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Sample records for volta lake ghana

  1. Importance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum to transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 5 years of sampling for Bulinus rohlfsi in human-water contact sites of villages along the Volta Lake, Ghana, have confirmed that the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum, is the most important ecological factor for sustaining high levels of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium. Data available so far indicate that growth of this weed largely determines the size of the snail populations. Increasing density of Ceratophyllum correlates with increasing levels of cercarial transmission potential in the water contact sites and of S. haematobium infection in the village populations. PMID:6975187

  2. Stories from Lake Volta: the lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa

    2015-02-01

    Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268

  3. Techniques for estimating densities of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and its horizontal distribution in Volta Lake, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.; Vanderburg, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi is the intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis, which is highly endemic in the man-made Volta Lake. In 1971, a WHO/UNDP schistosomiasis project was established in the Pawmpawm branch and part of the Afram branch of Volta Lake. Malacological findings of the preliminary phase indicated that the snails were distributed in the littoral zone of the lake, and that this distribution was correlated with the presence of vegetation, especially Ceratophyllum. Transmission nearly always occurred in “water contact sites”, i.e., places where people come into contact with water. A snail-sampling technique with palm-leaf mats was developed and standardized after it had been shown in sensitivity trials to compare favourably with a modified version of the “man—time” sampling method, in which the number of snails collected per man-hour is recorded. It is recommended that both these methods should be used to conduct ecological studies of B. rohlfsi in water contact sites. PMID:1088354

  4. Epidemiology of human Schistosoma haematobium infection around Volta Lake, Ghana, 1973-75

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D.; Senker, K.; England, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    There was a dramatic rise in the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis around Volta Lake within a year of its full impoundment in 1968. Research was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in preparation for a control programme. The interplay of three factors—age, sex, and ethnic affiliation—largely defined the demographic patterns of the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Both of these increased in young children up to a peak at age 10-14 years, and then declined, the intensity of infection more rapidly than the prevalence. The prevalence and intensity of infection were both greater in males than females (above ages 15-24 years and 5-9 years, respectively), and differences between the two main ethnic groups were related to differences in their lake-related activities. Differences between the patterns of prevalence and intensity of infection are attributed to the greater sensitivity of the latter measurement in indicating changes in the level of transmission. Practical difficulties were encountered in obtaining a precise measurement of incidence, the most important being the considerable degree of population movement. A field cohort study showed a seasonality of transmission, greatest between January and April, during the period of high level of the lake and in the early part of the draw-down. Research on the intermediate snail host (Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi) and lakeside ecology established the focality of transmission at human water-contact sites serving the shore-line communities and, in conjunction with parasitological surveys, its seasonality: variations in ecology that accompanied the annual rise and fall of the lake led to high levels of transmission when the water level was high and lower levels during the draw-down. The geographical distribution of the infection was also affected by differences in ecology, specifically by variations in the distribution and abundance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum demersum. A non-seasonal decline in transmission observed in one locality during the period from 1973 to 1975 resulted from a local decrease in the amount of Ceratophyllum. PMID:6979420

  5. 154. Credit JE. Sections of Lake Nora penstock at Volta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Credit JE. Sections of Lake Nora penstock at Volta ready to go into the trench. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 237). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  6. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

  7. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy

  8. Ecological studies of Bulinus rohlfsi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1977-01-01

    In the present ecological study of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana, habitat observations and sampling of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi were conducted within a 60-km stretch of shoreline. Observations revealed that human water contact sites in each village undergo constant changes in shape and vegetation. Snail sampling surveys in water contact sites were carried out monthly (for 27 months) in 8 villages using newly designed palm-leaf traps, and in 8 additional villages (for 16 months) using a modification of Olivier & Sneidermann's man—time method. Results to date confirm the finding by Chu & Vanderburg that cercarial transmission in the lake takes place almost exclusively within water contact sites. Additional results indicate that even within individual water contact sites this transmission is focal, most infected snails being found very close to the shoreline. Transmission also varies significantly according to shape, vegetation, and geographical location of the water contact sites, and is distinctly seasonal in most villages. These findings lead us to conclude that control of cercarial transmission in the Volta Lake is both attainable and feasible with existing methods. PMID:304396

  9. Ecological studies of Bulinus rohlfsi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, R K; Chu, K Y

    1977-01-01

    In the present ecological study of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana, habitat observations and sampling of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi were conducted within a 60-km stretch of shoreline. Observations revealed that human water contact sites in each village undergo constant changes in shape and vegetation. Snail sampling surveys in water contact sites were carried out monthly (for 27 months) in 8 villages using newly designed palm-leaf traps, and in 8 additional villages (for 16 months) using a modification of Olivier & Sneidermann's man-time method. Results to date confirm the finding by Chu & Vanderburg that cercarial transmission in the lake takes place almost exclusively within water contact sites. Additional results indicate that even within individual water contact sites this transmission is focal, most infected snails being found very close to the shoreline. Transmission also varies significantly according to shape, vegetation, and geographical location of the water contact sites, and is distinctly seasonal in most villages. These findings lead us to conclude that control of cercarial transmission in the Volta Lake is both attainable and feasible with existing methods. PMID:304396

  10. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two countries concerning shared water resources can take place.

  11. Mercury accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) at the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2010-11-01

    The concentration of mercury in the tissues of the clam, Galatea paradoxa at in the Volta estuary, Ghana, were analysed over an 18-month period, from March 2008 to August 2009. The concentrations were well below the International Human Consumption Advisory Limit of THg (0.5 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations in the tissues of the different clam size classes were between 6 and 18 times lower than the WHO Safety Reference Standard. Variation in the mean mercury concentration in the different clam size classes was not significant (p > 0.05) for clams from Aveglo but were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for clams from Ada, indicating a possible effect of size on accumulation. G. paradoxa is therefore suitable for human consumption based on the WHO Safety Reference Standards. PMID:20972534

  12. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has been done assessing the impact of hydropower schemes on aquatic mammals especially in Africa. HIPStrA is the first attempt at developing a computer-based habitat model for a large aquatic megaherbivore. The need for energy for development, the availability of large rivers and a rich biodiversity base in Africa makes a case for careful and ecological smart exploitation. The overarching aim of the study is the sustainable development of hydroelectric power through the use of methodologies and tools to rigorously assess changes in instream conditions that impact aquatic mammals.

  13. Coupled surface water and groundwater modeling over the White Volta Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittinger, S. T.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alfa, B.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable livelihood in the semiarid White Volta Basin in Northern Ghana is dependent on the availability and sustainable development and management of water resources for agricultural activities. Currently, almost all agricultural activities are rain-fed and thus depend on the frequency, spatial, and temporal distribution of rainfall. Recent erratic patterns in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in the basin—largely consistent with the effects of a warming climate—have led to dwindling fortunes in the rain-fed agricultural enterprise. On the other hand, surface water bodies in the forms of rivers and streams are ephemeral and therefore do not serve the immediate irrigation needs of the populations especially in the dry seasons. The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources to support local irrigation schemes in the basin has been suggested as a possible buffer against the effects of dwindling rainfall on agriculture in the basin and has the potential of raising the standard of living of the communities dwelling there. Conjunctive surface water/groundwater use involves the balanced application of both groundwater and surface water resources for maximal socio-economic benefit whilst ensuring ecological integrity. However, a detailed assessment of the potentials of the aquifers for commercial development has been constrained by the limited or no understanding of the surface water-groundwater interactions in the basin within the context of climate change/evolving patterns of climate variability and human activities. Here, we present preliminary results from simulations of coupled surface water and groundwater availability and flow over the Volta Basin using an integrated hydrological model.

