sheboygan Reef. However, length at maturity for the nearshore populations was nearly identical to that for the offshore population, suggesting that rate of lake trout maturation in Lake Michigan was governed by growth rather than age. Half of the lake trout males reached maturity at a total length of 580 mm, whereas half of the females were mature at a length of 640 mm. Over half of nearshore males were mature by age 5, and over half the nearshore females matured by age 6. Due to a slower growth rate, maturity was delayed by 2 years on Sheboygan Reef compared with the nearshore populations. Documentation of this delay in maturation may be useful in deciding stocking allocations for lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Michigan.
Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.
Background Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. Methods This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 18.104.22.168. Results The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. Conclusion This first attempt at population-based cancer registration in Ghana indicates that such registries are feasible in resource limited settings as ours. Strengthening Public Health Surveillance and establishing more Population-based Cancer Registries will help improve data quality and national efforts at cancer prevention and control in Ghana.
A review about lake naturally eutrophicating, the internal loading of nutrients from lake sediment as well as the mechanism\\u000a of algal blooms and the control practices was made, especially the eutrophication problem of shallow lakes since seventy percent\\u000a of fresh water lakes in China are shallow lakes. It was found that shallow lakes are apt toward eutrophication than deep lakes.
Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.
Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.
Visceral Leishmaniasis has been showing remarkable epidemiological changes in recent decades, with marked expansion and an emergence of cases in urban areas of the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. The Kala-azar cases reported here, despite being very characteristic, presented a great difficulty of diagnosis, because the disease is not endemic in Volta Redonda. The child underwent two hospitalizations in different hospitals, but got the correct diagnosis only after 11 months of symptom onset. In this report we discuss the main differential diagnoses and call attention to the suspected symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, even in areas not traditionally endemic for the disease. PMID:24879008
Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Lima, Sebastião Roberto de Almeida; Mello, Cíntia Xavier de; Cardoso, Daniela Trindade; Mello, Jurema Nunes; Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho do Espírito; Tavares, Walter
In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.
Underwater videos and photos of shipwrecks in Lakes Superior and Michigan, information on individual vessels, map of the shipwrecks, searchable database, historical newspaper search, a glossary of nautical terms, interactive features and information for divers. Extensive resource, classroom activities are available via a linked site.
A series of 33 charts is presented to illustrate the ice cover on the Great Lakes for three classifications of winter: mild, normal, and severe. The freezing degree-day concept was employed to make these classifications. One meteorological station on each...
This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.
Several years ago Lake Way was considered by many to be too small and too low in grade to compete with the larger high grade deposits in other parts of Australia, and particularly in the Northern Territory. The pendulum has now swung and as far as Austral...
The Carlyle Lake is located on the Kaskaskia River, at about mile 107, upstream from its confluence with the Mississippi River, and about one-half mile upstream of the town of Carlyle, Illinois, in Clinton County, approximately 50 miles east of St. Louis,...
Thirty units of a planned 205 geothermally heated hydroponic greenhouses are producing European cucumbers and tropic tomatoes near Wendel, California. The planned utilization of the geothermal resource in this project, hydroponics, in general, and the Honey Lake system is described. (MHR)
The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for
E. R. Stofan; C. Elachi; J. I. Lunine; R. D. Lorenz; B. Stiles; K. L. Mitchell; S. Ostro; L. Soderblom; C. Wood; H. Zebker; S. Wall; M. Janssen; R. Kirk; R. Lopes; F. Paganelli; J. Radebaugh; L. Wye; Y. Anderson; M. Allison; R. Boehmer; P. Callahan; P. Encrenaz; E. Flamini; G. Francescetti; Y. Gim; S. Hensley; W. T. K. Johnson; K. Kelleher; D. Muhleman; P. Paillou; G. Picardi; F. Posa; L. Roth; R. Seu; S. Shaffer; S. Vetrella
We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...
This site briefly introduces the history and ecology of Mono Lake. It is comprised of 27 professional photographs, each offering a visual insight into the community's unusual landscape. All images are accompanied with a brief description. Downloads and wallpaper are available with a paid membership.
This document details the history, geography, biology, and educational value of Mono Lake, California. The author describes the effects of the saline and alkaline environment on its inhabitants and reveals that the area also supports a large number of migratory birds. The document concludes with educational and recreational activities of the area.
Citizen action to stop the disposal of taconite tailings into Lake Superior was unsuccessful when the courts settled in the favor of industry. Although citizen research revealed a form of asbestos, as well as other toxic chemicals in the discharged wastes, company representatives stated that there were no health hazards. (MA)
We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a lake.
Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul
...Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 ...Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a) Radio...Upper Light Report. Report Marine City Salt Dock Light Report. Report...
...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. 110.127 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas Â§ 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona....
Eutrophication in Taihu Lake has become a serious environmental problem. In this paper, environmental conditions in paddy fields in Taihu Lake's catchment area were compared with those in Lake Biwa's catchment area, which revealed issues on social development at different stages and raised questions over restoration of Taihu Lake from an environmental sociology perspective. Keywords-lake; eutrophication; paddy field; non-point source;
Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.
Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S
Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.
Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger
Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article