A study has been made on changes which have occurred in the fish fauna as a result of the formation of the Volta Lake in Ghana. The data on the relative abundance of fish in the Lake were compared with those obtained from fish landings on the Black Volta and from the Niger river survey, as no observations of fish
Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268
Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa
Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…
Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John
In the present ecological study of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana, habitat observations and sampling of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi were conducted within a 60-km stretch of shoreline. Observations revealed that human water contact sites in each village undergo constant changes in shape and vegetation. Snail sampling surveys in water contact sites were carried out monthly (for 27 months) in 8 villages using newly designed palm-leaf traps, and in 8 additional villages (for 16 months) using a modification of Olivier & Sneidermann's man—time method. Results to date confirm the finding by Chu & Vanderburg that cercarial transmission in the lake takes place almost exclusively within water contact sites. Additional results indicate that even within individual water contact sites this transmission is focal, most infected snails being found very close to the shoreline. Transmission also varies significantly according to shape, vegetation, and geographical location of the water contact sites, and is distinctly seasonal in most villages. These findings lead us to conclude that control of cercarial transmission in the Volta Lake is both attainable and feasible with existing methods. PMID:304396
Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.
The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two countries concerning shared water resources can take place.
van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.
Background Induced abortion rates remained persistently high in the Volta Region of Ghana in the 5 years from 2006 to 2011. Some hospitals, both rural and urban, report induced abortion-related complications as one of the top ten conditions in hospital admissions. This study explored demographic and other factors associated with induced abortion, and also assessed awareness of abortion-related complications among women of reproductive age in the Volta Region. Methods A quantitative, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study was performed. The Volta Region was stratified into two health administration zones, ie, north and south. For each zone, hospitals were stratified into government and private hospitals. Employing simple random sampling, one private and three government hospitals were selected from each zone. This study is therefore based on eight hospitals, ie, six government hospitals and two private hospitals. Results Marital status, employment status, number of total pregnancies, and knowledge about contraception were found to be associated with induced abortion. Multiple logistic regression showed a 4% reduction in the odds of induced abortion in married women compared with women who were single (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.22). Unemployed women of reproductive age were found to be 0.35 times less likely to seek induced abortion compared with their employed counterparts (OR 0.35, CI 0.19–0.65). It was also observed that women with their second pregnancies were 3.8 times more likely to seek induced abortion and women with more than two pregnancies were 6.6 times more likely to do so (OR 3.81, CI 1.94–7.49 and OR 6.58, CI 2.58–16.79, respectively). Women with no knowledge of contraceptive methods were 4.6 times likely to seek induced abortion (OR 4.64, CI 1.39–15.4). Compared with women who had not had induced abortion, women with a high number of pregnancies and no contraceptive knowledge were more likely to have induced abortion. Conclusion It was found that lack of knowledge about contraceptives and being single or employed were associated with increased likelihood of induced abortion. It was also found that women with a higher number of pregnancies have a greater odds of induced abortion. No association was found between induced abortion and maternal age, education, contraceptive use, or religion. PMID:25187740
Klutsey, Ellen Eyi; Ankomah, Augustine
The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.
Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.
Urinary schistosomiasis is highly prevalent along the shores of the Volta Lake in Ghana, where transmission occurs focally in man—water contact sites. The intermediate host, Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi, prefers to harbour in Ceratophyllum, a common aquatic weed in the lake. Removal of this weed reduced the density of both infected and uninfected snails, but not sufficiently to interrupt transmission. Niclosamide was applied at 1, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/l in combination with weed removal at five water contact sites in December, January, and February, respectively. Plastic sheets were used to isolate treated sites from the main body of the lake. Snail surveys were carried out at short intervals to assess the effectiveness of these intervention measures. Niclosamide at 0.5 mg/l applied after weed removal was effective in killing the snails. The overall results indicate that snail control along the entire lake shore is impossible but that focal control of cercarial transmission at water contact sites is attainable and shows promise. PMID:307458
Chu, K. Y.
Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1956 ??S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ??S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage. ?? 2009 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH.
Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.
The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 ?g/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r(2) = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 ?g/g and 79 to 484 ?g/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r(2) = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r(2) = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 ?g/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r(2) = 0.1730). PMID:21947544
Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A
Introduction Anaemia among children is a public health issue in Ghana. The Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) was instituted on pilot basis in an effort to provide nutritious lunch to school children. Evidence on the nutritional status of pupils is needed to inform the expansion of GSFP. This study sought to assess anaemia among Ghanaian pupils. Methods This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 143 pupils aged 6 to 12 years. Blood samples were collected and analysed for serum-ferritin (SF), C-reactive protein (CRP), haemoglobin and malaria-parasitaemia (MP). Stool samples were examined for soil-transmitted helminthes. Dietary data were collected using the 24 hour-recall method on three non-consecutive days and a food frequency questionnaire. The Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between sexes. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anaemia. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 Results SF and haemoglobin concentrations were 23.9±15ng/ml and 120±11g/L respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 30.8%. More females (41.5%) than males (21.8%) had anaemia (p < 0.005). Seventy-one percent of pupils had low SF levels. MP prevalence was 67.8%. Hookworm infestation was only observed in males (18.0%). Dietary iron and vitamin C intakes were 18.98±8.8mg and 23.7±6.7mg, respectively. Child's sex, SF and MP were associated with anaemia. Males had a lower likelihood of being anaemic (OR = 0.2, CI 0.1-0.5, p = 0.002) Conclusion The study findings underscore the need for multi-pronged approaches that address both malaria control and nutrition in order to reduce anaemia among pupils. PMID:24644526
Egbi, Godfred; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Kwesi, Faribu Saalia; Ayi, Irene; Ofosu, Winfred; Setorglo, Jacob; Klobodu, Seth Selorm; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret
The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.
Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.
We have dated 1060 detrital zircon grains from the Neoproterozoic to lower Palaeozoic Volta basin, Ghana, and from sandstones in the adjoining thrust sheets belonging to the Pan-African Dahomeyide belt. All dated zircons in the lower Voltaian Bombouaka Group are older than ~ 1000 Ma, while samples from the middle Voltaian Oti Group and the upper Voltaian Obosum Group contain numerous zircons of 600-1000 Ma. The samples we have studied from the Dahomeyide thrust sheets (Buem and Togo structural units) have zircon age spectra similar to those from the Bombouaka Group, confirming a correlation of the investigated sandstones with lower Voltaian strata. The Bombouaka Group was deposited between ~ 1000 and 600 Ma, perhaps shortly after 1000 Ma, as suggested by earlier Rb-Sr data on clay minerals. Deposition of the Oti and Obosum Groups took place shortly after 600 Ma, perhaps continuing into the lower Palaeozoic. Most samples contain Palaeoproterozoic zircons with ages of 2000-2200 Ma that probably have been derived from the surrounding crystalline (Birimian) basement. Archaean zircons, present in smaller proportions, may have come from Archaean rocks in the West-African craton. Most zircons of 1000-1900 Ma were probably derived from sources outside the West-African craton, the Amazonian craton being a plausible source region. Zircons with ages around 1200 Ma are believed to have been derived from Grenvillian orogenic belts, perhaps those that fringe the Amazonian craton. If this is so, no major seaways could have been present between these belts and the West-African craton during the early Neoproterozoic. Zircons younger than 1000 Ma were probably derived from an eastern continental block that collided with the West-African craton during the Pan-African orogeny ~ 600 Ma ago.
Kalsbeek, Feiko; Frei, Dirk; Affaton, Pascal
A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.
Effective development and informed management of groundwater resources represent a critical opportunity for improved rural water supply in Ghana and enhanced livelihoods particularly in the northern part of the White Volta Basin, a region already prone to a myriad of water-related infirmities. If adequately developed, the resource will form a sufficient buffer against the effects of climate change/variability and foster food security and sustainable livelihoods among the largely peasant communities in the region. This research presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological conditions and recharge regimes of the aquifers in the Northern parts of the White Volta Basin, Ghana. Results of estimates of groundwater recharge through the conventional isotopic and mass balance techniques are presented. Details of the groundwater flow pattern and preliminary delineation of local and regional groundwater recharge areas are presented from initial simulations of the hydrogeological system with a robust groundwater flow simulation code, MODFLOW, in the Groundwater Modeling System, GMS, version 7.1. The stream flow and evapotranspiration components of the program were activated to incorporate surface flow processes, so that the resulting model represents the conditions of the entire hydrological system. The results of this study form a platform for detailed numerical assessment of the conditions of the aquifers in the area under transient conditions of fluctuating rainfall patterns in the face of climate change/variability.
Oteng, F. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.
Neoproterozoic glacial and post-glacial sediments from the Volta Basin (West Africa) form a stratigraphic 'Triad' of tillites, carbonates and cherts. The carbonates that cap the tillites were studied in detail at Bwipe (Ghana), in the western part of the basin. They are made of finely-laminated dolostones with well-preserved sedimentary features, suggesting that dolomite formation was penecontemporaneous of deposition in a warm, arid peritidal environment, with microbial activity. Rare-earth element distribution display seawater-like patterns. Redox-sensitive trace elements indicate suboxic conditions. High Ba/Al ratios can be related to high organic productivity. ?13C values are nearly constant at -3.7‰ and ?18O PDB are about -6‰. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios range between 0.7061 and 0.7073. The ?13C signatures are nearly similar to those of coeval cap dolostones from the northern part of the Basin. The dolostones change upwards to limestones with secondary textures, as well as more negative ?13C and higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio. Therefore, only the dolostones witness the post-glacial conditions in seawater. It is proposed that, due to a bloom of microbial productivity following ice thaw, organic matter likely accumulated at the water-sediment interface and was consumed by sulphate-reducing bacteria, leading to the precipitation of ?13C-negative dolomite. This microbially mediated model is supported by present-day field evidence from hypersaline lagoons in Brazil and by previously published culture experiments. It is consistent with the sedimentological and geochemical data from the Ghana cap dolostones and can be applied to other Neoproterozoic cap dolostones worldwide.
Nédélec, Anne; Affaton, Pascal; France-Lanord, Christian; Charrière, André; Alvaro, Javier
Analogy with better-known craters suggests that Bosumtwi has a central uplift rising to 200 m beneath the lake floor. An aeromagnetic anomaly of amplitude 50 nanotesla (nT) over the northern half of the lake is interpreted as due to a layer of magnetized fallback breccia beneath the lake sediments. The normal polarity of the breccia shows that the crater was formed during the normal Jaramillo event of 0.97 to 0.85 m.y. ago, which agrees with the magnetic stratigraphy of the related Ivory Coast microtektites. A regional gravity survey indicates a negative Bouguer anomaly over the crater. There is some geochemical evidence that the meteorite was an iron, and its mass and energy are suggested as about 108 tons and 3 × 1019 joules or 7.3 × 103 megatons.
Jones, William B.; Bacon, Michael; Hastings, David A.
This discussion of Ghana focuses on the following: geography; the people; history (postindependence politics and politics in the 1970s and the 1980s); government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Ghana. For the 1970-84 period, the average annual growth rate was 2.6%. The infant mortality rate was 86/1000 in 1980-82 and life expectancy 55 years. Ghana is situated on West Africa's Gulf of Guinea only a few degrees north of the Equator. Most people live on the coast in the northern areas near the Ivory Coast, and in the principal cities of Accra and Kumasi. Ethnically, Ghana is divided into small groups speaking more than 50 languages and dialects. Among the most important linguistic groups are the Akans, the Guans, the Ga- and Ewe-speaking peoples of the south and southeast; and the Moshi-Dagomba-speaking tribes. In December 1981, Flight Lt. Rawlings and a small group of soldiers launched a successful coup against President Linmann. Rawlings and his colleagues suspended the 1979 constitution, dismissed the President and his cabinet, disolved the Parliament, and proscribed existing political parties. They established the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC). In December 1982, the PNDC announced a plan to decentralize government from Accra to the 10 regions, the districts, and local communities, but the PNDC still maintains overall control by appointing regional and district secretaries. Ghana has a diverse and valuable resouce base. The country is primarily agricultural. Ghana's industrial base is relatively advanced, compared to that of other African countries. The US and Ghana have enjoyed good relations throughout most of Ghana's independence. PMID:12233541
This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…
Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.
Sustainable abstraction of groundwater resources for commercial irrigation in the White Volta Basin (WVB) holds promise for a fledging agricultural industry in the basin. This is because erratic rainfall patterns attending climate change/variability has imposed mixed fortunes in terms of rain-fed agricultural activities currently practiced in the WVB. Addressing the sustainability of groundwater for commercial abstraction will require the integration of surface and subsurface flows and analysis of the impacts of climate change scenarios on the resource, employing a surface-subsurface flow model. Here, we present early results from surface flow simulation over the basin using the physically-based surface-subsurface flow model MIKE SHE.
Oteng, F. M.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.
The sediments from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana contain a unique record of fine-scale (mm to sub-mm) laminations, which will provide\\u000a a valuable annual chronometer for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in West Africa covering much of the last 1 Ma.\\u000a Comparisons of laminae counts to independent 210Pb dates and the rise in anthropogenic “bomb” radiocarbon support the interpretation of the laminations in the uppermost
Timothy M. Shanahan; Jonathan T. Overpeck; J. Warren Beck; C. Winston Wheeler; John A. Peck; John W. King; Christopher A. Scholz
Groundwater recharge in the Nabogo sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin is assessed using three main methods: the water table fluctuations method, baseflow recession method, and chloride mass balance approach. The objective is to quantify the relative proportions of direct vertical infiltration and percolation of rainwater in the area and subsurface flows in determining the total groundwater recharge in the basin. Groundwater resources development for commercial irrigation activities is an essential aspect of the livelihoods of communities living within the catchments of the Volta Basin. A comprehensive assessment of the recharge component of groundwater budgets in the basin is critical towards determining optimal abstraction rates in order to ensure resource sustainability and ecological integrity. This will form the basis for quantifying abstraction rates that are permissible to support large scale irrigation activities in the basin. The presence and thickness of the clay layer in the unsaturated zone serves to limit vertical infiltration of rainwater, and thus reduce vertical groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, the chloride mass balance technique, supported by the analysis of stable isotope signatures, has been used to estimate the vertical groundwater recharge and its spatial pattern of distribution in the area. The water table fluctuations technique and base flow recession method are then used to estimate total groundwater recharge in the basin. It is then possible to quantify the relative contributions of subsurface flows in the groundwater recharge in the basin. Temporal variations in groundwater recharge in the area are examined from time series of estimates from the baseflow recession technique. The results will assist in assessing the short term impacts of rainfall variability on groundwater budgets in the area.
Fynn, O. F.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.; Mensah, F. O.
W A Water Atlas of the Volta Basin Atlas de l'eau du Bassin de la Volta Jacques LemoaLLe Devaraj de Condappa 2009 Challenge Program Water and Food Institut de Recherche pour le DÃ©veloppement Mise. Water atlas of the Volta Basin-Atlas de l'eau dans le bas- sin de la Volta. Challenge Program on Water
People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the
Lineu Rodrigues; Aidan Senzanje; Philippe Cecchi; Jens Liebe
The impact of continued global warming on the likelihood of severe drought in sub-Saharan West Africa remains uncertain, as climate models generally do not simulate realistic climate dynamics in the region and have inconsistent projections for the future. The Last Interglacial period (LIG), occurring between 128 and 116 thousand years ago, is a partial analog for future warming because at its peak, global temperatures were slightly higher, and this warming was accentuated in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial summer temperatures. Here we present a new, annually-resolved, 12,100-year-long varve record for the LIG from Lake Bosumtwi in southern Ghana (6.5°N, 1.4°W). The abundance of terrigenous elements in the sediment, varve thickness, and the isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of authigenic carbonates in the sediment were used to infer changes in lake level. The varve chronology, varve thickness and elemental abundance records were developed with a new ensemble approach that allows for a more robust determination of uncertainty in the record. The new records reveal a dynamic history of hydrologic variability during the LIG. The LIG lake highstand was lower and shorter-lived than the the prolonged highstand in the early Holocene, and unlike the Holocene, the lake never overflowed during LIG. The overall drier conditions during the LIG are most likely driven by amplified precessional forcing during the interval, resulting in a northward shift in the rainbelt. The LIG, like the Holocene, had two distinct millennial-scale moist intervals, from 125 - 123 and 121 - 120 ka. In both the LIG and the Holocene, these peaks occurred during times of precession-driven insolation maxima in July and October, corresponding to the two rainy seasons in the modern climatology. This suggests that, at least during interglacials, prolonged wet conditions occur at the lake when rainy season insolation is highest. Over the course of the LIG, lake level generally tracked sea surface temperatures (SST) in Gulf of Guinea, including an abrupt drop in lake level that lasted about 500 years ca. 118 ka, corresponding to cooling in the Gulf of Guinea and much of the North Atlantic during the interval. The timing and duration of the event are comparable to the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP) that is observed at several European sites, and has been interpreted to result from abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic, and possibly a reduction of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This scenario would likely result in drought in West Africa, so the aridity ca. 118 ka is the first indication that the LEAP occurred in Africa as well as Europe. The occurrence of quasiperiodic variability at multidecadal to centennial timescales is consistent with the hypothesis that slowly varying changes in Atlantic SST structure (e.g., the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) drives long term hydrologic variability in the region.
McKay, N.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; Heil, C. W.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.
water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.
Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.
At independence in 1957, Ghana possessed one of the strongest economies in Africa. Ghana exemplifies the problems confronted by African countries with economics that are tied to the export of natural and agriculture products, large debts to foreign countries, and rapid population growth. Ghana's population of 16 million is the second largest in west Africa, behind Nigeria. 45% of Ghanaians are under age 15, providing a built-in momentum for population growth as these young people begin childbearing. The government first adopted a population policy in 1969, but only recently is much being done to implement it. Only 13% of married women of reproductive age use contraception, and only 5% use modern methods, according to a 1988 Demographic and Health Survey. The total fertility rate is 6.2 average lifetime births per woman. High fertility plus expensive school fees and economic pressures are raising the drop-out rate of girls. 2 recent studies found that many Ghanaian men opposed their wives' desire to use contraceptives to limit family size. Policymakers are encouraging a greater involvement for men in family planning with male-to-male outreach. The country faces a number of environmental problems. At the turn of the century, forests covered most of the country. At present they cover only about a third. Logging and land-clearing activities are also a threat to biodiversity. Laws do exist to protect wild species of plants and animals, but enforcement is understaffed. The underdeveloped water supply systems make water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and bilharzia, serious health threats. Insect-borne onchocerciasis is also a problem. High unemployment rates have forced many Ghanaians to emigrate, and, in the mid-1980s, Ghanaians increasingly headed toward England and Canada. The net migration rate is -1/1000 population. Presidential elections held in late 1992 returned Jerry Rawlings to power. PMID:12286891
De Sherbinin, A
The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast. This is inconsistent with a simple southward shift in the mean position of the monsoon rainbelt, and requires changes in moisture convergence as a result of either a reduction in the moisture content of the tropical rainbelt, decreased convection, or both.
Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W., Jr.; King, John W.
Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…
Methanococcus voltae cells were converted into protoplasts by suspension in anaerobic 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer containing 0.4 M sucrose and 0.05 M NaCl as osmoprotectants. Protoplast formation was monitored microscopically by observing the conversion of the typical irregularly shaped (uneven peripheries) coccoid whole cells to rounded forms with smooth peripheries. Although the procedure resulted in about 50% lysis of the initial number of cells, the remainder were converted to the rounded form. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy of negatively stained cell preparations indicated that the treatment removed the wall layer from whole cells to yield protoplasts. Protoplast regeneration was evaluated by using optimized plating conditions and an anaerobic microplating technique. Between 50 and 63% of the initial number of protoplasts regenerated as colonies on agar medium (35°C, 7 days). The colony and cell morphologies of the regenerated protoplasts were indistinguishable from those of whole cells plated under identical conditions. Images PMID:16348852
Patel, G. B.; Choquet, C. G.; Nash, J. H. E.; Sprott, G. D.