  14. [An attempt to explain fertility differentials in Upper Volta and in Ghana].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, S P; Pool, I

    1975-01-01

    This study examines fertility differentials in Western Africa, notably in Upper Volta and in Ghana. The relationship between social and cultural transformation and fertility rate is usually seen as a matter of cause and effect. Direct variables caused by social transformation would be education, migration, and urbanization. This is not necessarily so, at least according to the Davis-Blake paradigm, which says that there are intermediate variables which intervene between fertility rate and the social system. For West Africa such variables are of 3 distinct types: 1) those which upset the normal flow of the family, such as separation due to migration, divorce, and marriage age; 2) those which influence conception itself, such as birth control, lactation and sexual abstinence; and, 3) cultural factors, such as poligamy and monogamy, type of conjugal union, and postpartum sexual abstinence. The central point of this study is that direct variables, i.e. migration, education and urbanization, do not directly influence fertility, but they influence the so-called intermediate variables, which, in turn, cause a change in fertility patterns. It must be remembered that birth control is still practically unknown in Western Africa. PMID:12262426

  15. Evaporation mapping at two scales using optical imagery in the White Volta Basin, Upper East Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaoré, Halidou; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho; Friesen, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Rodgers, Charles; Szarzynski, Joerg; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    Maps of regional distributions of evaporation provide critical information on the interactions between land surface and the atmosphere since they allow (i) to follow where, when, and how much water has moved into the atmosphere by evaporation; (ii) to monitor crop performance and the effects of droughts for famine prediction; (iii) to better evaluate the performance of irrigation systems; and (iv) to improve weather predictions. Since evaporation is subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine its spatial and temporal distributions over large areas from ground measurements alone. Therefore, estimation from remote sensing images is very attractive as it enables extensive area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study, the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) is used to map evaporation in the White Volta Basin of Ghana, West Africa, at the start and at the end of the dry season using Landsat and MODIS images. The study objective is to use an independently developed land use/land cover (LULC) map for the evaluation and qualitative validation of SEBAL for evaporation mapping at spatial scales of 30 m (Landsat) and 1000 m (MODIS). The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL is an accurate algorithm for mapping evaporation over tropical areas where few or no ground measurements are available using common satellite products such as Landsat and MODIS.

  16. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  17. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods - The Volta region, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1956 ??S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ??S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage. ?? 2009 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH.

  18. Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kweku, Margaret; Webster, Jayne; Taylor, Ian; Burns, Susan; Dedzo, McDamien

    2007-01-01

    Background Coverage of vulnerable groups with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Ghana, as in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa is currently low. A voucher scheme was introduced in Volta Region as a possible sustainable delivery system for increasing this coverage through scale-up to other regions. Successful scale-up of public health interventions depends upon optimal delivery processes but operational research for delivery processes in large-scale implementation has been inadequate. Methods A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC). Results During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions. Conclusion Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making so that the delivery model with the best probability of success within a given context is implemented. Rigorous monitoring has an important role to play in the successful scaling-up of delivery of effective public health interventions. PMID:17274810

  19. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

  20. Geophysical evidence for a major palaeochannel within the Obosum Group of the Volta Basin, Northern Region, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessell, Mark; Boamah, Kwame; Duodu, John Agyei; Ley-Cooper, Yusen

    2015-12-01

    We have identified a 230 km long palaeochannel cutting through the sediments of the Obosum Group within the Volta Basin, Ghana. The channel is visible in regional airborne magnetic data as a pair of parallel magnetic anomalies which we interpret to be lateral terrace placer deposits of magnetite or maghemite and show both meandering and braided geometries. The palaeochannel is also visible in the airborne radiometric data for part of its length, as well as in airborne electromagnetic data, where it is marked by a zone of low conductivity. The meanders have a wavelength of around 20 km and together with the 2 km spacing between magnetic anomalies, suggest a major palaeo-river system, of as yet unknown age, although based on published detrital zircon ages for the host sediments and geomorphological arguments it is probably between 509 ± 68 and 45 Ma, and is comparable in size to the modern-day Niger River. Given the known occurrences of alluvial gold and diamonds in Ghana, and the general prospectivity of meandering and braided rivers systems, we believe the region has exploration potential for a range of economically valuable minerals, and could also potentially host a shallow aquifer.

  1. Health insurance in Ghana: evaluation of policy holders’ perceptions and factors influencing policy renewal in the Volta region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health insurance is an important mechanism that succors individuals, states and the nation at large. The purpose of this study was to assess individual’s attitude towards health insurance policy and the factors that influence respondents’ decision to renew their health insurance policy when it expires. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in the Volta region of Ghana. A total of 300 respondents were randomly sampled and interviewed for the study. Data was collected at the household level and analyzed with STATA software. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the demographic characteristics of the respondents while Logistic regression model was used to assess factors that influence respondents’ decision to take up health insurance policy and renew it. Results The study results indicate that 61.1% of respondents are currently being enrolled in the NHIS, 23.9% had not renewed their insurance after enrollment and 15% had never enrolled. Reasons cited for non-renewal of insurance included poor service quality (58%), lack of money (49%) and taste of other sources of care (23%). The gender, marital status, religion and perception of health status of respondents significantly influenced their decision to enroll and remain in NHIS. Conclusion NHIS has come to stay with clients testifying to its benefits in keeping them strong and healthy. Efforts therefore must be put in by all stakeholders including the community to educate the individuals on the benefits of health insurance to ensure all have optimal access. PMID:23822579

  2. Relationship between gonad maturation and heavy metal accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 μg/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r(2) = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 μg/g and 79 to 484 μg/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r(2) = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r(2) = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 μg/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r(2) = 0.1730). PMID:21947544

  3. Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

  4. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.

  5. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment.

    PubMed

    Quarcoopome, Theodore; Amevenku, Francis; Ofori-Danson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. PMID:22208085

  6. Length-weight relationship of the freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Amisah, S; Otchere, F A

    2013-02-15

    The length-weight relationship of the threatened freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana was studied over a two-year period, from March 2008 to February 2010, to aid in the development of stock assessment models for the sustainable management of the remaining clam stock. Data reported in this study were collected at monthly intervals and covered varying depths of the Estuary ranging from 0.5 to about 10 m. Overall, a total of 5276 clams with shell lengths ranging from 3.40 to 89.24 mm and total weight from 0.10 to 154.00 g were sampled during the study period. The length-weight relationships were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for all the months and the b-values ranged from 2.023 (January 2010) to 3.874 (June 2009). The calculated b-values indicated that clams exhibited different growth patterns at different periods but overall, the pooled samples of 5276 individuals exhibited an isometric growth pattern (b = 3.003). The observed monthly growth patterns exhibited by G. paradoxa appeared to be largely influenced by the reproductive cycle of the organism. During the periods leading to spawning, the clams generally exhibited positive allometric growth patterns (weight increasing faster than length) which appeared to be strongly linked to the build-up of proteins and carbohydrates in their tissues. Successive negative allometric growth patterns (length increasing faster relative to weight) were, however, observed from March to June 2008 and from December 2009 to February 2010, which are possibly indicative of the loss in tissue weight that occurs as a direct result of the spawning process. It will thus be suitable to institute a close season to coincide with the spawning period of the clams to avoid the harvesting of clams during the spawning period which will enhance future recruitment of the clam stock. PMID:24171267

  7. Physical and isotopic characteristics in peri-urban landscapes: a case study at the lower Volta River Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.; Sarfo, M. A.; Salifu, M.; Aidoo, F.; Fuseini, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the application of selected multivariate techniques: display methods (principal component analysis) and unsupervised pattern recognition (cluster analysis) in an attempt to discriminate sources of variation of water quality. PCA has allowed the identification of a reduced number of latent factors with a hydrochemical meaning: natural and anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural activities) factors, which also agrees with the R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Q-mode HCA also corroborates the results of the correlation analysis in relation to sampling sites established on hydrochemical parameters, indicating that there are no spatial and temporal characteristics among the sampling sites in the study area. The suitability of river water for irrigation use was assessed in the study area. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity data on a semilog axis suggests that river water provides good irrigation quality in the area. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, 100 % of the river water samples fall in C1-S1 (low salinity-low sodium type) group, which provides good irrigation quality to river water from this area. Also, all the data points showed permeability index values in Class II category which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Recorded magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio showed that <50 % of the river water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes. Stable isotope data of water (δ18O and δ2H) obtained revealed that stream waters joining the Volta River were depleted and possibly recharged by rain and waters from the Akwapim Mountains (located at the western part of the Volta River) than the isotopically heavy evaporated waters found within the Lower Volta River. These results would therefore be useful for water balance studies in the study area.

