Results of 5 years of sampling for Bulinus rohlfsi in human-water contact sites of villages along the Volta Lake, Ghana, have confirmed that the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum, is the most important ecological factor for sustaining high levels of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium. Data available so far indicate that growth of this weed largely determines the size of the snail populations. Increasing density of Ceratophyllum correlates with increasing levels of cercarial transmission potential in the water contact sites and of S. haematobium infection in the village populations. PMID:6975187
Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.
Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268
Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa
In this study, pH, total organic carbon, sulphate concentration and mercury concentrations of sediment samples from the Volta Lake at Yeji in the northern part of Ghana were determined. The results indicate that pH ranged from 6.32 to 8.21, total organic carbon ranged from 0.17 to 3.02 g/kg and sulphate concentration from 10.00 to 57.51 mg/kg. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 32.61 to 700 ng/g which is below the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended value of 810 ng/g. Humic substance-bound mercury ranged from 81.15 to 481.31 mg/kg in sediments and its two fractions existed as humic acid-bound mercury > fulvic acid-bound mercury with the ratio of humic substance-bound mercury to fulvic acid-bound mercury as 1.62 on the average. Humic substance-bound mercury and the two fractions fulvic acid-bound mercury and humic substance-bound mercury in sediments were favorably determined and found to correlate significantly positive with total organic carbon (r = 0.538) and total mercury (r = 0.574). However, there were poor correlations between SO(4) (2-) concentrations and humic substance-bound mercury (r = -0.391) as well as the two fractions; fulvic acid (r = -0.406) and humic acid (r = -0.381). By assuming that methyl mercury is mostly formed in sediments, these significant relations suggest that the efficiency of mercury being methylated from a given inorganic form depends on the amount, and most likely biochemical composition of total organic carbon in the lake sediment but not the SO(4) (2-) concentration. PMID:22258497
Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A; Ephraim, J H; Nriagu, J O
Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten hunan freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy of technique. Displacing a commons way of life, the
Lawrence Agbemabiese; John Byrne
Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…
Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John
The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two countries concerning shared water resources can take place.
van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.
Background Induced abortion rates remained persistently high in the Volta Region of Ghana in the 5 years from 2006 to 2011. Some hospitals, both rural and urban, report induced abortion-related complications as one of the top ten conditions in hospital admissions. This study explored demographic and other factors associated with induced abortion, and also assessed awareness of abortion-related complications among women of reproductive age in the Volta Region. Methods A quantitative, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study was performed. The Volta Region was stratified into two health administration zones, ie, north and south. For each zone, hospitals were stratified into government and private hospitals. Employing simple random sampling, one private and three government hospitals were selected from each zone. This study is therefore based on eight hospitals, ie, six government hospitals and two private hospitals. Results Marital status, employment status, number of total pregnancies, and knowledge about contraception were found to be associated with induced abortion. Multiple logistic regression showed a 4% reduction in the odds of induced abortion in married women compared with women who were single (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.22). Unemployed women of reproductive age were found to be 0.35 times less likely to seek induced abortion compared with their employed counterparts (OR 0.35, CI 0.19–0.65). It was also observed that women with their second pregnancies were 3.8 times more likely to seek induced abortion and women with more than two pregnancies were 6.6 times more likely to do so (OR 3.81, CI 1.94–7.49 and OR 6.58, CI 2.58–16.79, respectively). Women with no knowledge of contraceptive methods were 4.6 times likely to seek induced abortion (OR 4.64, CI 1.39–15.4). Compared with women who had not had induced abortion, women with a high number of pregnancies and no contraceptive knowledge were more likely to have induced abortion. Conclusion It was found that lack of knowledge about contraceptives and being single or employed were associated with increased likelihood of induced abortion. It was also found that women with a higher number of pregnancies have a greater odds of induced abortion. No association was found between induced abortion and maternal age, education, contraceptive use, or religion. PMID:25187740
Klutsey, Ellen Eyi; Ankomah, Augustine
The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.
Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.
A Strategic Overview of the Forest Sector in Ghana Odoom Domson Graduate Research, 2007 #12;2 A Brief Description of Ghana Geography Ghana is located on the west coast of Africa; hot and dry in the north. The manmade Volta Lake extends from the Akosombo Dam in southeastern Ghana
Stable isotope data and concentrations of the major cations and anions of groundwater from the northern part of the Volta Region, Ghana, were used to determine the source of recharge and the suitability of groundwater in the area for irrigation. This study finds that the delta deuterium (?D) and delta Oxygen-18 (?18O) data from the area fall along the global meteoric water line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ?D and ?18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity-low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity-low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity-low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1,956 ?S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ?S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage.
Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Nti, Emmanuel
Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1956 ??S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ??S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage. ?? 2009 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH.
Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.
Neoproterozoic glacial and post-glacial sediments from the Volta Basin (West Africa) form a stratigraphic ‘Triad’ of tillites, carbonates and cherts. The carbonates that cap the tillites were studied in detail at Bwipe (Ghana), in the western part of the basin. They are made of finely-laminated dolostones with well-preserved sedimentary features, suggesting that dolomite formation was penecontemporaneous of deposition in a
Anne Nédélec; Pascal Affaton; Christian France-Lanord; André Charrière; Javier Alvaro
The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36
N. van de Giesen; M. Andreini; A. van Edig
Introduction Anaemia among children is a public health issue in Ghana. The Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) was instituted on pilot basis in an effort to provide nutritious lunch to school children. Evidence on the nutritional status of pupils is needed to inform the expansion of GSFP. This study sought to assess anaemia among Ghanaian pupils. Methods This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 143 pupils aged 6 to 12 years. Blood samples were collected and analysed for serum-ferritin (SF), C-reactive protein (CRP), haemoglobin and malaria-parasitaemia (MP). Stool samples were examined for soil-transmitted helminthes. Dietary data were collected using the 24 hour-recall method on three non-consecutive days and a food frequency questionnaire. The Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between sexes. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anaemia. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 Results SF and haemoglobin concentrations were 23.9±15ng/ml and 120±11g/L respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 30.8%. More females (41.5%) than males (21.8%) had anaemia (p < 0.005). Seventy-one percent of pupils had low SF levels. MP prevalence was 67.8%. Hookworm infestation was only observed in males (18.0%). Dietary iron and vitamin C intakes were 18.98±8.8mg and 23.7±6.7mg, respectively. Child's sex, SF and MP were associated with anaemia. Males had a lower likelihood of being anaemic (OR = 0.2, CI 0.1-0.5, p = 0.002) Conclusion The study findings underscore the need for multi-pronged approaches that address both malaria control and nutrition in order to reduce anaemia among pupils. PMID:24644526
Egbi, Godfred; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Kwesi, Faribu Saalia; Ayi, Irene; Ofosu, Winfred; Setorglo, Jacob; Klobodu, Seth Selorm; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret
A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.
The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. PMID:22208085
Quarcoopome, Theodore; Amevenku, Francis; Ofori-Danson, Patrick
The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.
Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.
Effective development and informed management of groundwater resources represent a critical opportunity for improved rural water supply in Ghana and enhanced livelihoods particularly in the northern part of the White Volta Basin, a region already prone to a myriad of water-related infirmities. If adequately developed, the resource will form a sufficient buffer against the effects of climate change/variability and foster food security and sustainable livelihoods among the largely peasant communities in the region. This research presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological conditions and recharge regimes of the aquifers in the Northern parts of the White Volta Basin, Ghana. Results of estimates of groundwater recharge through the conventional isotopic and mass balance techniques are presented. Details of the groundwater flow pattern and preliminary delineation of local and regional groundwater recharge areas are presented from initial simulations of the hydrogeological system with a robust groundwater flow simulation code, MODFLOW, in the Groundwater Modeling System, GMS, version 7.1. The stream flow and evapotranspiration components of the program were activated to incorporate surface flow processes, so that the resulting model represents the conditions of the entire hydrological system. The results of this study form a platform for detailed numerical assessment of the conditions of the aquifers in the area under transient conditions of fluctuating rainfall patterns in the face of climate change/variability.
Oteng, F. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.
In order to evaluate the contribution of continuing groundwater resources development on the improvement of water supply and to assess the impact of increasing abstraction on the overall water budget, the spatial distribution of groundwater production for rural and urban water supply in the Volta River basin in West Africa is quantified and compared to population densities, groundwater recharge, and
Nicola Martin; Nick van de Giesen
Neoproterozoic glacial and post-glacial sediments from the Volta Basin (West Africa) form a stratigraphic 'Triad' of tillites, carbonates and cherts. The carbonates that cap the tillites were studied in detail at Bwipe (Ghana), in the western part of the basin. They are made of finely-laminated dolostones with well-preserved sedimentary features, suggesting that dolomite formation was penecontemporaneous of deposition in a warm, arid peritidal environment, with microbial activity. Rare-earth element distribution display seawater-like patterns. Redox-sensitive trace elements indicate suboxic conditions. High Ba/Al ratios can be related to high organic productivity. ?13C values are nearly constant at -3.7‰ and ?18O PDB are about -6‰. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios range between 0.7061 and 0.7073. The ?13C signatures are nearly similar to those of coeval cap dolostones from the northern part of the Basin. The dolostones change upwards to limestones with secondary textures, as well as more negative ?13C and higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio. Therefore, only the dolostones witness the post-glacial conditions in seawater. It is proposed that, due to a bloom of microbial productivity following ice thaw, organic matter likely accumulated at the water-sediment interface and was consumed by sulphate-reducing bacteria, leading to the precipitation of ?13C-negative dolomite. This microbially mediated model is supported by present-day field evidence from hypersaline lagoons in Brazil and by previously published culture experiments. It is consistent with the sedimentological and geochemical data from the Ghana cap dolostones and can be applied to other Neoproterozoic cap dolostones worldwide.
Nédélec, Anne; Affaton, Pascal; France-Lanord, Christian; Charrière, André; Alvaro, Javier
Analogy with better-known craters suggests that Bosumtwi has a central uplift rising to 200 m beneath the lake floor. An aeromagnetic anomaly of amplitude 50 nanotesla (nT) over the northern half of the lake is interpreted as due to a layer of magnetized fallback breccia beneath the lake sediments. The normal polarity of the breccia shows that the crater was formed during the normal Jaramillo event of 0.97 to 0.85 m.y. ago, which agrees with the magnetic stratigraphy of the related Ivory Coast microtektites. A regional gravity survey indicates a negative Bouguer anomaly over the crater. There is some geochemical evidence that the meteorite was an iron, and its mass and energy are suggested as about 108 tons and 3 × 1019 joules or 7.3 × 103 megatons.
Jones, William B.; Bacon, Michael; Hastings, David A.
This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…
Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.
Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548
Historical changes in the level of Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, have been simulated using a catchment-scale hydrological model in order to assess the importance of changes in climate and land use on lake water balance on a monthly basis for the period 1939-2004. Several commonly used models for computing evaporation in data-sparse regions are compared, including the Penman, the energy budget,
Timothy M. Shanahan; Jonathan T. Overpeck; W. E. Sharp; Christopher A. Scholz; Justice A. Arko
Sustainable abstraction of groundwater resources for commercial irrigation in the White Volta Basin (WVB) holds promise for a fledging agricultural industry in the basin. This is because erratic rainfall patterns attending climate change/variability has imposed mixed fortunes in terms of rain-fed agricultural activities currently practiced in the WVB. Addressing the sustainability of groundwater for commercial abstraction will require the integration of surface and subsurface flows and analysis of the impacts of climate change scenarios on the resource, employing a surface-subsurface flow model. Here, we present early results from surface flow simulation over the basin using the physically-based surface-subsurface flow model MIKE SHE.
Oteng, F. M.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.
Cores of organic-rich muds from the tropical meteorite crater Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, contain laminae of authigenic calcite polyhedra and aragonite needles, as well as scattered diagenetic calcite, Mg-calcite spherulites, and aggregates of dolomite crystals. Their respective origins are traced by analyses of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes. Anoxic dolomite and Mg-calcite formed in pore waters reflecting highest degrees of evaporative
M. R. Talbot; K. Kelts
Cores of organic-rich muds from the tropical meteorite crater Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, contain laminae of authigenic calcite polyhedra and aragonite needles, as well as scattered diagenetic calcite, Mg-calcite spherulites, and aggregates of dolomite crystals. Their respective origins are traced by analyses of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes. Anoxic dolomite and Mg-calcite formed in pore waters reflecting highest degrees of evaporative concentration and high rates of methanogenesis. Carbon dioxide reduction must have been the dominant methanogenic pathway, producing diagenetic carbonates with ..delta../sup 13/C values up to + 27% PDB. This example shows the inherent problems of interpreting bulk samples with progressive mineralogical sequences of calcite to Mg-calcite to aragonite to dolomite merely in terms of Mg/sup 2 +//Ca/sup 2 +/ in lake waters. It provides a model for the interpretation of ancient lacustrine carbonates from organic-rich environments.
Talbot, M.R.; Kelts, K.
The Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana) is a young and well-preserved structure where a vast amount of information is available to constrain any geophysical model. Previous analysis of the airborne magnetic data and results of numerical simulation of impact predicted a strongly magnetic impact-melt body underneath the lake. Recent drilling through the structure did not penetrate such an expected impact-melt rock magnetic source. A new 3-D magnetic model for the structure was constructed based on a newly acquired higher-resolution marine magnetic data set, with consideration of the observed gravity data on the lake, previous seismic models, and the magnetic properties and lithology identified in the two International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) deep boreholes. The new model contains highly magnetic bodies located in the northeast sector of the structure, not centered onto the drilling sites. As in previous models, higher magnetization than that measured in outcropping impactites had to be assigned to the unexposed source bodies. Integration of the new model with the borehole petrophysics and published geology indicates that these bodies likely correspond to an extension to the south of the Kumasi batholith, which outcrops to the northeast of the structure. The possibility that these source bodies are related to the seismically identified central uplift or to an unmapped impact-melt sheet predicted by previous models of the structure is not supported. Detailed magnetic scanning of the Kumasi batholith to the north, and the Bansu intrusion to the south, would provide a test for this interpretation.
Ugalde, Hernan; Morris, William A.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Danuor, Sylvester K.
Groundwater recharge in the Nabogo sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin is assessed using three main methods: the water table fluctuations method, baseflow recession method, and chloride mass balance approach. The objective is to quantify the relative proportions of direct vertical infiltration and percolation of rainwater in the area and subsurface flows in determining the total groundwater recharge in the basin. Groundwater resources development for commercial irrigation activities is an essential aspect of the livelihoods of communities living within the catchments of the Volta Basin. A comprehensive assessment of the recharge component of groundwater budgets in the basin is critical towards determining optimal abstraction rates in order to ensure resource sustainability and ecological integrity. This will form the basis for quantifying abstraction rates that are permissible to support large scale irrigation activities in the basin. The presence and thickness of the clay layer in the unsaturated zone serves to limit vertical infiltration of rainwater, and thus reduce vertical groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, the chloride mass balance technique, supported by the analysis of stable isotope signatures, has been used to estimate the vertical groundwater recharge and its spatial pattern of distribution in the area. The water table fluctuations technique and base flow recession method are then used to estimate total groundwater recharge in the basin. It is then possible to quantify the relative contributions of subsurface flows in the groundwater recharge in the basin. Temporal variations in groundwater recharge in the area are examined from time series of estimates from the baseflow recession technique. The results will assist in assessing the short term impacts of rainfall variability on groundwater budgets in the area.
Fynn, O. F.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.; Mensah, F. O.
W A Water Atlas of the Volta Basin Atlas de l'eau du Bassin de la Volta Jacques LemoaLLe Devaraj de Condappa 2009 Challenge Program Water and Food Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Mise. Water atlas of the Volta Basin-Atlas de l'eau dans le bas- sin de la Volta. Challenge Program on Water
Field data, supported by 28 14C dates, show that during the late Pleistocene Lake Bosumtwi suffered a major regression and probably remained low for some time, the exposed lacustrine sediments undergoing considerable pedogenesis. Just after 13,000 B.P. the lake was rising again, and thereafter the crater has generally been characterised by a lake significantly higher than it is at present.
M. R. Talbot; G. Delibrias
People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the
Lineu Rodrigues; Aidan Senzanje; Philippe Cecchi; Jens Liebe
After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta Basin in West Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the basin, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere in the developing world. The methods are mainly based on relatively objective observations as provided by satellites. As such, these tool provide a good basis for transboundary impact assessment and conflict avoidance.
van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.
This study utilizes data from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS) (1979-1980) to investigate breast feeding in Ghana and the factors that affect it. Using life table procedures, we found evidence that, when other factors are held constant, older cohorts, women with no schooling, those who work in the agricultural sector, those affiliated with traditional Ghanaian religions, Mole-Dagbanis, rural residents, residents of the Volta, Brong-Ahafo, northern, and upper regions, and low-parity women show longer durations of breast feeding. It is recommended that, along with other fertility reduction measures, prolonged breast feeding among all Ghanaian mothers should be encouraged to help reduce conception and to ensure healthy children. PMID:2055593
Oheneba-Sakyi, Y; Takyi, B K
Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.
Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.