This article summarizes the current pattern of finance of higher education in Ghana, gives a brief history of student loans in Ghana, and describes a new program, which is administered by the Social Security and National Insurance Trust and is expected to result in a higher rate of loan repayment. (Author/DB)
We have established that the gene which we had previously identified as encoding the Methanococcus voltae P-type ATPase is, in fact, the structural gene for the M. voltae S-layer protein. This conclusion is based on a comparison of the N-terminal sequence of S-layer protein prepared by two independent methods with that derived from the nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene. This conclusion was further supported by immunocytochemical localization of the antigen directed against the antibodies used in the cloning experiments. Images PMID:8132478
Konisky, J; Lynn, D; Hoppert, M; Mayer, F; Haney, P
Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.
U.S. Geological Survey
The study monitored the concentrations of pesticide residues in vegetables arriving at Agbogbloshie, a central market in the Accra Metropolis from different parts of Ghana and beyond. A total of 810 samples of 5 different vegetables from Central, Volta, Greater Accra, Ashanti, Eastern Regions, and neighboring country (Togo) were collected from January 2009 through to December 2011. In all, 18 % of the samples had no detectable residues, 62 % were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 20 % also exceeded the EU (MRLs) adopted values. Overall, lettuce contained the highest number of residues above their MRLs besides cucumber and cabbage. The pesticide residues were mainly organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. The results demonstrate the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables arriving at the various major markets in Ghana. PMID:25007773
Osei-Fosu, P; Donkor, A K; Nyarko, S; Nazzah, N K; Asante, I K; Kingsford-Adabo, R; Arkorful, N A
Inguinal hernia repair and Caesarian section are the two most commonly occurring operations in Africa. Trained surgeons are few, distances between hospitals are large and strangulated hernia is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction. Numerous deaths and cases of permanent disability occur because patients with inguinal hernias requiring elective or urgent surgery are not properly cared for, or they do not actually reach hospital. Operation Hernia was a humanitarian mission between the European Hernia Society and the Plymouth-Takoradi (Ghana) Link conceived specifically to treat and teach groin hernia surgery in the Western region of Ghana. PMID:16912846
Kingsnorth, A N; Oppong, C; Akoh, J; Stephenson, B; Simmermacher, R
The authors analyze the causes and consequences of internal and international migration in Upper Volta from the colonial period to the present. The effects on migration of taxes, military recruitment, forced labor, and the creation of a monetary system are discussed. In the second part of the paper, data from 1974-1975 national migration survey are used to examine migratory movements during the period 1969-1973. Hypotheses that could account for these migration patterns are suggested (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12338405
Piche, V; Gregory, J; Coulibaly, S
Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 x 10(-5) (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10(-3) (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.
A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…
Gaisie, S. K.; And Others
Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.
Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.
The ultrastructure and chemical composition of the cell wall of the marine archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae were studied by negative-staining and freeze-etch electron microscopy and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. M. voltae possesses a single regularly structured (RS) protein layer external to the plasma membrane. Freeze-etch preparations of cells indicated that the protein subunits are hexagonally arranged with a center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 nm. The extracted RS protein had a molecular weight of 76,000. It was present on envelopes prepared by shearing in a French press, osmotic lysis, or sonication, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. NaCl was not required for attachment of the RS protein to the underlying plasma membrane. The hexagonal array could be demonstrated by platinum shadowing and freeze-etching of envelopes, but negative staining in the abscence of NaCl failed to stabilize the array. The RS protein could be solubilized by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, dithiothreitol, and several detergents, including Nonidet P-40, Triton X-100, and Tween 20. However, the most specific release of the wall protein from envelopes occurred after a heat treatment in HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer at 50 to 60 degrees C. Images PMID:3818546
Koval, S F; Jarrell, K F
Although many soil/water-landscape studies have been published in the last two decades, progress in developing operational tools for supporting landscape planning to minimize land and water degradation in developing regions is still modest. Some of the existing tools are very data demanding and/or too complicated to be useful to data scarce regions. A research group at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn has developed a LAndscape Management and Planning Tool (LAMPT) to facilitate land management decision making and landscape planning by optimization. Firstly, we used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a Distributed Sediment Delivery Model (DSDM) in a GIS environment to estimate the spatial distribution of areas experiencing different levels of soil loss in the White Volta basin. The RUSLE is employed to map the spatial patterns of major sediment source areas based on data calibrated for the study region. As RUSLE only estimates the potential gross erosion of each grid cell, a DSDM is used to estimate the sediment delivery efficiency of each cell using flow distance and velocity along the flow path. The combined models allow a classification of sub-watersheds experiencing different levels of soil loss using a soil tolerance threshold suitable for the study areas (Burkina Faso and Ghana). The result shows that the majority of areas around north-eastern and eastern parts of the White Volta basin (mainly south-eastern Burkina Faso and upper east region of Ghana) are associated with high levels of sediment yield (over 15 t ha-1 yr-1). The main reason could be high population pressure, poor surface cover and relatively high slope of some of the areas in Ghana. On the other hand, the north-western and southern parts of the basin experience low levels of sediment yield (less than 5 t ha-1 yr-1) mainly due to their flat terrain and good surface cover that encourage sediment deposition rather than erosion. We revealed that a GIS-based soil erosion and sediment delivery model can successfully be used for identifying and prioritizing critical sub-watersheds for management purposes. Such a tool can be of significance in developing areas where problems are severe but resources are scarce. Next, we implemented the RUSLE-DSDM model into NetLogo, an agent-based programming platform, producing a LAMPT's prototype. The operational model was designed in such a way that fast and robust sensitivity analyses can be performed, after users are allowed to (i) select and set different physical parameters, and (ii) choose different sets of land-use management and planning options. The physical parameters choice meets the scientific needs of landscape modelers in their exploration of adequate values of the many parameters in soil/sedimentation models that are often not well-calibrated in developing regions. The latter is expected to meet the needs of practitioners in catchment management and planning. As the tool allows front-end users to handle the selection of management/planning options, and provide a fast and responsive outputs (in terms of both maps and graphs), LAMPT can assist in effective multi-stakeholder negotiations over land-use planning where the minimization the degradation of land/water resources is the ultimate goal. The LAMPT model can be easily coupled with LUDAS, an agent-based land-use change model using the same platform, to comprehensively simulate environment-community loops. During the further development of LAMPT, the research team intends to follow a participatory approach to enhance the relevance of the tool to local community needs. To plausibly calibrate LAMPT at the catchment/community levels in the data scarce environment of West Africa, additional long-term research catchments are essential.
Vlek, Lulseged Tamene, Quang Bao Le, Jens Liebe, Paul L. G.
The Basin Focal Project for the Volta (BFP-Volta) is a research project funded by the Challenge Programme on Water and Food (CPWF). Its aim is to provide an in-depth analysis of issues related to water in the Volta Basin through three main thematic issues: water-poverty, water availability\\/use and water productivity. The overall objective of the BFP-Volta is to contribute to
A. J. M. Russell
For this investigation of methanogen physiology and biochemistry we have studied Methanococcus voltae (M. voltae), a marine bacterium. We are currently analyzing two very important physiological systems: regulated expression of the membrane-associated P-type ATPase gene, and the molecular biology of coenzyme M (CoM) production. The RNA polymerase of M. voltae has been isolated and purified, and is being used to identify transcription factors and the promoter for the P-type ATPase gene. We have cloned and sequenced this gene, and have shown its expression is sodium dependent. We have isolated a CoM deficient mutant, and have cloned DNA which corrects the mutation. Parameters for electroporation of DNA into M. voltae have been determined. Additionally, we have characterized virus-like particles found in M. voltae, and determined that uptake of CoM from the environment may be characteristic of methanogens in an anaerobic marine environment. 5 refs., 1 fig.
People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 × Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); São Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.
Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens
The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))
We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ?200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created “on the fly” by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897
Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang
This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. PMID:25444887
Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro
This article provides a systematic analysis of vigilante homicides that occurred in Ghana, West Africa, during 1990–2000. Through the use of newspaper accounts, the study identified the socio-demographic characteristics of victims, spatial distribution, modus operandi, and the circumstances of death. The data suggested that young urban males suspected or accused of robbery, larceny, and other forms of theft were most
Balch and Wolfe proposed the name Methanococcus voltae for a new species of methanogens because M. voltae PST (T = type strain) differed from the type strain of Methanococcus vannielii, the only other recognized species in the genus Methanococcus at that time (1). Comparisons of ribosomal ribonucleic acid catalogs documented the phylo- genetic differences between these strains (the S,, value
JANICE M. WARD; PAUL H. SMITH; DAVID R. BOONE
The upper Niger and Volta rivers exhibit a great and highly contrasting variability of inter-annual runoff. The Bani River, the largest tributary to the Niger River in Mali, shows a dramatic decrease in runoff after the 1970s, with the result that many boreholes in the region have dried up since the drought began. In contrast, the Nakambe River (Upper Volta
This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.
The impact of climate change on the temporal and spatial distribu- tion of precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and surface runoff in the Volta Basin (400 000 km2) of West Africa is investigated. Trend analysis shows clear positive trends with high levels of significance for temperature time series. Precipitation time series show both positive and negative trends, although most significant trends are
HARALD KUNSTMANN; GERLINDE JUNG
Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica A. Volta, Pavia CasualitÃ di natura, nell'ambito della Scuola di Storia del- la Fisica Aspetti di Storia della Fisica dagli anni trenta al secondo dopoguerra, organizzata dall'AIF (Associazione per l'insegnamento della Fisica), da pubblicarsi su
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
After the initial success of the first models of pile, Alessandro Volta 1 realized that some problems reduced the conservation of the piles and their efficiency, because performances deteriorated rapidly. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century, a Veronese physicist, Giuseppe Zamboni (1776-1846), undertook a different way of research to manufacture \\
In Ghana bread forms part of the daily diet. However, little attention has been given to bread processing and any defects associated with bread production. This study was carried out to assess the extent of bread defects, especially ropiness, in the bread-making industry in Ghana. The results of the study showed that bread defects do exist, with mold contamination being
W. O. Ellis; A. K. Obubuafo; A. Ofosu-Okyere; E. K. Marfo; K. Osei-Agyemang; J. K. Odame-Darkwah
This report discusses the findings of a Georgetown Law International Women’s Human Rights Clinic fact-finding team that traveled to Ghana, Africa in March 2003 to investigate domestic violence. The report reviews the contours of the domestic violence problem in Ghana and outlines the ways in which Ghanaian law and procedure was insufficiently addressing the problem at the time. Its chief
Nancy Chi Cantalupo; Lisa Vollendorf Martin; Kay Pak; Sue Shin
This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…
Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.
As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.
Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.
Ghana Business News Â» Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Â» Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM] - Ghana Business News - http://ghanabusinessnews.com - Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Posted
The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in the Volta Basin, and represents the first comprehensive, publicly accessible data- and meta-database for the Volta Basin. The Geoportal can be used to search for data, for interactive mapping or the download of ready-made maps, and to publish and share new data and research results. Local institutions are actively involved in acquiring data for the Geoportal, and trained in its operation. For the contributing institutions, the ability to manage data access and use rights (publicly available, available to defined user groups, available upon request) is of great importance. It allows them to publish the existence of their data and facilitate access to it without sacrificing their ownership rights. The Geoportal can be accessed at http://184.108.40.206/Geoportal
Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.
The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, (age 1.07 Ma, diameter 10.5 km) is one of the youngest and best-preserved complex terrestrial impact structures. It was excavated from hard crystalline target rock and is the source of the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field. It is almost entirely filled by the Lake Bosumtwi.
Karp, T.; Artemieva, N. A.; Milkereit, B.
A magnetic model is proposed for the Bosumtwi meteorite impact structure in Ghana, Africa. This relatively young (~1.07 Ma) structure with a diameter of ~10.5 km is exposed within early Proterozoic Birimian-Tarkwaian rocks. The central part of the structure is buried under post-impact lake sediments, and due to lack of drill cores, geophysics is the only way to reveal its internal structure. To study the structure below and beyond the lake, a high-resolution low altitude (~70 m) airborne geophysical survey across the structure was conducted, which included measurements of the total magnetic field, electromagnetic data, and gamma radiation. The magnetic data show a circumferential magnetic halo outside the lakeshore, ~12 km in diameter. The central-north part of the lake reveals a central negative magnetic anomaly with smaller positive side-anomalies N and S of it, which is typical for magnetized bodies at shallow latitudes. A few weaker negative magnetic anomalies exist in the eastern and western part of the lake. Together with the northern one they seem to encircle a central uplift. Our model shows that the magnetic anomaly of the structure is presumably produced by one or several relatively strongly remanently magnetized impact melt rock or melt-rich suevite bodies. Petrophysical measurements show a clear difference between the physical properties of pre-impact target rocks and impactites. Suevites have a higher magnetization and have low densities and high porosities compared to the target rocks. In suevites, the remanent magnetization dominates over induced magnetization (Koenigsberger ratio > 3). Preliminary palaeomagnetic results reveal that the normally magnetized remanence component in suevites was acquired during the Jaramillo normal polarity epoch. This interpretation is consistent with the modelling results that also require a normal polarity magnetization for the magnetic body beneath the lake. The reverse polarity remanence component, superimposed to the normal component, is probably a secondary remanence acquired during subsequent reverse polarity events.
Plado, J.; Pesonen, L. J.; Koeberl, C.; Elo, S.
Providing sanitation to rural areas in Ghana remains a huge challenge. Government funding is scarce while many international donor projects are ineffective. This thesis explores the difficulties with rural sanitation ...
Lau, Jonathan (Jonathan Ho Yin)
Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012 not to continue fishing." Sargassum is the algae after which the Sargasso Sea - an elongated region in the middle down while tonnes of the algae were removed. In some areas people were warned not to swim due
Belogay, Eugene A.
Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID:20441816
Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter
A seroimmunological survey was realised in Upper Volta using an indirect immunofluorescence technique. It showed that endemic syphilis also known as bejel is not exclusively encountered in Sahelian regions. So, in Kora village which is located in a savannah area prevalence was around 10.3%. The disease particularly affects males. Congenital syphilis is certainly exceptional for first cases of serological treponematosis were only detected after 5 years. Endemic syphilis distribution in microfocuses in the village area underlines that promiscuity acts as a contributing factor for contamination. PMID:7028294
Bourdillon, F; Monjour, L; Druilhe, P; Fribourg-Blanc, A; Kyelem, J M; Chastang, C; Gentilini, M
A sero-immunological survey conducted by indirect immunofluorescence technique has made it possible to determine accurately the prevalence and distribution of treponematoses in the Sahel rural region of Upper Volta. The number of carriers of antitreponemal antibodies varies from one place to another, but is particularly high in a nomad community, where prevalence attains 84.2%. The magnitude of endemic foci can also be expressed in terms of maximal titer and geometric mean of antibody titers. The seropositive values increase as a function of age, but sex is not a significant factor as regards prevalence, which would appear to depend essentially on the way of life, habits and promiscuity. PMID:6142636
Monjour, L; Druilhe, P; Fribourg-Blanc, A; Karam, M; Froment, A; Feldmeier, H; Daniel-Ribeiro, C; Kyelem, J M; Gentilini, M
...Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa, November 12-15, 2002...Accra, Ghana and Johannesburg, South Africa November 12-15, 2002. The...
The flagella of Methanococcus voltae were isolated by using three procedures. Initially, cells were sheared to release the filaments, which were purified by differential centrifugation and banding in KBr gradients. Flagella were also prepared by solubilization of cells with 1% (vol/vol) Triton X-100 and purified as described above. Both of these techniques resulted in variable recovery and poor yield of flagellar filaments. Purification of intact flagella (filament, hook, and basal body) was achieved by using phase transition separation with Triton X-114. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified flagella revealed two major proteins, with molecular weights of 33,000 and 31,000. This result indicates the likely presence of two flagellins. The filament had a diameter of 13 nm. The basal structure consisted of a small knob, while a slight thickening of the filament immediately adjacent to this area was the only evidence of a hook region. Flagella from three other Methanococcus species were isolated by this technique and found to have the same ultrastructure as flagella from M. voltae. Isolation of flagella from three eubacteria and another methanogen (Methanospirillum hungatei [M. hungatii]) by the phase separation technique indicated that the detergent treatment did not affect the structure of basal bodies. Intact ring structures and well-differentiated hook regions were apparent in each of these flagellar preparations. Images PMID:3127380
Kalmokoff, M L; Jarrell, K F; Koval, S F
Most existing historiographies of colonial and post-colonial policing in Ghana have focused nearly exclusively on providing a basic understanding of managerial issues—that is, organisational and administrative structure, functions and modes of operation. Our knowledge of issues of police legitimation, and of the ‘quality of policing’ remains very limited. This article discusses these issues and establishes the vital importance of history
Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.
Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema
AIMS--Suppurative keratitis is a serious problem in all tropical countries, but very little information is available about the causative organisms in Africa. The objectives were to identify the causative organisms and the proportion of cases caused by fungi in southern Ghana, and to determine whether correct decisions about treatment could be made on the basis of Gram stain in the
M Hagan; E Wright; M Newman; P Dolin; G Johnson
Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an…
Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…
Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla
The paper primarily investigates the interrelationship between financial sector development and poverty reduction in Ghana. This is done using time-series data from the World Development Indicators from 1970-2001. The main findings are, first, that even though financial sector development does not Granger-cause savings mobilization in Ghana, it induces poverty reduction; and second, that savings do Granger-cause poverty reduction in Ghana.
Laboratory and simulated field tests have shown that dichlorvos, a volatile insecticide, can be prepared in a solid formulation which releases the dichlorvos vapour over a period of several months at a relatively uniform rate high enough to kill adult anopheline mosquitos but low enough to have no effect on man and the higher animals. A field experiment is in progress in Wakara, Upper Volta, to evaluate the residual fumigant technique under practical field conditions. Chemical, biological, toxicological and epidemiological data obtained during the first nine months indicate that the method produced dichlorvos vapours in a concentration effective against mosquitos for 3 to 5 months per treatment, that the occupants of the treated dwellings showed no detectable effects from the insecticidal vapours, and that the malaria rates were reduced by 38%-55% among the population of the treated village as compared with a nearby untreated control village. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:14056276
Quarterman, K. D.; Lotte, M.; Schoof, H. F.
Throughout the 1970s, Professor James Koetting of Brown University spent a great deal of time in Ghana recording traditional and popular music. Recently the Center for Digital Initiatives at the Brown University Library created this excellent online digital collection that brings together Koetting's field recordings, field notebooks, photographs, and recorded interviews. The collection affords a number of insights into the performances of musicians in Accra and others in the Kasena region of Ghana. Visitors can read through several essays before looking closer into the collection, which they can navigate by clicking on sections like "Gallery" and "Field Recordings". The "Field Recordings" section offers a fine introduction into Koetting's important work and this particular genre of music. Lastly, visitors can also look through the additional "Resources", which include a bibliography, a discography, and a glossary of relevant musical terms.
Abstract Objective To investigate how donors and government agencies responded to a proliferation of donors providing aid to Ghana’s health sector between 1995 and 2012. Methods We interviewed 39 key informants from donor agencies, central government and nongovernmental organizations in Accra. These respondents were purposively selected to provide local and international views from the three types of institutions. Data collected from the respondents were compared with relevant documentary materials – e.g. reports and media articles – collected during interviews and through online research. Findings Ghana’s response to donor proliferation included creation of a sector-wide approach, a shift to sector budget support, the institutionalization of a Health Sector Working Group and anticipation of donor withdrawal following the country’s change from low-income to lower-middle income status. Key themes included the importance of leadership and political support, the internalization of norms for harmonization, alignment and ownership, tension between the different methods used to improve aid effectiveness, and a shift to a unidirectional accountability paradigm for health-sector performance. Conclusion In 1995–2012, the country’s central government and donors responded to donor proliferation in health-sector aid by promoting harmonization and alignment. This response was motivated by Ghana’s need for foreign aid, constraints on the capacity of governmental human resources and inefficiencies created by donor proliferation. Although this decreased the government’s transaction costs, it also increased the donors’ coordination costs and reduced the government’s negotiation options. Harmonization and alignment measures may have prompted donors to return to stand-alone projects to increase accountability and identification with beneficial impacts of projects.
Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Ruger, Jennifer Prah
This study adopts a multi-level theoretical framework to examine data from 496 entrepreneurs in Ghana. Seven types of innovation\\u000a activity are analysed against three categories of variables: the characteristics of the entrepreneur, the internal competencies\\u000a of the firm, and firm location. Across all respondents, the incidence of incremental innovation was far greater than novel\\u000a innovation. The extent of innovation was
Paul J. A. Robson; Helen M. Haugh; Bernard Acquah Obeng
This study was one of several activities conducted at the end of a 5-year World Bank/Government of Ghana project, the Tertiary Education Project (TEP). This project was designed to assist the government of Ghana with the restructuring and quality enhancement of its tertiary education sector. Although the government had prepared an ambitious reform…
Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678
The Volta clam Galatea paradoxa is a highly priced shellfish providing nutrition, jobs and poverty alleviation for the inhabitants of the lower Volta estuary.\\u000a Clams are filter feeders straining particulate materials in the surrounding water, thus concentrating microorganisms and other\\u000a metal elements in the gut and mantle which present possible health hazards. The elemental composition of the water, clam mantle,
Y. Serfor-Armah; C. M. Amoah; G. T. Odamtten; N. S. Opata; E. H. K. Akaho
The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, West Africa, has a diameter of 10.5km and is one of the youngest (1.07Ma) well-preserved large craters on Earth. It has a total dynamic range of topography of more than 400m, and it is the source crater of tektites and microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. The crater was excavated in early
Tobias Karp; Bernd Milkereit; Peter Janle; Sylvester K. Danuor; Jean Pohl; Hans Berckhemer; Christopher A. Scholz
1 Lo scenario: Web 2.0 - I Â· Web 2.0 = termine introdotto per la prima volta nel 2004 come titolo, del.icio.us, Wikipedia, ecc.) possono essere considerati a pieno titolo Web 2.0 Lo scenario: Web 2 a disposizione sulla rete (per es. Google Maps) a.a. 2013/14 Tecnologie Web 2 p (p g p ) Â· Cambia il modo di
This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ?2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.
Opoku-Duah, S.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Burt, T. P.
Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.
Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR?=?1.7 at p?0.05). Number of children in household was significantly related to stunting. Children in households with 5–8 children were 1.3 times more likely to be stunted compared to those with 1–4 children (p?.05). Mother’s age was a significant predictor of stunting with children whose mothers were aged 35–44 years being more likely to be stunted. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions and policies should be put in place to minimise the effects of the distal, proximal and intermediate factors on stunting among under 5 children in Ghana. PMID:24884653
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Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.
The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25508038
Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R
The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507
Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R
Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA...
Williams, Richard A. J.; Vá zquez, Ana; Asamte, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sá nchez-Seco, Marí a Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend
Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481
Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther
Pure Home Water (PHW) is a non-profit based in Ghana that seeks to bring safe drinking water to those most in need in Northern Ghana through the production, sale, and distribution of ceramic pot filters (CPF) and other ...
Miller, Matthew Rhodes
The Kosim filter is a ceramic water filter that is currently used in Northern Ghana. Based on prior MIT research in Northern Ghana, this technology is effective at removing 92% of turbidity, 99.4% of total coliforms, and ...
Swanton, Andrew A
Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and ?-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the most abundant and the concentrations of sums of DDTs were in tens of pg m-3. This suggests that the main source of DDTs was possibly due to past agricultural and public health usage. The soil concentrations of DDTs at the various sites were however negligible (approx. 1 ngg-1). The highest levels of HCHs were recorded in November and December 2008. HCB and PeCB concentrations in air were low and uniform and soil levels of HCB and PeCB were negligible. Only traces of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were detected from both sites. PCBs were found at levels typical for the urban sites and the levels at the Kwabenya site were slightly lower than those measured at the East Legon site. Levels of PCBs at the rural/agricultural site (Lake Bosumtwi) were relatively lower than those measured at the urban sites. The levels of PAHs in ambient air were quite high at all sites with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Benzo(a)pyrene (a known carcinogen) levels in ambient air were however very low. The highest levels of PAHs were detected in January 2008, February 2008 and July/August 2008 at Kwabenya, East Legon, and Lake Bosumtwi, respectively. PCDD/F levels were also quite high, maximal I-TEQ was the third highest in the African region (after Egypt and Senegal). Keywords: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Background Concentrations; Ghana; PUF-disk sampler
Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan
article title: Lake Powell View Larger Image ... (14.42 mb) This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on the ...
... View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...
This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...
Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263
Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J
A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme. PMID:8199113
Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J
The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.
Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah
In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents' demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p = .017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters' coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana. PMID:25193967
Appiah, Bernard; Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N; Russell, Leon H
This paper examines two parallel case studies to promote remote medical consultation in Ghana. These projects, initiated independently by different researchers in different organizations, both deployed ICT solutions in the same medical community in the same year. The Ghana Consultation Network currently has over 125 users running a Web-based application over a delay-tolerant network of servers. OneTouch MedicareLine is currently providing 1700 doctors in Ghana with free mobile phone calls and text messages to other members of the medical community. We present the consequences of (1) the institutional context and identity of the investigators, as well as specific decisions made with respect to (2) partnerships formed, (3) perceptions of technological infrastructure, and (4) high-level design decisions. In concluding, we discuss lessons learned and high-level implications for future ICTD research agendas.
Luk, Rowena; Ho, Melissa; Levine, Brian; Aoki, Paul M
In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.
Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.
The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...
Geomagnetic secular variation, excursions, and reversal records can provide an excellent means for high resolution correlation of sedimentary climate records. Recent drilling projects on Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, and Lake Malawi, Malawi, have provided the opportunity to study long African climate records (<1 Ma). Magnetic studies of these sedimentary archives indicate that high quality SV records are preserved through most of the sequence despite the fact that anoxia is the usual condition of bottom waters in both lakes. We compare the magnetic records of Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Malawi to test our ability to correlate between West African and East African lakes. In addition, we compare the magnetic record of Lake Malawi to records from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa and the Indian Ocean region, and the record of Lake Bosumtwi to that of Lake Barombi Mbo in West Africa. Correlations within regions are straightforward and highly useful for intrasite correlation. Correlation between East and West Africa is also possible, although the resolution of the correlation is more limited.
King, J.; Heil, C.; Peck, J.; Scholz, C.; Shanahan, T.; Overpeck, J.
This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…
This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…
Human parvovirus 4 has been considered to be transmitted only parenterally. However, after novel genotype 3 of parvovirus 4 was found in 2 patients with no parenteral risks, we tested infants in Ghana. A viremia rate of 8.6% over 2 years indicates that this infection is common in children in Africa. PMID:20587191
Panning, Marcus; Kobbe, Robin; Vollbach, Silke; Drexler, Jan Felix; Adjei, Samuel; Adjei, Ohene; Drosten, Christian; May, Jürgen
Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)
William, Musah; Preston, Christine
This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…
Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240
We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…
Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena
This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…
Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…
Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.
Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAHÂOKANTEY Barend KÃ?BBEN 1 Introduction With the development of Web GIS and the emergence of Mobile GIS new possibilities of data capture and maintenance objective was to design a system of Mobile GIS suitable for building and revising a cadastral database. Up
Reports on a study to find the extent of awareness and use of the Internet and its resources by academic staff and postgraduate students of the University of Ghana. The purposes for which Internet resources were used and respondents’ perceptions of the usefulness of the Internet were also explored. The main findings indicate that both staff and students are fully
Edwin Ellis Badu; Evelyn D. Markwei
This paper is concerned with the project of constructing a liberal state as evinced through the World Bank's policies and practices of good governance in Ghana. It argues that this project is an expression of characteristically liberal ways of thinking about the state and its relationship with its economy and society. The construction of a liberal state involves more than
in southern Ghana. Author Keywords Telemedicine, social networking, organizational interfaces, developing): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION There are many kinds of telemedicine, from continuing medical education to patient issue of how to encourage participation and trust in a dynamic, self-organizing telemedicine project
Aoki, Paul M.
Inclusion of students with disabilities into the mainstream educational system continues to be a major issue and concern faced by many developing nations. Many individuals with disabilities face the challenge of exclusion from any form of education and failure by society to recognize their capabilities and rights. The educational system in Ghana…
Adera, Beatrice A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis
Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…
Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly
In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…
Osei, George M.
In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…
Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena
When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented
William K Bosu
These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.
Meteorite impacts are associated with locally profound effects for microorganisms living at the terrestrial surface and the subsurface of the impact zone. The Bosumtwi crater in Ghana (West Africa) is a relatively young (1.07 Myr) structure with a rim-to-rim diameter of about 10.5 km. In a preliminary study targeting the subsurface microbial life in the impact structure, seven samples of the impact breccia from the central uplift of the Bosumtwi crater were analyzed for the presence of typical archaeal membrane-lipids (GDGTs). These have been detected in four of the samples, at a maximum depth of 382 m below the lake surface, which is equivalent to 309 m below the surface sediment. The concentration of the GDGTs does not show a trend with depth, and their distribution is dominated by GDGT-0. Possible origins of these lipids could be related to the soils or rocks predating the impact event, the hydrothermal system generated after the impact, or due to more recent underground water
Escala, Marina; Rosell-MelÉ, Antoni; Fietz, Susanne; Koeberl, Christian
Background Community awareness of stroke, especially the risk factors and warning signs is important in the control of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about community awareness of stroke though the brunt of stroke is currently borne in this region. The aim of the study was to evaluate stroke awareness in Accra (capital city of Ghana) particularly, the risk factors and warning signs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving systematic sampling of 63 households in each of the 11 sub metropolitan areas of Accra. A structured questionnaire was used to collect stroke awareness data from respondents randomly sampled in the selected households. Logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the main outcome variables including recognition of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs and the organ affected by stroke. Results Only 40% (n?=?277) of the 693 respondents correctly identified the brain as the organ affected in stroke. Similarly, less than half of the respondents could recognize any of the established stroke risk factors as well as any of the established stroke warning signs. Over 70% (n?>?485) of the respondents either believed that stroke is a preventable disease, or lifestyle alterations can be made to reduce the risk of stroke, or stroke requires emergency treatment. In multivariate analysis, predictors of stroke awareness were: age <50 years (OR?=?0.56, CI?=?0.35-0.92, p?=?0.021), presence of a stroke risk factor (OR?=?2.37, CI?=?1.52-3.71, p?0.001) and Christian Religion (OR?=?14.86, CI?=?1.37-161.01, p?=?0.03). Conclusion Though stroke is perceived as a serious and preventable disease in Accra, community awareness of the risk factors and warning signs is sub-optimal. This indicates that community-based education programs to increase public awareness of stroke could contribute to decreasing the risk of stroke and to increasing the speed of hospital presentation after stroke onset. PMID:24559414
A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.
Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.
A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.
Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.
This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.
On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While…
Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses
The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005–2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed
Williams Ackaah; David O. Adonteng
Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555
In field experiments conducted at the Nyankpala Agricultural Station, Ghana, during 1976–77, soil moisture conditions appeared to be the deciding factor in determining the frequency of handweeding needed to obtain maximum seed cotton yields. In 1976, when planting was early and the late, heavy rains in October prolonged weed growth, two handweedings at 4 and 8 weeks after seeding (w.a.s.)
A. G. Carson
Though Ghana is far away from the major earthquake zones of the world, it is however, prone to earthquake disaster. Ghana has records of damaging earthquakes dating as far back as 1636. The last three major ones occurred in 1862, 1906 and 1939. The most destructive earthquake that struck the then Gold Coast and caused a lot of damage and
Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…
Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay
SAP, by design, encourages the more rapid exploitation of the natural environment. The difficulty of dealing with the environment-development problem is, therefore, obvious. The question whether the joint pursuit of economic growth and environmental sustainability is possible in Ghana is still worth exploring. What this paper has demonstrated is that the Economic Recover Program of Ghana, as a strategy of
The purpose of this study is to assess and evaluate Ghana's response to its energy dilemma, focusing primarily on the use of renewable energy resource, as a potential source in strategic planning. The objectives of the study are: (1) to identify and report on the energy situation in Ghana, the framework of policy, strategy, options and action programs being undertaken
The Mount Afadjato and Agumatsa Range Conservation Area (AACA) is one of the globally important bird area in Ghana, currently being managed through community-based conservation actions by local people with the support of the Ghana Wildlife Society. As in many other Ghanaian communities the mammal fauna of the site continue to decline as a result of many factors, basically anthropogenic
E. H. Owusu; E. K. Ekpe; A. Asamoah
The traditional concept of the Early Proterozoic gold deposits in Ghana — i.e. gold-bearing shear zones overlain by Tarkwaian paleoplacers containing reworked gold derived from the shear-zones — needs to be reconsidered in the light of recent research in Ghana, the Ivory Coast and French Guiana. This research has revealed a consistent pattern of geostructural and metallogenic evolution in which
J. P. Milési; P. Ledru; P. Ankrah; V. Johan; E. Marcoux; Ch. Vinchon
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...
This paper explores the dropout experience of children who dropped out of schools located in two rural communities11The two rural communities are located in the newly created Mfantseman District in of the Central region in Ghana. in the Central Region of Ghana. The main research question sought to explore the meaning and types of drop out founded on the views
Eric Daniel Ananga
This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…
In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…
Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia
This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…
Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua
In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…
Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie
In an economy facing fiscal constraints, public spending in the social sectors needs to be linked to outcomes to ensure efficient and equitable delivery of services.Using primary data from the health and education ministries and household survey data from the Ghana Statistical Service, Canagarajah and Ye analyze equity and efficiency issues in public spending on health and education in Ghana
Xiao Ye; Sudharshan Canagarajah
Since 1990, there has been growing theoretical consensus on the need for integrated water resource management. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientific consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM in the developed and the developing countries, although the nature of the implementation challenges may differ in the different contexts. Against this background, this paper investigates into the nature of the empirical challenges to implementing integrated water resource management in Ghana. It describes the actual implementation process and contrasts eleven elements of the substantive content of IWRM with the implementation practice in Ghana. The paper then concludes that Ghana, like other developing countries often adopts such paradigm shifts in the management of their water resources primarily as a result of exogenous pressures (and to a limited extent endogenous factors) but that (a) lack of domestic ownership and leadership of the concept, (b) limited resources, and (c) institutional mis-matches, often results in an implementation of the ideas that is limited to implementation in form rather than practice.
Agyenim, Joseph Boateng; Gupta, Joyeeta
Cancer incidence rates are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) are involved in cancer management. Little is known about the specific role that TMPs play in cancer management in Ghana; we hypothesize that an understanding of the practices of TMPs with regard to cancer patients would help to enhance literacy about cancer amongst TMPs and would contribute to the diagnosis of cancer at earlier stages, by avoiding the detrimental delays while enlisting their help in certain activities that enhance cancer care. To elucidate the nature of the involvement of TMPs in cancer management, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 TMPs who practice in Kumasi, Ghana. The interviews elicited information about their knowledge and practices regarding cancer management and interactions with local hospitals. The results showed that TMPs tended to identify cancers as diseases of visible masses, fungating lesions, ulceration, and bleeding reflecting the advanced stages and types of cancers they usually encounter. TMPs identified certain causes of cancer and believed that they can treat and prevent cancer. These results indicate that TMPs are significant health service delivery resources in Ghana for patients potentially affected with cancer. Our work suggests that dedicated efforts to further integrate TMPs into the overall health care system would be beneficial to patients. Future research should examine the role of cancer education and training programs for TMPs to enhance their knowledge, strengthen their ability to complement allopathic practitioners, and increase early detection and treatment efforts through appropriate and timely referrals. PMID:22549472
O’Brien, Kieran S.; Annan, Kofi; Lartey, Richard N.; Awuah, Baffour; Merajver, Sofia D.
Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775
Adolescent girls in Ghana still face a number of challenges accessing reproductive/sexual health services despite efforts to improve their accessibility. This paper explores the key socio-demographic factors associated with contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Data from the 2008 GDHS was analyzed. Socio-demographic variables were selected to assess their interaction with contraceptive use. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Place of residence and marital status were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Rural residents were less likely to use contraceptives compared to urban residents (OR 0.32, CI 0.12-0.84, p = 0.021) as well as married respondents compared to their unmarried peers (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, p = 0.005). The accessibility of reproductive/sexual health services needs to be improved and promoted in rural areas and among married adolescent women. PMID:24796174
Marrone, Gaetano; Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; De Coninck, Zaake; Johansson, Annika
BackgroundGhana is renowned for its sibling species diversity of the Simulium damnosum complex, vectors of Onchocerca volvulus. Detailed entomological knowledge becomes a priority as onchocerciasis control policy has shifted from morbidity reduction to elimination of infection. To date, understanding of transmission dynamics of O. volvulus has been mainly based on S. damnosum sensu stricto (s.s.) data. We aim to elucidate bionomic features of vector species of importance for onchocerciasis elimination efforts.MethodsWe collected S. damnosum sensu lato from seven villages in four Ghanaian regions between 2009 and 2011, using standard vector collection, and human- and cattle-baited tents. Taxa were identified using morphological and molecular techniques. Monthly biting rates (MBR), parous rates and monthly parous biting rates (MPBR) are reported by locality, season, trapping method and hour of collection for each species.Results S. damnosum s.s./S. sirbanum were collected at Asubende and Agborlekame, both savannah villages. A range of species was caught in the Volta region (forest-savannah mosaic) and Gyankobaa (forest), with S. squamosum or S. sanctipauli being the predominant species, respectively. In Bosomase (southern forest region) only S. sanctipauli was collected in the 2009 wet season, but in the 2010 dry season S. yahense was also caught. MBRs ranged from 714 bites/person/month at Agborlekame (100%¿S. damnosum s.s./S. sirbanum) to 8,586 bites/person/month at Pillar 83/Djodji (98.5%¿S. squamosum). MBRs were higher in the wet season. In contrast, parous rates were higher in the dry season (41.8% vs. 18.4%), resulting in higher MPBRs in the dry season. Daily host-seeking activity of S. damnosum s.s./S. sirbanum was bimodal, whilst S. squamosum and S. sanctipauli had unimodal afternoon peaks.ConclusionsThe bionomic differences between sibling species of the S. damnosum complex need to be taken into account when designing entomological monitoring protocols for interventions and parameterising mathematical models for onchocerciasis control and elimination. PMID:25413569
Lamberton, Poppy; Cheke, Robert A; Walker, Martin; Winskill, Peter; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Tirados, Iñaki; Tetteh-Kumah, Anthony; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D; Post, Rory J; Basáñez, María-Gloria
In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus attention on the important childhood killer but immunizable diseases in Ghana, giving where available morbidity and mortality figures. Immunization schedules currently adopted in Ghana are discussed in the light of immunological considerations, the half-life of acquired maternal antibodies and from the point of view of known epidemiological patterns of these immunizable diseases. An attempt was thus made to justify the adoption of the immunization schedules currently in force in Ghana. Problems relating to some of the vaccines used in immunization of the under-fives in Ghana have been discussed in the light of personal experiences and the experiences of other colleagues, giving--where possible--suggestions for improvement. Finally, the paper delineates problem areas in immunization programmes of the under-fives in Ghana. PMID:753661
Addy, P A
Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484
On Iceberg Lake in Glacier National Park, ice from the glacier is breaking up and melting at a rapid rate. Cold, glacier fed waters provide crucial habitat for native aquatic species such as trout, and as the ice is disappearing, so are the ideal habitats to sustain native ecosystems. ...
This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.
Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established into law in 2003 and implemented in 2005 as a ‘pro-poor’ method of health financing, has made great progress in enrolling members of the general population. While many studies have focused on predictors of enrolment this study offers a novel analysis of NHIS members’ perceptions of service provision at the national level. Methods Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey we analyzed the perceptions of service provision as indicated by members enrolled in the NHIS at the time of the survey (n?=?3468; m?=?1422; f?=?2046). Ordinal Logistic Regression was applied to examine the relationship between perceptions of service provision and theoretically relevant socioeconomic and demographic variables. Results Results demonstrate that wealth, gender and ethnicity all play a role in influencing members’ perceptions of NHIS service provision, distinctive from its influence on enrolment. Notably, although wealth predicted enrolment in other studies, our study found that compared to the poorest men and uneducated women, wealthy men and educated women were less likely to perceive their service provision as better/same (more likely to report it was worse). Wealth was not an important factor for women, suggesting that household gender dynamics supersede household wealth status in influencing perceptions. As well, when compared to Akan women, women from all other ethnic groups were about half as likely to perceive the service provision to be better/same. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest there is an important difference between originally enrolling in the NHIS because one believes it is potentially beneficial, and using the NHIS and perceiving it to be of benefit. We conclude that understanding the nature of this relationship is essential for Ghana’s NHIS to ensure its longevity and meet its pro-poor mandate. As national health insurance systems are a relatively new phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa little is known about their long term viability; understanding user perceptions of service provision is an important piece of that puzzle. PMID:23968385
The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.
The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.
The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.
Windows to the Universe/NBC Learn
The Great Lakes of northern Canada are relatively understudied ecosystems in comparison to the better-investigated Laurentian Great Lakes. This chain of lakes extends north from Lake Winnipeg (a shallow prairie lake) to Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca (moderately deep arboreal lakes) to Great Slave Lake (a deep subarctic lake) to Great Bear Lake (a deep lake located in the Arctic
M. S Evans
We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p < .001), was lowest within the Central Business District (CBD) compared to the outskirts of the city (16.3% versus 21.0%, p < .001) and seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana. PMID:20945246
Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633
Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi
Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The epidemiology of malaria in special areas, such as mining areas needs to be monitored and controlled. Newmont Ghana Gold Limited is conducting mining activities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana that may have an impact on the diseases such as malaria in the mining area. Methods Prior to the start of mining activities, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to determine malaria epidemiology, including malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among children < 5 years and monthly malaria transmission in a mining area of Ghana. Results A total of 1,671 households with a child less than five years were selected. About 50% of the household heads were males. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia was 22.8% (95% CI 20.8 - 24.9). Plasmodium falciparum represented 98.1% (95% CI 96.2 - 99.2) of parasitaemia. The geometric mean P. falciparum asexual parasite count was 1,602 (95% CI 1,140 - 2,252) and 1,195 (95% CI 985 - 1,449) among children < 24 months and ? 24 months respectively. Health insurance membership (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.80, p = 0.001) and the least poor (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.90, p = 0.001) were protected against malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was high among children < 24 months compared to children ? 24 months (44.1% (95% CI 40.0 - 48.3) and 23.8% (95% CI 21.2 - 26.5) respectively. About 69% (95% CI 66.3 - 70.9) of households own at least one ITN. The highest EIRs were record in May 2007 (669 ib/p/m) and June 2007 (826 ib/p/m). The EIR of Anopheles gambiae were generally higher than Anopheles funestus. Conclusion The baseline malaria epidemiology suggests a high malaria transmission in the mining area prior to the start of mining activities. Efforts at controlling malaria in this mining area have been intensified but could be enhanced with increased resources and partnerships between the government and the private sector. PMID:21801344
Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.
McKay, W. A.
This Sierra Webpage is dedicated to Mono Lake, CA. It offers a brief description of Mono Lake, including photos and sightseeing tips, and features numerous writings by Mono Lake Park Ranger David Carle. Subjects include the Mono Lake environment, visiting the lake, and the water issue. An entry of particular interest is Strange Water- Mono Lake Gourmet: An Unusual Recipe. It includes 'Mock Mono Lake Soup' and 'Tufa Porridge Extraordinaire'- two recipes designed to illustrate the composition of Mono Lake and the chemical processes involved in tufa formation.
Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout.Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of
William R. Dryer; Leo F. Erkkila; Clifford L. Tetzloff
New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Ghana are presented. One new subgenus, Vietsclio n. subgen., is erected to accommodate Monatractides uniscutatus (K. Viets, 1925), characterized by the presence of swimming setae on leg II-IV. Seven new species are described: Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) erato n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) euterpe n. sp., M. (M.) melpomene n. sp., M. (M.) polyhymnia n. sp., M. (M.) thalia n. sp., M. (M.) terpsichore n. sp., M. (M.) urania n. sp. Torrenticola calliope is established as the new name for previously reported populations of T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956 from Ethiopia. The first description of the female is given for Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914) and M. (Vietsclio) uniscutatus K. Viets 1925. The subgenus Allotorrenticola Cook, 1967, previously known only from Asia, is reported for the first time from the Afrotropical region. Additionally, first records for Ghana are given for Torrenticola anomallela Cook, 1966, T. bomiensis Cook, 1966, T. fasciata (K. Viets, 1916), T. motasi Cook, 1966, T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956, Pseudotorrenticola mitchelli Cook, 1966, Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914), M. (M.) convexiscutata (K. Viets, 1958), M. (M.) koenikei (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) stigeophora (Cook, 1966), M. (M.) ventriosus (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) microstoma Koenike, 1898-species complex, and M. uniscutatus (K. Viets 1925). PMID:24943805
Peši?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry
A cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying household dietary practices, quality of diets and family nutritional status of rural Ghana. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessments and anthropometry was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 10 in Windows. Means and standard deviations were generated for continuous variables and frequency distribution for categorical variables. Most women consumed meals three times a day but only a few (12.5%) cooked all three meals at home. Breakfast and lunch were the two main meals purchased from food vendors. The most frequently consumed food items on daily basis were the starchy staples, maize, fish, pepper, onion, tomato and palm fruits. The nutritional qualities of diets were poor in terms of calcium and the B-vitamins. A significant proportion of the women were nutritionally at risk of being either underweight (12%), overweight (17%) or obese (5%). For adequate nutrition in this population, nutrition education intervention programs aimed at improving nutrient intake through improved diet diversity and increased use of local foods rich in calcium and the B-vitamins needs to be undertaken. There is also the need to intensify education on excessive weight gain and its attendant health problems in the area. PMID:20126363
Background Cholera has claimed many lives throughout history and it continues to be a global threat, especially in countries in Africa. The disease is listed as one of three internationally quarantinable diseases by the World Health organization, along with plague and yellow fever. Between 1999 and 2005, Africa alone accounted for about 90% of over 1 million reported cholera cases worldwide. In Ghana, there have been over 27000 reported cases since 1999. In one of the affected regions in Ghana, Ashanti region, massive outbreaks and high incidences of cholera have predominated in urban and overcrowded communities. Results A GIS based spatial analysis and statistical analysis, carried out to determine clustering of cholera, showed that high cholera rates are clustered around Kumasi Metropolis (the central part of the region), with Moran's Index = 0.271 and P < 0.001. Furthermore, A Mantel-Haenszel Chi square for trend analysis reflected a direct spatial relationship between cholera and urbanization (?2 = 2995.5, P < 0.0001), overcrowding (?2 = 1757.2, P < 0.0001), and an inverse relationship between cholera and order of neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis (?2 = 831.38, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The results suggest that high urbanization, high overcrowding, and neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis are the most important predictors of cholera in Ashanti region. PMID:18700026
Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A
Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes. PMID:20604118
McCullough, Fergus S.
Aims. This retrospective study was to identify some challenges in the treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU) and present a proposed treatment regime. Materials and Methods. Information from patients medical records, hospital database, and follow-up findings on BU treatment procedures from 1994 to 1998 and from 2004 to 2007 at three research sites in Ghana were reviewed to determine the treatment challenges encountered. Data needed were recorded and analyzed, and results presented using SPSS version 17.0. Results. A total of 489 BU patients information was selected for the study. A majority (56.90%, n = 278) of the patients were children (0–14 years), with a mean age of 12.8 years. Significant challenges in BU treatment in Ghana identified included sequelae (P = 0.041 ), delayed treatment (P = 0.012 ), and high treatment cost (P = 0.044 ). Duration of hospital stay was clearly correlated with the time spent at home prior to admission; spearman's rank correlation coefficient was 0.72 (95% CI 0.42–0.87). Conclusion. Delays in seeking treatment among BU patients were the main factor which resulted in most of the other factors contributing to the challenges in treatment. A combination of psychosocial and biomedical approach was proposed as holistic method to alleviate the challenges in BU treatment. PMID:23251191
Agbenorku, Pius; Donwi, Isaac K.; Kuadzi, Pawson; Saunderson, Paul
Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554
McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.
Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round oflampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from
Randy L. Eshenroder; N. Robert Payne; James E. Johnson; Charles Bowen II; Mark P. Ebener
Native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were driven to extirpation in Lake Champlain in the early 1900s. Possible causes include overharvest, predation on adults by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and predation on fry by rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery began in 1972 when a coordinated stocking program was initiated. Attempts to control sea lamprey populations
Brian J. Ellrott; J. Ellen Marsden
Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in
Joseph H. Elrod; Robert O’Gorman; Clifford P. Schneider; Thomas H. Eckert; Ted Schaner; James N. Bowlby; Larry P. Schleen
To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGOs and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a ...
Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; MacDonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea
Four local plastic design (LPD) BSFs were constructed in Northern Region, Ghana, to test and evaluate an experimental modification of the LPD BSF for treatment of highly turbid water. Modifications of the LPD BSFs were ...
Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The tests included the membrane filtration (MF) test using ...
Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene)
& Waste Management (ISWM) of Ghana are pleased to announce that an interdisciplinary course and workshop of Ghent, Belgium, both summa cum laude. From 1972 until 1990 he was a researcher (finally re- search
The cross-sectional study sought to describe the strengths, challenges and current status of baccalaureate nursing education in Ghana, using a descriptive design. The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives standards were used as the organizing framework, with baseline data on the status of nursing education from two state funded universities in Ghana presented. A serious shortage of qualified faculty was identified, along with the need for significant upgrading to the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the number of qualified applicants far exceeds the available training slots. Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion, however in low resource countries such as Ghana, these issues are compounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury. An understanding of the strengths and challenges of nursing education in Ghana can inform the development of strategies for nursing workforce expansion for other low resource countries. PMID:23347003
Bell, Sue Anne; Rominski, Sarah; Bam, Victoria; Donkor, Ernestina; Lori, Jody
In Northern Region Ghana (NRG), highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams called dugouts. These dams serve as many communities' main source of drinking and domestic water despite ...
A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...
Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)
Ghana's water quality and sanitation condition are very poor. Pure Home Water (PHW), a local non-profit organization has been successfully improving the supply of safe drinking water in the northern region by producing and ...
excessive exploitation, illegal harvesting was rampant and there was utter neglect for established harvesting procedures. In addition, forestry institutions had become demoralized and inefficient because 2000 Objective of the International tropical Timber Organization of which Ghana is a producer member
According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), 14% of the population in Ghana use improved sanitation facilities and 59% use shared facilities. The objective of this thesis is to offer a situational analysis ...
David, LaKisha T. (LaKisha Tawanda)
The research underpinning this work took place in the context of two rural water and sanitation projects carried out in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The focus of study was on the way engineers can make water and sanitation ...
Furber, Alison Mary
Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. & Nuoh, A. A. 2000. The role of the Ghana coast in the annual cycle of migratory terns. Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 183.Data are presented on counts of migratory terns on the Ghana coast over a ten-year period, 1986–1996. Fourteen species of terns were recorded during the period. Influx of terns begins in late August, peaking in
Y. Ntiamoa-Baidu; A. A. Nuoh
\\u000a Ghana has achieved dramatic improvements in national food security in recent years, but concealed in this overall progress\\u000a is a considerable measure of regional unevenness, with the population living in the dry savannah regions in the north faring\\u000a the worst. The Upper West Region (UWR) is the poorest region of Ghana and has long served as a reservoir of migratory
Isaac Luginaah; Tony Weis; Sylvester Galaa; Mathew K. Nkrumah; Rachel Benzer-Kerr; Daniel Bagah
New records of water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae) from streams in Ghana are presented. Six species are reported, one of these, Atractides (Atractides) ghanaensis n. sp., is described as new for science. First records for Ghana are given for A. (Atractides) damkoehleri (K. Viets, 1916), A. (A.) latisetus (K. Viets, 1916), A. (Polymegapus) kuehnei (K. Viets, 1911) and A. (Tympanomegapus) tuberipalpis (K. Viets, 1913). PMID:25661616
Peši?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry
Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281
Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond
Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made their restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative
Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI
In a series of investigations to determine the best possible site for an airport in the area surrounding Lake Erie and the feasibility of an offshore airport on the Lake itself, the weather, noise levels, air and water quality impacts, airspace\\/air traffic control considerations, obstruction clearances, effects on lake currents and lake navigation routes, and aesthetic considerations are evaluated. The
Hypertension is a major public health problem of this era. Hypertension related morbidity and mortality rates have dramatically increased over the last 25 years. Stressful life style is one of the leading causes of Hypertension. The treatment of hypertension remains a primary goal in the effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, stroke and kidney disease. In this study, 20 patients were randomly divided in two groups and treated along with restricted diet pattern for 8 weeks. Patients of Group A received poly-herbal compound formulation Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day). It was found that, relief in overall symptoms (63.93%) elevated blood pressure (8.91% in Systolic blood pressure and 8.44% in diastolic blood pressure). In group-B, with Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day) the percent relief was better on elevated blood pressure (12.00% in Systolic blood pressure and 11.02% in diastolic blood pressure). When data is subjected in between both the groups, it is found that, both drugs are equally effective. PMID:23049185
Mishra, Jyoti; Joshi, Nayan P.; Pandya, Dilip M.
Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana. PMID:25580349
Nyarko, Samuel Harrenson; Cobblah, Anastasia
The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.
Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.
This is an online version of the text, The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. Taking an ecosystem approach, the Atlas helps readers understand the Great Lakes and other natural resources in the Great Lakes region as an interdependent system across an international border. Its purpose is to demonstrate how the Great Lakes are affected by use and to increase public appreciation for the importance of these lakes as a North American and global resource. A French version is available.
Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce
The International Lake Environment Committee (ILEC) works to advance international cooperation for sustainable management of the world's lakes and reservoirs through the collection and provision of environmental data, the promotion of scientific research, and the promotion of interchange with government agencies and research institutes. The World Lake Database is particularly interesting and gives the user the ability to navigate to lakes around the world providing facts about each lake.
In an attempt to identify the type of projectile, 14 samples from the Bosumtwi crater in Ghana were analyzed for platinum group element (PGE) concentrations by nickel sulfide fire assay inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The majority of the samples come from the impactite material recovered by cores LB-07A and LB-08A, which were drilled by the International Continental Scientific Drilling program (ICDP). One sample originates from the fallback material found at the contact between the impactite and the overlying lake sediment in core LB-05B. No clear signature of a meteoritic contamination was identified in the 13 impactite samples. The target rock apparently dominates the PGE contribution in the impactites. These results agree with the PGE concentrations reported for the suevites collected at the crater rim and in other parts of the Bosumtwi ICDP cores. However, based on Cr and Os isotopic signatures, a meteoritic component could be present in the sample of fallback material, supporting the reports of the existence of meteoritic material in the Ivory Coast tektites. Further analyses of the fallback material from the Bosumtwi drill cores should confirm (or not) this first result.
Goderis, S.; Tagle, R.; Schmitt, R. T.; Erzinger, J.; Claeys, P. H.
/ This paper reviews the state of the environment in Ghana and explores the potential for the use of institutional, legal, and economic instruments in environmental management in the specific context of this developing country.The environmental situation in Ghana is characterized by desertification, land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate water supply in the northern regions of the country. The population as a whole is growing at a rate of 3% per annum, with even greater urban growth rates, due to rural out-migration. Large parts of the coastal zone in the south are rapidly developing to become one large suburbanized area. Water quality is particularly threatened in the urban and industrialized areas, which are mainly located in the southern part of the country. The coastal lagoons and coastal waters are moderately to heavily polluted. Erosion extends along the whole Ghanaian coast with excesses, for example, in the Keta area, where during the last century over 90% of the original buildings have been washed awayby the sea. The obvious environmental consequences of the mining sector are illustrative of the environmental threats caused by a fast growing industry and industrializing agriculture, in a country where environmental policy is only in its formative years. Desertification, food insecurity and coastal erosion all contribute to an increasing number of environmental refugees.Environmental policy in Ghana is a post-Rio phenomenon. Environmental laws, a Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, an advisory National Committee for the Implementation of Agenda 21, and a fully mandated environmental administration have been established. This administration advocates a progressive attitude towards environmental legislation and points out the specific utility of economic and legal instruments in environmental management in this relatively fast developing country.The choice of instruments for environmental management is increasingly influenced by the specific state of African environmental and technological capacity and by a call for the recognition of the role of traditional customs in nature conservation. This African perspective on environmental management is further intensified by an unmet need for regional, transboundary cooperation in the West African subcontinent. This specific West African context calls for an elaboration of an effective capacity-building program for environmental management in the area.KEY WORDS: Environmental profile; Environmental policy; Legal instruments; Economic instruments; African perspective; State of the environmenthttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n3p337.html PMID:10486044
107 The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana Rheinbach, 20 August 2005 ISSN 0036 e.V. (DGHT) The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana MARK-OLIVER RÃ?DEL,MARLON GIL, Ghana. We recorded a total of 47 amphibian species, among them the first country records for the genera
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002
Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip
An attempt to assess ground water resources of a medium size (4775 km 2) drainage basin located on the Crystalline Complex in southern Ghana is presented. Mean annual rainfall 1578 mm, total river discharge 1,886,588 064 m 3 a -1, surface runoff 1,320,611,645 m 3 a -1, base flow 565,976,419 m 3 a -1, were determined from 13 meteorological and 1 river gauging stations located within the basin. From these data, the total runoff coefficient was 36%, surface runoff coefficient was 25% and the base flow coefficient was 11%. Then, Permanent Water Reserve, Qt = 5,333.20 × 106 m 3 and Recoverable Water Reserve, 2,133.28 × 10 6 m 3 a -1 for the aquifer of the basement complex aquifer of the basin were calculated from 42 boreholes.
Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347
Ferguson, W. R. W.
Using pooled data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper investigates the association between religion and contraceptive behavior of married women in Ghana. Guided by the particularized theology and characteristics hypotheses, multinomial logit and complementary log-log models are used to explore denominational differences in contraceptive adoption among currently married women and assess whether the differences could be explained through other characteristics. We found that while there were no differences between women of different Christian faiths, non-Christian women (Muslim and Traditional) were significantly more likely to have never used contraception compared with Christian women. Similar observations were made on current use of contraception, although the differences were greatly reduced in the multivariate models. PMID:21567266
Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Adjei, Jones K; Takyi, Baffour K
The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: (a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model, (b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and (c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161
Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter
Daily rainfall data are examined through the temporal analysis of various definitions of variable temporal units (VTUs) consisting of combinations of various starting dates and durations over mid-Ghana. These VTUs are independent of, yet encompass, the starting dates and durations of the major and minor rainy seasons. Within each VTU, total rainfall and number of rainy days are calculated to describe the rainfall characteristics of the unit. Means and variances of each variable are calculated for each unit over two 20-year periods, 1951-1970 (P1) and 1981-2000 (P2). In P2, the major and minor rainy seasons have undergone varying degrees of desiccation. This reduction in rainfall is, however, not temporally or spatially uniform. The widespread decline of mean rainfall totals and number of rainy days during the minor rainy season, often associated with greater inter-annual variability, is particularly threatening to the production of a second crop.
Owusu, Kwadwo; Waylen, Peter R.
BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298
Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo
Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent the development of severe depression among these patients should be considered. PMID:24612693
The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. PMID:25042543
Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi
Abstract Problem Ghana’s population is ageing. In 2011, the Government of Ghana requested technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to help revise national policies on ageing and health. Approach We applied WHO’s knowledge translation framework on ageing and health to assist evidence based policy-making in Ghana. First, we defined priority problems and health system responses by performing a country assessment of epidemiologic data, policy review, site visits and interviews of key informants. Second, we gathered evidence on effective health systems interventions in low- middle- and high-income countries. Third, key stakeholders were engaged in a policy dialogue. Fourth, policy briefs were developed and presented to the Ghana Health Services. Local setting Ghana has a well-structured health system that can adapt to meet the health care needs of older people. Relevant changes Six problems were selected as priorities, however after the policy dialogue, only five were agreed as priorities by the stakeholders. The key stakeholders drafted evidence-based policy recommendations that were used to develop policy briefs. The briefs were presented to the Ghana Health Service in 2014. Lessons learnt The framework can be used to build local capacity on evidence-informed policy-making. However, knowledge translation tools need further development to be used in low-income countries and in the field of ageing. The terms and language of the tools need to be adapted to local contexts. Evidence for health system interventions on ageing populations is very limited, particularly for low- and middle-income settings.
Byles, Julie; Aquah, Charles; Amofah, George; Biritwum, Richard; Panisset, Ulysses; Goodwin, James; Beard, John
This article empirically investigates whether human capital constrains the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and remittances on economic growth in Ghana. An economic growth model for Ghana is specified and estimated using Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) estimator and employing annual data spanning the period 1965 to 2008. Empirical results indicate that FDI and remittances are key determinants
Frank Wogbe Agbola
This paper analyzes efficiency and equity issues in public expenditures on education and health in Ghana during the 1990s. Data were drawn from reports of the ministries of education and health and from household surveys conducted 1988-98. In the late 1990s, Ghana's public expenditures on education decreased. Basic education enrollment was…
Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao
The Ghana Private-Public Partnerships Program (GHPPP) funded by USAID through Michigan State University (MSU) Partnerships for Food Industry Development Program - Fruits & Vegetables (PFID-F&V) under the MSU Institute of International Agriculture seeks to: a) Develop an efficient logistical supply chain in Ghana capable of achieving products of specified consistency, quality and safety, (b) Develop skills and capabilities of all
Samuel Sefa-Dedeh; Doe Adovor
You will review these five websites and complete a flow chart for each of the five Great Lakes. Project Organizer: Flow Chart First, you will learn about Lake Huron. Go to Lake Huron to learn more about this great lake.Complete a Flow Chart Flow Chart for Lake Huron. Write "Lake Huron" under Topic and include five supporting details you learned ...
The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…
Agbemabiese, Padmore E.
Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...
Aircraft measurements of snow particle size spectra from 36 flights on 26 snowy days are used to estimate snow precipitation rates over Lake Michigan. Results show that average rates during 14 wind-parallel-type lake-effect storms increased from the upwind shore to about midlake and then were essentially uniform (1.5 2 mm day1, liquid water equivalent) to the downwind shore. Snow from midlake bands and shoreline bands maximized over the lake. The position of the maximum during these types of lake-effect storms depends on meteorological conditions. In any given case it may be near either shore or anywhere between them. This study combines 12 cases of midlake and shoreline bands. The resulting cross-lake snow profile shows a broad maximum reaching over 4 mm day1 near midlake. The single sample maximum snow precipitation rate encountered in this study was 77.7 mm day1. The average cross-lake profile from combining 26 cases of lake-effect storms shows that snowfall into the lake is considerably greater than one would expect from a linear interpolation between values measured along either shore.An attempt is made to estimate the average increase in snow over lake Michigan resulting from combined lake-effect and large-scale cyclonic storms. The result is interesting but not considered very reliable because it depends upon the relative frequencies of different types of lake-effect storms as well as overtake snow rates from large-scale cyclonic storms; neither is well known.
Braham, Roscoe R., Jr.; Dungey, Maureen J.
The Harmattan is a dry dust-laden continental wind, and in the boreal winter Harmattan dust plumes affects many West African countries, including Ghana. When the Harmattan is strongest the southern part of Ghana is affected by the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD). In this study, we investigate if the ITD functions as a barrier, preventing long transported Harmattan dust to settle south of, and below, it. This is done by analyzing a Harmattan dust outbreak, mapped using Earth observation (EO) data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, coupled with data from West African AERONET stations, and comparing these observations with wind data from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) program and the mineral suite of samples from seasonal dust deposits in north and south Ghana. In northern Ghana traces of minerals indicate a weak influence of particles from an arid environment, which is found consistent with the mapped dust plumes and NE wind directions. In southern Ghana the mineral composition show no sediments of an arid origin, the mapped dust plumes is less intense, and the surface wind directions and wind mass trajectories are more varying with lower wind speeds. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that dust deposited, or measured near ground, in the Harmattan period under the ITD, and south of it, does not contain material from the Chad Basin due to the local winds conditions.
Lyngsie, G.; Olsen, J. L.; Awadzi, T. W.; Fensholt, R.; Breuning-Madsen, H.
Lake Bosumtwi is an impact crater lake located at 6.5ºN and 1.5ºW in Ghana. The Bosumtwi impact event and the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field generated by the event have an age of 1.07 Myr. The lake contains an approximately 300m sedimentary section that provides a nearly continuous stratigraphy of this interval. In addition, the majority of the section is annually laminated. Advantages of magnetic studies of Lake Bosumtwi sediments include: (1) duplicate drill holes; (2) high sedimentation rates; (3) laminations allow assessmet of core disturbance; and (4) sediments record polarity transitions, excusions, and possibly paleointensity at a low-latitude site; and (5) Milankovitch and sub- Milankovitch scale paleoclimate variations. Challenges include: (1) low-latitude site location makes it difficult to recognize excursions and polarity transitions; (2) anoxia that produces annual laminations also causes some reductive diagenesis; and (3) some intervals are weakly magnetic and have noisy data. Overall, with respect to its magnetic record, Lake Bosumtwi is neither a "silk purse," nor a "sows ear." We will detail our efforts to maximize the former and minimize the latter.
King, J. W.; Heil, C. W.; Peck, J. A.
The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)
Delfino, Joseph J.
Great Lakes NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE CoastWatch is a nationwide NOAA program in which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) functions as the Great Lakes regional node. GLERL obtains, produces, and delivers environmental data and products
This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.
This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…
Brothers, Chris; And Others
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows the Lake Nyos pipe ...
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. A small CO2 cloud from Lake Monoun k...
We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana. PMID:24808747
Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi
A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: email@example.com Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 ?m-25 ?m.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 ?g/m3 to 1344 ?g/m3 with an average of 532 ?g/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 ?m to 2.43 ?m with an average of 1.5 ?m ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 ?m. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.
Sunnu, A. K.
The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n = 129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered. PMID:22970162
Nielsen, Maja Verena; Sarpong, Nimako; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Loag, Wibke; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Marks, Florian; Huenger, Frank; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg
Mono Lake Web Site is the homepage of the Mono Lake Committee and offers helpful information regarding the unique hypersaline and alkaline environment. Visitors will find information about the Mono Lake Committee, natural and political histories of the area, related water policies, a photo gallery with image descriptions, and links to related sites- including a clearinghouse. Those interested in Mono Basin birds will find sightings, counts, bird walks, and other related information. An additional feature, Mono Lake Live, offers up-to-the-minute data on road conditions, satellite images, weather, lake level, bird sightings, snow pack, and earthquakes.
Reis, Greg; Committee, Mono L.
Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862
_ Coregonus clupeaformis _ Lake Michigan _ Lake Huron _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ Lake Erie _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ artedi and artedi albus of Lake Ontario _ Leucichthys nipigon _ Genus Coregonus
The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been hindered by various biological and physiological impediments. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions, there is little evidence of recruitment of naturally-produced fish in annual fall assessments. Spawning occurs
Jacob W. Riley; J. Ellen Marsden
SUMMARY 1. Lakes are a prominent feature of the Northern Highland Lake District (NHLD) of Wisconsin, covering 13% of the landscape. Summarising the physical, chemical, or biological nature of NHLD lakes at a regional scale requires a representative sample of the full size distributions of lakes. In this study, we selected at random 168 lakes from the full size distribution
PAUL C. HANSON; STEPHEN R. CARPENTER; JEFFREY A. CARDILLE; MICHAEL T. COE; LUKE A. WINSLOW
On 30 July 1994, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were discovered in Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the core of the remaining undisturbed natural habitat for native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri). Data from this and other lake trout subsequently caught by anglers and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service suggest lake trout have reproduced in Yellowstone Lake
Lynn R. Kaeding; Glenn D. Boltz; Daniel G. Carty
Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.
Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.
Background Available evidence in Ghana shows the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) control activities efforts since the beginning of the 1900s. In spite of that, TB continues to be one of the common diseases in the country. In 1994, local and international policy windows opened for renewed strategies for the control of TB. This paper explores some of the approaches which have been in place since 1994 and their implications for treatment outcomes. Methods The study combines quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data consist of treatment outcome from 1997–2010 and the qualitative data are derived from in-depth interviews with some staff of the TB control programme. Poisson regression and inductive coding were applied to the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results Reported cure rates increased from 43.6% to 87.7% between 1997 and 2010. The data from the in-depth interviews (IDIs) suggested that improvements in diagnosis, community TB care, stigma reduction among community and health workers towards TB patients, the public-private partnership, and the enablers’ package contributed to the improved better treatment outcomes, particularly from 2008. Conclusions Lessons learnt include the achievement of objectives with varying strategies and stakeholder interventions. Further studies would be needed to quantify the contributions of the various interventions to help determine those that are cost effective as well as efficient and effective for TB control. PMID:23971675
As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818
Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato
The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.
Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.
Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and an important cause of human tuberculosis in West Africa that is rarely observed elsewhere. Here we genotyped 613 MTBC clinical isolates from Ghana, and searched for associations between the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC and patient variables. We found that 17.1% (105/613) of the MTBC isolates belonged to M. africanum, with the remaining belonging to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. No M. bovis was identified in this sample. M. africanum was significantly more common in tuberculosis patients belonging to the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio: 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.67-5.47, p<0.001). Stratifying our analysis by the two phylogenetic lineages of M. africanum (i.e. MTBC Lineages 5 and 6) revealed that this association was mainly driven by Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 1). Our findings suggest interactions between the genetic diversity of MTBC and human diversity, and offer a possible explanation for the geographical restriction of M. africanum to parts of West Africa. PMID:25569290
Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Aboagye, Samuel Y; Stucki, David; Hattendorf, Jan; Borrell, Sonia; Feldmann, Julia; Danso, Emelia; Gagneux, Sebastien
Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and an important cause of human tuberculosis in West Africa that is rarely observed elsewhere. Here we genotyped 613 MTBC clinical isolates from Ghana, and searched for associations between the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC and patient variables. We found that 17.1% (105/613) of the MTBC isolates belonged to M. africanum, with the remaining belonging to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. No M. bovis was identified in this sample. M. africanum was significantly more common in tuberculosis patients belonging to the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio: 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.67–5.47, p<0.001). Stratifying our analysis by the two phylogenetic lineages of M. africanum (i.e. MTBC Lineages 5 and 6) revealed that this association was mainly driven by Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 1). Our findings suggest interactions between the genetic diversity of MTBC and human diversity, and offer a possible explanation for the geographical restriction of M. africanum to parts of West Africa. PMID:25569290
Otchere, Isaac Darko; Aboagye, Samuel Y.; Stucki, David; Hattendorf, Jan; Borrell, Sonia; Feldmann, Julia; Danso, Emelia
A study of the immunization determinants of children aged 12 to 18 months was conducted in 1991 in the Eastern Region of Ghana, using structured interviews of mothers and fathers. The completion of immunization schedules by one year, among the 294 children, was positively associated (P < 0.005) with the town of residence of the child and mother, the ability of the mother to speak English, the target child having been treated for illness at the local hospital, the child's mother having given birth to less than 5 children, the possession of a sewing machine by the mother, and the birth of the child in the current town of residence. Significantly higher immunization coverage levels were achieved where the Under Fives' Clinic was an affordable and acceptable service, integrating preventive and curative care, and where measures were implemented by the community to increase attendance levels at the Clinic. This was achieved among a target group who were otherwise at a relatively high risk of failing to complete immunization schedules on-time. PMID:10151849
Brugha, R; Kevany, J
Objective This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives. Materials and methods Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments. Results Findings showed that students had little knowledge of contraceptives. The male and female condoms were the main contraceptive types reported out of the many modern and traditional methods of contraceptives. The main benefits of contraceptives were; ability to protect against STIs, abortions, unwanted pregnancy and psychological trauma. Whilst most respondents preferred future use of pills, side-effects of contraceptives were mostly reported for condoms than other contraceptive methods. Results showed that participants had bad attitudes towards unmarried contraceptive users. Conclusion Generally, our findings show that detailed knowledge about contraceptives is low. There is a little gap of information on contraception knowledge, timing, and contraceptive types among university diploma students. Reproductive and maternal services should be available and accessible for tertiary students. PMID:24971101
Kayi, Esinam Afi
The Akyem area is a small farming community located in southeastern Ghana. Groundwater samples from wells in the area were analyzed for concentrations of the major ions, silica, electrical conductivity and pH. The objective was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of ground-water. Mass balance modeling was used together with multivariate R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Two water types exist in this area. The first is influenced most by the weathering of silicate minerals from the underlying geology, and is thus rich in silica, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium ions. The second is water that has been influenced by the effects of fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities in the area. Mineral speciation and silicate mineral stability diagrams suggest that montmorillonite, probably derived from the incongruent dissolution of feldspars and micas, is the most stable silicate phase in the groundwaters. The apparent incongruent weathering of silicate minerals in the groundwater system has led to the enrichment of sodium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions as well as silica, leading to the supersaturation of calcite, aragonite, dolomite and quartz. Stability in the montmorillonite field suggests restricted flow conditions and a long groundwater residence time, leading to greater exposure of the rock to weathering. Cation exchange processes appear to play minor roles in the hydrochemistry of groundwater.
Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Anku, Y.; Akabzaa, T.; Asiedu, D.
Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554
McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J
Age differences between partners, where females are relatively younger than their male partners, can negatively affect power dynamics and subsequent negotiations for safe sex practices with implications on unplanned pregnancies and STIs transmission. This paper examines the effects of age differentials on condom use at first sex. Using a weighted sample of 925 women drawn from the fifth round of Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying complementary log-log model, the probability of first sex being protected vis-a-vis partner age differences are estimated. The results suggest that females' being ten or more years younger than their male partners at first sex was a significant indicator of non-protection while at age intervals 1-4 and 5-9 years, the probability of protected sex inflates significantly. The results demonstrate that large age disparities between partners pose a significant barrier to protection during first sex and strategies have to be developed to altering wrong perceptions associated with intergenerational sex, particularly, in settings such as Africa where gerontocratic tendencies pervade not only social relationships but sexual as well. PMID:23444544
Aircraft measurements of snow particle size spectra from 36 flights on 26 snowy days are used to estimate snow precipitation rates over Lake Michigan. Results show that average rates during 14 wind-parallel-type lake-effect storms increased from the upwind shore to about midlake and then were essentially uniform (1.5 2 mm day1, liquid water equivalent) to the downwind shore. Snow from
Roscoe R. Braham Jr.; Maureen J. Dungey
This resource describes the shorelines of the Grate Lakes from the wetlands along the Lake Ontario shore, to the sand dunes along Lake Michigan, to the rocky shore of Lake Superior, which abounds in diversity. Students will discover that millions of years of glacial formation, wind, lava flows, and changing lake levels have sculpted a unique and ever changing shoreline. The first section describes the work of the glaciers while the second explains the formation, composition, and importance of beaches and continues to the third which describes sand dunes. The next section contains detailed information about the wetlands associated with the Great Lakes. The glaciated rocky shore of Isle Royale is the next topic and the site ends with a statement regarding human impact on the shoreline. Each section contains links to sites for more information.
Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.
Purpose – To ascertain customers' usage level and perceptions of the image of rural community banks (RCBs) in Ghana. This research examines whether women and men differ in their levels of satisfaction and expectation about the banks' services. It also assesses the contribution of RCBs towards infrastructural development in the rural areas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Both desk and primary research methods
We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767
Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian
In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…
Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram
.km. The birth rate is 23.97 births/1,000 and the death rate is 10.84 death/1,000. The literacy rate and life.5%; Ewes 12.7%; Ga Damgme 8% and nonGhanaians 3.9%. The people of Ghana are about 92.1% Black Africans
Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…
Background: Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process. Aim: To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana. Materials and Methods: Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water. Results: Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group. Conclusion: These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana. PMID:25364210
Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Umretia, Bharti L.; Vaishnav, Pradip U.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.
Results are presented from a recent study (Blarez and Mascle, 1986) of the northern Gulf of Guinea margins, particularly off the eastern Ivory Coast and Ghana, where the continental margin is one of the best-preserved examples of an extinct transform margin. The observations support a four-stage model for transform margin evolution. Tectonically active transform contacts, first between normal continental crusts
Jean Mascle; Emmanuel Blarez
Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic
E. N. A. Dormon
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Ghana. More than half of the country's population of about 20 million people depend on farming for their livelihoods. They are either engaged in commercial or in small-scale farming activities for socioeconomic purposes. In the rural areas in particular, almost every community member is a farmer. They are engaged in crop
Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour
The study collected and analyzed information on the diversity of plants used for the treatment of malaria in communities living near the Bobiri Forest Reserve in Ghana, using a structured questionnaire to interview 150 individuals. Forty-two plant species belonging to 27 families were identified as being used locally in treating malaria. The plant leaves were the most commonly used plant
Alex Asase; Tonny Asafo-Agyei
The study used an adaptation of Provus' discrepancy evaluation model to evaluate a distance teacher education program in the University of Cape Coast, the premier teacher education institution in Ghana. The study involved comparing performance data of the program as perceived by students and faculty/administrators to standards prepared from the…
Sampong, Kwasi Addo
During an extensive sampling trial in Ghana, a number of physico-chemical water quality problems have been identified. For example, pH values of the collected samples ranged from 3.69 to 8.88, while conductivity ranged from 10 to 45,000 m...
Schäfer, Andrea; Rossiter, H.M.A.; Owusu, P.A.; Richards, B.S.; Awuah, E.
A study was conducted in Mathias Hospital, Yeji, an area of Ghana, where snake bite cases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with a case fatality rate of 11% (8\\/72). Case management difficulties included uncertainty about the assessment of the severity of envenoming, the dosage of antivenom, and the response to treatment. An intervention with several components was
L. E Visser; S Kyei-Faried; D. W Belcher
Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…
Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.
Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…
Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo
This article examines individual, household, and community characteristics that may affect fertility in contemporary Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana and the relationship between child mortality and fertility. It was not possible to reject the null hypothesis that child mortality is exogenous. Treating child mortality as exogenous, fertility responds directly to child mortality, but by a smaller proportion than estimated in studies
Kofi Benefo; T. Paul Schultz
This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…
Boakye, Kofi E.
Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…
Among the factors determining the success or failure in Civil Service Reform (CSR) are high level political administrative commitment; and the motivation and in- volvement of civil servants themselves in a bureaucratic system that is too weak to impose central top-down reform. The article evaluates Ghana's Civil Service Reform Programme (CSRP), which was intended to make the civil service a
Joseph R. A. Ayee
data has demonstrated that gold deposition was not a continuous process through geological time. The pattern for orogenic gold deposits in the Precambrian shows distinct peaks separated by several hundredsPre-mineralization thermal evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic gold-rich Ashanti belt, Ghana
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…
Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit
This study aims at investigating the social and behavioral predictors of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Ghana. Street commercial sex workers were interviewed in Accra, Kumasi and Techiman. Whereas respondents had attained certain accurate knowledge about HIV transmission routes, misconceptions were still commonly reported. The level of condom education was very low (14%), however consistent
Background: A multicentre study was carried out in Ghana and southern India to determine the aetiology of suppurative keratitis in two regions located at similar tropical latitudes. Studies of fungal keratitis from the literature were reviewed.Methods: Patients presenting at rural and urban eye units with suspected microbial keratitis were recruited to the study. Corneal ulceration was defined as loss of
A K Leck; P A Thomas; M Hagan; J Kaliamurthy; E Ackuaku; M John; M J Newman; F S Codjoe; J A Opintan; C M Kalavathy; V Essuman; C A N Jesudasan; G J Johnson
This paper explores the dropout experience of children who dropped out of schools located in two rural communities in the Central Region of Ghana. The main research question sought to explore the meaning and types of drop out founded on the views of children who had dropped out of school. The study tracked 18 children aged 7-17 years. Snowball…
Ananga, Eric Daniel
The analysis of access to education in Ghana builds on the Ministry of Education Sector Performance Report and the World Bank sector studies. Though access has improved it remains uneven and has not grown as fast enough to reach universal levels of participation in primary school and JSS [Junior Secondary School] by 2015. More needs to be…
Akyeampong, Kwame; Djangmah, Jerome; Oduro, Abena; Seidu, Alhassan; Hunt, Frances
This article interrogates the emergence of drug trafficking in contemporary Ghana and West Africa within the context of a global political economy, situated within a deeper historical perspective. It examines the earlier traf- ficking of cannabis along the coast of West Africa in the colonial period, and the later transnational networks that have emerged to promote inter- national drug trafficking
This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…
Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra
Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became…
Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.