  8. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions. PMID:26404337

  9. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-10-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87-1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83-0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86-1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82-0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions. PMID:26404337

  10. Past and present mercury flux to a West African crater lake (Lake Bosomtwe/Bosumtwi, Ghana).

    PubMed

    Poste, Amanda E; Muir, Derek C G; Otu, Megan K; Hall, Roland I; Hecky, Robert E

    2012-03-15

    Lake sediment cores have been used to reconstruct mercury deposition patterns in many parts of the world; however, no studies to date have used these methods in West Africa, nor are there any published measurements of mercury deposition to this region. We measured mercury in a (210)Pb dated sediment core from a meromictic crater lake in West Africa (Lake Bosomtwe, Ghana). Lake Bosomtwe has a very small catchment area to lake area ratio (1.1) and the sediment mercury profile is expected to reflect past and present atmospheric mercury deposition to the lake. Mercury concentrations in sediments as well as mercury flux to the sediments increased from the mid-1800s to latter half of the 1900s, however there has been a sharp decline in mercury flux to Lake Bosomtwe in recent decades. The recent decline in mercury flux to Lake Bosomtwe's sediments does not appear to be consistent with trends in local, regional or global mercury emissions, and may instead reflect declining global atmospheric mercury concentrations or declining European emissions, highlighting the importance of long-range atmospheric transport of mercury. PMID:22326319

  11. Ghana: Disability and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…

  12. Adolescents and parents’ perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548

  13. Ghana.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Ghana focuses on the following: geography; the people; history (postindependence politics and politics in the 1970s and the 1980s); government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Ghana. For the 1970-84 period, the average annual growth rate was 2.6%. The infant mortality rate was 86/1000 in 1980-82 and life expectancy 55 years. Ghana is situated on West Africa's Gulf of Guinea only a few degrees north of the Equator. Most people live on the coast in the northern areas near the Ivory Coast, and in the principal cities of Accra and Kumasi. Ethnically, Ghana is divided into small groups speaking more than 50 languages and dialects. Among the most important linguistic groups are the Akans, the Guans, the Ga- and Ewe-speaking peoples of the south and southeast; and the Moshi-Dagomba-speaking tribes. In December 1981, Flight Lt. Rawlings and a small group of soldiers launched a successful coup against President Linmann. Rawlings and his colleagues suspended the 1979 constitution, dismissed the President and his cabinet, disolved the Parliament, and proscribed existing political parties. They established the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC). In December 1982, the PNDC announced a plan to decentralize government from Accra to the 10 regions, the districts, and local communities, but the PNDC still maintains overall control by appointing regional and district secretaries. Ghana has a diverse and valuable resouce base. The country is primarily agricultural. Ghana's industrial base is relatively advanced, compared to that of other African countries. The US and Ghana have enjoyed good relations throughout most of Ghana's independence. PMID:12233541

  14. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  15. Basic Design, a Needed Foundation for Designing a Successful Garment: A Case Study of Dressmakers in the Ho Municipality, Volta Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbetodeme, Selom; Amankwa, Joana; Dzegblor, Noble Komla

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the design process in every art form, there are certain guidelines that all professional designers should use. These are known as elements and principles of design. This study is a survey carried out to assess the knowledge of dressmakers about basic design in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. Sixty dressmakers were randomly sampled for…

  16. Mixing of Schistosoma haematobium strains in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.; Kpo, H. K.; Klumpp, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    In Ghana, Schistosoma haematobium exists as two strains, one transmitted by Bulinus rohlfsi and the other by B. globosus. In Anyaboni, a resettlement town, where the field station of the UNDP/WHO Schistosomiasis Research and Control Project is located, the residents contract the ”rohlfsi” strain of the parasite from the Volta Lake and the ”globosus” strain from a stream near the town. The present studies indicate that there is mixing of the two parasite strains on a community and an individual basis. In Anyaboni, the parasite developed well in both B. rohlfsi and B. globosus. In another village 25 km from Accra, where B. globosus was the only vector, the parasite developed well in B. globosus but was refractory in B. rohlfsi. In a village near the Volta Lake where B. rohlfsi was the sole vector, the parasite developed well in B. rohlfsi but was refractory in B. globosus. However, complete separation of the two strains is uncommon in Ghana because extensive mixing has already occurred owing to migration of people and snails. PMID:310361

  17. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Elliot Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011) and post-impoundment (2012) periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35 microm mesh size and 0.25m2 mouth surface area) from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100 m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%), Chlorophyceae (43%), Cyanophyceae (48.6%) and Euglenophyceae (0.8%) were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%), Chlorophyceae (26.1%) and Cyanophyceae (71.7%) were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/M3) to August (106 cells/m3) in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1237 cels/m3) to August (4 cells/m3). The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean phytoplankton abundance than the wet season during the 22 months of sampling period. The biotic indices of Shannon-Wiener (HI) were homogenously distributed in the four hydrological seasons of the two years. The phytoplankton groups, Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae and total phytoplankton differed significantly (p<0.05) between the pre- and post-impoundment periods. The total phytoplankton was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in the upstream station than the downstream station indicating the impact of the impoundment on the downstream ecology. Hence, river management strategies should be implemented by hydro-biologist to lessen the impact of the dam on the downstream ecology. PMID:26299112

  18. On the potentials of multiple climate variables in assessing the spatio-temporal characteristics of hydrological droughts over the Volta Basin.

    PubMed

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E; Awange, Joseph L; Corner, Robert J; Kuhn, Michael; Okwuashi, Onuwa

    2016-07-01

    Multiple drought episodes over the Volta basin in recent reports may lead to food insecurity and loss of revenue. However, drought studies over the Volta basin are rather generalised and largely undocumented due to sparse ground observations and unsuitable framework to determine their space-time occurrence. In this study, we examined the utility of standardised indicators (standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised runoff index (SRI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and multivariate standardised drought index (MSDI)) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage to assess hydrological drought characteristics over the basin. In order to determine the space-time patterns of hydrological drought in the basin, Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a higher order statistical technique was employed. The results show that SPI and SRI exhibit inconsistent behaviour in observed wet years presupposing a non-linear relationship that reflects the slow response of river discharge to precipitation especially after a previous extreme dry period. While the SPI and SSI show a linear relationship with a correlation of 0.63, the correlation between the MSDIs derived from combining precipitation/river discharge and precipitation/soil moisture indicates a significant value of 0.70 and shows an improved skill in hydrological drought monitoring over the Volta basin during the study period. The ICA-derived spatio-temporal hydrological drought patterns show Burkina Faso and the Lake Volta areas as predominantly drought zones. Further, the statistically significant negative correlations of pacific decadal oscillations (0.39 and 0.25) with temporal evolutions of drought in Burkina Faso and Ghana suggest the possible influence of low frequency large scale oscillations in the observed wet and dry regimes over the basin. Finally, our approach in drought assessment over the Volta basin contributes to a broad framework for hydrological drought monitoring that will complement existing methods while looking forward to a longer record of GRACE observations. PMID:27064845

  19. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both input and output) as the driving force, and facilitate people’s access to land and water.

  20. Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.