The impact of continued global warming on the likelihood of severe drought in sub-Saharan West Africa remains uncertain, as climate models generally do not simulate realistic climate dynamics in the region and have inconsistent projections for the future. The Last Interglacial period (LIG), occurring between 128 and 116 thousand years ago, is a partial analog for future warming because at its peak, global temperatures were slightly higher, and this warming was accentuated in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial summer temperatures. Here we present a new, annually-resolved, 12,100-year-long varve record for the LIG from Lake Bosumtwi in southern Ghana (6.5°N, 1.4°W). The abundance of terrigenous elements in the sediment, varve thickness, and the isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of authigenic carbonates in the sediment were used to infer changes in lake level. The varve chronology, varve thickness and elemental abundance records were developed with a new ensemble approach that allows for a more robust determination of uncertainty in the record. The new records reveal a dynamic history of hydrologic variability during the LIG. The LIG lake highstand was lower and shorter-lived than the the prolonged highstand in the early Holocene, and unlike the Holocene, the lake never overflowed during LIG. The overall drier conditions during the LIG are most likely driven by amplified precessional forcing during the interval, resulting in a northward shift in the rainbelt. The LIG, like the Holocene, had two distinct millennial-scale moist intervals, from 125 - 123 and 121 - 120 ka. In both the LIG and the Holocene, these peaks occurred during times of precession-driven insolation maxima in July and October, corresponding to the two rainy seasons in the modern climatology. This suggests that, at least during interglacials, prolonged wet conditions occur at the lake when rainy season insolation is highest. Over the course of the LIG, lake level generally tracked sea surface temperatures (SST) in Gulf of Guinea, including an abrupt drop in lake level that lasted about 500 years ca. 118 ka, corresponding to cooling in the Gulf of Guinea and much of the North Atlantic during the interval. The timing and duration of the event are comparable to the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP) that is observed at several European sites, and has been interpreted to result from abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic, and possibly a reduction of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This scenario would likely result in drought in West Africa, so the aridity ca. 118 ka is the first indication that the LEAP occurred in Africa as well as Europe. The occurrence of quasiperiodic variability at multidecadal to centennial timescales is consistent with the hypothesis that slowly varying changes in Atlantic SST structure (e.g., the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) drives long term hydrologic variability in the region.
McKay, N.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; Heil, C. W.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.
Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…
The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast. This is inconsistent with a simple southward shift in the mean position of the monsoon rainbelt, and requires changes in moisture convergence as a result of either a reduction in the moisture content of the tropical rainbelt, decreased convection, or both.
Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W., Jr.; King, John W.
internships in humanitarian engineering: ghana Sustainable Development & Africana Studies Programs entrepre- neurship and technical development for students in a strategic location. Ghana is a likely site of Ghana. Additionally, students will have initial contact with our on-the-ground partner, Proslin Ghana
Gilchrist, James F.
The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…
Wien, Carol Anne
Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.
U.S. Geological Survey
Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 x 10(-5) (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10(-3) (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.
The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…
Kaplan, Irving; And Others
Although many soil/water-landscape studies have been published in the last two decades, progress in developing operational tools for supporting landscape planning to minimize land and water degradation in developing regions is still modest. Some of the existing tools are very data demanding and/or too complicated to be useful to data scarce regions. A research group at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn has developed a LAndscape Management and Planning Tool (LAMPT) to facilitate land management decision making and landscape planning by optimization. Firstly, we used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a Distributed Sediment Delivery Model (DSDM) in a GIS environment to estimate the spatial distribution of areas experiencing different levels of soil loss in the White Volta basin. The RUSLE is employed to map the spatial patterns of major sediment source areas based on data calibrated for the study region. As RUSLE only estimates the potential gross erosion of each grid cell, a DSDM is used to estimate the sediment delivery efficiency of each cell using flow distance and velocity along the flow path. The combined models allow a classification of sub-watersheds experiencing different levels of soil loss using a soil tolerance threshold suitable for the study areas (Burkina Faso and Ghana). The result shows that the majority of areas around north-eastern and eastern parts of the White Volta basin (mainly south-eastern Burkina Faso and upper east region of Ghana) are associated with high levels of sediment yield (over 15 t ha-1 yr-1). The main reason could be high population pressure, poor surface cover and relatively high slope of some of the areas in Ghana. On the other hand, the north-western and southern parts of the basin experience low levels of sediment yield (less than 5 t ha-1 yr-1) mainly due to their flat terrain and good surface cover that encourage sediment deposition rather than erosion. We revealed that a GIS-based soil erosion and sediment delivery model can successfully be used for identifying and prioritizing critical sub-watersheds for management purposes. Such a tool can be of significance in developing areas where problems are severe but resources are scarce. Next, we implemented the RUSLE-DSDM model into NetLogo, an agent-based programming platform, producing a LAMPT's prototype. The operational model was designed in such a way that fast and robust sensitivity analyses can be performed, after users are allowed to (i) select and set different physical parameters, and (ii) choose different sets of land-use management and planning options. The physical parameters choice meets the scientific needs of landscape modelers in their exploration of adequate values of the many parameters in soil/sedimentation models that are often not well-calibrated in developing regions. The latter is expected to meet the needs of practitioners in catchment management and planning. As the tool allows front-end users to handle the selection of management/planning options, and provide a fast and responsive outputs (in terms of both maps and graphs), LAMPT can assist in effective multi-stakeholder negotiations over land-use planning where the minimization the degradation of land/water resources is the ultimate goal. The LAMPT model can be easily coupled with LUDAS, an agent-based land-use change model using the same platform, to comprehensively simulate environment-community loops. During the further development of LAMPT, the research team intends to follow a participatory approach to enhance the relevance of the tool to local community needs. To plausibly calibrate LAMPT at the catchment/community levels in the data scarce environment of West Africa, additional long-term research catchments are essential.
Vlek, Lulseged Tamene, Quang Bao Le, Jens Liebe, Paul L. G.
Ghana Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts By David Ansong Summary Ghana stands out-credit and small loan schemes and promotion of decentralized micro-financial system in Ghana. The Financial Institutions (Non-Banking) Law of 1993 regulates all the non-banking financial institutions. The Bank of Ghana
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California at Irvine, University of
Ghana is a developing country in West Africa with a population of about 25 million. Medical illnesses in Ghana overlap with those in developed countries, but infection, trauma, and women’s health problems are much more prominent. Medical practice in rural Africa faces extremely limited resources, a multiplicity of languages (hundreds in Ghana), and presentation of severe illnesses at later stages than seen elsewhere. Despite these limitations, Ghana has established a relatively successful national medical insurance system, and the quality of medical practice is high, at least where it is available. Ghana also has a well-established and sophisticated administrative structure for the supervision of medical education and accreditation, but it has proven very difficult to extend medical training to rural areas, where health care facilities are particularly short of personnel. Physicians are sorely needed in rural areas, but there are few because of the working conditions and financial limitations. Hospital wards and clinics are crowded; time per patient is limited. This article details some of the differences between medical practice in Ghana and that in wealthier countries and how it functions with very limited resources. It also introduces the medical education and training system in Ghana. The following article describes an attempt to establish and maintain a residency training program in General Medicine in a rural area of Ghana. PMID:25191147
Drislane, Frank W.; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H.J.
People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 × Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); São Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.
Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens
This book presents in this publication information on the mineral and rock resources of Ghana. Minerals that do not exist in Ghana in commercial quantities are also treated and mention is made where they have been found in Ghana. Topics covered include the following: the importance of minerals; the geography, physiography, geology and geohydrology of Ghana; metallic minerals; non-metallic minerals; bulk construction materials; radioactive minerals; petroleum and other fossil fuels; minor minerals; minerals in concentrates; the Ghana Geological Survey and mineral exploration and exploitation in Ghana; and legislation affecting mineral concessions and the mining industry.
Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012 Beyin -- Sam Kojo stands in a thigh-high pile of brown seaweed that blankets a beach in western Ghana on tourism and fishing industries. It started collecting on the beaches of western Ghana about three months
Belogay, Eugene A.
Ghana Winter Study Tour 2014 Application Instructions Program Requirements: Applicants normally or to send it via email attachment. 2. Write a concise essay in which you describe your interest in the Ghana/02/2014 #12;Ghana Winter Study Tour 2014 Financial Aid Procedures Financial aid is applicable to this program
UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST Cape Coast, Ghana College of Charleston Bilateral Exchange Program Site). Two of the most important historical sites in Ghana, Elmina and Cape Coast Castle, are only to this historic town and the cradle of education in Ghana. Cape Coast is now a growing tourist town with rich
Young, Paul Thomas
Ghana Green Building Council public launch examples of green buildings in South Africa eric noir, WSP GBD 17 August 2011 #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch | examples of green buildings in South Africa GREEN by DESIGN PLATINUM GOLD MAJORSPONSORS #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch
This paper examines the determinants of migration decision with a special emphasis on the role of income differences. As migrants are not a random part of the population, the migration equation is corrected for selectivity bias using the Heckman procedure. The data for this study is collected under a Common Sampling Frame approach, which resulted in a wide variety of
We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ?200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created “on the fly” by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897
Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang
We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ? 200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created "on the fly" by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897
Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang
This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. PMID:25444887
Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro
Contaminated identities: Mercury and marginalization in Ghana's artisanal mining sector Petra provides a counter-narrative to the dominant discourse of marginalization and criminalization of Ghana mining; Political ecology; Ecohealth; Environmental justice; Ghana 1. Introduction Artisanal and small
The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))
Proposed reforms in the educational system of Upper Volta have brought to the surface a variety of opposing and negative reactions against implementing suggested changes. Factors that have emerged to hamper change are: (1) language of instruction (French vs Voltaic); (2) concentration on productive instruction (e.g., animal husbandry) gives rise…
Ouedraogo, Mathieu R.
Volta potentials of various metals approximately parallel the emf series. Metals abraded wet are more noble than when abraded dry, the transition metals changing an average of 0.28 volt compared with 0.07 volt for the nontransition metals. This owes possibly to the greater tendency of the transition metals to chemisorb oxygen, especially in the presence of moisture. All metals change
Herbert H. Uhlig
This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.
As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.
Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.
The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in the Volta Basin, and represents the first comprehensive, publicly accessible data- and meta-database for the Volta Basin. The Geoportal can be used to search for data, for interactive mapping or the download of ready-made maps, and to publish and share new data and research results. Local institutions are actively involved in acquiring data for the Geoportal, and trained in its operation. For the contributing institutions, the ability to manage data access and use rights (publicly available, available to defined user groups, available upon request) is of great importance. It allows them to publish the existence of their data and facilitate access to it without sacrificing their ownership rights. The Geoportal can be accessed at http://22.214.171.124/Geoportal
Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.
This paper reports on the exploration by Petro-Canada International Assistance Corp. and Phillips offshore in Tano North and Tano South basins which indicate oil and gas potential. Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. has identified areas where the two West African states can cooperate and is ready to assist in exploration. Ghana National Petroleum Corp. plans a 10-well program in Tano basin. Exploration efforts are concentrated around Accra-Keta basin, saltpond oil fields and Tan basins.
Tables of demographic information about Ghana are presented, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality. The data were obtained primarily from population censuses in 1960 and 1970, a 1960 post-enumeration survey, and a 1971 supplementary enquiry. Because Ghana's vital registration system is incomplete, the data are not…
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.
This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…
Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.
A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and a water pump was installed in the remote West African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta. Village characteristics as well as system design, hardware, installation and operation to date are described. The PV system cost is discussed. A baseline socio-economic study performed and a follow-up study is planned to determine the impact of the system on the villagers.
Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Martz, J. E.
The Volta Grande Environmental Unity represents one of the few remnants of Cerrado protected by a reserve in the Triângulo Mineiro region, municipalities of Conceição das Alagoas (19°55' S, 48°23' W) and Miguelópolis (20°12' S, 48°03' W), in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, respectively. The mammalian fauna of this reserve was inventoried between 2003 and 2004 to
Jânio C. Moreira; Edmar G. Manduca; Pablo R. Gonçalves; Rodolfo Stumpp; Clever G. C. Pinto; Gisele Lessa
Background Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental change (e.g. deforestation), with potential disease consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in southern Ghana and report changes observed with reference to historical data collated from 1971 to 2005 and new identifications made between 2006 and 2011. Methods/Results Larvae were collected from riverine breeding sites, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and chromosome preparations made. Cytotaxonomic identifications from 1,232 samples (including 49 new samples) were analysed. We report long-term stability in cytospecies distribution in the rivers Afram, Akrum, Pawnpawn and Pru. For the rivers Oda, Ofin and Tano we describe (for the first time) patterns of distribution. We could not detect cytospecies composition changes in the upper Pra, and the lower Pra seems to have been stable. The elimination of the Djodji form of S.?sanctipauli in the Volta Region seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S.?yahense. There has been a recent increase in the occurrence of savannah cytospecies in the river Asukawkaw, and this might be related to continuing deforestation. Conclusions Cytospecies’ distributions have not been stable from 1971 to 2011. Although there are no obvious causes for the temporary appearance and subsequent disappearance of cytospecies in a particular location, a major influence has been vector control and migration patterns, probably explaining observed changes on the Black Volta and lower Volta rivers. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savannah cytospecies in southern Ghana (1975–1997). Our data had little power to support (or refute) suggestions of a continuing increase, except in the Asukawkaw river basin. PMID:23849451
Ghana Business News » Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products » Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM] - Ghana Business News - http://ghanabusinessnews.com - Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Posted
Providing sanitation to rural areas in Ghana remains a huge challenge. Government funding is scarce while many international donor projects are ineffective. This thesis explores the difficulties with rural sanitation ...
Lau, Jonathan (Jonathan Ho Yin)
This study assesses the current state of rainwater harvesting in the Northern Region of Ghana and makes recommendations regarding if and how rainwater harvesting could be used to address Pure Home Water's goal of reaching ...
Barnes, David Allen
This paper examines the religion-human capital link, examining a recent household survey for Ghana. Insights from the recent anthropological literature leads to a prediction of Islam being associated with lower human capital levels than Christianity...
This document provides a profile of aging and old age in Ghana. It covers aging trends and their implications for development. It is noted that, although the population aged 60 and over in Ghana is estimated to rise from 286,000 in 1960 to 2,425,000 in 2025, the aging of the population will not get under way until well after 2025. It is suggested…
Brown, C. K.
A seroimmunological survey was realised in Upper Volta using an indirect immunofluorescence technique. It showed that endemic syphilis also known as bejel is not exclusively encountered in Sahelian regions. So, in Kora village which is located in a savannah area prevalence was around 10.3%. The disease particularly affects males. Congenital syphilis is certainly exceptional for first cases of serological treponematosis were only detected after 5 years. Endemic syphilis distribution in microfocuses in the village area underlines that promiscuity acts as a contributing factor for contamination. PMID:7028294
Bourdillon, F; Monjour, L; Druilhe, P; Fribourg-Blanc, A; Kyelem, J M; Chastang, C; Gentilini, M
Shrines associated with the deity Tongnaab in the Talensi region of northern Ghana formed the centre of a precolonial regional cult that encompassed a variety of peoples in the savannas of the Volta basin. Despite attempts by the British colonial state to destroy the shrines and to suppress ritual activity in the Tong Hills, by the 1920s the cult was spreading beyond its heartland into the Akan forest and the Gold Coast to the south. There it became known as Nana Tongo, one of a wave of anti-witchcraft healing movements. This paper examines the material culture and the mechanics of this history of ritual mobility and metamorphosis. It reflects upon the connection between the metaphysical concept of 'shadow' and the physical substance of earth, both of which were transported in a portable shrine called a bo'artyii and used to empower satellite medicine shrines. As these items traversed cultural frontiers they were subject to local reinterpretation and transformation. PMID:21810041
This study examined the importance of polytechnics in Ghana’s development; its management and constraints-especially faculty turnover and how it impacts on sustainable polytechnic education. The sample comprised a total ...
Developmental morphology of Ledermanniella bowlingii (Podostemaceae) from Ghana G. K. Ameka1 , G. C. Clerk1 , E. Pfeifer2 , and R. Rutishauser2 1 Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana 2 Botanischer Garten und Institut fu¨ r Systematische Botanik, Universita¨ t Zu¨ rich, Switzerland
1 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia Development and Energy in Africa (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha, 16-18 Oct. 2007 #12;2 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Foundation, more recently by Sida. · supported enterprise development in the five target countries Ghana
Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana: An Exploratory Study Kofi Poku Richard Agricultural Center #12;Overview · Background - the forest of Ghana · Current forest industry and market-used species · Toward an efficient market structure · Conclusion #12;#12;The Forest of Ghana #12;#12;Background
Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAHÂOKANTEY Barend KÃ?BBEN 1 IntroductionÂAfrican country of Ghana was used as the case study area. The steps taken in this study to realize this were: 1 to the needs and requirements for Cadastral systems in a country like Ghana and the consequences this had
Asynchronous Remote Medical Consultation for Ghana Rowena Luk Intel Research 2150 Shattuck Ave Ghana and draws on three key design principles (social networks as a framework on which to build in southern Ghana. Author Keywords Telemedicine, social networking, organizational interfaces, developing
Aoki, Paul M.
Lehigh in Ghana Summer 2014 Abroad - Earn 6 Credits HU May 22-June 20, 2014 (Apply through February/Africana Studies Two courses offered each 3 credits HU AAS/History 198 - Economic Development in Ghana (3) HU AAS/History 298 - History and Culture in Ghana (3) HU PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The Africana Studies Program
Gilchrist, James F.
,,Obroni, how are you?" Eine Famulatur in Ghana Bericht von Frieder Schaumburg (email@example.com) ,,Obroni, how are you?", so wird man als Weißer in Ghana überall freundlich angesprochen, wenn man jenseits Schistosomiasis. Eine Famulatur in Assin Foso /Ghana kann ich sehr empfehlen. Es war eine lehrreiche Zeit, da die
This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Xavánte population at the San- gradouro-Volta Grande Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997. The survey included annual censuses and vital statistics from 7 Xavánte villages. Permanent contact with Brazilian national society, established in the 1940s and 50s, caused a population drop due to epidemics and clashes. In 1995
Luciene Guimarães de Souza; Ricardo Ventura Santos
Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643
Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J
...Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa, November 12-15, 2002...Accra, Ghana and Johannesburg, South Africa November 12-15, 2002. The...
The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.
Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.
The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.
Martz, J.E.; Ratajczak, A.F.; Delombard, R.