A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered…
Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac
BACKGROUND: Malaria prevention programmes should be based in part on knowledge of why some individuals use bednets while others do not. This paper identifies factors and characteristics of women that affect bednet use among their children less than five years of age in Ghana. METHODS: Data come from the baseline component of an evaluation of Freedom from Hunger's malaria curriculum.
Natalie De La Cruz; Benjamin Crookston; Kirk Dearden; Bobbi Gray; Natasha Ivins; Stephen Alder; Robb Davis
Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability of listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) during a five-year period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Regression analysis is used in the estimation of functions relating the return on equity (ROE) with measures of capital structure. Findings – The results reveal a significantly positive relation between the
This research focuses on the measurement of land degradation within savannah woodlands, in a complex semi- arid environment, in the Upper East Region of Ghana. In a region where inhabitants depend upon natural resources for their livelihoods, degradation of such resources is a serious threat to the sustainability of a subsistence lifestyle. A central problem for academics, researchers and decision
Reyna C. O'Higgins
While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…
Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.
Radon gas emission from soils in parts of southeastern Ghana (Accra) have been measured to find a possible correlation of the gas emanation with faults and seismic activity in the area. LR-115 alpha track sensitive plastics were used for the detection of the gas at 47 sampling points within a 500m×500m spaced grid. The obtained radon data was analyzed and
Paulina Amponsah; Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Aba Andam; Daniel Asiedu
E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…
Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.
As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...
This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…
Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…
Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.
In this study, the authors aim to identify the critical success factors and challenges of total quality management (TQM) implementation and propose a model for the successful implementation of a quality revolution in Ghana. The approach in this study was to review existing literature followed by case studies of 15 firms. Three employees (quality manager\\/director and any two “ordinary employees”)
James Osei Mensah; Gorkem Copuroglu; Fred Appiah Fening
A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying
Dale Whittington; Donald T. Lauria; Albert M. Wright; Kyeongae Choe; Jeffrey A. Hughes; Venkateswarlu Swarna
Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Most analyses of the determinants of HIV infection are performed at the individual level. The recent Demographic and Health Surveys which include results from HIV tests allow studying HIV infection at the level of the cohabiting couple. The paper exploits this feature of the data for Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania. The analysis yields two surprising findings about
Damien de Walque
with the increasing demand for mobile data services, Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is emerging as one of the fastest growing areas within mobile communications. Innovative wireless communication systems, such as WiMAX, are expected to offer highly reliable broadband radio access in order to meet the increasing demands of emerging high speed data and multimedia services. In Ghana, deployment of WiMAX
E. T. Tchao; K. Diawuo; W. K. Ofosu; E. Affum; Kwame Nkrumah
It has long been recognized that as societies modernize, they experience significant changes in their patterns of health and disease. Despite rapid modernization across the globe, there are relatively few detailed case studies of changes in health and disease within specific countries especially for sub-Saharan African countries. This paper presents evidence to illustrate the nature and speed of the epidemiological transition in Accra, Ghana’s capital city. As the most urbanized and modernized Ghanaian city, and as the national center of multidisciplinary research since becoming state capital in 1877, Accra constitutes an important case study for understanding the epidemiological transition in African cities. We review multidisciplinary research on culture, development, health, and disease in Accra since the late nineteenth century, as well as relevant work on Ghana’s socio-economic and demographic changes and burden of chronic disease. Our review indicates that the epidemiological transition in Accra reflects a protracted polarized model. A “protracted” double burden of infectious and chronic disease constitutes major causes of morbidity and mortality. This double burden is polarized across social class. While wealthy communities experience higher risk of chronic diseases, poor communities experience higher risk of infectious diseases and a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. Urbanization, urban poverty and globalization are key factors in the transition. We explore the structures and processes of these factors and consider the implications for the epidemiological transition in other African cities. PMID:20803094
de-Graft Aikins, Ama
There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…
Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.
This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…
Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu
One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…
Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba
Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better…
Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen
Pre-service teacher training has been identified as one of the key factors in the promotion of inclusive education. In this study, 200 final-year pre-service teachers from three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed about their views and knowledge on inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN). The results showed that almost all…
Nketsia, William; Saloviita, Timo
In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…
Adjei, Paul Banahene
In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...
A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that…
Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
In Ghana, many professional teachers have been leaving teaching to seek employment in jobs that they think hold promise of better pay and prestige. This article critically examines the key factors that compel teachers to leave the teaching profession for other jobs. Thirty professionally trained teachers who had taught at pretertiary institutions…
Agezo, Clement K.
In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in…
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim
While technology has enabled online education in many countries, the same cannot be said for African public universities. Universities in Ghana have made some progress in building networking infrastructure and acquiring computers, but integrating technology into the teaching and learning process has been a challenge. Instructional delivery remains…
Awidi, Isaiah T.
Language-in-education policy in Ghana has been in a flux since British colonial rule but particularly so after independence. A close examination of post independence language in education policies shows these fluctuating policies have moved from one form of bilingual education policy to another. Many tensions and paradoxes that arise from…
Ansah, Gladys Nyarko
The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of basic school teachers towards inclusive education in the Hohoe District of Ghana. The research makes use of a descriptive survey design, which engaged both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. A sample size of 100 respondents, comprising of 60 male teachers and 40 female…
Ocloo, Mark Anthony; Subbey, Michael
Nigeria is the only country in West Africa where soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has been officially reported (1). During a disease survey in Ghana in October 2006, soybean (Glycine max) leaves with rust symptoms (tan, angular lesions with erumpent sori exuding urediniospores) were ob...
Ghana has seen notable poverty reduction alongside improvements in school participation since 1991. This paper examines the role of education in determining welfare and poverty and its reciprocal, the role of welfare and other aspects of economic privilege in the determination of school attendance and progression. Two groups of models are…
"Clear grounding in a location gives us the confidence to engage with knowledge from other locations as we deconstruct and reconstruct them with our purposes" (Canagarajah, 2005, p. 15). This quote serves the basis of what this paper presents on language policy and pedagogical practices in Ghana. Language plays an important role in pedagogy, it is…
Davis, Ernest; Agbenyega, Joseph S.
In 2007 Ghana celebrated 50 years of independence from British colonial rule. The golden jubilee offered an opportunity to take stock of how the country had progressed in expanding education and the challenges for the future. This paper offers a critique of the journey, highlighting the challenges and progress. What reforms in education has taught…
There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators regarding the implementation of the…
van der Geugten, Jolien; Dijkstra, Marlies; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H. G.; de Vries, Nanne K.
This study examined student teachers' attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Ghana and Botswana. A three-part survey questionnaire consisting of background variables, attitudes, and concerns was completed by 202 students from four teacher training institutions in both countries. One of the institutions was a university and the others…
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Mangope, Boitumelo
Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa
Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…
Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.
This study was based on the assumption that in Ghana, women who return late to higher education combine domestic and academic work and, in the process, experience tensions and difficulties in the face of cultural and academic prejudice. It employed an interpretive qualitative research approach via narrative interviews with eight mature…
Adu-Yeboah, Christine; Forde, Linda Dzama
This article reports on a study of community participation in School "for" Life, a complementary education programme operating in northern Ghana. The researchers investigated three components of community participation: the nature of the mechanisms used to engage community members as participants in the education process; the actors who…
Mfum-Mensah, Obed; Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs showing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity measurements for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to solve the problem.
This highly interactive mapping tool features rivers and streams, watershed boundaries, water depth, political boundaries, elevation and land cover of the Great Lakes region. Students, volunteers and others can upload quantitative measurements and field notes, and share this with others around the globe. This type of learning provides a rich geographic context that allows participants to gain a better understanding of how they are connected to the Great Lakes. National Geographic partnered with Michigan Sea Grant to develop Great Lakes FieldScope to encourage the exploration and investigation of Great Lakes science and education.
of Engineers built Lake O? the Pines on Big Cypress Creek upstream of Caddo, the area no longer flooded as much. The regulated water flows from the dam stabilized lake levels, reducing regeneration of bald cypress forests. The cypress trees must have floods... to distribute their seeds and dry spells that lower lake levels and allow seeds to germinate. Flooding in the past also helped sweep sediment from the lake and inhibited plant growth. Invasive aquatic plants, introduced by man, are choking off water bodies...
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake located in Cameroon, Africa, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people and countless livestock and other animals in the area. This case, intended for use in a limnology or an aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts related to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs containing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity data for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to understand what happened.
The Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse Web site is part of the US Geological Survey's Lake Tahoe Initiative. The agency's goal for the site is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental-management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Products available include Digital Elevation Models, Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles, Digital Line Graphs, Digital Raster Graphics, maps and soil information of the area, and much more. The downloads include clear descriptions and examples for those unsure of the particular data types, making their use a snap for researchers, professionals, or anyone interested in the Lake Tahoe region. [JAB
This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.
In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.
Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.
Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) infection, Buruli ulcer (BU), with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM). Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains. PMID:25612300
Narh, Charles A.; Mosi, Lydia; Quaye, Charles; Dassi, Christelle; Konan, Daniele O.; Tay, Samuel C. K.; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bonfoh, Bassirou
Background Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Methods Data was drawn from male (N?=?4,546) and female (N?=?4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r?=?0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r?=?0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Results Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR?=?0.31, CI?=?0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR?=?0.41, CI?=?0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR?=?0.23, CI?=?0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. Conclusion That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB. PMID:24028419
Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358
Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus
In 2004, an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (10.5 km in diameter, 1.07 Myr old), was performed to study the sediments that fill the lake as well as the underlying impactites. In one (LB-05) of 16 cores drilled into the lake sediments, the zone between the impact breccias and the post-impact sediments was penetrated, preserving the final, fine-grained impact fallback layer. This ~30 cm thick layer contains in the top 10 cm “accretionary” lapilli, microtektite-like glass spherules, and shocked quartz grains. Glass particles -- mostly of splash form less than 1 mm size -- make up the bulk of the grains (~70-78% by number) in the coarser size fraction (>125 ?m) of the top of the fallback layer. About one-third of all quartz grains in the uppermost part of the layer are shocked, with planar deformation features (PDFs); almost half of these grains are highly shocked, with 3 or more sets of PDFs. K-feldspar grains also occur and some show shock deformation. The abundance of shocked quartz grains and the average shock level as indicated by the number of sets of PDFs, for both quartz and K-feldspar, decrease with depth into the layer. The well-preserved glass spherules and fragments are chemically rather homogeneous within each particle, and also show relatively small variations between the various particles. On average, the composition of the fallback spherules from core LB-5B is very similar to the composition of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites, with the exception of CaO contents, which are about 1.5 to 2 times higher in the fallback spherules. This is a rare case in which the uppermost fallback layer and the transition to the post-impact sediments has been preserved in an impact structure; its presence indicates that the impactite sequence at Bosumtwi is complete and that Bosumtwi is a very well-preserved impact crater.
Koeberl, Christian; Brandstätter, Franz; Glass, Billy P.; Hecht, Lutz; Mader, Dieter; Reimold, Wolf Uwe
The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly different from those of the metasediments, or compared to target rocks from outside the crater rim. So far, no evidence for a meteoritic component has been detected in polymict impact breccias during this study, in agreement with previous work.
Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter
When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being. The study shows that broader characteristics in the population rather than parental migration per se are associated with decreased levels of well-being. PMID:25464874
Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne
Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.
Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa
This work aimed to inform the design of ceramic pot filters to be manufactured by the organization Pure Home Water (PHW) in Northern Ghana, and to model the flow through an innovative paraboloid-shaped ceramic pot filter. ...
Miller, Travis Reed
2.5 billion people worldwide do not have access to improved sanitation and Sub-Saharan Africa is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target. As of 2010, Ghana has achieved 14% national improved sanitation coverage and ...
Questad, Adam (Adam David)
Mercury use in small-scale gold mining is ubiquitous across Ghana but little is known about the extent to which such activities have contaminated community residents and miners. Here, occupational exposures to elemental mercury (via urine sampling) and dietary exposures to methylmercury (via hair sampling) were assessed among 120 participants recruited from a mining community located in the Talensi-Nabdam District of Ghana’s Upper East region during summer 2009. More than one-fifth of the participants had moderately high levels of urinary mercury (>10 µg/L) and 5% had urine mercury levels that exceeded the WHO guideline value of 50 µg/L. When participants were stratified according to occupation, those active in the mining industry had the highest mercury levels. Specifically, individuals that burned amalgam had urine mercury levels (median: 43.8 µg/L; mean ± SD: 171.1 ± 296.5 µg/L; n=5) significantly higher than median values measured in mechanical operators (11.6 µg/L, n=4), concession managers/owners (5.6 µg/L, n=11), excavators that blast and chisel ore (4.9 µg/L, n=33), individuals that sift and grind crushed ore (2.2 µg/L, n=47), support workers (0.5 µg/L, n=14), and those with no role in the mining sector (2.5 µg/L, n=6). There was a significant positive spearman correlation between fish consumption and hair mercury levels (r = 0.30) but not with urine mercury (r = 0.18) though further studies are needed to document which types of fish are consumed as well as portion sizes. Given that 200,000 people in Ghana are involved in the small-scale gold mining industry and that the numbers are expected to grow in Ghana and many other regions of the world, elucidating mercury exposure pathways in such communities is important to help shape policies and behaviors that may minimize health risks. PMID:20875913
Paruchuri, Yasaswi; Siuniak, Amanda; Johnson, Nicole; Levin, Elena; Mitchell, Katherine; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Renne, Elisha P.; Basu, Niladri
Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system. PMID:21144073
Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.
Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.
As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...
The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE
The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.
Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.
We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…
Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.
This 9-page PDF examines the importance of Yellowstone Lake to humans in prehistoric times. The shorelines around the lake have been eroding and exposing artifacts that remain hidden elsewhere in the Park. The archeological sites expose artifacts, mostly rock chips, which point to seasonal occupations such as stone procurement, tool manufacture and repair.
Ann M. Johnson
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows a pipe top and raft...
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. The gas burst in 1986 from the 200-m...
Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)
... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...
Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the
Floyd C. Cornelius; Kenneth M. Muth; Roger Kenyon
We examined the ability of lake and landscape features to predict a variety of macrophyte cover metrics using 54 north temperate lakes. We quantified submersed cover, emergent cover, floating leaf cover, Eurasian watermilfoil cover and total macrophyte cover. Measured lake features included lake physio-chemical and morphometric variables and landscape features included hydrologic, catchment and land use\\/cover variables. Univariate regression analyses
Kendra Spence Cheruvelil; Patricia A. Soranno
Can Mono Lake survive Los Angeles' need for water? An environmental impact study of the Mono Basin in eastern California predicts severe ecological consequences if the city of Los Angeles continues to divert water in large amounts from streams feeding the lake. Mono Lake and its basin were designated a National Forest Scenic Area in 1984.The National Research Council (NRC) report indicates that continued diversions would lower the lake level as much as 30 feet (˜9m). Salinity of the remaining water could double and lead to drastic changes in the physical appearance and ecological balance of the basin. In a recently published economic analysis, a University of California, Davis, environmental scientist reports that the lake is far more valuable to Californians than the cost of replacing water currently drawn for Los Angeles from the Mono Basin.
Maggs, William Ward
Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.
DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II
Temporal patterns in floodplain genesis and alluvial sedimentation in lowlands tropical rain forest zones of Ghana, Sierra Leone and western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) based upon 14C age determinations are described. Alluvial low terraces or buried sediments in West Africa yielded ages of 36-21 ka. In west Kalimantan a widespread episode of alluviation has yielded dates of 54-51 ka. The 20-13 ka interval was characterised by channel incision with valley floor erosion and neither region records sedimentation. Holocene alluvial sedimentation and floodplain construction in West Africa occurred during two temporal intervals: 10-7 ka and 4 ka to present and in western Kalimantan in response to early Holocene sea level rise followed by late Holocene regression and coastal outgrowth. The clustering of 14C dates closely corresponds to regional lake level fluctuations and vegetational changes and to global indications of climatic change. We propose that periods of more frequent episodes of accelerated floodplain erosion and reconstitution, channel morpho-sedimentary activity and alluvial accumulation (1) are responses to interstadial and interglacial periods of higher precipitation following intervening periods of cooler and drier conditions; and (2) may be synchronous during the last 60 ka throughout the African and Asian inner humid lowland tropics.
Thorp, Martin; Thomas, Michael
Rocks from drill cores LB-07A (crater fill) and LB-08A (central uplift) into the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, were analyzed for the presence of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which target rocks of various depths were mixed during the formation of the crater-filling breccia, and also to detect meteoric water infiltration within the impactite layer. 10Be abundances above background were found in two (out of 24) samples from the LB-07A core, and in none of five samples from the LB-08A core. After excluding other possible explanations for an elevated 10Be signal, we conclude that it is most probably due to a preimpact origin of those clasts from target rocks close to the surface. Our results suggest that in-crater breccias were well mixed during the impact cratering process. In addition, the lack of a 10Be signal within the rocks located very close to the lake sediment-impactite boundary suggests that infiltration of meteoric water below the postimpact crater floor was limited. This may suggest that the infiltration of the meteoric water within the crater takes place not through the aerial pore-space, but rather through a localized system of fractures.
Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian
) is low. The blueness of water is greatest when densities of particles and algae are low. Deepest lake) Average height from Crater Lake's surface to caldera rim About 1,000 feet (305 m) Lake surface area 21 1800s,William Gladstone Steel recognized the importance of Crater Lake for scientific understanding. He
Lake Rotoma is a deep (70–80 m), oligotrophic, warm monomictic lake of volcanic origin with insignificant stream inflow and no clearly defined outflow. For at least 60 years up to 1972 the lake level fluctuated markedly about an overall rising trend of some 6–10 m. Nearshore profiles are related to the prevailing wave climate superimposed upon the overall rising lake
Campbell S. Nelson
Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe. The ecological state of Lake Ladoga has a significant impact on water quality in the Neva River, the Gulf of Finland, and the Baltic Sea. The anthropogenic pollution during recent decades considerably modified the trophicity of Lake Ladoga. Presently, this level is regarded as mesotrophic . Microbial loop is a new term
A. K. Sirotkin; O. V. Gavrilova; L. N. Voloshko; B. V. Gromov
As part of The Great Lakes Information Network, The Education And Curriculum Homesite (TEACH) "focuses on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond." The Introduction to the Great Lakes pages contain an overview of the watershed, including maps, photographs, and descriptions; other sections take a more detailed look at the five individual lakes. Additional links for further information are also provided -- such as Great Lake geography, history and culture, pollution, and more -- giving kids or anyone interested a well-designed introduction to the lakes.
Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE
Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731
Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.
= 640 feet above sea level Shoreline was uneven with several inlets, peninsulas and offshore islands #12 of Glenwood Phase Two-Creeks Phase 12.2-11.8 kya Lake level was low Determined in 1905 when submerged spruce was older than the Calumet shoreline Water level was lower than Calumet Stage 1982 Â another submerged
Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane
Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....
The bathymetry survey of Crater Lake by scientists from the USGS, University of New Hampshire's Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, and the National Park Service, began on July 28, 2000. This site houses the first images gained from the high-resolution multi-beam technology survey. Various digital data such as digital raster graphics and digital line graphs may be viewed as .jpeg and .gif images or downloaded as .zip files. Besides the bathymetric data, the site features information on the geology, ecology, and history of Crater Lake, and beautiful .gif images of the lake and surrounding areas.