  1. Alessandro Volta and the politics of pictures.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    An astute diplomat, Alessandro Volta secured the patronage of Napoleon Bonaparte to promote his rise to fame as an electrical expert. Reciprocally, politicians helped their own causes by presenting him as a national as well as a scientific figurehead. PMID:19879000

  2. The ICDP Lake Bosumtwi impact crater scientific drilling project (Ghana): Core LB-08A litho-log, related ejecta, and shock recovery experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Alexander; Luetke, Sabine; Heinrich, Volker

    The 1.07 Myr old Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana was drilled within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Project (ICDP). Hole LB-08A, drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift and with a total depth of 451 m, yielded 215.71 m of impact-related rocks. This paper summarizes observations of the lithological logging on core LB-08A. Between a depth of 235.6 and ~260 m, the section consists of a melt-bearing allochthonous, polymict, and mostly clast-supported impact breccia. Down to ~418 m, the section comprises a rather uniform unit of metagraywacke alternating with phyllite to slate (lower greenschist facies); few (par-) autochthonous impact breccia bodies and rare impact dike breccias are present. The lowermost part of the section contains several centimeter- to decimeter-thick melt-bearing breccia dikes in country rocks identical to those occurring above. Omnipresent fracturing was mapped in a qualitative manner. Most prominent shock effects in the uplifted target rocks comprise planar fractures and deformation elements in quartz and polysynthetic twinning in carbonate minerals; the maximum shock pressure as evidenced by quartz is below 26 GPa. The allochthonous breccias occasionally contain a few vol% of melt particles. Suevites occur outside the crater rim, carrying diaplectic crystals, coesite, and ballen quartz as well as true melt glasses and a variety of lithic clasts, among those spectacular staurolite-rich mica-schists. The recorded shock level in the uplifted target rocks is lower than expected and modeled. Shock recovery experiments with analogue carbonaceous graywackes at 34 and 39.5 GPa yielded nearly complete transformation of quartz into diaplectic glass. We therefore exclude a specific shock behavior of the soft, fluid-rich target material (carbonaceous graywackes, shales, slates) in core LB-08A as the prime or only reason for the melt deficit and the generally low shock levels recorded inside the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater.

  3. Precipitation in the Black Volta Basin of Western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppong Kwakye, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation is a climate variable that influences the hydrology and water resources of an area. The Black Volta basin in West Africa is a "fast developing" catchment which recently has the Bui Dam in Ghana with an installed capacity of about 400MW of power. The basin covers an area of about 150,000 km2 and spans from 7N to 15N and 5 24`W to 1W. For any hydrological or climate model, one has to know the spatial and or temporal trend of this important variable (i.e Precipitation). Again, with the impact of climate changes on hydrology, a deeper understanding of the Precipitation in an area is extremely justified. In this study, the annual rainfall cycles, annual sums of rainfall as well as what influences precipitation in the Black Volta Basin are investigated. Precipitation time series for about 20 stations ranging from 1961 to 2005 was used. At the end, the spatial interpolation method called Kriging is used to regionalize rainfall in the catchment and maps of long-term monthly and annual rainfall mean was produced. The results depict the different climates in the catchment which ranges from a sub-humid climate in the south to a semi-arid climate in the north of the basin. There is also a bi-modal annual rainfall cycle at the south of the catchment and a uni-modal cycle towards the north of the basin. The precipitation has a decreasing gradient towards the north of the basin which is all in consonant with previous studies and results by other researchers. A correlation analysis was performed on what influences precipitation in the catchment and at the end, it was revealed that the distances of the rain gauges from the coast influences precipitation and not the elevations. This knowledge was used as the external drift during the Kriging. These revelations would be very helpful during the set-up, calibration and validation of both hydrological and climate models.

  4. Volta and Galvani: New Electricity from Old. Experiment No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…

  5. Late Quaternary sedimentological and climate changes at Lake Bosumtwi Ghana: new constraints from laminae analysis and radiocarbon age modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W., Jr.; King, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast. This is inconsistent with a simple southward shift in the mean position of the monsoon rainbelt, and requires changes in moisture convergence as a result of either a reduction in the moisture content of the tropical rainbelt, decreased convection, or both.

  6. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  7. Transduction-like gene transfer in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 x 10(-5) (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10(-3) (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.

  8. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.

  9. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS.

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, G; Baresi, L

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated. Images PMID:3034867

  10. Mapping energy balance fluxes and root zone soil moisture in the White Volta Basin using optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho; Friesen, Jan; Compaore, Halidou; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Rodgers, Charles; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2006-05-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture is critical for evaluation of background characteristics. Since these fluxes are subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine their spatial and temporal distributions over large areas from ground measurements alone. Therefore, prediction from remote sensing images is very attractive as it enables extensive area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land as implemented at New Mexico Tech (SEBAL NM) is used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes in the White Volta Basin of Ghana, West Africa. The objectives are (i) to demonstrate a SEBAL NM application in a part of the world were ground measurements are very scarce and (ii) to compare evapotranspiration (ET) maps obtained from Landsat and MODIS imagery, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL NM can be applied for mapping sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture over areas where few or no ground measurements are available using common satellite products (Landsat and MODIS).

  11. Midwifery homeopathy in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Paulette, Glenis

    2012-12-01

    This is a personal account of my visit to Ghana, through a UK run charity which promotes and teaches homeopathy and community health education. As a midwife volunteer, my primary aim was to become familiar with local customs, advising on childbirth and pregnancy care and teaching local Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) some basic homeopathy for potential use in labour. I reflect on my community experience and contrast it with typical institutional care within Ghana and my own independent midwifery practice in the UK. I have outlined the indications for some commonly used homeopathic remedies. PMID:23304861

  12. Country Profiles, Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaisie, S. K.; And Others

    A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Area Handbook for Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Irving; And Others

    The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

  14. [Occurrence of human fascioliasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pile, E; Gazeta, G; Santos, J; Coelho, B; Serra-Freire, N

    2000-08-01

    Through the result of coprologics exams, accomplished in patients assisted in Volta Redonda hospitals, the first occurrence of the human fascioliasis is marked in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:10973164

  15. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 × Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); São Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.

  16. The Medical System in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Drislane, Frank W.; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana is a developing country in West Africa with a population of about 25 million. Medical illnesses in Ghana overlap with those in developed countries, but infection, trauma, and women’s health problems are much more prominent. Medical practice in rural Africa faces extremely limited resources, a multiplicity of languages (hundreds in Ghana), and presentation of severe illnesses at later stages than seen elsewhere. Despite these limitations, Ghana has established a relatively successful national medical insurance system, and the quality of medical practice is high, at least where it is available. Ghana also has a well-established and sophisticated administrative structure for the supervision of medical education and accreditation, but it has proven very difficult to extend medical training to rural areas, where health care facilities are particularly short of personnel. Physicians are sorely needed in rural areas, but there are few because of the working conditions and financial limitations. Hospital wards and clinics are crowded; time per patient is limited. This article details some of the differences between medical practice in Ghana and that in wealthier countries and how it functions with very limited resources. It also introduces the medical education and training system in Ghana. The following article describes an attempt to establish and maintain a residency training program in General Medicine in a rural area of Ghana. PMID:25191147

  17. Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ∼ 200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created "on the fly" by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

  18. Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ∼200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created “on the fly” by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

  19. Electron cryotomography of vitrified cells with a Volta phase plate.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Laugks, Ulrike; Lučić, Vladan; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2015-05-01

    Electron cryotomography provides a means of studying the three dimensional structure of pleomorphic objects, such as organelles or cells, with a resolution of 1-3nm. A limitation in the study of radiation sensitive biological samples is the low signal-to-noise ratio of the tomograms which may obscure fine details. To overcome this limitation, the recently developed Volta phase plate (VPP) was applied in electron cryotomographic studies of a wide range of cellular structures, from magnetotactic bacteria to primary cultured neurons. The results show that the VPP improves contrast significantly and consequently the signal-to-noise ratio of the tomograms, moreover it avoids disturbing fringing artifacts typical for Zernike phase plates. The contrast improvement provided by the VPP was also confirmed in projection images of relatively thick (∼400nm) samples. In order to investigate the respective contributions of the VPP and the energy filter, images acquired with different combinations of the two were compared. Zero-loss energy filtering reduced the background noise in thicker areas of the sample and improved the contrast of features such as poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules in magnetotactic bacteria, whereas the VPP provided an overall contrast improvement for all sample areas. After 3D reconstruction, tomograms acquired with the combination of a VPP and an energy filter showed structural features in neuronal processes with outstanding clarity. We also show that the VPP can be combined with focused ion beam milling to examine structures embedded deeply inside cells. Thus, we expect that VPP will become a standard element of the electron cryotomography workflow. PMID:25770733

  20. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3.