Over the last decade, a number of climatic models have conflicting predictions over the sign of the variation for the continent of Africa and especially at large regional scales such as for West Africa. Although individual models may disagree on the signs, but there is a consensus on the increase of the frequency of extreme events for the future (Hewitson, and Crane (2006), IPCC-AR4 (2005)). In this study, temporal characteristics of downscaled climate models adopted for the Volta basin, a semi-arid region in West Africa, are investigated in order to assess the impacts on for water resources based on the projections of the selected regional climate models (RCMs) REMO and MM5. For this purpose, the past, present and future rainfall outputs of the RCMs are analysed against gauged rainfall of 1961-2000 for exceedance probabilities, correlation and trends. A drought frequency is developed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) time series between 2006 and 2050 for the northern part of the Volta Basin. Using this analysis the drying trend for the future of 2006-2050 shows an increase of more than double in the occurrence of extreme to severely extreme dry events as a projection of the future compared to the same time space of 1961-2005. With the assertion that integrating the interaction with vegetation cover and albedo considerably improves the simulation of rainfall over the Sahel, the projections of REMO are regarded by this study as more plausible compared to MM5 whose projection were not based on present IPCC scenario projections. Keywords: Modelling, SPI, drought, RCMs
Kasei, Raymond; Diekkrüger, Bernd
Single-input-single-output (SISO) non-linear system identification techniques were employed to model monthly catchment runoff at selected gauging sites in the Volta Basin of West Africa. NARMAX (Non-linear Autoregressive Moving Average with eXogenous Input) polynomial models were fitted to basin monthly rainfall and gauging station runoff data for each of the selected sites and used to predict monthly runoff at the sites. An error reduction ratio (ERR) algorithm was used to order regressors for various combinations of input, output and noise lags (various model structures) and the significant regressors for each model selected by applying an Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to independent rainfall-runoff validation series. Model parameters were estimated from the Matlab REGRESS function (an orthogonal least squares method). In each case, the sub-model without noise terms was fitted first followed by a fitting of the noise model. The coefficient of determination ( R-squared), the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criterion (NSE) and the F statistic for the estimation (training) series were used to evaluate the significance of fit of each model to this series while model selection from the range of models fitted for each gauging site was done by examining the NSEs and the AICs of the validation series. Monthly runoff predictions from the selected models were very good, and the polynomial models appeared to have captured a good part of the rainfall-runoff non-linearity. The results indicate that the NARMAX modelling framework is suitable for monthly river runoff prediction in the Volta Basin. The several good models made available by the NARMAX modelling framework could be useful in the selection of model structures that also provide insights into the physical behaviour of the catchment rainfall-runoff system.
Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N.; Rogers, C.; Andah, W. E. I.; Friesen, J.
This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…
Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.
As a result of the liberalisation and commercialisation of the media in the wake of Ghana's return to a democratic constitution in 1992, there has emerged a new public sphere which has been successfully and effectively colonised by Pentecostal?charismatic churches and led to the rise of a Pentecostalite public culture geared towards Christian entertainment. This paper focuses on the popular
This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…
Lacroix, Anne Laurence
Examines the present state of early care and education in Ghana. Includes historical background related to mission schools and day nurseries prior to independence from Britain. Describes the current registration and supervision of early childhood programs, the types of preschool facilities, and future plans for early childhood development.…
Morrison, Johnetta Wade
Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…
Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla
Parasitological, clinical and entomological surveys for lymphatic filariasis were carried out in 6 villages and 3 towns on the coast of Ghana. Few or no filarial infections were observed in the towns or in the villages east of Accra. However, Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was common in the 4 western villages, with overall prevalences of 9.2%–25.4% and overall microfilariae (mf) geometric
S. K. Dunyo; M. Appawu; F. K. Nkrumah; A. Baffoe-Wilmot; E. M. Pedersen; P. E. Simonsen
Using case studies of manufacturing and trading firms, this paper documents how commercial contracts are enforced in Ghana. Interviews were guided by a conceptual framework emphasizing credible enforcement mechanisms and information asymmetries. Results show that compliance with contractual obligations is mostly motivated by the desire to preserve personalized relationships based on mutual trust. Harassment is the main form of debt
Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an…
AIMS--Suppurative keratitis is a serious problem in all tropical countries, but very little information is available about the causative organisms in Africa. The objectives were to identify the causative organisms and the proportion of cases caused by fungi in southern Ghana, and to determine whether correct decisions about treatment could be made on the basis of Gram stain in the
M Hagan; E Wright; M Newman; P Dolin; G Johnson
The epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa, and its relevance to transfusion were newly assessed. A total of 1324 plasma samples from five Ghanaian populations, including 529 children (<6 y old, pre-transfusion) and 795 adults (236 blood donors, 226 HIV-infected or non-infected pregnant women, 203 HIV symptomatic patients, and 130 AIDS patients) were screened for WNV RNA. No WNV RNA was detected, but 4.8% (13/271) and 27.9% (127/455) carried specific IgG in children and adults, respectively, and 2.4% (4/167) of the children had IgM. The prevalence of IgG antibody to WNV increased progressively and peaked around 30% between ages 1 and 30 y, then stabilized. The absence of viremia in four WNV IgM-positive children, and of reactivation in HIV-infected patients suggests that once host immunity is established, it appears to be robust. In addition, there were no clinical reports of WNV infection in the hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, suggesting that WNV epidemiology in Ghana differs from that seen in the U.S. Most infections occur early in life, and as the window for infection is quite short, the risk of transmission by transfusion appears to be low, and the risk of pathogenicity in immunocompetent recipients appears to be limited in an endemic area such as Ghana. PMID:19210224
Wang, Wenjing; Sarkodie, Francis; Danso, Kwabena; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao
Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.
Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema
Discusses the situation of the publishing industry in Ghana, the Ghanaian economy and book availability, the need for a national focal point for publishing, censorship and copyright, interlibrary lending, publications exchanges, and actions at the national and international levels to promote the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) in…
deHeer, Andrew N.
Background In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. Methods In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. Results In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%. Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals. Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%). From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. Conclusions It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the least efficient hospitals to correct widespread inefficiency. This would include reconsidering the number of hospitals and their distribution, improving efficiency and reducing duplication by closing or scaling down hospitals with efficiency scores below a certain threshold. For private hospitals with inefficiency related to large size, there is a need to break down such hospitals into manageable sizes. PMID:24708886
Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678
Local responses to an agrarian crisis: Evidence from northern Ghana Dr. Joseph Yaro Visiting University of Ghana Accra, Ghana Friday, October 21, 2011 2:30 PM A220 Loeb The majority of people living in northern Ghana depend on rainfed agriculture often on intensively cultivated degraded lands using
Methanococcus voltae is a flagellated member of the Archaea. Four highly similar flagellin genes have previously been cloned and sequenced, and the presence of leader peptides has been demonstrated. While the flagellins of M. voltae are predicted from their gene sequences to be approximately 22 to 25 kDa, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of purified flagella revealed flagellin subunits with apparent molecular masses of 31 and 33 kDa. Here we describe the expression of a M. voltae flagellin in the bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both of these systems successfully generated a specific expression product with an apparently uncleaved leader peptide migrating at approximately 26.5 kDa. This source of preflagellin was used to detect the presence of preflagellin peptidase activity in the membranes of M. voltae. In addition to the native flagellin, a hybrid flagellin gene containing the sequence encoding the M. voltae FlaB2 mature protein fused to the P. aeruginosa pilin (PilA) leader peptide was constructed and transformed into both wild-type P. aeruginosa and a prepilin peptidase (pilD) mutant of P. aeruginosa. Based on migration in SDS-PAGE, the leader peptide appeared to be cleaved in the wild-type cells. However, the archaeal flagellin could not be detected by immunoblotting when expressed in the pilD mutant, indicating a role of the peptidase in the ultimate stability of the fusion product. When the +5 position of the mature flagellin portion of the pilin-flagellin fusion was changed from glycine to glutamic acid (as in the P. aeruginosa pilin) and expressed in both wild-type and pilD mutant P. aeruginosa, the product detected by immunoblotting migrated slightly more slowly in the pilD mutant, indicating that the fusion was likely processed by the prepilin peptidase present in the wild type. Potential assembly of the cleaved fusion product by the type IV pilin assembly system in a P. aeruginosa PilA-deficient strain was tested, but no filaments were noted on the cell surface by electron microscopy. PMID:10400569
Bayley, Douglas P.; Jarrell, Ken F.
The WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team made a survey in Upper Volta during May and June 1960. Data available indicate that S. haematobium is widely scattered throughout the country and that about 50% of the population, or more than 1.5 million people, are infected at some time during their lives. The examination of faeces is not a common practice, and it is therefore impossible to estimate the prevalence of S. mansoni and the intestinal helminths. The available evidence indicates, however, that S. mansoni is more prevalent in the country than is generally suspected. The distribution of the known snail habitats and the bilharziasis foci indicate that most of the major watersheds are infested, but that transmission sites may be rather sharply defined. It will be necessary to take this and various seasonal factors into consideration in planning a bilharziasis control programme. An analysis of the various public health problems in the country indicated that a programme of bilharziasis control would not be of practical value unless it was combined with a general attack on filth- and vector-borne diseases, and that it was essential to consider such a programme in conneixon with plans for the development of water and soil resources. PMID:20604120
McMullen, Donald B.; Francotte, Jean
This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ?2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.
Opoku-Duah, S.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Burt, T. P.
The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, West Africa, has a diameter of 10.5km and is one of the youngest (1.07Ma) well-preserved large craters on Earth. It has a total dynamic range of topography of more than 400m, and it is the source crater of tektites and microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. The crater was excavated in early
Tobias Karp; Bernd Milkereit; Peter Janle; Sylvester K. Danuor; Jean Pohl; Hans Berckhemer; Christopher A. Scholz
Throughout the 1970s, Professor James Koetting of Brown University spent a great deal of time in Ghana recording traditional and popular music. Recently the Center for Digital Initiatives at the Brown University Library created this excellent online digital collection that brings together Koetting's field recordings, field notebooks, photographs, and recorded interviews. The collection affords a number of insights into the performances of musicians in Accra and others in the Kasena region of Ghana. Visitors can read through several essays before looking closer into the collection, which they can navigate by clicking on sections like "Gallery" and "Field Recordings". The "Field Recordings" section offers a fine introduction into Koetting's important work and this particular genre of music. Lastly, visitors can also look through the additional "Resources", which include a bibliography, a discography, and a glossary of relevant musical terms.
Computer-mediated communication systems can be used to bridge the gap between doctors in underserved regions with local shortages of medical expertise and medical specialists worldwide. To this end, we describe the design of a prototype remote consultation system intended to provide the social, institutional and infrastructural context for sustained, self-organizing growth of a globally-distributed Ghanaian medical community. The design is grounded in an iterative design process that included two rounds of extended design fieldwork throughout Ghana and draws on three key design principles (social networks as a framework on which to build incentives within a self-organizing network; optional and incremental integration with existing referral mechanisms; and a weakly-connected, distributed architecture that allows for a highly interactive, responsive system despite failures in connectivity). We discuss initial experiences from an ongoing trial deployment in southern Ghana.
Luk, Rowena; Aoki, Paul M
Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters from two areas in Ghana, the Obuasi area in the Ashanti region and the Bolgatanga area of the Upper East region vary from <1–64 ?g 1?1 and <1–141 ?g 1?1, respectively. Sulphide minerals such as arsenopyrite and pyrite are present in the Birimian basement rocks of both areas and these form the dominant As sources. The
Pauline L. Smedley
This study adopts a multi-level theoretical framework to examine data from 496 entrepreneurs in Ghana. Seven types of innovation\\u000a activity are analysed against three categories of variables: the characteristics of the entrepreneur, the internal competencies\\u000a of the firm, and firm location. Across all respondents, the incidence of incremental innovation was far greater than novel\\u000a innovation. The extent of innovation was
Paul J. A. Robson; Helen M. Haugh; Bernard Acquah Obeng
ObjectiveThe key objective of the study was to establish the characteristics of fatal road traffic crashes involving children (?15 years) and to recommend measures to control them.Materials and MethodsCrash data for the period 2004–2008 in Ghana were analyzed using the micro-computer accident analysis package (MAAP) software. Recently published transport-related epidemiological and other studies provided additional data sources.ResultsSlightly over 9800 people
This paper presents the results of ordered logit regression models of the problems faced by 500 entrepreneurs from six regions\\u000a of Ghana against the characteristics of the entrepreneurs and their businesses and whether these were systematically related\\u000a to a list of 37 factors that they perceived as limiting their ability to achieve their objectives in the period 2002–2005.\\u000a The results
Paul J. A. Robson; Bernard A. Obeng
From the 1950s to the early 1970s Ghana led the way in West Africa with its popular highlife and Afro-rock music and its viable recording and music production industry. However, things began to decline from the late 1970s due to a corrupt military government, followed by two coups, several years of night curfew and the imposition of massive import duties
Ghana first received Peace Corps assistance in 1961 (the first country in the world to receive volunteers) and since then volunteer strength has fluctuated from between 185 to 415 (presently 179). Secondary education has been the major thrust in programing until recently when Peace Corps/Ghana (PC/G) shifted its emphases to agriculture and rural…
Boyle, Neil; And Others
This scholarly essay employs an African philosophical and symbolic construct--Sank?fa--to examine religious education in Ghana. Sank?fa implores the need to examine the past in order to understand the present and to plan for the future. In line with this frame, I recount the history of religious education in Ghana, examine the present challenges,…
This paper analyzes the effect of quality and accessibility of health services and other public infrastructure on the health of children in Ghana. We focus on child survival, child height and weight using data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The results suggest an important role for public health policy in eliminating the rural-urban disparities in health status and particularly
Victor Lavy; John Strauss; Duncan Thomas; Philippe de Vreyer
The flagellins of Methanococcus voltae are encoded by a multigene family of four related genes (flaA, flaB1, flaB2, and flaB3). All four genes map within the same region of the genome, with the last three arranged in a direct tandem. Northern (RNA) blot and primer extension analyses of total cellular RNA indicate that all four genes are transcribed. The flaB1, flaB2, and flaB3 flagellins are transcribed as part of a large polycistronic message which encodes at least one more protein which is not a flagellin. An intercistronic stem-loop followed by a poly(T) tract located between the flaB2 and flaB3 genes appears to increase the resistance of the flaB1/flaB2 portion of this polycistronic message to digestion by endogenous RNases. The flaA gene, located approximately 600 bp upstream from the tandem, is transcribed as a separate message at very low levels. The four open reading frames encode proteins of molecular weights 23,900, 22,400, 22,800, and 25,500, much less than the Mr values of 33,000 and 31,000 for the flagellins calculated from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of isolated flagellar filaments. Each flagellin contains multiple eukaryotic glycosylation signals (Arg-X-Ser/Thr), although they do not appear to be glycoproteins, and each has an 11- or 12-amino-acid leader peptide. The N termini of all four flagellins (amino acids 1 through 47 of the mature protein) are very hydrophobic, and this region shows a high degree of homology with the flagellins from Halobacterium halobium. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:1718944
Kalmokoff, M L; Jarrell, K F
Last date modified 9/5/13 Location and Institution GHANA-ACCRA: SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION Expression; Visual and Research Methods and Ethics; Performing Arts in Ghana in Ghana. Processing time for this visa is around: 14 days. You must apply
This work evaluates the potential to develop fired brick production in the Northern Region of Ghana. While several brick factories operate in southern Ghana, no factories are known to exist in northern Ghana, which remains ...
Bates, Caroline Nijole
Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.
Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in coastal Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged sites in coastal Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck site is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in coastal Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.
Horlings, Rachel L.
Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR?=?1.7 at p?0.05). Number of children in household was significantly related to stunting. Children in households with 5–8 children were 1.3 times more likely to be stunted compared to those with 1–4 children (p?.05). Mother’s age was a significant predictor of stunting with children whose mothers were aged 35–44 years being more likely to be stunted. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions and policies should be put in place to minimise the effects of the distal, proximal and intermediate factors on stunting among under 5 children in Ghana. PMID:24884653
Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages were the main problem with drugs being the greatest worry. Food for the wards was another problem, both in otaining and in affording it. All other necessities were equally difficult to find. Most members of the health team found their personal and family problems overwhelming, and there was a high rate of absenteeism. Planning the future of Legon Hospital became an impossible task. Medical care in a arapidly deteriorating economic situation poses its own problems, problems in many ways different from those found in countries that are equally poor but more stable. PMID:7441643
Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced. PMID:21708026
Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...
Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA...
Williams, Richard A.J.; Vá zquez, Ana; Asamte, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sá nchez-Seco, Marí a Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend
Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.
Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah
Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.
In this article, a drug utilization study in 15 district hospitals and 2 health centers in Ghana is described. Use of 94 essential drugs was measured over 2.5 million treatment episodes during 1981-1982. It was found that much less is spent on drugs in health centers than in hospitals, expressed in cost per 10,000 treatment episodes. In hospitals with Ghanaian doctors, about twice as much is spent on drugs as in hospitals with expatriate doctors. Particular therapeutic groups and drugs for which larger quantities are used are also analyzed. Possible reasons for and consequences of these differences are discussed. The results of this study form the most reliable records currently available on drug utilization in Ghana. They record the actual drug use, that is, the total drug use within existing patterns of prescription and losses. These figures have been used for a consumption-based estimate of drug requirements for 64 church-related district hospitals and health centers. PMID:3089956
Hogerzeil, H V
As part of expanding and sustaining tuberculosis (TB) control, the Stop TB Partnership of the World Health Organization initiative has called for strong political commitment to TB control, particularly in developing countries. Framing political commitment within the theoretical imperatives of the political economy of health, this study explores the existing and the expected dimensions of political commitment to TB control in Ghana. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 purposively selected staff members of the Ghana Health Service and some political officeholders. In addition, the study analysed laws, policies and regulations relevant to TB control. Four dimensions of political commitment emerged from the interviews: provision of adequate resources (financial, human and infrastructural); political authorities' participation in advocacy for TB; laws and policies' promulgation and social protection interventions. Particularly in respect to financial resources, donors such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria presently give more than 60% of the working budget of the programme. The documentary review showed that laws, policies and regulations existed that were relevant to TB control, albeit they were not clearly linked. PMID:24521048
Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481
Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther
Scientists studying large lakes in northern and tropical latitudes are finding that rising water temperatures are affecting the ecosystems of these lakes. "Changing Planet " is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.