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This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual’s education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person’s health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18603464
Andrzejewski, Catherine S.; Reed, Holly E.; White, Michael J.
Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers. PMID:21486833
Darko, E O; Kpeglo, D O; Akaho, E H K; Schandorf, C; Adu, P A S; Faanu, A; Abankwah, E; Lawluvi, H; Awudu, A R
Transfusion-transmissible infections among 808 blood donors in Ghana were investigated in 1999. Antibody seroprevalences of 3.8, 0.7, 8.4, and 13.5%, respectively, for human immunodeficiency virus, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema pallidum were obtained. The seropreva- lence of HCV infection was confirmed to be 0.9% after supplementary testing, and the transfusion risk potential of
William Ampofo; Nicholas Nii-Trebi; Justina Ansah; Kenji Abe; Hideo Naito; Simeon Aidoo; Victor Nuvor; James Brandful; Naoki Yamamoto; David Ofori-Adjei; Koichi Ishikawa; Korle Bu
Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ?6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024
Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian
Surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum crt(K76T) [Pfcrt(K76T)], a resistance marker of chloroquine and, limitedly, amodiaquine, in >4,000 children in northern Ghana revealed a prevalence of 79%. Pfcrt(K76T) was heterogeneously distributed and associated with chloroquine use, low parasitemia, and the dry season. Widespread chloroquine resistance challenges the regional life span of amodiaquine as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy. PMID:17562799
Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Kaiser, Sarah; Adjei, Lydia; Burchard, Gerd D.; Anemana, Sylvester D.; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.
Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination) in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i) to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii) to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47%) hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD) of 12%. Ten (59%) hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%). Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18%) were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%). Eight health centres (47%) were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres) in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms. PMID:16188021
Osei, Daniel; d'Almeida, Selassi; George, Melvill O; Kirigia, Joses M; Mensah, Ayayi Omar; Kainyu, Lenity H
A total of 208 samples of water, sediment, tomato crops, blood, and mothers' breast milk were collected from the environs\\u000a of Akumadan, a prominent vegetable-farming community in Ghana. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide\\u000a residues. Lindane and endosulfan were found in water and sediment, while other OC pesticide residues, such as hexachlorobenzene\\u000a (HCB), p,p?-DDE, and heptachlor epoxide, were
W. J. Ntow
Some essential elements in eleven plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5.1011 n.s-1.cm-2. The plant medicines were: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Blighia powder, Aphrodisiac powder, Ninga powder and
Y. Serfor-Armah; E. H. K. Akaho; B. J. B. Nyarko; A. W. K. Kyere; K. Oppon-Boachie
Purpose: To identify the psychosocial and behavioral factors that influence condom use to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among young men in Ghana. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which data on a community-based sample of 601 young men, 15-24 years of age, were collected by a household survey instrument. For a conceptual framework,
WILLIAM K. ADIH; CHERYL S. ALEXANDER
Ghana can be considered a relative success story in Africa. We cite six variables—peace and stability, democracy and governance, control of corruption, macroeconomic management, poverty reduction, and signs of an emerging social contract—to suggest the country’s admirable political and economic progress. The expected arrival of sizeable oil revenues beginning in 2011–13, however, threatens to undermine that progress. In fact, numerous
Todd Moss; Lauren Young
Purpose – The aim of the research was to find out if the work environment of professional librarians in the five state-owned university libraries in Ghana encouraged continuing professional development (CPD) and to discover who the librarians felt should be responsible for this. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research was carried out among professional librarians in the five state-owned university libraries in
Theodosia S. A. Adanu
To verify the possible impact of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria transmission in cities, we studied entomological parameters, self-reported malaria episodes, and household-level data in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. A comparison was made between city locations without irrigated agriculture, city locations with irrigated urban vegetable production, and peri-urban (PU) locations with rain-fed agriculture. In the rainy as well as
Yaw Asare Afrane; Eveline Klinkenberg; Pay Drechsel; Kofi Owusu-Daaku; Rolf Garms; Thomas Kruppa
A survey was undertaken to establish the extent of pesticide exposure in a farming community. Cholinesterase (ChE) activity\\u000a in whole blood was used as a marker for assessing exposure to pesticides. Complete data were gathered for 63 farmers at Akumadan\\u000a (exposed) and 58 control subjects at Tono, both prominent vegetable-farming communities in Ghana, by means of a questionnaire\\u000a and blood
William J. Ntow; Laud M. Tagoe; Pay Drechsel; Peter Kelderman; Elvis Nyarko; Huub J. Gijzen
The 1 Ma Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana is an 11-km-diameter, presumably complex, well-preserved impact structure that is associated with the Ivory Coast tektite strewnfield. Detailed structural geologic studies along a complete traverse through the northwestern rim section indicated four zones characterized by distinct deformation styles from just outside of the crater rim to near the crater floor. Zone 1 is
Wolf U. Reimold; Dion Brandt; Christian Koeberl
Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of interventions on health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Both Ghana and Cameroon require a comprehensive and integrative approach to chronic disease intervention that combines structural, community and individual strategies. We outline research and practice gaps and best practice models within and outside Africa that can instruct the development of future interventions. PMID:20403170
The TEACH Great Lakes Web site is provided by the Great Lakes Information Network (last mentioned in the September 15, 1995 Scout Report). The site features online lessons specific to Great Lakes subjects such as the environment, geography, and pollution. Students can begin with the Introduction to the Great Lakes module and then move on to learn about water levels, shoreline geology, water pollution, and even explore the history and culture or careers and business areas as well. Geared for elementary through high school students, the activities present easily read material along with good photographs and other interesting graphics. Overall, the site provides good information on interesting topics with which students will enjoy becoming familiar as part of their science related curriculum.
This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.
Student loans program is one of the most controversial phenomena in financing higher education in Ghana, but its importance as a cost sharing mechanism is incontestable. This paper describes the challenge of financing higher education in Ghana. It provides a critique of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Student Loans Scheme,…
California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance of…
Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.
Ghana is one of the few countries that was re-classified from low-income country to low-middle income country in 2011 by the World Bank (World Bank, 2011a). At the same time, Ghana is still in the process of achieving the ...
This study compared the six principles of IDEIA of the United States and the Persons with Disability Act of Ghana with the view to determining their similarities and differences. Recommendations were made with the ultimate aim of exploring the need for change in the special education delivery systems in the United States and Ghana. The comparative…
Mumuni, Samad Dimbie
Addressing school dropout has been one of the most controversial elements of policy since the introduction of free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana. However, research that utilises qualitative biographical detail surrounding irregular attendance and the critical events in the process that lead to dropout in Ghana is limited. I…
This exploration study examined solely, mobile telephony (which is an important aspect of ICTs) and how it promotes the creation of high-paying jobs that positively impact socio-economic development in Ghana from the service providers. perspective. This academic study focusing solely on Ghana mobile telephony service providers is the first of its…
Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021
Lymphatic filariasis is a significant public health and economic problem in many tropical and sub-tropical regions. Unplanned urbanization leading to a lack of proper sanitary conditions has resulted in an increase in the urban-based transmission of a number of vector-borne diseases, including lymphatic filariasis. It has been well established that lymphatic filariasis is endemic in rural areas of Ghana. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a potential of establishing urban transmission cycles in Ghana's major cities. We clinically and immunologically assessed 625 individuals from the three major urban areas (Bawku, Bolgatanga and Secondi/Takoradi), finding that the prevalence of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti ranged from 0 to 12.5%. The results of a polymerase chain reaction based analysis of mosquitoes collected from these areas suggested that there is a low but detectable prevalence of mosquitoes infected with W. bancrofti. We conclude that there may be a potential for an established urban transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana. PMID:15807803
Gbakima, Aiah A; Appawu, Maxwell A; Dadzie, Samuel; Karikari, Collins; Sackey, Samuel O; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Gyapong, Johnny; Scott, Alan L
In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts, including the intermittent of mother tongue in early childhood schooling to facilitate English language and literacy instruction, prospects for a bold move towards multilingual education have emerged from a coalescence of forces inside and outside of Ghanaian education policy circles. This article discusses how the inertia of a dated language policy and a historic disregard for Ghana's multilingual landscape by the country's own policy makers are being overcome, at least partially, by progressive powers of change, albeit not without challenge. It undertakes an analysis of how a policy environment that supports bilingual education was created in order to implement a comprehensive and innovative multilingual programme, the National Literacy Acceleration Program (NALAP), which was rolled out across the nation's schools in early 2010. Having been involved in the process of designing NALAP, the authors describe the development of standards of learning and materials, as well as innovative aspects of a constructivist teacher education approach. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research, including combining a change process for key stakeholders and randomised language and literacy assessment with social marketing research in a unified approach.
Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie
Background Buruli ulcer may induce severe disabilities impacting on a person's well-being and quality of life. Information about long-term disabilities and participation restrictions is scanty. The objective of this study was to gain insight into participation restrictions among former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. Methods In this cross-sectional study, former Buruli ulcer patients were interviewed using the Participation Scale, the Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score to measure functional limitations, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure perceived stigma. Healthy community controls were also interviewed using the Participation Scale. Trained native interviewers conducted the interviews. Former Buruli ulcer patients were eligible for inclusion if they had been treated between 2005 and 2011, had ended treatment at least 3 months before the interview, and were at least 15 years of age. Results In total, 143 former Buruli ulcer patients and 106 community controls from Ghana and Benin were included in the study. Participation restrictions were experienced by 67 former patients (median score, 30, IQR; 23;43) while 76 participated in social life without problems (median score 5, IQR; 2;9). Most restrictions encountered related to employment. Linear regression showed being female, perceived stigma, functional limitations, and larger lesions (category II) as predictors of more participation restrictions. Conclusion Persisting participation restrictions were experienced by former BU patients in Ghana and Benin. Most important predictors of participation restrictions were being female, perceived stigma, functional limitations and larger lesions. PMID:25392915
de Zeeuw, Janine; Omansen, Till F.; Douwstra, Marlies; Barogui, Yves T.; Agossadou, Chantal; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Phillips, Richard O.; Johnson, Christian; Abass, K. Mohammed; Saunderson, Paul; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stientstra, Ymkje
Background In Ghana’s health delivery services, facilitative supervisory visit (FSV) as a system of management is new. This paper presents the standard evaluation results of FSV, which formed an integral part of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) initiative. Methods The study was conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The Project developed guidelines and tools for FSV for four different health system levels – regional, district, sub-district and community levels. Electronic data from all four levels representing quarterly results were compiled into their annual equivalents, and summarized graphically for comparison. Results The data show that all the nine districts embraced the FSV concept even though they differed markedly with regard to the degree of adherence to some set benchmarks. Three DHMTs (Wa Municipal, Lawra and Jirapa) were graded as good while the remaining six DHMTs were adjudged as fair in relation to management of supplies, transport and equipment, information, meeting, and technical support. Conclusions The data further suggest that there is much to gain both individually and institutionally from FSVs. Generally, FSVs are crucial to the delivery of primary health care services in especially rural areas. PMID:24063365
This paper has its primary focus on the analysis of perceptions and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for composted municipal solid and faecal waste among urban and peri-urban farmers and other potential compost users in Ghana. Participatory rural appraisal and contingent valuation methods (CVM) were used for the demand analysis. Most respondents were clear and firm in their responses to the principal question about WTP for compost, as well as in giving their views and perceptions about issues involved in demand for compost. The probit analysis proved valuable in highlighting variables, which explain variations in the WTP. The WTP analysis allowed the quantification of the compost demand under different scenarios of subsidized and non-subsidized compost production, with due allowance for a local reference price to cover compost station operating costs. The analysis revealed that the effective demand for compost for agricultural purposes is marginal and limited by farmers' transport costs. Only through the additional consideration of the demand of the construction sector can about 25% of the organic waste produced in Ghana's capital, Accra, be transformed and utilized. Public subsidies appear necessary and could be generated through savings in transport and disposal. Without subsidies, the challenge for an increased agricultural use is how to produce a low-cost but nutrient-rich compost, which can compete with abundant and cheap poultry manure and still achieve the price to maintain a compost station. The experience in Ghana shows that this is hardly possible except through private-public partnerships. PMID:16356706
Danso, G; Drechsel, P; Fialor, S; Giordano, M
Objective To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for depression in a high-risk population of mothers of ill newborns in Ghana. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who had a hospitalized newborn at a tertiary teaching hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Surveys included information on maternal demographics, pregnancy and delivery, interpersonal violence, and social support. Postpartum depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Bivariable analysis was conducted using analysis of variance, ?2, and Fisher exact tests; multivariable analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results In total, 153 women completed the survey. Fifty (32.7%) had PHQ-9 scores of 5–9, indicating mild depression; 42 (27.4%) had PHQ-9 scores of 10–14, indicating moderate depression; and 15 (9.8%) had scores of 15 or higher, indicative of moderate/severe depression. History of interpersonal violence with current partner predicted depression. Conclusion Mothers of sick infants in Ghana are at high risk for symptoms of clinical depression. This is of critical importance because maternal depression affects infant health outcomes and may be particularly important for mothers of sick infants. PMID:23228821
Gold, Katherine J.; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Schwenk, Thomas L.
Background Malaria vector control programmes that rely on insecticide-based interventions such as indoor house spraying with residual insecticides or insecticide treated bed nets, need to base their decision-making process on sound baseline data. More and more commercial entities in Africa, such as mining companies, are realising the value to staff productivity of controlling malaria transmission in their areas of operation. This paper presents baseline entomological data obtained during surveys conducted for four mining operations in Ghana, West Africa. Results The vast majority of the samples were identified as Anopheles gambiae S form with only a few M form specimens being identified from Tarkwa. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.6% in An. gambiae and 1.81 to 8.06% in An. funestus. High survival rates on standard WHO bioassay tests were recorded for all insecticide classes except the organophosphates that showed reasonable mortality at all locations (i.e. > 90%). The West African kdr mutation was detected and showed high frequencies in all populations. Conclusions The data highlight the complexity of the situation prevailing in southern Ghana and the challenges facing the malaria vector control programmes in this region. Vector control programmes in Ghana need to carefully consider the resistance profiles of the local mosquito populations in order to base their resistance management strategies on sound scientific data. PMID:21679391
Sickle cell disease (SCD), sickle cell trait (SCT) and related conditions are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the public health implications, there is limited understanding of the unique needs regarding establishing and implementing extensive screening for newborns and appropriate family counseling. We sought to gain understanding of community attitudes and beliefs about SCD/SCT from counselors and potential counselors in Ghana; obtain their input about goals for counseling following newborn screening; and obtain guidance about developing effective counselor education. Five focus groups with 32 health care providers and health educators from 9 of 10 regions in Ghana were conducted by trained facilitators according to a structured protocol. Qualitative data were coded and categorized to reflect common themes. Saturation was achieved in themes related to genetics/inheritance; common complications of SCD; potential for stigmatization; marital strain; and emotional stress. Misconceptions about SCT as a form of SCD were prevalent as were cultural and spiritual beliefs about the causes of SCD/SCT. Potential positive aspects included affected children's academic achievement as compensation for physical limitations, and family cohesion. This data informed recommendations for content and structure of a counselor training program that was provided to the Ministry of Health in Ghana. PMID:25193810
Treadwell, Marsha J; Anie, Kofi A; Grant, Althea M; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku
Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g
These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students are presented with data on a particular lake that they must synthesize in order to determine the cause of an event that occurred in 1986 in Cameroon, Africa. The case centers on Cameroon's Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake which released a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1700 people, livestock, and wildlife in the area. The case can be used in a limnology or an aquatic biology course and was intended to introduce and reinforce the concepts of thermal stratification and use students' curiosity about this event to get them to think about how layers of water develop. The case could also be extended to cover or review other concepts such as lake formation (in this case, volcanism as a lake-forming process) or gas solution (in this case, carbon dioxide solution). The case could also be used throughout a limnology course because it deals with many aspects of the subject: lake origins, thermal stratification, gases, water movements, and applied limnology (remediation of problems). Instructors can introduce the case early in a course and refer back to it when each new topic comes up. The case also allows students to synthesize different types of limnological data to solve a serious problem.
Many of the large lakes of the world have been exposed to the introduction of exotic species. We have reviewed here the introduction of aquatic species in 18 large lakes on five continents (Laurentian Great Lakes, African Great Lakes, several Canadian lakes, Lake Titicaca, Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Gatun Lake, and Lake Biwa). We found that human activities, social preferences,
S. R Hall; E. L Mills
Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.
Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.
Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.
Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, M.L.
The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large, fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.
Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.
We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.
This activity is an on-line research activity in which students research different Minnesota lakes and determine their physical characteristics, chemical characteristics, and the overall health of the lake.
In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team
Mineralogical and chemical analyses of fine clay fractions from in and around Lake Abert, Lake County, Oregon, show that the pyroclastic rocks supplying detritus to the lake weather to a suite of layer silicate clay minerals varying from high-charge dioctahedral montmorillonite to montmorillonite\\/intergrade smectite-chlorite interstratifications. In the lake these clays extract K, Mg, and Si to form authigenic in- terstratified
Blair F. Jones; ALAN H. WEIR
This study provides the first long-term climatological analysis of lake-effect precipitation events that de- veloped in relation to a small lake (having a surface area of #1500 km2). The frequency and environmental conditions favorable for Lake Champlain lake-effect precipitation were examined for the nine winters (October-March) from 1997\\/98 through 2005\\/06. Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from Burlington, Vermont, were
Neil F. Laird; Jared Desrochers; Melissa Payer
The Great Lakes exert a significant influence on the regional climate of northern United States and southern Canada, including enhancement of cold-season precipitation on and downwind of the leeward shores. Lake-enhanced snowfall occurs when air that is significantly colder than the lake's surface temperature travels over the lake. Enhanced surface sensible and latent heat fluxes relative to the surrounding land surface result in moistening and destabilization of the atmosphere and subsequent development of low-level convection. In the Great Lakes region, lake-enhanced snow occurs during late fall through early winter, with decreasing numbers of events in the late winter due to the formation of widespread lake ice. Lake ice reduces both sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface, thereby increasing atmospheric stability and reducing lake induced convection. The degree to which ice coverage may change in future climate scenarios is largely unknown, but it is clear that any change to the fraction and duration of lake ice coverage will have an effect on lake-atmosphere interaction and the development and intensity of lake-enhanced precipitation. This study uses the NCAR Weather, Research, and Forecasting (WRF) model to examine how changes in Great Lakes fractional ice coverage affect the presence, intensity, and quantity of lake-enhanced precipitation. Sensitivity studies are used to evaluate the evolution and change in intensity of lake-enhanced snowfall in the Great Lakes region for scenarios that include (1) lake ice cover obtained from analysis fields (control simulation), (2) ice-free lakes, and (3) 100% ice coverage. Distinct lake-effect snow bands were observed in both the control and ice-free simulations, with placement of these bands further to the south and propagating further inland in the ice-free case. Melted precipitation totals increased on the order of 10 mm for ice-free lakes along the southern edges of Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and the eastern coast of Lake Ontario, while complete ice coverage extinguished nearly all lake-effect snow bands.
Wright, D. M.; Posselt, D. J.; Steiner, A. L.
The Eastern Lake Survey was conducted by the US EPA in the fall of 1984. Lakes were selected at random, based on a rigorous statistical design that permits estimates of the chemical and physical status of lake populations in specified regions of the survey. Complete chemical char...
The paleolimnology of Haynes Lake, and Teapot Lake, Ontario: documenting anthropogenic disturbances Sciences and Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario April 7, 2008 Â© 2008 journal articles can be extracted and published. The first, a study of Haynes Lake, Ontario (Chapter 2
Online previews of posters and data of the lake floor topography of Lakes Erie and Sinclair are available from the National Geophysical Data Center. Here users can view full-color .jpeg images of the bathymetry, meter-scale lake floor topography, and partial samples of gridded and vector data.
Lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and the endemic siscowet are ecologically distinct phenotypes of char inhabiting Lake Superior. To examine growth and contaminant concentration dynamics of these fishes, and to assess their utility as indicators of environmental contamination, length, weight, estimated age, and muscle tissue lipid and organochlorine (OC) chemical concentration data were analyzed. Lean lake trout grew faster in
Michael A. Miller; Stephen T. Schram
42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
Contaminant body burdens in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Upper Great Lakes have been monitored since 1970 on Lake Michigan and since 1977 and 1978 on Lakes Superior and Huron by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Great Lakes National Program Office and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Analysis of the Lake Michigan data
David S. DeVault; Wayne A. Willford; Robert J. Hesselberg; David A. Nortrupt; Eric G. S. Rundberg; Alwan K. Alwan; Cecilia Bautista
A lake evaluation index (LEI) is proposed to express the overall quality of lake water based on a mathematical combination of the commonly measured limnological variables total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll, Secchi depth, dissolved oxygen, and macrophyte coverage. Value...
This portal provides access to an extensive collection of resources on Oregon's Crater Lake, featuring sections on digital data, science, and general interest. The digital data section features links to a variety of imagery and datasets such as bathymetry, Digital Raster Graphics (DRG), Digital Line Graphs (DLG), Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of topography and other cartographic information; Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), orthoscopically corrected aerial photos in which ground features are displayed in their true positions; and a link to ArcView coverages of federal lands and counties in Oregon. The science section contains information on the formation and geologic history of the lake, lake ecology, physiographic information (lake depth, diameter, surface area, etc.), satellite imagery, and a glossary of volcano terminology and landform features pertinent to the lake. The general interest section contains an image gallery, information on cultural history, links to information on plants and wildlife, a location map and directions, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to external sites with additional information.
This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The topics discussed include, grain size, langmuir circulation, longshore current, beach drift, river plumes, lake stratification, and waves. Lesson plans can be found on the following subjects: lake levels, sediments, stream flow, and water quality. Also included is a virtual flight along the Eastern Lake Michigan Shoreline which includes topo maps, 3D maps, and photos. A directory of related links is also available.
Records are presented of Na+, K+, Ca++, SiO2, pH, alkalinity, O2, and specific conductance at 106 stations in Lake Ontario. These data are compared for east-west and surface-subsurface variations. Water quality in Lake Ontario is similar to that in Lake Erie with the exception of dissolved oxygen. The open waters of Lake Ontario had no areas of serious oxygen depletions.
Allen, Herbert E.
...Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife...Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife...Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges...
#12;#12;GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FY 1985 December 1985 Eugene J and Atmospheric Research Environmental Research Laboratories Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 2300 .........................Contracts and Grants 48 Front Cover: Water levels on the Great Lakes have been in a high regimefor the past
ADVANCING GREAT LAKES HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE THROUGH TARGETED BINATIONAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH by Andrew d. Gronewold And Vincent Fortin ImprovIng HydrologIcal modelIng predIctIons In tHe great lakes wh for advancing the state of the art in Great Lakes regional climate, hydrological, and hydrodynamic modeling when
The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially fewer exotic species (N=48) than the Great Lakes (N>180), in part due to its isolation from commercial traffic. Exotic species have been introduced by authorized and unauthorized stocking, bait buckets, use of ornamental plants, and through the Champlain and Chambly canals that link the lake to the Hudson River, Mohawk River, Erie Canal, and
J. Ellen Marsden; Michael Hauser
This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.
Evidence is presented to show that Lake Victoria is triply stratified the whole year round. The conclusions of FISH (1957) that a uninodal internal seiche operates in the lake is shown to be invalid, and the oscillations of isotherms at E.A.F.R.O. Open Lake Station observed over some years are explained by the day to day wind changes.
B. S. Newell
This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The links provide materials on basic earth science concepts, a set of lesson plans on the lakes, and other Great Lakes topics. Concepts covered include Langmuir circulation, longshore current and beach drift, sediments, stream flow, seasonal stratification and water quality.
Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…
McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally
Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.
Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.
Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)
Lake Tahoe is quite the sight anytime of year. As traveler Grace Greenwood noted in 1873, the lake "is an emerald on the brow of the mountain." This splendid digital collection from the University of Nevada-Reno brings together hundreds of photographs documenting this unique body of water that sits on the California and Nevada border. All told, there are over 1,000 items here that document the lake's transformation from placid and pristine to buzzing with tourism activity by the mid 20th century. Along the way, visitors can view items by date of creation, category, and photographer. Keyword searches can be quite revealing and first-time visitors might like to start with "beach," "casino," or "Emerald Bay."
Lake Mead reservoir is nestled between Arizona and Nevada and runs up to the Hoover Dam. The reservoir stores Colorado River water and supplies it to farms, homes and business in Southern Nevada, Arizona, southern California and northern Mexico. Scientists at NASA are releasing dramatic pictures of the dwindling water supplies in the drought-stricken western United States. According to the Bureau of Reclamation, the Colorado Basin is in its fourth year of drought and computer models project water levels will go down another 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6.1 m) by next year. Despite low water levels, The National Park Service says there is still plenty of water for recreation. The Landsat 7 satellite captured images of Lake Mead May 2000, and May 2003. The 2003 image clearly shows a shrinking lake.
Created and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with federal, state, tribal, and local agencies and groups, this is a major gateway to information and data on Lake Tahoe and its basin. The primary goal of this clearinghouse is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin, and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Users have access to a wide range of data and GIS products. Examples include: high quality digital maps for the Lake Tahoe area (including Tahoe hydrography, roads, vegetation cover, forests, timber, soils), digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital elevation models. Some of the data resides on the USGS server at the Western Mapping Center, Menlo Park, California. The bulk of the data and information, located in databases maintained by the partnering agencies, is accessible via hypertext links.
When Grace Greenwood encountered Lake Tahoe in the 1870s, she remarked that "Tahoe is the most beautiful lake I have ever beheld. It is an emerald on the brow of the mountain. Marvellously clear and sparkling, it is surrounded by the most enchanting scenery, and is altogether a surprise, a wonder, a delight." Generations of tourists and locals have enjoyed its charms since. And this remarkable digital collection provides over 1,000 images of the surrounding area. The collection was created by the University of Nevada-Reno's Special Collections Department. Visitors can search the entire collection by keywords and they may also wish to just use the "View All Images" link. It is amazing to think about the changes around the area that have occurred in the past several decades alone, and it is neat to see some of the early resorts that began to pop up on the lake's shores in the early 20th century.
??Introduced lake trout Salvelinus namaycush threaten to extirpate native Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park. Suppression of the lake… (more)
Syslo, John Michael.
A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.
Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.
Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.
Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun
Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.
Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.
Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A
Gary H. Heinz; H. Franklin Percival; Michael L. Jennings
MERCURY CYCLING IN LAKE GORDON AND LAKE PEDDER, TASMANIA (AUSTRALIA). I: IN-LAKE PROCESSES KARL C; accepted 2 December 2002) Abstract. The processes affecting the concentrations of total mercury (total Hg- vestigated. Surface concentrations of total mercury (total Hg) were temporally and spatially uniform in both
Canberra, University of
Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.
Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.
Background Good nutrition is essential for increasing survival rates of infants. This study explored infant feeding practices in a resource-poor setting and assessed implications for future interventions focused on improving newborn health. Methods The study took place in the Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of northern Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women with newborn infants, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, and 16 community leaders. An additional 18 focus group discussions were conducted with household heads, compound heads and grandmothers. All interviews and discussions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results Community members are knowledgeable about the importance of breastfeeding, and most women with newborn infants do attempt to breastfeed. However, data suggest that traditional practices related to breastfeeding and infant nutrition continue, despite knowledge of clinical guidelines. Such traditional practices include feeding newborn infants water, gripe water, local herbs, or traditionally meaningful foods such as water mixed with the flour of guinea corn (yara’na). In this region in Ghana, there are significant cultural traditions associated with breastfeeding. For example, colostrum from first-time mothers is often tested for bitterness by putting ants in it – a process that leads to a delay in initiating breastfeeding. Our data also indicate that grandmothers – typically the mother-in-laws – wield enormous power in these communities, and their desires significantly influence breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and maintenance. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding is still common in rural Ghana despite demonstrating high knowledge of appropriate feeding practices. Future interventions that focus on grandmothers and religious leaders are likely to prove valuable in changing community attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to infant nutrition. PMID:22857600
Background Although Ghana does not fall into the category of those countries which have a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), the disease does present considerable economic and health limitations to individuals infected with, and affected by, the disease, as well as to the health system in general. Despite this fact, insufficient studies have been done on the key barriers to controlling the disease. This paper presents results from an exploratory study on the constraints of controlling TB in Ghana based on the opinions of health service providers. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with frontline health workers involved in TB control in the country. Participants were purposively selected from a pool of national and regional, and district and facility level coordinators of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). One key informant was also selected from an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) involved in TB-related activities in Ghana. Observations were utilised to complement the study. Data were analysed inductively. Results Respondents identified the following as being constraints to TB control: clinical complication, bottlenecks in funding administration, quality of physical infrastructure, competition for attention and funding, unsatisfactory coordination between TB and HIV control programmes, a poor public-private partnership, and weak monitoring and evaluation of interventions. Conclusions This paper provides evidence of some key barriers to TB control. The barriers, as reported, were generally health system-based. Although this list of barriers is not exhaustive, it would be useful to take them into account when planning for TB control, thus adopting a more rounded approach to TB management in the country. As well as that, further studies should be done to explore patients’ views on health service-related barriers to TB control. PMID:23849141
Background Mal-distribution of the health workforce with a strong bias for urban living is a major constraint to expanding midwifery services in Ghana. According to the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) report, the high risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth continues in Africa. Maternal death is currently estimated at 350 per 100,000, partially a reflection of the low rates of professional support during birth. Many women in rural areas of Ghana give birth alone or with a non-skilled attendant. Midwives are key healthcare providers in achieving the MDGs, specifically in reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters and reducing by two-thirds the under 5 child mortality rate by 2015. Methods This quantitative research study used a computerized structured survey containing a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify the importance of different incentives and policies to encourage service to deprived, rural and remote areas by upper-year midwifery students following graduation. Using a hierarchical Bayes procedure we estimated individual and mean utility parameters for two hundred and ninety eight third year midwifery students from two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. Results Midwifery students in our sample identified: 1) study leave after two years of rural service; 2) an advanced work environment with reliable electricity, appropriate technology and a constant drug supply; and 3) superior housing (2 bedroom, 1 bathroom, kitchen, living room, not shared) as the top three motivating factors to accept a rural posting. Conclusion Addressing the motivating factors for rural postings among midwifery students who are about to graduate and enter the workforce could significantly contribute to the current mal-distribution of the health workforce. PMID:23642076
Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505
Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.
Background Buruli ulcer is a stigmatising disease treated with antibiotics and wound care, and sometimes surgical intervention is necessary. Permanent limitations in daily activities are a common long term consequence. It is unknown to what extent patients perceive problems in participation in social activities. The psychometric properties of the Participation Scale used in other disabling diseases, such as leprosy, was assessed for use in former Buruli ulcer patients. Methods Former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin, their relatives, and healthy community controls were interviewed using the Participation Scale, Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure stigma. The Participation Scale was tested for the following psychometric properties: discrimination, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, inter-item correlation, item-total correlation and construct validity. Results In total 386 participants (143 former Buruli ulcer patients with their relatives (137) and 106 community controls) were included in the study. The Participation Scale displayed good discrimination between former Buruli ulcer patients and healthy community controls. No floor and ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.88. In Ghana, mean inter-item correlation of 0.29 and item-total correlations ranging from 0.10 to 0.69 were found while in Benin, a mean inter-item correlation of 0.28 was reported with item-total correlations ranging from ?0.08 to 0.79. With respect to construct validity, 4 out of 6 hypotheses were not rejected, though correlations between various constructs differed between countries. Conclusion The results indicate the Participation Scale has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used for Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. Future studies can use this Participation Scale to evaluate the long term restrictions in participation in daily social activities of former BU patients. PMID:25393289
de Zeeuw, Janine; Douwstra, Marlies; Omansen, Till F.; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Johnson, Christian; Phillips, Richard O.; Alferink, Marike; Saunderson, Paul; Van der Werf, Tjip S.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Stienstra, Ymkje
Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care. PMID:24996415
Efficient logistics systems move essential medicines down the supply chain to the service delivery point, and then to the end user. Experts on logistics systems tend to see the supply chain as requiring centralized control to be most effective. However, many health reforms have involved decentralization, which experts fear has disrupted the supply chain and made systems less effective. There is no consensus on an appropriate methodology for assessing the effectiveness of decentralization in general, and only a few studies have attempted to address decentralization of logistics systems. This paper sets out a framework and methodology of a pioneering exploratory study that examines the experiences of decentralization in two countries, Guatemala and Ghana, and presents suggestive results of how decentralization affected the performance of their logistics systems. The analytical approach assessed decentralization using the principal author's 'decision space' approach, which defines decentralization as the degree of choice that local officials have over different health system functions. In this case the approach focused on 15 different logistics functions and measured the relationship between the degree of choice and indicators of performance for each of the functions. The results of both studies indicate that less choice (i.e. more centralized) was associated with better performance for two key functions (inventory control and information systems), while more choice (i.e. more decentralized) over planning and budgeting was associated with better performance. With different systems of procurement in Ghana and Guatemala, we found that a system with some elements of procurement that are centralized (selection of firms and prices fixed by national tender) was positively related in Guatemala but negatively related in Ghana, where a system of 'cash and carry' cost recovery allowed more local choice. The authors conclude that logistics systems can be effectively decentralized for some functions while others should remain centralized. These preliminary findings, however, should be subject to alternative methodologies to confirm the findings. PMID:17324947
Bossert, Thomas J; Bowser, Diana M; Amenyah, Johnnie K
Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions. PMID:25250307
Adongo, Philip B.; Tabong, Philip T.-N.; Azongo, Thomas B.; Phillips, James F.; Sheff, Mallory C.; Stone, Allison E.; Tapsoba, Placide
This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.
We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...
Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…
Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff
Contour currents influence sedimentation in an area 15 km wide and 65 km long at the base of the slope off the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan. Seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) from this area show distinct wavy reflectors in a scoured trough at a d...
This document details the history, geography, biology, and educational value of Mono Lake, California. The author describes the effects of the saline and alkaline environment on its inhabitants and reveals that the area also supports a large number of migratory birds. The document concludes with educational and recreational activities of the area.
Resources, Department O.; California, State O.
Underwater videos and photos of shipwrecks in Lakes Superior and Michigan, information on individual vessels, map of the shipwrecks, searchable database, historical newspaper search, a glossary of nautical terms, interactive features and information for divers. Extensive resource, classroom activities are available via a linked site.
In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.
Garrison, V.; Bryant, N.
-integrated observations of chemical contamination in the ambient environment. The Mussel Watch Program initiated left over from past practices, referred to as "legacy contamination," continue to circulate through the ecosystem and warrant fish consumption advisories in the Great Lakes. In addition, newer chemicals
Land between the Lakes, the nation's only federal demonstration area in outdoor education, environmental education, and resource management, provides both recreational facilities for the public and outdoor educational training for college students. Article describes programs, facilities, and objectives of the 170,000 acre "university of the…
Espeseth, Robert D.
This site briefly introduces the history and ecology of Mono Lake. It is comprised of 27 professional photographs, each offering a visual insight into the community's unusual landscape. All images are accompanied with a brief description. Downloads and wallpaper are available with a paid membership.
Luong, Quang-Tuan; Terra Galleria Photography, QTL@terragalleria.com
A three-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic and heat transport model of Binaba Lake, a shallow and small dam reservoir in Ghana, has been developed, which emphasize the dynamics and thermal structure of the lake. Most numerical studies of temperature dynamics in reservoirs are based on one- or two-dimensional models. These models are not applicable for reservoirs characterized by complex flow patterns and unsteady heat exchange between the atmosphere and water surface. Continuity, momentum and temperature transport equations have been solved. Proper assignment of boundary conditions, especially surface heat fluxes, has been found crucial in simulating the lake's hydrothermal dynamics. This model is based on the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations, using a Boussinesq approach, with a standard k - ? turbulence closure to solve the flow field. The thermal model includes a heat source term, which takes into account the short wave radiation as well as heat convection at the free surface, which is a function of air temperatures, wind velocity and stability conditions of atmospheric boundary layer over the water surface. The governing equations of the model have been solved by OpenFOAM ; an open source, freely available CFD toolbox. As its core, OpenFOAM has a set of efficient C++ modules that are used to build solvers. It uses colocated, polyhedral numerics that can be applied to unstructured meshes and can be easily extended to run in parallel. In the framework of this study, a new solver was developed to solve the hydrothermal model of lake. The simulated temperature was compared against a 15 days field data set. Simulated and measured temperature profiles at the probe locations show reasonalble agreement. The model is able to compute total heat storage of water bodies to estimate evaporation from water surface.
Abbasi, A.; Gharari, S.; Van De Giesen, N.
This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862
Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann
Ghana Research Reactor-1 core is to be converted from HEU fuel to LEU fuel in the near future and managing the spent nuclear fuel is very important. A fuel depletion analysis of the GHARR-1 core was performed using ORIGEN2 and REBUS3 codes to estimate the isotopic inventory at end-of-cycle in order to help in the design of an appropriate spent fuel cask. The results obtained for both codes were consistent for U-235 burnup weight percent and Pu-239 build up as a result of burnup. PMID:23796663
Abrefah, R G; Nyarko, B J B; Fletcher, J J; Akaho, E H K
The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore, the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies. PMID:24515808
Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer
Although much has been written on health policy making in developed countries, the same cannot be said of less developed countries, especially in Africa. Drawing largely on available historical and government records, newspaper publications, parliamentary Hansards, and published books and articles, this article uses John W. Kingdon's multiple streams framework to explain how the problem, politics, and policy streams converged for Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to be passed into law in 2003. The article contends that a change in government in the 2000 general election opened a "policy window" for eventual policy change from "cash-and-carry" to the NHIS. PMID:25480850
Kusi-Ampofo, Owuraku; Church, John; Conteh, Charles; Heinmiller, Timothy B
Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention. Methods We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases. Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots. Results Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed. Conclusions There is clustering of BU in areas where the river was most contaminated. The identified hot spots for BU should be targeted for interventions by policy makers to ensure effective control of BU in Ghana. PMID:25027028
Background Countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are experiencing an epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) propelled by rapidly increasing rates of hypertension. Barriers to hypertension control in SSA include poor access to care and high out-of-pocket costs. Although SSA bears 24% of the global disease burden, it has only 3% of the global health workforce. Given such limited resources, cost-effective strategies, such as task shifting, are needed to mitigate the rising CVD epidemic in SSA. Ghana, a country in SSA with an established community health worker program integrated within a national health insurance scheme provides an ideal platform to evaluate implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) task-shifting strategy. This study will evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the implementation of the WHO Package targeted at CV risk assessment versus provision of health insurance coverage, on blood pressure (BP) reduction. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, 32 community health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals in Ghana will be randomized to either the intervention group (16 CHCs) or the control group (16 CHCs). A total of 640 patients with uncomplicated hypertension (BP 140–179/90–99 mm Hg and absence of target organ damage) will be enrolled in this study (20 patients per CHC). The intervention consists of WHO Package of CV risk assessment, patient education, initiation and titration of antihypertensive medications, behavioral counseling on lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence every three months for 12 months. The primary outcome is the mean change in systolic BP from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are rates of BP control at 12 months; levels of physical activity, percent change in weight, and dietary intake of fruits and vegetables at 12 months; and sustainability of intervention effects at 24 months. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, six months and 12 months. Trained community health nurses will deliver the intervention as part of Ghana’s community-based health planning and services (CHPS) program. Discussion Findings from this study will provide policy makers and other stakeholders needed information to recommend scalable and cost-effective policy with respect to comprehensive CV risk reduction and hypertension control in resource-poor settings. Trial registration NCT01802372. PMID:24923300
Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghana’s three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients’ age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing. PMID:25056139
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