    PubMed

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J; Gerrard, Juliet A; Mitra, Alok K; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  1. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  2. Re-Thinking Arts Education in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flolu, E. James

    2000-01-01

    Describes the educational system within the country of Ghana. Focuses on music education. Discusses the visual arts that constitute vocational skills within education. Addresses the need to move toward a systematic philosophy of arts education in Ghana. (CMK)

  3. An Analysis of Some Factors That Affect Curriculum Implementation in Upper Volta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouedraogo, Mathieu R.

    Proposed reforms in the educational system of Upper Volta have brought to the surface a variety of opposing and negative reactions against implementing suggested changes. Factors that have emerged to hamper change are: (1) language of instruction (French vs Voltaic); (2) concentration on productive instruction (e.g., animal husbandry) gives rise…

  4. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. PMID:25444887

  5. Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa based on the GLOWA Volta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in the Volta Basin, and represents the first comprehensive, publicly accessible data- and meta-database for the Volta Basin. The Geoportal can be used to search for data, for interactive mapping or the download of ready-made maps, and to publish and share new data and research results. Local institutions are actively involved in acquiring data for the Geoportal, and trained in its operation. For the contributing institutions, the ability to manage data access and use rights (publicly available, available to defined user groups, available upon request) is of great importance. It allows them to publish the existence of their data and facilitate access to it without sacrificing their ownership rights. The Geoportal can be accessed at http://131.220.109.6/Geoportal

  6. Water footprint of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity

  7. Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.R. ); Cobbinah, J.R. )

    1993-06-01

    The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ghana social mobilization analysis.

    PubMed

    Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings. PMID:2037495

  9. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    PubMed Central

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  10. Identification of a vanadate-sensitive, membrane-bound ATPase in the archaebacterium methanococcus voltae

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, R.M.; Konisky, J.

    1987-09-01

    Membrane-bound ATPase activity was detected in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae. The ATPase was inhibited by vanadate, a characteristic inhibitor of E/sub 1/E/sub 2/ ATPases. The enzyme activity was also inhibited by diethylstilbestrol. However, it was insensitive to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, ouabain, and oligomycin. The enzyme displayed a high preference for ATP as substrate, was dependent on Mg/sup 2 +/, and had a pH optimum of approximately 7.5. The enzyme was completely solubilized with 2% Triton X-100. The enzyme was insensitive to oxygen and was stabilized by ATP. There was no homology with the Escherichia coli F/sub 0/F/sub 1/ ATPase at the level of DNA and protein. The membrane-bound M. voltae ATPase showed properties similar to those of E/sub 1/E/sub 2/ ATPases.

  11. A photovoltaic power system in the remote African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Martz, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and a water pump was installed in the remote West African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta. Village characteristics as well as system design, hardware, installation and operation to date are described. The PV system cost is discussed. A baseline socio-economic study performed and a follow-up study is planned to determine the impact of the system on the villagers.

  12. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.

  13. Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

    2010-12-01

    As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

  14. Energy transduction in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae is based on a sodium current.

    PubMed Central

    Dybas, M; Konisky, J

    1992-01-01

    We provide experimental support for the proposal that ATP production in Methanococcus voltae, a methanogenic member of the archaea, is based on an energetic system in which sodium ions, not protons, are the coupling ions. We show that when grown at a pH of 6.0, 7.1, or 8.2, M. voltae cells maintain a membrane potential of approximately -150 mV. The cells maintain a transmembrane pH gradient (pH(in) - pH(out)) of -0.1, -0.2, and -0.2, respectively, values not favorable to the inward movement of protons. The cells maintain a transmembrane sodium concentration gradient (sodium(out)/sodium(in)) of 1.2, 3.4, and 11.6, respectively. While the protonophore 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide inhibits ATP formation in cells grown at pH 6.5, neither ATP formation nor growth is inhibited in cells grown in medium at pH 8.2. We show that when grown at pH 8.2, cells synthesize ATP in the absence of a favorably oriented proton motive force. Whether grown at pH 6.5 or pH 8.2, M. voltae extrudes Na+ via a primary pump whose activity does not depend on a proton motive force. The addition of protons to the cells leads to a harmaline-sensitive efflux of Na+ and vice versa, indicating the presence of Na+/H+ antiporter activity and, thus, a second mechanism for the translocation of Na+ across the cell membrane. M. voltae contains a membrane component that is immunologically related to the H(+)-translocating ATP synthase of the archaeabacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Since we demonstrated that ATP production can be driven by an artificially imposed membrane potential only in the presence of sodium ions, we propose that ATP production in M. voltae is mediated by an Na+-translocating ATP synthase whose function is coupled to a sodium motive force that is generated through a primary Na+ pump. Images PMID:1324904

  15. Ghana: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the exploration by Petro-Canada International Assistance Corp. and Phillips offshore in Tano North and Tano South basins which indicate oil and gas potential. Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. has identified areas where the two West African states can cooperate and is ready to assist in exploration. Ghana National Petroleum Corp. plans a 10-well program in Tano basin. Exploration efforts are concentrated around Accra-Keta basin, saltpond oil fields and Tan basins.

  16. [Air pollution and living conditions: a geographical analysis of health risk in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Peiter, P; Tobar, C

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution is a widely recognized hazard to human health. In industrial cities the emission of toxic gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere compounds the pollution problem caused by circulation of vehicles, often creating hazardous public health situations. The goal of this study was to analyze patterns in pollution and living conditions in Volta Redonda and identify more vulnerable areas and population groups. Volta Redonda is a city near Rio de Janeiro with 250,000 inhabitants and Brazil's main steel industrial complex. The presence of several factories in the city, especially the huge CSN steel plant, contributes to increased air pollution levels, to the point that this city is one of the most heavily polluted in the country. The methodology applied to identify areas and groups of people most vulnerable to this sort of pollution utilized a GIS software. The study showed that the northwestern area of Volta Redonda had the worst environmental and living conditions. PMID:9761600

  17. [Air pollution and living conditions: a geographical analysis of health risk in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Peiter P; Tobar C

    1998-07-01

    Air pollution is a widely recognized hazard to human health. In industrial cities the emission of toxic gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere compounds the pollution problem caused by circulation of vehicles, often creating hazardous public health situations. The goal of this study was to analyze patterns in pollution and living conditions in Volta Redonda and identify more vulnerable areas and population groups. Volta Redonda is a city near Rio de Janeiro with 250,000 inhabitants and Brazil's main steel industrial complex. The presence of several factories in the city, especially the huge CSN steel plant, contributes to increased air pollution levels, to the point that this city is one of the most heavily polluted in the country. The methodology applied to identify areas and groups of people most vulnerable to this sort of pollution utilized a GIS software. The study showed that the northwestern area of Volta Redonda had the worst environmental and living conditions.