Background An understanding of the complex relationship between health status and welfare is crucial for critical policy interventions. However, the focus of most policies in developing regions has been on current welfare to the neglect of forward-looking welfare analysis. The absence of adequate research in the area of future poverty or vulnerability to poverty has also contributed to the focus on current welfare. The objectives of this study were to estimate vulnerability to poverty among households in Ghana and examine the relationship between health status and vulnerability to poverty. Method The study used cross section data from the Fifth Round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 5) with a nationally representative sample of 8,687 households from all administrative regions in Ghana. A three-step Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) estimation procedure was employed to estimate vulnerability to poverty and to model the effect of health status on expected future consumption and variations in future consumption. Vulnerability to poverty estimates were also examined against various household characteristics. Results Using an upper poverty line, the estimates of vulnerability show that about 56% of households in Ghana are vulnerable to poverty in the future and this is higher than the currently observed poverty level of about 29%. Households with ill members were vulnerable to poverty. Moreover, households with poor hygiene conditions were also vulnerable to future poverty. The vulnerability to poverty estimates were, however, sensitive to the poverty line used and varied with household characteristics. Conclusion The results imply that policies directed towards poverty reduction need to take into account the vulnerability of households to future poverty. Also, hygienic conditions and health status of households need not be overlooked in poverty reduction strategies. PMID:22827954
In 2009, Pure Home Water (PHW), a Ghana based non-profit organization working to provide affordable and safe drinking water to people in the Northern Region of Ghana, began the construction of a ceramic pot filter (CPF) ...
Kleiman, Shanti Lisa
Pure Home Water (PHW) is a non-profit based in Ghana that seeks to bring safe drinking water to those most in need in Northern Ghana through the production, sale, and distribution of ceramic pot filters (CPF) and other ...
Miller, Matthew Rhodes
The Kosim filter is a ceramic water filter that is currently used in Northern Ghana. Based on prior MIT research in Northern Ghana, this technology is effective at removing 92% of turbidity, 99.4% of total coliforms, and ...
Swanton, Andrew A
Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and ?-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the most abundant and the concentrations of sums of DDTs were in tens of pg m-3. This suggests that the main source of DDTs was possibly due to past agricultural and public health usage. The soil concentrations of DDTs at the various sites were however negligible (approx. 1 ngg-1). The highest levels of HCHs were recorded in November and December 2008. HCB and PeCB concentrations in air were low and uniform and soil levels of HCB and PeCB were negligible. Only traces of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were detected from both sites. PCBs were found at levels typical for the urban sites and the levels at the Kwabenya site were slightly lower than those measured at the East Legon site. Levels of PCBs at the rural/agricultural site (Lake Bosumtwi) were relatively lower than those measured at the urban sites. The levels of PAHs in ambient air were quite high at all sites with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Benzo(a)pyrene (a known carcinogen) levels in ambient air were however very low. The highest levels of PAHs were detected in January 2008, February 2008 and July/August 2008 at Kwabenya, East Legon, and Lake Bosumtwi, respectively. PCDD/F levels were also quite high, maximal I-TEQ was the third highest in the African region (after Egypt and Senegal). Keywords: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Background Concentrations; Ghana; PUF-disk sampler
Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan
This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...
... View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...
Sustainable Waste Management in Africa Accra, Ghana, May 26th-30th, 2014 The Earth Engineering & Waste Management (ISWM) of Ghana are pleased to announce that an interdisciplinary course and workshop will take place in Accra, Ghana, at the campus of KNUST-ISWM (May 26th- 30th, 2014). This 5-day intensive
4 Réseaux migratoires et structures de pouvoir : la Church of Pentecost du Ghana face aux communautés francophones Sandra FANCELLO L'Église de Pentecôte, originaire du Ghana et aujourd'hui implantée le Togo ont progressivement adopté la langue française comme langue liturgique, au Ghana, le débat
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana University Agricultural Center July 13, 2006 1 Manager, Monitoring and Evaluation (Industry), Ghana Forestry Commission, Accra, Ghana 2 Professor and Director, Louisiana Forest Products Development Center, School
Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development 2005 Abstract Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large
Vermont, University of
Analysis of WWW Traffic in Cambodia and Ghana Bowei Du Computer Science Division University and Ghana. This paper has two main contributions. The first contribution is a anal- ysis, Dynamic content, Ghana, Hyper- text Transfer Protocol, HTTP, Measurement, Performance analysis, Proxy
Perspectives on types of schools from Ghana and Pakistan: revisiting the relationship between in both Ghana and Pakistan. While parents focus more on the economic opportunities that are becoming providers in the field of education in both Ghana and Pakistan. This has created a discernable rise
WATER USE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TWO SMALL RESERVOIR IRRIGATION SCHEMES IN GHANA'S UPPER EAST REGIONy of two small reservoirs and irrigation schemes in the Upper East Region of Ghana were investigated Ghana. Les donne´es hydrologiques utilise´es dans cette e´tude comprennent les volumes journaliers d
Dear Friends, As you may know, I spenttwo weeks in June 2010 in Accra, Ghana giving a condensed in the restaurantat the University of Ghana Guest Centre a few hours beforemy departure back to Toronto. Why? I a graduate student fromGhana during a conferenceat ICTP, Triesteand told her I was interested (actually, I
LE PLAN DE DIEU POUR LE GHANA : UNE « ÉGLISE EN HERITAGE » SANDRA FANCELLO Le moment historique que, fondée au Ghana par un missionnaire écossais dans les années 1950, s est dotée d une mission historique qui fait du Ghana une « nation missionnaire » au même titre que le Nigeria pour les pentecôtistes
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Prospective Study of a Serogroup X Neisseria meningitidis Outbreak in Northern Ghana Se´bastien P; 2 Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Navrongo, Ghana; 3 Max- Planck Institut fu of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis in northern Ghana, a gradual dis- appearance of the epidemic strain
A REVIEW OF THE FORESTRY SECTOR IN GHANA Ben N. Donkor Richard P. Vlosky1 Louisiana Forest Products://www.rnr.lsu.edu/lfpdc #12;INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, the Ghana timber industry has experienced major changes management, and thus, a sustainable forest product trade. In the mid-1990s, Ghana's forests were under
Clinical Social Franchising Case Study Series: BlueStar Ghana, Marie Stopes International 1 CLINICAL SOCIAL FRANCHISING CASE STUDY SERIES BlueStar Ghana Marie Stopes International The Global Health STUDY SERIES BlueStar Ghana Marie Stopes International The Global Health Group University of California
Wood Properties of Three Lesser-Used Species of Tropical Hardwood from Ghana Kofi Poku Graduate properties in the tree stem of three lesser-used species (LUS) from Ghana #12;Methodology 130 cm 10 cm 76 cm for Three LUS from Ghana (J- juvenile wood; M- mature wood) · Alstonia boonei J: Y = 0.597 + 0.0212X M: Y
STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF GHANA'S WOOD EXPORT SECTOR Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.S., University of Science and Technology, Ghana 2002 May 2008 #12;ii DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated, Mrs. Adeline Ofori and Mr. Emmanuel Mensah of USAID-Ghana for their encouragement throughout my
The One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) Project and Its Applicability to Ghana Suzanne Fox Buchele* , Romeo Owusu-Aning Ashesi University College 3rd Norla Extension, North Labone Accra, Ghana Email: sbuchele the applicability of the OLPC project and the XO technology to Ghana, West Africa. Keywords- OLPC, One Laptop Per
Buchele, Suzanne Fox
Pre-mineralization thermal evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic gold-rich Ashanti belt, Ghana: Thermal modelling of the Ashanti belt, Ghana V. Harcouët, L. Guillou-Frottier and J.L. Feybesse: BRGM-118" #12;Harcouët et al. Abstract The region of the gold-rich Ashanti belt in southern Ghana was chosen
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
BACKGROUND: Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the
Sara Al-Bader; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer
A non-comparative study of the Norplant contraceptive subdermal implant system was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 100 acceptors were enrolled in the clinical trial, which began in 1987. There were no pregnancies during the first two years of use. Only nine post-insertion medical problems were reported during the first two years of use. One woman in this study requested removal for menstrual pattern changes through two years of use. As assessed through user-satisfaction questionnaires administered at approximately six months of use, there has been an overall positive user experience with Norplant in this study. Although the sample size in this study is small, our results seem to be consistent with other studies and it appears that Norplant offers an effective, safe and acceptable method of contraception for Ghanaian women. PMID:7498011
Martey, J O; Turkson, S O; Djan, J O; Dunson, T R; Amatya, R; Krueger, S
The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382
Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263
Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J
The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.
Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah
Travel Banff, Calgary, CANMORE, Emerald Lake & Lake Louise The University of Winnipeg Day 1 Travel opportunity) Sulfur Mountain Gondola Ride Banff Hot Springs (optional) Day 4 Emerald Lake (sightseeing) Lake Gondola ride up the Canadian Rockies Trip to Lake Louise Trip to Emerald Lake Trip to Johnston Canyon
between the ice front and the moraines that circle the southern end of the Lake Michigan Basin. The lakeGlacial Lake Chicago Early Lake Michigan Ancient Shorelines This section refers to the phases of Glacial Lake Chicago. The title "Lake Michigan" refers to stages that occurred after ice had completely
Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane
This paper examines two parallel case studies to promote remote medical consultation in Ghana. These projects, initiated independently by different researchers in different organizations, both deployed ICT solutions in the same medical community in the same year. The Ghana Consultation Network currently has over 125 users running a Web-based application over a delay-tolerant network of servers. OneTouch MedicareLine is currently providing 1700 doctors in Ghana with free mobile phone calls and text messages to other members of the medical community. We present the consequences of (1) the institutional context and identity of the investigators, as well as specific decisions made with respect to (2) partnerships formed, (3) perceptions of technological infrastructure, and (4) high-level design decisions. In concluding, we discuss lessons learned and high-level implications for future ICTD research agendas.
Luk, Rowena; Ho, Melissa; Levine, Brian; Aoki, Paul M
Casual heterosexual sex remains a significant contributor to HIV transmissions in Ghana. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to assess the socio-demographic, economic and spatial factors influencing unprotected casual heterosexual sex among men and women. The results of the binary logistic regression models revealed that women aged 35-44 had significantly higher odds of engaging in unprotected casual heterosexual sex than those aged 15-24, unlike the men. There were significantly lower odds of unprotected casual heterosexual sex for women and men with exposure to print media compared with those without exposure. Compared with men residing in the Western Region, unprotected casual heterosexual sex was significantly less likely among those in the Upper East Region. There is the need for behavioural change campaigns in Ghana that take into consideration the multiplicity of factors that determine unprotected casual heterosexual sex. PMID:23931547
Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Tuoyire, Derek A; Darteh, Eugene K M
The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...
... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...
In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the past. After critically assessing the major aspects of the policy, along with the voices of Ghanaian teachers, this study argues that the career ladder policy for teachers in Ghana is another prototypical case of a failed experiment in terms of both improving the lives of teachers and maintaining their professional rights.
Osei, George M.
In Methanococcus voltae, one of the two [NiFeSe] hydrogenases is unusual in that the large subunit is split into two subunits, each contributing two ligands to the [NiFe] center that catalyzes the heterolytic cleavage of the dihydrogen molecule. We have engineered a fusion of these two subunits. The resulting new enzyme showed no significant difference in hydrogen uptake activity or
Ruth Bingemann; Antonio J. Pierik; Albrecht Klein
Geomagnetic secular variation, excursions, and reversal records can provide an excellent means for high resolution correlation of sedimentary climate records. Recent drilling projects on Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, and Lake Malawi, Malawi, have provided the opportunity to study long African climate records (<1 Ma). Magnetic studies of these sedimentary archives indicate that high quality SV records are preserved through most of the sequence despite the fact that anoxia is the usual condition of bottom waters in both lakes. We compare the magnetic records of Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Malawi to test our ability to correlate between West African and East African lakes. In addition, we compare the magnetic record of Lake Malawi to records from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa and the Indian Ocean region, and the record of Lake Bosumtwi to that of Lake Barombi Mbo in West Africa. Correlations within regions are straightforward and highly useful for intrasite correlation. Correlation between East and West Africa is also possible, although the resolution of the correlation is more limited.
King, J.; Heil, C.; Peck, J.; Scholz, C.; Shanahan, T.; Overpeck, J.
In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.
Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.
These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.
A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.
Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.
The present work described helminth parasites of curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836 from Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil. Eighteen fishes with average 46.7 +/- 1.1 cm length and 1,674.8 +/- 75.6 g weight were collected. Of the analysed fishes, 15 were parasitized with acanthocephalans in the intestine, showing a prevalence of 83.3%. The helminth was identified as Neoechinorhynchus curemai Noronha, 1973 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). It differs from other species in dimension of characters and morphology. From the original description of N. curemai, it differs from the biggest dimension of testis, elongated cement gland, nucleated lemnisci, eggs size, larger proboscis hooks length in the middle and in the third circle in males and larger hooks in the anterior circle in females. A smaller percentage occupied by the reproductive system in female trunk was reported. The observation of paratypes of N. curemai of Noronha (1973) showed a great similarity with those of the present work. This fact complements the helminth description from elsewhere. PMID:11241968
Martins, M L; Fujimoto, R Y; Andrade, P M; Tavares-Dias, M
Background Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. Methodology This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Results Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. Conclusions This paper has examined the policy environment and the political leverages in retrospect at arriving at Ghana’s health insurance policy and design. New perspectives have been brought to the dynamics of the interactions of the 3 streams of problem, policy and politics. It provides lessons which suggest that in understanding the policy process, it is important that actors engage with the content as well as the context to understand viewpoints that may be expressed by interest groups. This will empower policy proponents to achieve easier results and limit the frustrations associated with the policy process. There are no straight and determined pathways for achieving outcomes so appreciating the evidence and basis for design, negotiation process and building coalitions along the way are skills to be mastered. PMID:22992292
During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805
Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiaonong; Yu, Hongjie; Yang, Weizhong
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine corporate liquidity management of companies listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) with the aim of ascertaining the determinants of corporate liquidity holdings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper adopts a dynamic panel model where a lagged dependable variable is introduced as an explanatory variable. Annual data from the annual reports and
Zangina Isshaq; Godfred Alufar Bokpin
This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…
This study addresses educational reform in Ghana with reference to one of the most important potential agents of change in any system of schooling--its teachers. The empirical data on secondary teachers and trainee teachers used here is taken from a larger case study of the attitudes and opinions of teachers and parents in the education system of…
Osei, George M.
Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212
Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth
Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…
Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.
In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…
Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena
This paper investigates the role of social learning in the diffusion of a new agricultural technology in Ghana. We use unique data on farmers' communication patterns to define each individual's information neighborhood. Conditional on many potentially confounding variables, we find evidence that farmers adjust their inputs to align with those of their information neighbors who were surprisingly successful in previous
Timothy G. Conley; Christopher R. Udry
Forest under low rainfall (averaging 745 mm yr-1) on the Shai Hills in S.E. Ghana has redeveloped following cessation of farming in the 1890s. Forest stature is low, with a canopy at about 11 m, principally of three species, Diospyros abyssinica, D. mespiliformis and Millettia thonningii. Drypetes parvifolia and Vepris heterophylla are common understorey trees. Twelve species of woody liane
M. D. Swaine; Diana Lieberman; J. B. Hall
Inclusion of students with disabilities into the mainstream educational system continues to be a major issue and concern faced by many developing nations. Many individuals with disabilities face the challenge of exclusion from any form of education and failure by society to recognize their capabilities and rights. The educational system in Ghana…
Adera, Beatrice A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis
Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…
Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly
Summary The total weight of vegetation on an area of just over 1 acre of old secondary forest in the moist forest zone of Ghana has been determined, and found to be equivalent to roughly 150 tons per acre dry weight. The nutrient content of each component of the vegetation was also determined and showed that the amounts of the
D. J. Greenland; J. M. L. Kowal
This paper examines the link between property rights and investment incentives. The author develops three theoretical arguments based on security of tenure, using land as collateral and obtaining gains from trade. The paper then presents empirical evidence from two regions in Ghana. The author investigates the possibility that rights are endogenous, with farmers making improvements to enhance their land rights.
This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…
In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…
Osei, George M.
When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…
This study evaluated the effect of two approaches to provision of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) on ECP use and unprotected intercourse among women relying on spermicides for contraception. The study enrolled 211 women at 4 family planning clinics in Ghana. At two clinics, participants were advised to return to the clinic within 3 days after unprotected intercourse to obtain ECPs.
Amy Lovvorn; Joana Nerquaye-Tetteh; Evam Kofi Glover; Alex Amankwah-Poku; Melissa Hays; Elizabeth Raymond
This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented
William K Bosu
With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…
Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.
This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…
Coping with teenage pregnancy and childbirth in Ghana Why focus on adolescents' resilience? Most studies on adolescent pregnancy focus on the risks that young people face and how vulnerable and capacities that adolescents have to avoid or cope with pregnancy (Obrist et al 2010). Most teenage
During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346
Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S.; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M.; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc
The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…
Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.