  18. [Dengue in Burkina Faso (ex-Upper Volta): seasonal epidemics in the urban area of Ouagadougou].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J P; Du Saussay, C; Gautun, J C; McCormick, J B; Mouchet, J

    1985-01-01

    During the rainy season of 1982 30 patients (29 european and 1 voltaic) presented with an intense dengue-like syndrome in Ouagadougou city. 73.3% of these cases possessed anti-flavivirus fluorescent antibodies while 30%, were positive for specific anti-Dengue IgM antibodies. Vero type E 6 cell cultures were used to isolate six strains of Dengue 2 virus; monoclonal antibodies were used for viral identification. These strains constitute the first isolates of human Dengue virus in Upper Volta. Authors present conditions of virus isolations, describe the observed syndrome and discuss the epidemiological interest of this outbreak. PMID:3886182

  19. Isolation of a coenzyme M-auxotrophic mutant and transformation by electroporation in Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed Central

    Micheletti, P A; Sment, K A; Konisky, J

    1991-01-01

    An auxotrophic mutant of Methanococcus voltae was isolated that required coenzyme M (CoM) for growth. With the mutant as a recipient, conditions were developed that allowed the introduction of wild-type CoM+ DNA into the mutant methanogen via electroporation. This method also allowed the rescue of both a histidine and purine auxotroph as well as the introduction of DNA determining resistance to the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Electroporation of the CoM(+)-determining DNA was 50- to 80-fold more efficient than natural transformation. PMID:1904435

  20. The Volta Grande do Xingu: reconstruction of past environments and forecasting of future scenarios of a unique Amazonian fluvial landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Hartmann, G. A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Parra, M.; Antinao, J. L.; Sousa, L. M.; Sabaj Pérez, M. H.; Oliveira, P. E.; Santos, R. A.; Savian, J. F.; Grohmann, C. H.; Medeiros, V. B.; McGlue, M. M.; Bicudo, D. C.; Faustino, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Xingu River is a large clearwater river in eastern Amazonia and its downstream sector, known as the Volta Grande do Xingu ("Xingu Great Bend"), is a unique fluvial landscape that plays an important role in the biodiversity, biogeochemistry and prehistoric and historic peopling of Amazonia. The sedimentary dynamics of the Xingu River in the Volta Grande and its downstream sector will be shifted in the next few years due to the construction of dams associated with the Belo Monte hydropower project. Impacts on river biodiversity and carbon cycling are anticipated, especially due to likely changes in sedimentation and riverbed characteristics. This research project aims to define the geological and climate factors responsible for the development of the Volta Grande landscape and to track its environmental changes during the Holocene, using the modern system as a reference. In this context, sediment cores, riverbed rock and sediment samples and greenhouse gas (GHG) samples were collected in the Volta Grande do Xingu and adjacent upstream and downstream sectors. The reconstruction of past conditions in the Volta Grande is necessary for forecasting future scenarios and defining biodiversity conservation strategies under the operation of Belo Monte dams. This paper describes the scientific questions of the project and the sampling surveys performed by an international team of Earth scientists and biologists during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. Preliminary results are presented and a future workshop is planned to integrate results, present data to the scientific community and discuss possibilities for deeper drilling in the Xingu ria to extend the sedimentary record of the Volta Grande do Xingu.

  1. Isolation of flagella from the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae by phase separation with Triton X-114.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmokoff, M L; Jarrell, K F; Koval, S F

    1988-01-01

    The flagella of Methanococcus voltae were isolated by using three procedures. Initially, cells were sheared to release the filaments, which were purified by differential centrifugation and banding in KBr gradients. Flagella were also prepared by solubilization of cells with 1% (vol/vol) Triton X-100 and purified as described above. Both of these techniques resulted in variable recovery and poor yield of flagellar filaments. Purification of intact flagella (filament, hook, and basal body) was achieved by using phase transition separation with Triton X-114. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified flagella revealed two major proteins, with molecular weights of 33,000 and 31,000. This result indicates the likely presence of two flagellins. The filament had a diameter of 13 nm. The basal structure consisted of a small knob, while a slight thickening of the filament immediately adjacent to this area was the only evidence of a hook region. Flagella from three other Methanococcus species were isolated by this technique and found to have the same ultrastructure as flagella from M. voltae. Isolation of flagella from three eubacteria and another methanogen (Methanospirillum hungatei [M. hungatii]) by the phase separation technique indicated that the detergent treatment did not affect the structure of basal bodies. Intact ring structures and well-differentiated hook regions were apparent in each of these flagellar preparations. Images PMID:3127380

  2. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  3. Looking within the household: gender roles and responses to malaria in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Nyonator, Frank K

    2006-04-01

    Studies of factors affecting treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study supported district-level government workers in the Volta Region of Ghana in conducting a situational analysis of gender inequities in relation to the malaria burden and access to healthcare services for malaria in one community in their district. Qualitative and participatory methods, such as focus group discussions, in-depth individual interviews and ranking exercises, were used. The study found that women who lacked either short- or long-term economic support from male relatives, or disagreed with their husbands or family elders about appropriate treatment-seeking, faced difficulties in accessing health care for children with malaria. This illustrates the significant influence of women's access to resources and decision-making power on treatment-seeking behaviour for children with febrile illnesses, and the importance of approaching malaria management in the community or household from a gender perspective. PMID:16214194

  4. Analysis of drug resistance in the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae with respect to potential use in genetic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Possot, O.; Gernhardt, P.; Klein, A.; Sibold, L.

    1988-03-01

    The sensitivity of the methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae to 12 inhibitors was tested in liquid medium. Four compounds appeared to be inhibitors of growth. Their MICs were as follows: pseudomonic acid, 0.1 ..mu..g/ml (0.19 ..mu..M); puromycin, 2 ..mu..g/ml (3.6 ..mu..M); methionine sulfoximine, 30 ..mu..g/ml (170 ..mu..M); and fusidic acid, 100 ..mu..g/ml (170 ..mu..M). On solid medium, the MICs were similar and the frequency of spontaneous resistance was found to be 5 x 10/sup -5/ (methionine sulfoximine), 10/sup -7/ (pseudomonic acid), and <10/sup -7/ (puromycin and fusidic acid). Pseudomonic acid was found to inhibit isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase activity as measured by the in vitro aminoacylation of M. voltae tRAN with L-(U-/sup 14/C) isoleucine. Fusidic acid and puromycin were shown to inhibit poly(U)-dependent polyphenylalanine synthesis in S30 extracts. Acetylpuromycin was inhibitory at much higher concentrations both in vivo and in vitro for M. voltae. Thus, the pac gene of Streptomyces alboniger, which is responsible for acetylation of puromycin and which conferred resistance to puromycin when introduced in eubacterian and eucaryotes, is a potential selective marker in gene transfer experiments with M. voltae. The latter was recently shown to be transformable. The same would be true for the cat gene of Tn9, which enodes resistance to fusidic acid in eubacteria in addition to resistance to chloramphenicol.

  5. Coordinate positive regulation of genes encoding [NiFe] hydrogenases in Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Mller, S; Klein, A

    2001-08-01

    Two transcription units encoding selenium-free [NiFe] hydrogenases in Methanococcus voltae are transcribed only upon selenium deprivation. Their products replace or complement selenocysteine-containing isoenzymes. The transcription units are linked by a 453-bp intergenic region, and are subject to both positive and negative transcriptional regulation. The mechanism of positive regulation was studied in detail. Mutations in identical 11-bp putative activator recognition sites close to each promoter showed that each site is involved in the activation of both promoters. Sequence-specific DNA-affinity chromatography yielded a 55-kDa protein which specifically recognized the 11-bp sequence. We consider this protein to be a transcriptional activator for both transcription units. PMID:11523779

  6. First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

  7. Cost-effectiveness of blindness prevention by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in Upper Volta*

    PubMed Central

    Prost, A.; Prescott, N.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in Upper Volta. The analysis uses a new approach to the measurement of health project effectiveness, by considering the number of healthy years of life added by the prevention of permanent disability and premature death attributable to onchocercal blindness. The approach emphasizes the central role of social value judgements in allocating health resources—in particular the relative weights assigned to preventing disability and postponing death, present and future health benefits, and health gains among productive and non-productive individuals. The quantitative results yield the following cost-effectiveness estimates for blindness prevention through onchocerciasis control: US$20 per year of healthy life and per productive year of healthy life added, and US$150 per discounted year of healthy life and per discounted productive year of healthy life added. As an illustrative example, a comparison is made with estimates of the cost-effectiveness of measles immunization. PMID:6439428

  8. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  9. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  10. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking water, with the lowest at 29.6% in the Volta region. The overall rate of access to improved sanitation was just 14.9%. The findings show significant regional differences, with the three Northern Regions having worse education, income, and sanitation levels, compared to Southern and Central Regions of the country. Conclusion Household characteristics and intra-household dynamics have been shown to influence health and health-seeking behaviors across a number of contexts and countries, and play a fundamental role in the well-being of older Ghanaians. SAGE Ghana is part of a multi-country study using standardized questionnaires and tested methodologies to provide household level data required to inform policy on the growing population of older adults in Ghana. With the good response rates and measures instituted to assure quality of data, this article demonstrates the high quality data and research methods of SAGE. PMID:23759325

  11. Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID:20441816

  12. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  13. Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Duah, S.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Burt, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ∼2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

  14. Report on a preliminary survey by the WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team in Upper Volta

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    The WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team made a survey in Upper Volta during May and June 1960. Data available indicate that S. haematobium is widely scattered throughout the country and that about 50% of the population, or more than 1.5 million people, are infected at some time during their lives. The examination of faeces is not a common practice, and it is therefore impossible to estimate the prevalence of S. mansoni and the intestinal helminths. The available evidence indicates, however, that S. mansoni is more prevalent in the country than is generally suspected. The distribution of the known snail habitats and the bilharziasis foci indicate that most of the major watersheds are infested, but that transmission sites may be rather sharply defined. It will be necessary to take this and various seasonal factors into consideration in planning a bilharziasis control programme. An analysis of the various public health problems in the country indicated that a programme of bilharziasis control would not be of practical value unless it was combined with a general attack on filth- and vector-borne diseases, and that it was essential to consider such a programme in conneixon with plans for the development of water and soil resources. PMID:20604120

  15. Distribution, levels, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Essumang, David Kofi

    2010-01-01

    The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID). The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 microg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 microg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 microg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 microg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 microg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 microg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, and benzo(j,k)fluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime. PMID:20526527

  16. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. Methods In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. Results In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%. Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals. Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%). From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. Conclusions It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the least efficient hospitals to correct widespread inefficiency. This would include reconsidering the number of hospitals and their distribution, improving efficiency and reducing duplication by closing or scaling down hospitals with efficiency scores below a certain threshold. For private hospitals with inefficiency related to large size, there is a need to break down such hospitals into manageable sizes. PMID:24708886

  17. Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

    Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

  18. Ghana and UAP: Obstacles and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHeer, Andrew N.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the situation of the publishing industry in Ghana, the Ghanaian economy and book availability, the need for a national focal point for publishing, censorship and copyright, interlibrary lending, publications exchanges, and actions at the national and international levels to promote the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) in…

  19. Early Care and Education in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Johnetta Wade

    2001-01-01

    Examines the present state of early care and education in Ghana. Includes historical background related to mission schools and day nurseries prior to independence from Britain. Describes the current registration and supervision of early childhood programs, the types of preschool facilities, and future plans for early childhood development.…

  20. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  1. Assessing the Implementation of Ghana's Patient Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Manu, Abubakar; Atinga, Roger Ayimbillah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the implementation of Ghana's Patients' Charter by investigating the level of awareness and knowledge of the Charter's content, some socio-demographic factors that may influence awareness and knowledge of the Charter and how providers have discharged their responsibilities under the Charter.…

  2. Rights of the Child in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

  3. Lecturers' Views on Ghana's Undergraduate Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the views of 6 university lecturers on Ghana's undergraduate mathematics education. These views were expressed during a mathematics workshop sensitization program on the "contribution of undergraduate mathematics education to the Ghanaian economy." The data consisting of open-ended questions followed by…

  4. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

  5. Cloning, expression and purification of DNA-binding protein Mvo10b from Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jinsong; Yao, Hongwei; Feng, Yingang; Wang, Jinfeng

    2009-04-01

    Mvo10b from the mesophilic archaeon Methanococcus voltae is a member of the Sac10b family which may play an important role in the organization and accessibility of genetic information in Archaea. Since Mvo10b is a DNA-binding protein as the other member in the Sac10b family, to obtain a recombinant Mvo10b requires an efficient and inexpensive expression and purification system for producing the protein free of nucleic acid contamination. Previously, the hyperthermophilic archaeal Ssh10b of the Sac10b family was successfully purified. However, the protocol adopted to purify Ssh10b is not appropriate for purifying the mesophilic Mvo10b. This study describes the successful expression and purification of the recombinant Mvo10b. The expression of recombinant Mvo10b was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the target protein was expressed in the soluble form. The protein was purified by polyethyleneimine (PEI) precipitation followed by nickel ion metal affinity chromatography. The purity of Mvo10b was checked to insure being free of nucleic acid contamination. The final protein yield is about 30mg/l of LB culture. The ensemble of NMR and far-UV CD data shows that the purified Mvo10b has abundant regular secondary structures and is correctly folded, which may have similar 3D structure as its hyperthermophilic counterpart [P62A]Ssh10b. The developed protocol has potential application in the production of the other thermophilic and mesophilic proteins in the Sac10b family. PMID:19041399

  6. Lake Powell

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Lake Powell     View Larger Image ... (14.42 mb)   This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on the ...

  7. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  8. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7 minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  9. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  10. Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana. Technical Paper No. 91. SD Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Leherr, Kay

    As increasing numbers of children in developing nations survive to school age, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers are increasingly focusing on the health and well-being of school-age children and on the possibility of using the infrastructure of the school system to deliver health and nutrition interventions. This research, conducted in…

  11. Schistosomiasis in north-western Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, G. R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of 8 274 people in the Ghana-2101 project area showed that 12% were passing ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the urine, the infection rate rising to a peak of 34% in males 15-19 years of age. S. mansoni, despite the wide distribution of its potential intermediate host, was not encountered in 1 698 boys examined for it. Urinary schistosomiasis in northern Ghana is focal in character and is usually contracted in standing water during the dry season. A method of control was developed that depends on the identification of localities subject to relatively intense and prolonged transmission, followed by dry season mollusciciding of the water sources in each locality infested with the snail hosts. Two such control cycles were carried out in 30 localities. The results suggest that selective, dry season, focal control of schistosomiasis can be effective in reducing transmission. PMID:4549612

  12. Developments in emergency nursing education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Bam, Victoria; Acheampong, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Providing effective emergency nursing is challenging in low- to middle-income countries because of limited resources and an inadequate infrastructure. The role of the emergency nurse is growing throughout sub-Saharan Africa and this will help decrease the burden of acute illness and trauma on both the people and the economies in the area. However, there is a gap in education for emergency nurses in this part of the world which needs to be addressed. This article describes an emergency nursing degree programme in Ghana which was developed in collaboration with a university in the United States and one in Ghana. It also outlines the development and content of the programme and discusses its success and challenges. PMID:26638754

  13. Patterns of female suicidal behavior in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-10-01

    The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863

  14. Two worlds apart: experiential learning in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ware, Sharon Douglass; Winters-Moorhead, Carol

    2009-07-01

    As our society becomes more diverse, it is important for nursing students to become culturally competent and to view the world from a global perspective. Traveling abroad enlightens the senses and expands the worldview. Traveling for study abroad is more than taking a vacation; it affords students the opportunity to learn experientially and it can be a transforming encounter that influences the way an evolving nurse will practice. Nursing students at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, had the opportunity to bridge two worlds, urban life at the university and village life in Dodowa, Ghana, West Africa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that studying abroad has in nurturing experiential learning. The experiences of students from a southern historically Black university that were enrolled concurrently in two summer independent study courses focusing on global healthcare in Ghana, West Africa, are described. PMID:19691186

  15. Rethinking Christian Religious Education in Ghana: History, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai-Mununkum, Richardson

    2014-01-01

    This scholarly essay employs an African philosophical and symbolic construct--Sank?fa--to examine religious education in Ghana. Sank?fa implores the need to examine the past in order to understand the present and to plan for the future. In line with this frame, I recount the history of religious education in Ghana, examine the present challenges,…

  16. Basic School Leaders in Ghana: How Equipped Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkor, Anthony Kudjo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership preparedness of institutional-level practice with focus on basic schools in Ghana. The analysis of documents on teacher training curriculum and, one-on-one and focus group interviews with teachers and school leaders revealed that in all the 38 teacher training institutions in Ghana where teachers are prepared for…

  17. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  18. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country. PMID:26812848

  19. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  20. LAKE FORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

  1. Oil and gas possibilities onshore and offshore Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, G.O.

    1984-09-01

    Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.