Bacterial distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance were monitored in patients with bacterial bloodstream infections in rural hospitals in Ghana. In 2001–2002 and in 2009, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was the most prevalent pathogen. Although most S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates were chloramphenicol resistant, all isolates tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. PMID:22000360
Amuzu, Sylvarius K.; de Ciman, Ring; Kassimova, Iparkhan; Groß, Lisa; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Rosenberg, Ulrike; Schulze, Marco; Stich, August; Zimmermann, Ortrud
A reconnaissance survey for the presence of lymphatic filariasis is made in 41 chiefdoms of north east Ghana. Four disease levels are identified culminating in hyperendemic disease foci associated with two Government-introduced rice irrigation projects. Attention is also drawn to the disease effects of small village dams. Multiple concurrent infections are noted. Within the most stricken irrigation villages, aspects of
John M. Hunter
Human parvovirus 4 has been considered to be transmitted only parenterally. However, after novel genotype 3 of parvovirus 4 was found in 2 patients with no parenteral risks, we tested infants in Ghana. A viremia rate of 8.6% over 2 years indicates that this infection is common in children in Africa. PMID:20587191
Panning, Marcus; Kobbe, Robin; Vollbach, Silke; Drexler, Jan Felix; Adjei, Samuel; Adjei, Ohene; Drosten, Christian; May, Jürgen
Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)
William, Musah; Preston, Christine
at how rms organize their export trade. If selling directly, sunk costs of foreign market entryHow do rms organize trade? Evidence from Ghana Jens Krüger Abstract The literature on rm heterogeneity in international trade posits that only the most productive rms become exporters (Melitz 2003
We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…
Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena
Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine women farmers' access to credit from rural banks (RBs) in the Upper East region of Ghana. The paper examines the nature of credit supply by the RBs to their customers and the proportion that goes to women over a ten year period. It proposes the modelling of socio-economic, technical and
Mamudu A. Akudugu; Irene S. Egyir; Akwasi Mensah-Bonsu
Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212
Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C.; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth
This study is based on interviews with a sample of 400 single women aged 18-25 years from the Fante ethnic group in Cape Coast, Ghana, in 1991, and on focus groups. This case study illustrates the importance of economic and living arrangement support expected from partners in premarital relationships. Support may be for living and maintenance ('chopmoney', provisions, household items, and rent); for financial security (provision of capital); and for clothing and hairdressing. Women did not always require economic support in premarital relationships. Women expect boyfriends to provide 'chopmoney' (money for food and general upkeep) and contribute some money for the rent. Only 36% of sexually active women expected their boyfriends to supply food provisions. Premarital sexual relationships are used to obtain start-up capital. The author refers to evidence that senior government officials engaged in sexual transactions with clients before loans and credit facilities were offered. 87% of sexually experienced women expected their partners to pay for at least part of clothing expenses. The study revealed that there was considerable disparity between women's expectations and actual receipt of economic support. 56% desired, but only 36% received, 'chopmoney' in full. 40% expected their partners to pay for household furnishings in full, while only 10% did so. 55% expected capital, but only 15% received it. The three most frequently received benefits in full were hair dressing, shoes, and dresses. Men provided most non-negotiable items as a means of "boosting their egos." Many young women rely on the support of men in order to improve their status. Ghanaian men control financial resources and economic power. Mothers of adolescent daughters encourage premarital sexual behavior. Prostitution is considered different from sexual exchange relationships. It is argued that gender inequalities and domestic abuse are perpetuated through sexual exchange relationships. PMID:12347714
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumococcal strains are classified according to their capsular polysaccharide and more than 90 different serotypes are currently known. In this project, three distinct groups of pneumococcal carriage isolates from Ghana were investigated; isolates from healthy children in Tamale and isolates from both healthy and children attending the outpatient department at a hospital in Accra. The isolates were previously identified and characterized by Gram staining, serotyping and susceptibility to penicillin. In this study, isolates of the common serotype 19F were further investigated by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Overall, 14 different Sequence Types (STs) were identified by MLST, of which nine were novel based on the international MLST database. Two clones within serotype 19F seem to circulate in Ghana, a known ST (ST 4194) and a novel ST (ST 9090). ST 9090 was only found in healthy children in Accra, whereas ST 4194 was found equally in all children studied. In the MLST database, other isolates of ST 4194 were also associated with serotype 19F, and these isolates came from other West African countries. The majority of isolates were penicillin intermediate resistant. In conclusion, two clones within serotype 19F were found to be dominating in pneumococcal carriage in Accra and Tamale in Ghana. Furthermore, it seems as though the clonal distribution of serotype 19F may be different from what is currently known in Ghana in that many new clones were identified. This supports the importance of continued monitoring of pneumococcal carriage in Ghana and elsewhere when vaccines, e.g., PCV-13, have been introduced to monitor the possible future spread of antimicrobial resistant clones. PMID:25640824
Sparding, Nadja; Dayie, Nicholas T K D; Mills, Richael O; Newman, Mercy J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Slotved, Hans-Christian
Advertising which uses electronic energy to transmit information to the end user is called electronic media advertising. It appears as TV, radio, internet. The objective of this study is to establish the contribution of electronic media advertising to rural banking in Ghana. Hitherto, studies have covered advertising rural banks; the outcome of this study will help reveal contributions of electronic
Israel Kofi Nyarko
This paper presents research conducted in the Tamale metropolitan of the northern region of Ghana. It is on the efforts of the Urban Agriculture Network (URBANET), a local NGO, to educate and involve indigenous farmers in the region as part of Ghana’s larger movement for trade justice. URBANET was established in 2003 to advocate for indigenous farmers of the northern
Masud Aziz Rauf
in Ghana. These projects, initiated independently by different researchers in different organizations, both deployed ICT solutions in the same medical community in the same year. The Ghana Consultation NetworkTouch MedicareLine is currently providing 1700 doctors in Ghana with free mobile phone calls and text messages
California at Irvine, University of
13 Chale, How Much it Cost to Browse? Results from a Mobile Data Price Transparency Trial in Ghana of a 10-week study with SmartBrowse, involving 299 participants in Ghana. Half the users were given Smart)]: Miscellaneous General Terms Experimentation, Measurement, Human Factors Keywords Mobile data, Ghana, Pre
at Ashanti, Ghana, as inferred from improved thermal modelling. Virginie HARCOUËT 1-2,(3) , Laurent GUILLOU in the Paleoproterozoic continental crust of southern Ghana are the subject of a detailed regional thermal modelling study. The Ashanti belt in Ghana (Figure 1) is particularly well-suited to this kind of study as it hosts the largest
of Mole National Park, Ghana Sadie J. Ryan*, Justin S. BrasharesÀ, Chesley Walsh`, Katherine Milbers free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June7 July parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected
Ryan, Sadie J.
This paper examined a National Research Council (NRC) report called Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. The report has been the final word on acid deposition as the cause of acidification of lakes. The authors considered it important that the tentative nature of this report be kept in perspective so that the work of the NRC would promote rather than inhibit scientific inquiry on the lake acidification issue. In this spirit, this report proposed that degradation of storm damaged trees could increase the acidity of the forest humus and as a result the ground water which would fed local streams and lakes. They proposed that extensive forest blowdown could be a factor in acidification of surface waters.
Dobson, J.E.; Peplies, R.W.; Rush, R.M.
In Methanococcus voltae, one of the two [NiFeSe] hydrogenases is unusual in that the large subunit is split into two subunits, each contributing two ligands to the [NiFe] center that catalyzes the heterolytic cleavage of the dihydrogen molecule. We have engineered a fusion of these two subunits. The resulting new enzyme showed no significant difference in hydrogen uptake activity or in the Ni-C or Ni-L EPR spectra compared to the the wild-type enzyme, but exhibited a tenfold increase in both the Km for hydrogen and the Ki for the competitive inhibitor carbon monoxide. PMID:11131028
Bingemann, R; Pierik, A J; Klein, A
Orofacial Clefts (OFC) are common congenital facial anomalies. The study seeks to determine the status of care for OFC patients in Ghana. Currently, in addition to the Ministry of Health, there are six Non-Governmental Organizations, which are dedicated to the provision of logistics for the management of cleft patients. As it is possible there could be OFC endemic areas in Ghana, sensitization of the population of the condition and management of this anomaly should be promoted. Persons of OFCs are faced with known challenges, which result in negative self-image that affect their quality of life. Hence educating the general public, in particular pregnant women who access antenatal care in health facilities may reduce ill effects associated with the anomaly. Genetic studies of the anomaly should also be encouraged to help decrease the incidence. PMID:24603915
Newman, M A; Agbenorku, P
On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While…
Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses
To better elucidate the incidence, characteristics, and consequences of transport-related injuries in a less developed country in Africa, we undertook an epidemiologic survey in Ghana. A total of 21?105 persons were surveyed, in both an urban area (Kumasi, n=11?663) and a rural area (Brong-Ahafo, n=9442). In the preceding year, a total of 656 injuries were reported in the urban area
Charles N Mock; Samuel N Forjuoh; Frederick P Rivara
A national search for cases of Buruli ulcer in Ghana identified 5,619 patients, with 6,332 clinical lesions at various stages. The overall crude national prevalence rate of active lesions was 20.7 per 100,000, but the rate was 150.8 per 100,000 in the most disease-endemic district. The case search demonstrated wide- spread disease and gross underreporting compared with the routine reporting
George Amofah; Frank Bonsu; Christopher Tetteh; Jane Okrah; Kwame Asamoa; Kingsley Asiedu; Jonathan Addy
Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555
Intentional (inflicted) injury to children through burns has been studied and mentioned extensively in the literature, although much less so in developing countries. A community-based survey of children aged 0–5 years in the Ashanti Region of Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 35 (5.4%) were purposefully inflicted. The perpetrators were mostly friends (43%) and siblings (37%) of the victims,
Samuel N. Forjuoh
Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have
Kaakpema Yelpaala; Saleem H. Ali
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the growing trend of power outages in Ghana and the possible diffusion of a solar solution from the solar technologies; it also seeks to ascertain whether people in Ghana as well as developing countries would resort to renewable energy because of its “greenness”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A focus group study was
This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…
This report examines a project design for land degradation problems in the northern and upper regions of Ghana. The project was jointly sponsored by the Ghana Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Agency for International Development. The council is responsible for coordinating the activities of 10 independent research institutes.…
Matlock, W. Gerald; Johnson, Jack D.
This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…
In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…
Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia
This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…
Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua
Rapport d'activité 2010 BENIN #12;L'IRD au BENIN, GHANA, NIGERIA et TOGO Rapport d'activité 2010 I.1- Colloques 4.2- Diffusion des résultats de la recherche p. 51 p. 51 p. 53 II- L'IRD AU GHANA p. 56 III- L
Total concentrations of Hg, Al, Fe, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, Co, V, and Zn were determined in surface sediments collected from 21 locations within the gold mining impacted Pra River basin in southwestern Ghana. Samples were collected during both the rainy and dry seasons. We hypothesized that in the rural southwestern portion of Ghana, the lack of industrial
Augustine K. Donkor; Jean-Claude J. Bonzongo; Vincent K. Nartey; Dennis K. Adotey
Since 2007, Northern Ghana has continuously experienced the double tragedy of droughts and floods which are manifestations of climate change. How these climate change manifestations are affecting livelihoods and social organisations of affected people and communities, especially the poor and vulnerable in Northern Ghana remains largely underestimated. This paper examines how climate change affects household food security, livelihoods and social
Mamudu A. Akudugu; Abdul-Razak Alhassan
Inadequate financing for the delivery of animal health services in many developing countries has been blamed for lack of efficiency and effectiveness of veterinary services. There are no reports of how the delivery of veterinary services in Ghana is financed. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the funding of veterinary services in Ghana to help in
P. K. Turkson; C. F. Brownie
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...
This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.
Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775
Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system
The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.
This MPEG shows lake effect precipitation resulting when cold air masses pass over the relatively warm Great Lakes, pick up moisture, and then precipitate when again encountering the cold land surface. Note the bands of lake effect snow apparent over Lake Superior and the lack of snow on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The animation can be replayed to stress important points.
The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.
Windows to the Universe/NBC Learn
The Great Lakes of northern Canada are relatively understudied ecosystems in comparison to the better-investigated Laurentian Great Lakes. This chain of lakes extends north from Lake Winnipeg (a shallow prairie lake) to Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca (moderately deep arboreal lakes) to Great Slave Lake (a deep subarctic lake) to Great Bear Lake (a deep lake located in the Arctic
M. S Evans
This Sierra Webpage is dedicated to Mono Lake, CA. It offers a brief description of Mono Lake, including photos and sightseeing tips, and features numerous writings by Mono Lake Park Ranger David Carle. Subjects include the Mono Lake environment, visiting the lake, and the water issue. An entry of particular interest is Strange Water- Mono Lake Gourmet: An Unusual Recipe. It includes 'Mock Mono Lake Soup' and 'Tufa Porridge Extraordinaire'- two recipes designed to illustrate the composition of Mono Lake and the chemical processes involved in tufa formation.
The Education And Curriculum Home site (TEACH) is a new component of the Great Lakes Information Network, with a focus on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond. TEACH features mini-lessons on Great Lakes topics: environment, history and culture, geography, pollution, careers, and business. Geared for elementary through high school students, the modules are continually expanded and updated and include links to a glossary to help explain scientific terms and acronyms. Also included is a section for questions and answers, and education links. Specific topics within the site include: Great Lakes native flora, water levels on the Great Lakes, native peoples of the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes law and policy, introduction to the Great Lakes, how the lakes were formed, Great Lakes shoreline geology, non-native species, and urban sprawl.
Great Lakes and Lake Effect Snow. This animation is a dissolve between 2 different SeaWiFS images taken in 1999. One image is taken in the spring,April, and the second image is taken in the winter, December. The December 1999 image shows a traditional lake effect snow storm. This animation shows the difference between the seasons in the Great Lakes region.
Summary This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165
Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua
We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p < .001), was lowest within the Central Business District (CBD) compared to the outskirts of the city (16.3% versus 21.0%, p < .001) and seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana. PMID:20945246
Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams
On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.
Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633
Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi
Native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were driven to extirpation in Lake Champlain in the early 1900s. Possible causes include overharvest, predation on adults by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and predation on fry by rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery began in 1972 when a coordinated stocking program was initiated. Attempts to control sea lamprey populations
Brian J. Ellrott; J. Ellen Marsden
Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round oflampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from
Randy L. Eshenroder; N. Robert Payne; James E. Johnson; Charles Bowen II; Mark P. Ebener
This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…
Beery, Tom; And Others
To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities. PMID:25562343
Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye
Women's health care providers have noted an increased infant mortality rate among Ghanaian immigrants. We conducted focus groups with 17 women in Ghana. We asked them how they maintained their health both before and during pregnancy. When discussing their health, women repeatedly described the conditions or context of their daily lives and the traditional practices that they used to stay healthy. Knowledge of women's lives, the health care system that they previously used, and their cultural practices can be utilized by health care providers to more fully assess their patients and design more culturally appropriate care for this group of women. PMID:23537401
Theroux, Rosemary; Klar, Robin Toft; Messenger, Linda
The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria. PMID:22676841
Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa
The authors present and analyze six years of regular and steady application of an institutional evaluation policy based on financial incentives in a public hospital in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, as a part of the hospital's administrative modernization policy. This type of policy is considered implicitly capable of developing a sequence of strategic wagers: (1) release of financial resources for payment of bonuses; (2) creation of an operationally feasible and sensitive evaluation instrument; (3) creation of adequate management mechanisms to improve evaluation policy; (4) employee adherence to the hospital upgrading policy based on the bonus system; and (5) maintenance of the effects of evaluation policy over time. The article discusses the "degree of success" of each of these wagers in an attempt to portray possible gains throughout the process, while also identifying inherent difficulties in such a policy. PMID:12488893
Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; de Rezende, Maria de Fátima Brito; de Magalhaes, Marta Gama; Pinto, Suely Alves
The present work studied the prevalence and histopathology of Neoechinorhynchus curemai Noronha, 1973 (Acanthocephala; Neoechinorhynchidae) from curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836. Eighteen fishes with averages of 46.7 +/- 1.1 cm length and 1,674.8 +/- 75.6 g weight were collected with net, bimonthly from December 1995 thru December 1996 in the hydroelectric power station of Volta Grande Reservoir (Cemig), Minas Gerais, Brazil. From analysed fishes, 15 were infected with acanthocephalans in the intestine (prevalence 83.3%). The greatest mean intensity occurred in August 1996 with 66.5 (16 to 208) parasites. Histopathological analysis showed complete desquamation of the intestinal epithelium with severe hyperplasia and hypertrofia of the goblet cells. Severe inflammatory reaction at the submucosa, displacement of their sheaf, associated with oedema and mononuclear and eosinophilic infiltration were observed. PMID:11706580
Martins, M L; de Moraes, F R; Fujimoto, R Y; Onaka, E M; Quintana, C I
Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made their restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration
Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made their restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative
Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI
Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention
is an investigation into audience reception of the video films, particularly among the members of Pentecostal-Charismatic Christianity in Ghana and the UK. It also explores the appropriation of the religious elements in general and Pentecostal-Charismatic narratives...
The research underpinning this work took place in the context of two rural water and sanitation projects carried out in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The focus of study was on the way engineers can make water and sanitation ...
Furber, Alison Mary
Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework...
de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Boynton, Petra; Atanga, Lem L
Four local plastic design (LPD) BSFs were constructed in Northern Region, Ghana, to test and evaluate an experimental modification of the LPD BSF for treatment of highly turbid water. Modifications of the LPD BSFs were ...
Ceramic water filters are currently produced in Ghana in order to provide a household solution to contaminated water. These filters, locally branded with the name Kosim filter by originating from Potters for Peace-Nicaragua, ...
Adjorlolo, Eric (Eric James Kofi)
Through a Rotary Club contract, PHW will sell Kosim filters and install Tippy-Tap hand-washing stations in 1250 households in Northern Ghana. This thesis presents the following project monitoring and evaluation components: ...
Lu, Connie C
A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...
Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)
To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGOs and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a ...
Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; MacDonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea
Many African nations use both statutory and customary laws in governing their countries. This suggests an apparent mix of formal and informal rules. For example, the 1992 Constitution of Ghana did not abrogate customary law, but protects chieftaincy...
Aikins, Kenneth Shelton
In Northern Region Ghana (NRG), highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams called dugouts. These dams serve as many communities' main source of drinking and domestic water despite ...
Ghana's water quality and sanitation condition are very poor. Pure Home Water (PHW), a local non-profit organization has been successfully improving the supply of safe drinking water in the northern region by producing and ...
The cross-sectional study sought to describe the strengths, challenges and current status of baccalaureate nursing education in Ghana, using a descriptive design. The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives standards were used as the organizing framework, with baseline data on the status of nursing education from two state funded universities in Ghana presented. A serious shortage of qualified faculty was identified, along with the need for significant upgrading to the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the number of qualified applicants far exceeds the available training slots. Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion, however in low resource countries such as Ghana, these issues are compounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury. An understanding of the strengths and challenges of nursing education in Ghana can inform the development of strategies for nursing workforce expansion for other low resource countries. PMID:23347003
Bell, Sue Anne; Rominski, Sarah; Bam, Victoria; Donkor, Ernestina; Lori, Jody
"Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam, Class, and Politics on the Eve of Ghana's Independence:16:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;"Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam
Guinea Worm Advance Ghana has passed a milestone in its ef- forts to eradicate Guinea worm disease.Peoplecontractthe parasitewhentheydrinkwatercontami- nated with Guinea worm larvae. Ghanaisthe17thcountrytohavebro- ken the cycle of transmission
Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The tests included the membrane filtration (MF) test using ...
Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene)
According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), 14% of the population in Ghana use improved sanitation facilities and 59% use shared facilities. The objective of this thesis is to offer a situational analysis ...
David, LaKisha T. (LaKisha Tawanda)
Ghana is on the verge of privatizing selected activities in the delivery of animal health services. However, various constraints are being encountered. The aim of this paper is to identify these constraints so as to help find solutions to them.
P. K. Turkson; C. F. Brownie
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain baseline data on drinking water and sanitation practices in the Northern Region of Ghana. This study was performed in conjunction with Pure Home Water (PHW) ...
Peletz, Rachel Louise
. DEPARTMENT OF' COMMERCE National Ouanic and Atmospheric Admlnl,trltion National OeUII SUI"II, Great Lakes Ice-1-44.-_lce chart 5 Lake Erie Figures 4S-46.-- I ce charts Lake Ontario iii #12;#12;Great Lale5 Ice Cover the remainder of the Great Lakes . Ice formation was r eported November 10 in western Lake Superior at Duluth
This is an online version of the text, The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. Taking an ecosystem approach, the Atlas helps readers understand the Great Lakes and other natural resources in the Great Lakes region as an interdependent system across an international border. Its purpose is to demonstrate how the Great Lakes are affected by use and to increase public appreciation for the importance of these lakes as a North American and global resource. A French version is available.
There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required. PMID:24011564
Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka
South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...
Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas
Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.
Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly
Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes. PMID:20604118
McCullough, Fergus S.
...Sheffield Lake Fireworks, Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH AGENCY...temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH. This...vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Sheffield Lake Fireworks...Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast...
Drawing data from the “Ghanaian Gerontological Social Work Research Project,” this case study examines the impact of the organizational\\u000a network of HelpAge Ghana on its roles in eldercare in Ghana. Using an organizational network framework and survey, participatory\\u000a observation, and document review data collection strategies, it was discovered that Helpage Ghana had provided alternative\\u000a eldercare when older people face declining
DeBrenna LaFa Agbényiga; Lihua Huang
Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281
Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond
Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. & Nuoh, A. A. 2000. The role of the Ghana coast in the annual cycle of migratory terns. Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 183.Data are presented on counts of migratory terns on the Ghana coast over a ten-year period, 1986–1996. Fourteen species of terns were recorded during the period. Influx of terns begins in late August, peaking in
Y. Ntiamoa-Baidu; A. A. Nuoh
\\u000a Ghana has achieved dramatic improvements in national food security in recent years, but concealed in this overall progress\\u000a is a considerable measure of regional unevenness, with the population living in the dry savannah regions in the north faring\\u000a the worst. The Upper West Region (UWR) is the poorest region of Ghana and has long served as a reservoir of migratory
Isaac Luginaah; Tony Weis; Sylvester Galaa; Mathew K. Nkrumah; Rachel Benzer-Kerr; Daniel Bagah
HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. PMID:23847431
Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry
Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana. PMID:25580349
Nyarko, Samuel Harrenson; Cobblah, Anastasia
Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana. PMID:25580349
Nyarko, Samuel Harrenson; Cobblah, Anastasia
Hypertension is a major public health problem of this era. Hypertension related morbidity and mortality rates have dramatically increased over the last 25 years. Stressful life style is one of the leading causes of Hypertension. The treatment of hypertension remains a primary goal in the effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, stroke and kidney disease. In this study, 20 patients were randomly divided in two groups and treated along with restricted diet pattern for 8 weeks. Patients of Group A received poly-herbal compound formulation Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day). It was found that, relief in overall symptoms (63.93%) elevated blood pressure (8.91% in Systolic blood pressure and 8.44% in diastolic blood pressure). In group-B, with Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day) the percent relief was better on elevated blood pressure (12.00% in Systolic blood pressure and 11.02% in diastolic blood pressure). When data is subjected in between both the groups, it is found that, both drugs are equally effective. PMID:23049185
Mishra, Jyoti; Joshi, Nayan P.; Pandya, Dilip M.
107 The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana Rheinbach, 20 August 2005 ISSN 0036 e.V. (DGHT) The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana MARK-OLIVER RÖDEL,MARLON GIL, Ghana. We recorded a total of 47 amphibian species, among them the first country records for the genera
Conservation Area (KCA) of Ghana as a case study. CANDIDATE NUMBER: 180766 WORD COUNT: 13,248 (excluding and Gonzalo Griebenow for their love, care and support during my studies in Oxford. I also thank The Ghana, for sponsoring part of my fieldwork in Ghana for data collection. And finally to my one and only `better
of the University of Ghana n West African Research Center THE WEST AFRICAN JUDICIAL COLLOQUIA DAKAR, SENEGAL JANUARY 2006 ACCRA, GHANA OCTOBER 2007 With funding from n The Ford Foundation n The JEHT Foundation n Jurisprudence -- Accra, Ghana, October 2007 Session Topics and Discussion Points
Denudation of the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana transform continental margin from apatite fission tracks Apatite fission track analysis of samples from the shoulder (marginal ridge) of the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana of the Gulf of Guinea, the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana (CIG) ridge is 25 km-width (Figure 1), 130 kmlong structure
in Assin Foso, Ghana Im Frühjahr 2006, als ich mich mit einer Mitstudentin über Famulaturen in Schottland hatte und uns begeistert davon berichtete. Ich hatte vorher nie mit dem Gedanken gespielt, nach Ghana zu über Bord zu werfen und uns in die Vorbereitungen für eine Famulatur in Ghana zu stürzen. Auf die
Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC
You will review these five websites and complete a flow chart for each of the five Great Lakes. Project Organizer: Flow Chart First, you will learn about Lake Huron. Go to Lake Huron to learn more about this great lake.Complete a Flow Chart Flow Chart for Lake Huron. Write "Lake Huron" under Topic and include five supporting details you learned ...
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002
Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip
Daily rainfall data are examined through the temporal analysis of various definitions of variable temporal units (VTUs) consisting of combinations of various starting dates and durations over mid-Ghana. These VTUs are independent of, yet encompass, the starting dates and durations of the major and minor rainy seasons. Within each VTU, total rainfall and number of rainy days are calculated to describe the rainfall characteristics of the unit. Means and variances of each variable are calculated for each unit over two 20-year periods, 1951-1970 (P1) and 1981-2000 (P2). In P2, the major and minor rainy seasons have undergone varying degrees of desiccation. This reduction in rainfall is, however, not temporally or spatially uniform. The widespread decline of mean rainfall totals and number of rainy days during the minor rainy season, often associated with greater inter-annual variability, is particularly threatening to the production of a second crop.
Owusu, Kwadwo; Waylen, Peter R.
Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347
Ferguson, W. R. W.
This report presents key findings from a maternal mortality study conducted in the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana in 1997-98. Sibling history data collected in the course of this survey are analyzed together with longitudinal data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System (NDSS). A comparison between mortality data from these two sources indicates that obtaining reasonably accurate estimates of age-specific death rates is possible by using the sisterhood method. Direct and indirect estimates from the maternal mortality study and the NDSS suggest a decline in the maternal mortality ratio for the Kassena-Nankana District from 800 to 600 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births over the past 14 years. PMID:16617548
Ngom, P; Akweongo, P; Adongo, P; Bawah, A A; Binka, F
The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: (a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model, (b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and (c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161
Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter
LOCAL CONTEXT OF CONFLICTS AND PEACEBUILDING: Local Power Struggles, Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Ghana THE CAUSES, DYNAMICS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF LAND RELATED CONFLICTS IN THE GREATER ACCRA AND EASTERN REGIONS OF GHANA
BACKGROUND: GHANA'S POLITICAL HISTORY AND REGIME TYPE Ghana is a unitary Republic with a Constitution based on the model of the United States of America. The 1992 Constitution stipulates that the state is based on a quasi-executive presidential system of government. However, unlike the American presidential system which maintains a separation of powers, the Ghanaian Constitution stipulates that a majority
Joseph R. A. Ayee; Alex K. D. Frempong; Richard Asante; K. Boafo-Arthur
Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent the development of severe depression among these patients should be considered. PMID:24612693
BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298
Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo
This study demonstrates the strength of R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis in determining spatial groundwater salinity groups in southeastern Ghana. Three hundred and eighty three (383) groundwater samples were taken from six hydrogeological terrains and surface water bodies and analyzed for the concentrations of the major ions, electrical conductivity and pH. Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis and R-mode factor analysis were respectively used to spatially classify groundwater samples and determine the probable sources of variation in groundwater salinity. The quality of groundwater for irrigation was then determined using three major indices. The analyses revealed two major sources of variation in groundwater salinity: silicate mineral weathering on one hand, and seawater intrusion and anthropogenic contamination on the other. A plot of the factor scores for the two major sources of variation in the salinity revealed trends which can be used in hydrogeological mapping and assist in drilling potable water boreholes in southeastern Ghana. This study also revealed four major spatial groundwater groups: low salinity, acidic groundwaters which are mainly derived from the Birimian and Togo Series aquifers; low salinity, moderate to neutral pH groundwaters which draw membership mainly from samples of the Voltaian, Buem and Cape Coast granitoids; very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes and are mainly from the Keta Basin aquifers; and intermediate salinity groundwaters consisting of groundwater from the Keta basin aquifers with minor contributions from the other major terrains. The major water type identified in this study is the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which degrades into predominantly Na-Cl-SO 4 more saline groundwaters towards the coast.
Yidana, Sandow Mark
The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. PMID:25042543
Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi
Background Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. Methods The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented by a manual search of retrieved references. Fifteen unique population-based articles in non-pregnant humans were obtained. In addition, two relevant unpublished graduate student theses from one university department were identified after a search of its 1996-2008 theses. Results The age and sex composition of study populations, sampling strategy, measurement of blood pressure, definition of hypertension varied between studies. The prevalence of hypertension (BP ? 140/90 mmHg ± antihypertensive treatment) ranged from 19% to 48% between studies. Sex differences were generally minimal whereas urban populations tended to have higher prevalence than rural population in studies with mixed population types. Factors independently associated with hypertension included older age group, over-nutrition and alcohol consumption. Whereas there was a trend towards improved awareness, treatment and control between 1972 and 2005, less than one-third of hypertensive subjects were aware they had hypertension and less than one-tenth had their blood pressures controlled in most studies. Conclusion Hypertension is clearly an important public health problem in Ghana, even in the poorest rural communities. Emerging opportunities such as the national health insurance scheme, a new health policy emphasising health promotion and healthier lifestyles and effective treatment should help prevent and control hypertension. PMID:20626917
Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.
Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.
Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...
Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281
Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond
The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and
John Janssen; David J. Jude; Thomas A. Edsall; Robert W. Paddock; Nigel Wattrus; Mike Toneys; Pat Mckee
Formation of lake ice is common in lakes located in mid and high latitudes. Lake ice plays a vital role in heat storage, controlling lake water temperature, survival of aquatic ecosystems, and maintaining the bio diversity of lakes. Significant warming in air temperature during the cold season (October–May) may lead to reduced ice cover of lakes and eventually disturb the
Vimal Mishra; Keith A. Cherkauer; Laura C. Bowling; Matthew Huber
In Ghana, as in many areas of the world, the meanings attached to indigenous art forms are based on larger philosophical foundations. Those meanings are at the crux of the ongoing struggle in the minds of many Ghanaians over the appropriateness of Ghana's traditional arts in their contemporary education system. The indigenous arts are caught in…
Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes
Heidi Hjelmeland; Charity S. Akotia; Vicki Owens; Birthe L. Knizek; Hilmar Nordvik; Rose Schroeder; Eugene Kinyanda
The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening participation in…
This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…
Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
This study investigates SERQUAL Dimensions in the delivery of satisfied services in the domestic airline industry in Ghana. Questionnaires were distributed to four hundred and fifty (450) customers from three domestic airlines namely Antrak Air, Fly 540 and Star Bow using the convenience sampling technique. The responses from the field indicate that domestic airlines operating in Ghana fall short in
Isaac Ofori; Seyram Pearl Kumah
This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…
Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.
Great Lakes NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE CoastWatch is a nationwide NOAA program in which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) functions as the Great Lakes regional node. GLERL obtains, produces, and delivers environmental data and products
The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)
Delfino, Joseph J.
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows the Lake Nyos pipe ...
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. A small CO2 cloud from Lake Monoun k...
Part of the larger Water on the Web project, this Lake Ecology Primer "is intended to provide a general background to Water on the Web by introducing the basic concepts necessary to understand how lake ecosystems function." The extensive site contains information on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of lakes, and processes including formation, stratification, and eutrophication.
Lake Bosumtwi is an impact crater lake located at 6.5ºN and 1.5ºW in Ghana. The Bosumtwi impact event and the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field generated by the event have an age of 1.07 Myr. The lake contains an approximately 300m sedimentary section that provides a nearly continuous stratigraphy of this interval. In addition, the majority of the section is annually laminated. Advantages of magnetic studies of Lake Bosumtwi sediments include: (1) duplicate drill holes; (2) high sedimentation rates; (3) laminations allow assessmet of core disturbance; and (4) sediments record polarity transitions, excusions, and possibly paleointensity at a low-latitude site; and (5) Milankovitch and sub- Milankovitch scale paleoclimate variations. Challenges include: (1) low-latitude site location makes it difficult to recognize excursions and polarity transitions; (2) anoxia that produces annual laminations also causes some reductive diagenesis; and (3) some intervals are weakly magnetic and have noisy data. Overall, with respect to its magnetic record, Lake Bosumtwi is neither a "silk purse," nor a "sows ear." We will detail our efforts to maximize the former and minimize the latter.
King, J. W.; Heil, C. W.; Peck, J. A.
In 2003 the Government of Ghana established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to improve health care access for Ghanaians and eventually replace the cashand- carry system. This study evaluates the NHIS to determine whether it is fulfi lling its purpose in the context of the Millennium Development Goals #4 and #5 which deal with the health of women and
Joseph Mensah; Joseph R. Oppong; Christoph M. Schmidt
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…
Agbemabiese, Padmore E.
The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
The Harmattan is a dry dust-laden continental wind, and in the boreal winter Harmattan dust plumes affects many West African countries, including Ghana. When the Harmattan is strongest the southern part of Ghana is affected by the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD). In this study, we investigate if the ITD functions as a barrier, preventing long transported Harmattan dust to settle south of, and below, it. This is done by analyzing a Harmattan dust outbreak, mapped using Earth observation (EO) data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, coupled with data from West African AERONET stations, and comparing these observations with wind data from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) program and the mineral suite of samples from seasonal dust deposits in north and south Ghana. In northern Ghana traces of minerals indicate a weak influence of particles from an arid environment, which is found consistent with the mapped dust plumes and NE wind directions. In southern Ghana the mineral composition show no sediments of an arid origin, the mapped dust plumes is less intense, and the surface wind directions and wind mass trajectories are more varying with lower wind speeds. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that dust deposited, or measured near ground, in the Harmattan period under the ITD, and south of it, does not contain material from the Chad Basin due to the local winds conditions.
Lyngsie, G.; Olsen, J. L.; Awadzi, T. W.; Fensholt, R.; Breuning-Madsen, H.
A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.
Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.
Mono Lake Web Site is the homepage of the Mono Lake Committee and offers helpful information regarding the unique hypersaline and alkaline environment. Visitors will find information about the Mono Lake Committee, natural and political histories of the area, related water policies, a photo gallery with image descriptions, and links to related sites- including a clearinghouse. Those interested in Mono Basin birds will find sightings, counts, bird walks, and other related information. An additional feature, Mono Lake Live, offers up-to-the-minute data on road conditions, satellite images, weather, lake level, bird sightings, snow pack, and earthquakes.
Sweep of Lake Chad, February 2001: Located on the edge of the Sahara and bordering four countries--Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger--the immense area of this land locked lake has nearly disappeared in recent years. Persistent drought has caused the lake to drop from its former sixth place position in the list of worlds largest lakes; it is now one tenth its former size. The basin of the lake is not naturally deep, so the surface area of the lake tended to spread out, keeping the total depth to little more 23 feet (7 meters). In recent years, rainfall patterns have begun to change, and tributaries to Lake Chad have not been refilling the basin as rapidly as they used to. The lush, productive flora and fauna fed by the wetlands of the shallow lake have suffered as a result. This has led to significant changes for various communities of people that live in the vicinity of the lake. While for some the now exposed lake bed has enabled new land to be cultivated, much of the available fresh water that might have been used for irrigation is no longer dependable. As rainfall rates appear to be declining year after year, people living nearby develop even greater dependence on the lake, draining it even faster.
The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been hindered by various biological and physiological impediments. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions, there is little evidence of recruitment of naturally-produced fish in annual fall assessments. Spawning occurs
Jacob W. Riley; J. Ellen Marsden
Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater
Charles P. Madenjian; Timothy J. DeSorcie; Ralph M. Stedman; Edward H. Brown Jr.; Gary W. Eck; Larry J. Schmidt; Robert J. Hesselberg; Sergei M. Chernyak; Dora R. Passino-Reader
Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town Lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. (USGS)
Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.
Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.
We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana. PMID:24808747
Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi
Crater Lake Blue Through Time Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National
Background The relevance of Cryptosporidium infections for the burden of childhood diarrhoea in endemic settings has been shown in recent years. This study describes Cryptosporidium subtypes among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in rural Ghana to analyse subtype-specific demographic, geographical, seasonal and clinical differences in order to inform appropriate control measures in endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 2232 children below 14 years of age presenting with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the rural Ashanti region of Ghana between May 2007 and September 2008. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR and isolates were classified into subtypes based on sequence differences in the gp60 gene. Subtype specific frequencies for age, sex, location and season have been determined and associations with disease symptoms have been analysed within a case-control study. Cryptosporidium infections were diagnosed in 116 of 2232 (5.2%) stool samples. Subtyping of 88 isolates revealed IIcA5G3 (n = 26, 29.6%), IbA13G3 (n = 17, 19.3%) and IaA21R3 (n = 12, 13.6%) as the three most frequent subtypes of the two species C. hominis and C. parvum, known to be transmitted anthroponotically. Infections peak at early rainy season with 67.9% and 50.0% of infections during the months April, May and June for 2007 and 2008 respectively. C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–4.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2–5.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5–6.1). Conclusions/Significance Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by seasonal anthroponotic transmission of strains typically found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection. Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections. PMID:25749411
Eibach, Daniel; Krumkamp, Ralf; Al-Emran, Hassan M.; Sarpong, Nimako; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen
A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: email@example.com Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 ?m-25 ?m.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 ?g/m3 to 1344 ?g/m3 with an average of 532 ?g/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 ?m to 2.43 ?m with an average of 1.5 ?m ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 ?m. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.
Sunnu, A. K.
There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118
Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862
SOMARC, together with a private manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceutical products (Danafco, Limited), is launching a new contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program designed to make low cost, modern contraceptive products widely available in Ghana's cities. Danafco will directly implement the CSM program. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the government of Ghana will provide support to the program. James R. Kirland, USAID Population Officer, will assume overall responsibility for coordination and monitoring of CSM program activities. By a special amendment to the Pharmacy and Drug Act of 1961, the Ghanaian government has enabled the CSM program to conduct a demonstration project. Under the project, chemical sellers and retailers who successfully complete a special training session will be entitled to dispense oral contraceptives (OCs) without prescription. With the successful completion of this project, it is hoped that the Ghanaian government will further amend the Pharmacy Act to make contraceptives available nationwide on a nonprescription basis. Initially, the Ghana CSM program will market 3 products: a standard dosage OC; a foaming vaginal tablet; and an uncolored condom. Market research is now underway to determine product names for the OCs and vaginal tablets. The condom will be marketed under the name Panther. The project plans to conduct a retail audit to define current prices in the Ghanaian contraceptive market. Danafco will subcontract with Lintas Ghana Limited to provide advertising, package design, and promotion for the Ghana CSM program. Overall campaign efforts will focus on generating a positive climate for the program among influentials in government, religion, education, and health as well as consumers. The advertising campaign will include radio, television, print, and outdoor media. SOMARC, in collaboration with the USAID/Accra mission, hopes to establish an appropriate climate prior to the advertising launch by promoting a conference on the role of family planning in the national reconstruction of Ghana. In subsequent years, product extension may be considered. PMID:12280423
This resource describes the shorelines of the Grate Lakes from the wetlands along the Lake Ontario shore, to the sand dunes along Lake Michigan, to the rocky shore of Lake Superior, which abounds in diversity. Students will discover that millions of years of glacial formation, wind, lava flows, and changing lake levels have sculpted a unique and ever changing shoreline. The first section describes the work of the glaciers while the second explains the formation, composition, and importance of beaches and continues to the third which describes sand dunes. The next section contains detailed information about the wetlands associated with the Great Lakes. The glaciated rocky shore of Isle Royale is the next topic and the site ends with a statement regarding human impact on the shoreline. Each section contains links to sites for more information.
Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.
As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818
Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato
The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043
van Dongen, Bart E.; Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy
The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.
Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.
The Akyem area is a small farming community located in southeastern Ghana. Groundwater samples from wells in the area were analyzed for concentrations of the major ions, silica, electrical conductivity and pH. The objective was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of ground-water. Mass balance modeling was used together with multivariate R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Two water types exist in this area. The first is influenced most by the weathering of silicate minerals from the underlying geology, and is thus rich in silica, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium ions. The second is water that has been influenced by the effects of fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities in the area. Mineral speciation and silicate mineral stability diagrams suggest that montmorillonite, probably derived from the incongruent dissolution of feldspars and micas, is the most stable silicate phase in the groundwaters. The apparent incongruent weathering of silicate minerals in the groundwater system has led to the enrichment of sodium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions as well as silica, leading to the supersaturation of calcite, aragonite, dolomite and quartz. Stability in the montmorillonite field suggests restricted flow conditions and a long groundwater residence time, leading to greater exposure of the rock to weathering. Cation exchange processes appear to play minor roles in the hydrochemistry of groundwater.
Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Anku, Y.; Akabzaa, T.; Asiedu, D.
Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and an important cause of human tuberculosis in West Africa that is rarely observed elsewhere. Here we genotyped 613 MTBC clinical isolates from Ghana, and searched for associations between the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC and patient variables. We found that 17.1% (105/613) of the MTBC isolates belonged to M. africanum, with the remaining belonging to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. No M. bovis was identified in this sample. M. africanum was significantly more common in tuberculosis patients belonging to the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio: 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.67–5.47, p<0.001). Stratifying our analysis by the two phylogenetic lineages of M. africanum (i.e. MTBC Lineages 5 and 6) revealed that this association was mainly driven by Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 1). Our findings suggest interactions between the genetic diversity of MTBC and human diversity, and offer a possible explanation for the geographical restriction of M. africanum to parts of West Africa. PMID:25569290
Otchere, Isaac Darko; Aboagye, Samuel Y.; Stucki, David; Hattendorf, Jan; Borrell, Sonia; Feldmann, Julia; Danso, Emelia
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596
Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor
A study of the immunization determinants of children aged 12 to 18 months was conducted in 1991 in the Eastern Region of Ghana, using structured interviews of mothers and fathers. The completion of immunization schedules by one year, among the 294 children, was positively associated (P < 0.005) with the town of residence of the child and mother, the ability of the mother to speak English, the target child having been treated for illness at the local hospital, the child's mother having given birth to less than 5 children, the possession of a sewing machine by the mother, and the birth of the child in the current town of residence. Significantly higher immunization coverage levels were achieved where the Under Fives' Clinic was an affordable and acceptable service, integrating preventive and curative care, and where measures were implemented by the community to increase attendance levels at the Clinic. This was achieved among a target group who were otherwise at a relatively high risk of failing to complete immunization schedules on-time. PMID:10151849
Brugha, R; Kevany, J
Homicide by wives against husbands is a largely unexplored subject in lethal violence research. The paucity of information on the phenomenon is particularly acute in the non-Western world where scholarly research is virtually nonexistent. The specific goal for this article, then, was to provide additional insights into the issue by investigating wife-to-husband killings that occurred in Ghana, a non-Western society, during 1990-2005. In line with the scant, extant literature, the results of the analysis demonstrate that victims were invariably slain at home. The motive for the crime was to punish a womanizing husband, a husband who had taken another wife, or one who was contemplating wedding another wife in this polygynous society. In other instances, the homicidal intent was to physically eliminate a husband to facilitate an amorous relationship between the assailant and her new lover. In several cases, husband-slayers killed a latent or predisposing victim (e.g. sleeping or ill) via burning, slashing with a machete or food poisoning. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:17918281
Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.
This highly interactive mapping tool features rivers and streams, watershed boundaries, water depth, political boundaries, elevation and land cover of the Great Lakes region. Students, volunteers and others can upload quantitative measurements and field notes, and share this with others around the globe. This type of learning provides a rich geographic context that allows participants to gain a better understanding of how they are connected to the Great Lakes. National Geographic partnered with Michigan Sea Grant to develop Great Lakes FieldScope to encourage the exploration and investigation of Great Lakes science and education.
. Unique because it is one of only 19 wetlands ?of unique importance? in the United States. Unique because of its bald cypress and tupelo trees that are Caddo?s Lake signature. This unique lake and its ecosystem, however, are being threatened... of Engineers built Lake O? the Pines on Big Cypress Creek upstream of Caddo, the area no longer flooded as much. The regulated water flows from the dam stabilized lake levels, reducing regeneration of bald cypress forests. The cypress trees must have floods...
The Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse Web site is part of the US Geological Survey's Lake Tahoe Initiative. The agency's goal for the site is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental-management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Products available include Digital Elevation Models, Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles, Digital Line Graphs, Digital Raster Graphics, maps and soil information of the area, and much more. The downloads include clear descriptions and examples for those unsure of the particular data types, making their use a snap for researchers, professionals, or anyone interested in the Lake Tahoe region. [JAB
This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake located in Cameroon, Africa, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people and countless livestock and other animals in the area. This case, intended for use in a limnology or an aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts related to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs containing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity data for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to understand what happened.
Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.
Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey
In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs showing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity measurements for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to solve the problem.
We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar\\u000a (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the\\u000a floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the\\u000a study area
Timothy G. Fisher; Walter L. Loope; William Pierce; Harry M. Jol
The causes of lakeshore deterioration and reed decline are concisely summarised, and demonstrated with examples of seven Central European lakes (Germany: Havel lakes, Lake Constance-Untersee, Lake Constance-Obersee; Switzerland: Lake Zürich, Lake Biel, Lake Neuchâtel, Lake Geneva). The main causes are assumed to be bank erosion, lake eutrophication, mechanical damage to the reeds, and recreational activities. Countermeasures can be grouped into:
Wolfgang Ostendorp; Christoph Iseli; Manfred Krauss; Priska Krumscheid-Plankert; Jean-Louis Moret; Maurice Rollier; Ferdinand Schanz
The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of nonmarine organisms, and thus the evolution of freshwater organisms, can occur in a short geologic timespan. Because of their unique and varied conditions, the evolution of nonmarine organisms may be linked to lake basin type as well as lake longevity.
Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.
Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.
Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.
Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption. PMID:25719892
Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick
A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…
Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus
The perennial political and social upheavals in major oil-producing regions, the increasing energy demand from emerging economies, the global economic crisis and even environmental disasters, like the recent major oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, all contribute to price fluctuations and escalations. Usually price instability affects the least-developed countries with the most fragile economies, like Ghana, the most. This
This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.…
Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary
The temporary suspension of diamond exports in Ghana in 2006 and 2007 is arguably the most significant move to address mounting criticisms of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), an international initiative aimed at stemming the flow of rough diamonds used to finance wars. The ban, which took effect in November 2006, was much praised, particularly in civil society circles,
Gavin Hilson; Martin J. Clifford
Purpose – This study seeks to assess how the adoption of corporate governance structures affects the performance of SMEs (small to medium-sized enterprises) in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Regression analysis is used to estimate the relationship between corporate governance and ownership structure and performance. Findings – The results show that board size, board composition, management skill level, CEO duality, inside ownership,
Joshua Abor; Nicholas Biekpe
E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…
Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.
A study assessed the impact of the Shepherd School program, a nonformal basic education program in rural northern Ghana implemented by a nongovernmental organization. Data were gathered through observation; document analysis; and interviews with 42 children, parents, community members, chiefs, school staff, NGO members, and assemblymen in 2…
This paper critiques the approach being taken in Ghana to implement Alternative Livelihood (AL) projects in mining communities. The rapid insurgence of illegal artisanal gold mining has forced policymakers to think more creatively about ways in which to deal with mounting unemployment in the country's rural areas. Most of the economic activities being promoted, however, have proved highly unpopular with
Gavin Hilson; Sadia Mohammed Banchirigah
This paper examines the impact of land use disputes between small- and large-scale miners in Ghana, and prescribes a series of recommendations for facilitating improved relations between the parties. Since the launching of the National Economic Recovery Plan (ERP) circa-1983, foreign investment has increased significantly in the Ghanaian mining sector, leading to the design and construction of a series of
Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of
A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe
The analysis of access to education in Ghana builds on the Ministry of Education Sector Performance Report and the World Bank sector studies. Though access has improved it remains uneven and has not grown as fast enough to reach universal levels of participation in primary school and JSS [Junior Secondary School] by 2015. More needs to be…
Akyeampong, Kwame; Djangmah, Jerome; Oduro, Abena; Seidu, Alhassan; Hunt, Frances
This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…
This is one of 15 studies of the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa. Following an introduction which examines the economic and social development of Ghana, there are four main sections: 1) Probable Growth of Secondary School and Teacher Training College Enrollments Through 1975"; 2) "The Supply of Teachers for Secondary…
Hanson, John W.
Despite the current interest in the growing amount of Chinese and Indian investments in African countries, little is known on the impact of such investments on the employment conditions of African workers. This study investigates the employment practices of a Chinese-owned and an Indian-owned manufacturing company in Ghana in relation to the national labour laws and international labour standards. This
Angela Dziedzom Akorsu; Fang Lee Cooke
Ceramic production, exchange and consumption in the Banda area, west central Ghana has been affected by historical developments ranging from recent competition with alternative vessels (made of metal and plastic) to political economic upheavals that altered community relationships within and outside the region. In this study, we explore spatial and temporal patterning in pottery production, exchange and consumption using a
Ann B. Stahl; Maria das Dores Cruz; Hector Neff; Michael D. Glascock; Robert J. Speakman; Bretton Giles; Leith Smith
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental
Shoba Raja; Sarah K Wood; Victoria de Menil; Saju C Mannarath
This PhD study provides a detailed description and analysis of upgrading opportunities for small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana. It shows how and why producers do, or do not, benefit from being inserted in a global value chain that is increasingly driven by multinational cocoa processors and chocolate manufacturers. The study contributes to the recent discussions on hybrid governance structures, in
A. C. Laven
During the Fourth Republic in Ghana there has been an unprecedented growth in Pentecostalism. The chief message of Pentecostalism is the contestation of tradition. It encourages members to abandon the past and traditions and to adopt a completely new way of life, unemcumbered by the sins of the ancestors. Their rejection of their heritage has erupted into violence in Accra,
Dijk van R. A
During an extensive sampling trial in Ghana, a number of physico-chemical water quality problems have been identified. For example, pH values of the collected samples ranged from 3.69 to 8.88, while conductivity ranged from 10 to 45,000 m...
Schäfer, Andrea; Rossiter, H.M.A.; Owusu, P.A.; Richards, B.S.; Awuah, E.
Ghana has seen notable poverty reduction alongside improvements in school participation since 1991. This paper examines the role of education in determining welfare and poverty and its reciprocal, the role of welfare and other aspects of economic privilege in the determination of school attendance and progression. Two groups of models are…
"Clear grounding in a location gives us the confidence to engage with knowledge from other locations as we deconstruct and reconstruct them with our purposes" (Canagarajah, 2005, p. 15). This quote serves the basis of what this paper presents on language policy and pedagogical practices in Ghana. Language plays an important role in pedagogy, it is…
Davis, Ernest; Agbenyega, Joseph S.
In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…
Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram
Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better…
Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen
Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…
Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.
In this paper we present new evidence on the impact of school characteristics on student achievement using an unusually rich data set from Ghana. We deal with two potentially important selectivity issues in the developing country context: the sorting of higher ability children into better schools, and the high incidence of both delayed school enrollment and early leaving. Our empirical
Paul Glewwe; Hanan Jacoby
There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…
Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.
In Ghana, many professional teachers have been leaving teaching to seek employment in jobs that they think hold promise of better pay and prestige. This article critically examines the key factors that compel teachers to leave the teaching profession for other jobs. Thirty professionally trained teachers who had taught at pretertiary institutions…
Agezo, Clement K.
In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim
Nigeria is the only country in West Africa where soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has been officially reported (1). During a disease survey in Ghana in October 2006, soybean (Glycine max) leaves with rust symptoms (tan, angular lesions with erumpent sori exuding urediniospores) were ob...
In order to observe the effect of forest loss on the leaf litter ant fauna in Ghana, West Africa, samples were taken in primary forest, secondary forest and in cocoa plots. Ants were extracted from the leaf litter by sieving followed by suspension in Winkler bags. The species composition and species richness in the three different habitats were compared and
Robert Belshaw; Barry Bolton
This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…
Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu
This paper, based on the findings of a qualitative study, discusses the influence of Ghana's recently introduced English-only language-in-education policy on pupils' classroom communicative practices and learning generally. It highlights how the use of English--an unfamiliar language--creates anxiety among students and stalls effective classroom…
This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…
Boakye, Kofi E.
The aim of the study was to determine the clinical epidemiology of genitourinary fistulae as seen at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. A retrospective study was carried out from the hospital records and operative reports of all patients with genitourinary fistulae seen at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between January 1977 and December 1992. Patient age, parity, type of
K. A. Danso; J. O. Martey; L. L. Wall; T. E. Elkins
This article reports on how some endemic rural communities in northern Ghana perceive and manage lymphatic filariasis. The disease was mainly attributed to supernatural and spiritual factors. Except for a few instances of neglect, the community was generally caring towards people with the disease. Issues related to marriage, stigma, concealment and leadership are discussed. On the whole, the importance of
Margaret Gyapong; John O. Gyapong; Sam Adjei; Carol Vlassoff; Mitchell Weiss
Language-in-education policy in Ghana has been in a flux since British colonial rule but particularly so after independence. A close examination of post independence language in education policies shows these fluctuating policies have moved from one form of bilingual education policy to another. Many tensions and paradoxes that arise from…
Ansah, Gladys Nyarko
Pre-service teacher training has been identified as one of the key factors in the promotion of inclusive education. In this study, 200 final-year pre-service teachers from three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed about their views and knowledge on inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN). The results showed that almost all…
Nketsia, William; Saloviita, Timo
In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…
Adjei, Paul Banahene
Malaria accounts for over 40% of all outpatient consultations in Ghana. A common drug use problem associated with its treatment with chloroquine is over- and under-dosage and a preference for the intramuscular route of administration. Inadequate treatment is an important factor in the selection of resistant strains of malaria parasites. To ensure the proper management of diseases at health centres
David Ofori-Adjei; Daniel K. Arhinful
Although malaria or fever (as it is commonly referred to) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ghana, the cost of treating the disease in the country has not been well documented. Knowledge about the cost of treating malaria can affect the health care seeking behaviour of people and justify increased expenditure for malaria control. This study used
W. K. Asenso-Okyere; Janet A. Dzator
This study was based on the assumption that in Ghana, women who return late to higher education combine domestic and academic work and, in the process, experience tensions and difficulties in the face of cultural and academic prejudice. It employed an interpretive qualitative research approach via narrative interviews with eight mature…
Adu-Yeboah, Christine; Forde, Linda Dzama
A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that…
Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
This paper contributes to the continuing debate over the multifaceted concept of trust, and its ability to provide a richer explanation of processes of economic activity. Using case studies of agricultural production, marketing and financing systems in Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana, the analysis documents the means by which trust is created among farmers, traders and agricultural input suppliers. The
This is an exploratory descriptive study that examined migration of locally trained doctors from Ghana using graduates of the country's first medical school as a proxy. The objectives of the study were to describe trends in the loss of medical personnel to emigration and the influence this has on human resources planning, including forecasting of staff supply and requirements. It
Delanyo Dovlo; Frank Nyonator
One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…
Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba
In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in…
There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators regarding the implementation of the…
van der Geugten, Jolien; Dijkstra, Marlies; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H. G.; de Vries, Nanne K.
The Navrongo experiment, a family planning and health project in northern Ghana, has demonstrated that an appropriately designed, community-based family planning program can produce a change in contraceptive practice that had been considered unattainable in such a setting. Simultaneously, however, evidence suggests that newly introduced family planning services and contraceptive availability can activate tension in gender relations. In this society,
Ayaga Agula Bawah; Patricia Akweongo; Ruth Simmons; James F. Phillips
In 2007 Ghana celebrated 50 years of independence from British colonial rule. The golden jubilee offered an opportunity to take stock of how the country had progressed in expanding education and the challenges for the future. This paper offers a critique of the journey, highlighting the challenges and progress. What reforms in education has taught…
We examine the impact of ambiguous and contested land rights on investment and productivity in agriculture in Akwapim, Ghana. We show that individuals who hold powerful positions in a local political hierarchy have more secure tenure rights and that as a consequence they invest more in land fertility and have substantially higher output. The intensity of investments on different plots
Markus Goldstein; Christopher Udry
The study used an adaptation of Provus' discrepancy evaluation model to evaluate a distance teacher education program in the University of Cape Coast, the premier teacher education institution in Ghana. The study involved comparing performance data of the program as perceived by students and faculty/administrators to standards prepared from the…
Sampong, Kwasi Addo
This study examined student teachers' attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Ghana and Botswana. A three-part survey questionnaire consisting of background variables, attitudes, and concerns was completed by 202 students from four teacher training institutions in both countries. One of the institutions was a university and the others…
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Mangope, Boitumelo
Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa
While technology has enabled online education in many countries, the same cannot be said for African public universities. Universities in Ghana have made some progress in building networking infrastructure and acquiring computers, but integrating technology into the teaching and learning process has been a challenge. Instructional delivery remains…
Awidi, Isaiah T.
This paper investigates the respective roles of spatial integration and transport costs in explaining price changes in Ghana. We introduce a model of price formation and market integration that incorporates the price transmission process between local and central markets and also captures the implications for volatility of local prices. We explore the implications of the model for the time-path of
Ousmane Badiane; Gerald E. Shively
This study examines some of the socioeconomic cost of treating 102 cases of Buruli ulcer between 1994 and 1996 at the St. Martin's Catholic Hospital in Agroyesum in the Amansie West district of the Ashanti region of Ghana. Seventy percent of the cases were children (up to 15 years of age). There was no sex difference in the distribution of
KINGSLEY ASIEDU; SAMUEL ETUAFUL
Background: A multicentre study was carried out in Ghana and southern India to determine the aetiology of suppurative keratitis in two regions located at similar tropical latitudes. Studies of fungal keratitis from the literature were reviewed.Methods: Patients presenting at rural and urban eye units with suspected microbial keratitis were recruited to the study. Corneal ulceration was defined as loss of
A K Leck; P A Thomas; M Hagan; J Kaliamurthy; E Ackuaku; M John; M J Newman; F S Codjoe; J A Opintan; C M Kalavathy; V Essuman; C A N Jesudasan; G J Johnson
Gold is frequently mined in rainforests that can provide either gold or forest benefits, but not both. This conflict in resource use occurs in Ghana, a developing country in the tropics where the capital needed for mining is obtained from foreign direct investment (FDI). We use a dynamic model to show that an ad valorem severance tax on gross revenue
Wisdom Akpalu; Peter J. Parks
Gold is frequently mined in rainforests that can provide either gold or forest benefits, but not both. This conflict in resource use occurs in Ghana, a developing country in the tropics where the capital needed for mining is obtained from foreign direct investment (FDI). We use a dynamic model to show that an ad valorem severance tax on gross revenue
WISDOM AKPALU; PETER J. PARKS
The effects of climate change and variability on water availability in Ghana is being felt throughout the country. Coping with water scarcity has become a major issue. Most communities in the Offin River basin are rural with no pipe-borne water, and consist predominantly of farmers who depend on irrigation for their crops. The basin provides the communities with water for
Benjamin Apraku Gyampoh; Monica Idinoba; Steve Amisah
Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education--age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana…
Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong
We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767
Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian
Summary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) now enjoys at least statutory status in a number of Third World Countries (TWCs), including Ghana. Indeed, it is now considered an important tool of policy and control, both at the central government and local\\/district government levels. One of the difficulties, however, in implementing EIA has been the design of an appropriate methodology, in view
Sam Cudjoe Ofori
This article reports on a study of community participation in School "for" Life, a complementary education programme operating in northern Ghana. The researchers investigated three components of community participation: the nature of the mechanisms used to engage community members as participants in the education process; the actors who…
Mfum-Mensah, Obed; Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia
Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…
Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent
When conflicts end the expectation is that the refugees generated by the conflict would repatriate home to be part of the postconflict peace building and redevelopment of the country. This does not necessarily happen with all refugee situations. The article looks at the situation of Liberian refugees who have refused to repatriate from Ghana since the conflict in their country
Over the past three decades, Ghana's economy has been subjected to tremendous macroeconomic reform programmes. The reforms in the national economic system were reflected almost immediately on the urban landscape. One such change is widespread land-use conversion, mainly from residential to commercial spaces. This study examines the major forces driving conversion, processes involved in conversion, conflicts with existing land uses,
Catherine Oosterbaan; Godwin Arku; Alex B. Asiedu
Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…
Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.
Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…
Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.
It has long been recognized that as societies modernize, they experience significant changes in their patterns of health and disease. Despite rapid modernization across the globe, there are relatively few detailed case studies of changes in health and disease within specific countries especially for sub-Saharan African countries. This paper presents evidence to illustrate the nature and speed of the epidemiological transition in Accra, Ghana’s capital city. As the most urbanized and modernized Ghanaian city, and as the national center of multidisciplinary research since becoming state capital in 1877, Accra constitutes an important case study for understanding the epidemiological transition in African cities. We review multidisciplinary research on culture, development, health, and disease in Accra since the late nineteenth century, as well as relevant work on Ghana’s socio-economic and demographic changes and burden of chronic disease. Our review indicates that the epidemiological transition in Accra reflects a protracted polarized model. A “protracted” double burden of infectious and chronic disease constitutes major causes of morbidity and mortality. This double burden is polarized across social class. While wealthy communities experience higher risk of chronic diseases, poor communities experience higher risk of infectious diseases and a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. Urbanization, urban poverty and globalization are key factors in the transition. We explore the structures and processes of these factors and consider the implications for the epidemiological transition in other African cities. PMID:20803094
de-Graft Aikins, Ama
This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…
A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered…
Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac
This paper reports on a study that compared the practice of corporal punishment in ten basic schools in the Greater Accra District in Ghana. Five of the ten schools were designated as inclusive project schools (IPS) and the other five as non-inclusive project schools (NIS). The primary purpose was to find out if the inclusive project schools were…
Agbenyega, Joseph S.
Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…
Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit
This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…
Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability of listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) during a five-year period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Regression analysis is used in the estimation of functions relating the return on equity (ROE) with measures of capital structure. Findings – The results reveal a significantly positive relation between the
Through a case study of Ghana, this article focuses on the relationship between decentralisation and local democracy. The Ghanaian constitution emphasises decentralisation as the key means to ‘making democracy a reality’, reflecting the view common amongst international development agencies that decentralisation enhances local democracy and leads to more responsive government. This article questions such views and investigates whether decentralisation in
In West Africa, farm income is highly exposed to risks from crop failure in the drier, inland areas, and from fluctuations in (world market) prices in the wetter coastal areas. As individuals and even extended families are poorly equipped to deal with these, provision of social safety nets is required Our paper reviews the situation in Ghana and the way
Vasco Molini; Michiel A. Keyzer; Bart van den Boom; Wouter Zant
Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…
Increasing foreign exchange problems and deteriorating prices of traditional export commodities have led policy makers and donor agencies to seek diversification in export crop production. In Ghana, crops such as pineapples and mangoes appear promising because of their high labour intensity and the expanding demand for fruits in Europe. Notwithstanding, there is a possible trade-off between export and food crop
Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…
As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of basic school teachers towards inclusive education in the Hohoe District of Ghana. The research makes use of a descriptive survey design, which engaged both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. A sample size of 100 respondents, comprising of 60 male teachers and 40 female…
Ocloo, Mark Anthony; Subbey, Michael
The need to secure future energy in the forms of electricity and modern cooking fuels is recognized as critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals, particularly poverty reduction, ensuring improved education, health, water supply and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review of the trends, policies, plans and programmes for increasing energy access in Ghana with primary focus on electricity,
Francis Kemausuor; George Yaw Obeng; Abeeku Brew-Hammond; Alfred Duker
Cholera Threat to Humans in Ghana Is Influenced by Both Global and Regional Climatic Variability disappeared from most developed countries some 50 years ago. However, it con- tinues to persist in many parts). Despite improved hygiene in many of these countries, along with advances in diagnostic methods
Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…
Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo
Results are presented from a recent study (Blarez and Mascle, 1986) of the northern Gulf of Guinea margins, particularly off the eastern Ivory Coast and Ghana, where the continental margin is one of the best-preserved examples of an extinct transform margin. The observations support a four-stage model for transform margin evolution. Tectonically active transform contacts, first between normal continental crusts
Jean Mascle; Emmanuel Blarez
Fertility levels remain high in most of sub-Saharan Africa, despite recent declines, and even in a large capital city such as Accra, Ghana, women are having children at a pace that is well above replacement level and this will contribute to significant levels of future population growth in the city. Our purpose in this article is to evaluate the way
Arthur Getis; Allan G. Hill; Samuel Agyei-Mensah; David Rain
This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…
Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra
Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…
Purpose – To ascertain customers' usage level and perceptions of the image of rural community banks (RCBs) in Ghana. This research examines whether women and men differ in their levels of satisfaction and expectation about the banks' services. It also assesses the contribution of RCBs towards infrastructural development in the rural areas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Both desk and primary research methods
We construct, using methods advocated in one strand of the Financial Systems Approach literature, a reform-and-renewal program for one of Ghana's struggling Rural Banks--the Kaaseman Rural Bank. Questionnaire results, local informal financial practices, recent institutional innovations in Ghanaian finance, the experiences of successful \\
Harlan M. Smith; Abor Yeboah
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find out how financial capital from rural banks is contributing to the livelihoods development of women farmers who constitute the most vulnerable and disadvantaged group in Ghana and other developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Women farmers were randomly sampled, resulting in 100 beneficiary and 100 non-beneficiary women farmers who were used for
M. A. Akudugu
Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…
Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen
Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…
Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses
A spatio-temporal linear dynamic model has been developed for patching short gaps in daily river runoff series. The model was cast in a state-space form in which the state variable was estimated using the Kalman smoother (RTS smoother). The EM algorithm was used to concurrently estimate both parameter and missing runoff values. Application of the model to daily runoff series in the Volta Basin of West Africa showed that the model was capable of providing good estimates of missing runoff values at a gauging station from the remaining series at the station and at spatially correlated stations in the same sub-basin.
Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.
Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)
... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...
Thermokarst lakes, which form from thawing permafrost, alter landscapes and hydrology and can release significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. To learn more about the dynamics of thermokarst lakes, Kessler et al. created a three-dimensional numerical model of these lakes that includes the surrounding topography. They simulated 10,000 years of evolution of two small thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula in Alaska and studied the pattern of methane production and emission over time. They found that the rate of methane production depends on the rate of expansion of thermokarst lakes into ancient permafrost and that local topography strongly influences the rate of expansion and drainage of the lakes. One lake, located in relatively flat surroundings, expanded rapidly and drained many times, while the other, surrounded by steeper slopes, grew more slowly and drained only partially. Thus, topography is an important control on thermokarst lake dynamics and methane emission. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, doi:10.1029/2011JG001796, 2012)
Thermokarst lakes, which form from thawing permafrost, alter landscapes and hydrology and can release significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. To learn more about the dynamics of thermokarst lakes, Kessler et al. created a three-dimensional numerical model of these lakes that includes the surrounding topography. They simulated 10,000 years of evolution of two small thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula in Alaska and studied the pattern of methane production and emission over time. They found that the rate of methane production depends on the rate of expansion of thermokarst lakes into ancient permafrost and that local topography strongly influences the rate of expansion and drainage of the lakes. One lake, located in relatively fat surroundings, expanded rapidly and drained many times, while the other, surrounded by steeper slopes, grew more slowly and drained only partially. Thus, topography is an important control on thermokarst lake dynamics and methane emission. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, doi:10.1029/2011JG001796, 2012)
The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…
This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…
New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows a pipe top and raft...
In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. The gas burst in 1986 from the 200-m...
This 9-page PDF examines the importance of Yellowstone Lake to humans in prehistoric times. The shorelines around the lake have been eroding and exposing artifacts that remain hidden elsewhere in the Park. The archeological sites expose artifacts, mostly rock chips, which point to seasonal occupations such as stone procurement, tool manufacture and repair.
Ann M. Johnson
We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…
Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.
The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE
As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...
In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high concentrations of Al are associated with shallow wells and ponds. There is a highly positive correlation (r = +1) between Fe and Al, suggesting that dissolution of weathered lateritic material (e.g., Fe oxides, gibbsite, etc.) is the common source for these elements. Manganese concentrations are generally within acceptable limits, except for 11 wells that have concentrations above the guideline limit of 0.1 mg/L. These anomalous concentrations may be associated with manganiferous deposits in the study area. A majority of the samples contain very low concentrations of the trace elements Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Se; however, the highest concentrations occur in areas where small-scale mining is practiced.
Apambire, W. B.
The acidification of lakes in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York was estimated directly by comparing data from historic (1929-1934) and modern (1975-1985) regional surveys of lake chemistry. The authors performed new analyses concerning the quality of the data, rejecting all historic pH data and many modern alkalinity values. When the historic data were corrected for a bias between titration procedures, they found a median loss of 50 ..mu..equiv/L alkalinity in 274 lakes with paired data. Eighty percent of the lakes showed a decline in alkalinity. The observed acidification was greatest in the lakes at high elevation and was of the same magnitude as the current precipitation acidity in the region.
Asbury, C.E.; Vertucci, F.A.; Mattson, M.D.; Likens, G.E.
Spectral irradiance has been measured as a function of depth in Crater Lake, Oregon, and Lake Tahoe, California. In Lake Tahoe, Secchi disk observations and submarine pho- tometer measurements have been recorded year round since July 1967. Also, in Lake Tahoe, beam transmittance has been measured as a function of depth. From these data the radiant energy input and certain
RAYMOND C. SMITH; JOHN E. TYLER; CHARLES R. GOLDMAN
Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the
Floyd C. Cornelius; Kenneth M. Muth; Roger Kenyon
The dynamics of a large tropical lake, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, are described using field data and the 3D Estuary and Lake Computer Model (ELCOM). ADCP data from November 1998 and CTD data spanning September 1998 to April 1999 are presented. Seawater enters Lake Maracaibo via an augmented natural connection to the Gulf of Venezuela, which allows an influx of seawater
Bernard E. Laval; Jörg Imberger; Angelos N. Findikakis
This work aimed to inform the design of ceramic pot filters to be manufactured by the organization Pure Home Water (PHW) in Northern Ghana, and to model the flow through an innovative paraboloid-shaped ceramic pot filter. ...
Miller, Travis Reed
2.5 billion people worldwide do not have access to improved sanitation and Sub-Saharan Africa is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target. As of 2010, Ghana has achieved 14% national improved sanitation coverage and ...
Questad, Adam (Adam David)