  2. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  3. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    PubMed

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  4. Working practices and incomes of health workers: evidence from an evaluation of a delivery fee exemption scheme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Sophie; Kusi, Anthony; Aikins, Moses

    2007-01-01

    Background This article describes a survey of health workers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) which was carried out in 2005 in two regions of Ghana. The objective of the survey was to ascertain the impact of the introduction of a delivery fee exemption scheme on both health workers and those providers who were excluded from the scheme (TBAs). This formed part of an overall evaluation of the delivery fee exemption scheme. The results shed light not only on the scheme itself but also on the general productivity of a range of health workers in Ghana. Methods A structured questionnaire was developed, covering individual and household characteristics, working hours and practices, sources of income, and views of the exemptions scheme and general motivation. After field testing, this was administered to 374 respondents in 12 districts of Central and Volta regions. The respondents included doctors, medical assistants (MAs), public and private midwives, nurses, community health nurses (CHNs), and traditional birth attendants, both trained and untrained. Results Health workers were well informed about the delivery fee exemptions scheme and their responses on its impact suggest a realistic view that it was a good scheme, but one that faces serious challenges regarding financial sustainability. Concerning its impact on their morale and working conditions, the responses were broadly neutral. Most public sector workers have seen an increased workload, but counterbalanced by increased pay. TBAs have suffered, in terms of client numbers and income, while the picture for private midwives is mixed. The survey also sheds light on pay and productivity. The respondents report long working hours, with a mean of 54 hours per week for community nurses and up to 129 hours per week for MAs. Weekly reported client loads in the public sector range from a mean of 86 for nurses to 269 for doctors. Over the past two years, reported working hours have been increasing, but so have pay and allowances (for doctors, allowances now make up 66% of their total pay). The lowest paid public health worker now earns almost ten times the average gross national income (GNI) per capita, while the doctors earn 38.5 times GNI per capita. This compares well with average government pay of four times GNI per capita. Comparing pay with outputs, the relatively high number of clients reported by doctors reduces their pay differential, so that the cost per client – $1.09 – is similar to a nurse's (and lower than a private midwife's). Conclusion These findings show that a scheme which increases demand for public health services while also sustaining health worker income and morale, is workable, if well managed, even within the relatively constrained human resources environment of countries like Ghana. This may be linked to the fact that internal comparisons reveal Ghana's health workers to be well paid from public sector sources. PMID:17241454

  5. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced. PMID:21708026

  6. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Desquesnes, M; Dia, M L; Losson, B; De Deken, R; Geerts, S

    2004-06-10

    The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity and environmental change was suspected to be higher in the Savelugu District. A cross-sectional entomological survey conducted along the White Volta river and its tributaries confirmed the presence of only Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides. The challenge index as measured by the product of tsetse density and tsetse infection rate was much higher in the West Mamprusi (19.6) than in the Savelugu district (4.7). A total of 1013 cattle (508 in Savelugu and 505 in West Mamprusi) were bled from a random selection of 16 villages in the Savelugu District and 13 villages in the West Mamprusi District. Blood samples were examined for trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique (BCT). Blood samples that were positive in the BCT or negative in the BCT but with packed cell volume (PCV) values below 21 were further tested with a polymerase chain reaction for trypanosomal DNA. Plasma samples of all cattle were serologically tested with an indirect ELISA for trypanosomal antibodies. The parasitological and serological prevalence of bovine trypanosomoses was significantly higher in West Mamprusi (16 and 53%, respectively) than in Savelugu District (8 and 24%, respectively). An evaluation of animal health at the village herd level, using PCV as an index of anaemia, provided various epidemiological scenarios prevalent in the entire study area. PMID:15158552

  7. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the most abundant and the concentrations of sums of DDTs were in tens of pg m-3. This suggests that the main source of DDTs was possibly due to past agricultural and public health usage. The soil concentrations of DDTs at the various sites were however negligible (approx. 1 ngg-1). The highest levels of HCHs were recorded in November and December 2008. HCB and PeCB concentrations in air were low and uniform and soil levels of HCB and PeCB were negligible. Only traces of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were detected from both sites. PCBs were found at levels typical for the urban sites and the levels at the Kwabenya site were slightly lower than those measured at the East Legon site. Levels of PCBs at the rural/agricultural site (Lake Bosumtwi) were relatively lower than those measured at the urban sites. The levels of PAHs in ambient air were quite high at all sites with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Benzo(a)pyrene (a known carcinogen) levels in ambient air were however very low. The highest levels of PAHs were detected in January 2008, February 2008 and July/August 2008 at Kwabenya, East Legon, and Lake Bosumtwi, respectively. PCDD/F levels were also quite high, maximal I-TEQ was the third highest in the African region (after Egypt and Senegal). Keywords: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Background Concentrations; Ghana; PUF-disk sampler

  8. The changing face of women in physics in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah

    2013-03-01

    Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.

  9. Neurogenomics: Challenges and opportunities for Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.; Quansah, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The application of genomic tools and technologies has shown the potential to help improve healthcare and our understanding of disease mechanisms. While genomic tools are increasingly being applied to research on infectious diseases, malaria and neglected tropical diseases in Africa, an area that has seen little application of genomic approaches on this continent is neuroscience. In this article, we examined the prospects of developing neurogenomics research and its clinical use in Ghana, one of the African countries actively involved in genomics research. We noted that established international research funding sources and foundations in genomic research such as H3ABioNet nodes established at a couple of research centres in Ghana provide excellent platforms for extending the usage of genomic tools and techniques to neuroscience-related research areas. However, existing challenges such as the (i) lack of degree programmes in neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics; (ii) low availability of infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists; and (iii) lack of local research funding opportunities, need to be addressed. To promote and safeguard the long-term sustainability of neurogenomics research in the country, the impact of the existing challenges and possible ways of addressing them have been discussed. PMID:26751686

  10. Effective programmes for improving nutrition in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agble, R

    1997-12-01

    This brief article identifies some lessons learned from effective programs for improving nutrition in Ghana. The Ghana nutrition program was initiated in the mid-1980s with the introduction of corn milling machines in over 50 communities. The milling machines were donated by UNICEF. The milling machines were used for the production of an improved cereal and a legume-based weaning food (Weanimix). The program included training and nutrition education. After the program was underway, an income generation component was added. The income from the sale of milled cereal was used to support other community-based activities. The number of mothers using the new weaning food increased. Maternal knowledge of basic nutrition improved in project communities compared to non-project communities. The program contributed to greater household food security and improved nutritional status of children. One important lesson learned was that, in order for community interest to remain high, there must be quality operation and few breakdowns of the milling machines. It is also important for agencies and nongovernmental groups to collaborate and define roles carefully. This program was successful in remote rural communities. Existing women's groups managed the project and maintained a simple record system to monitor progress. An appropriate amount of supervision is necessary to prevent laxness in the community from too little supervision or lack of initiative from too much supervision. The program staff was undecided regarding the use of incentives. PMID:12293189

  11. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  12. Pyramid Lake

    Pyramid Lake, Nevada, not only holds deep cultural connections for the Paiute Tribe and tribal member Dan Mosely (pictured), but also supports a tribal economy centered on fishing and recreational activities. ...

  13. Women in science in Ghana: The Ghana science clinics for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Anderson, Christina Oduma; Ababio, Baaba Andam; Asenso, Yaa Akomah; Nyarko, Savanna

    2015-12-01

    The Ghana Science Clinics for Girls, started in 1987, gave rise to a paradigm shift in the inclusion of girls in science education. One generation later, we review the impact. Our study indicates that progress has been made in the effort to mainstream women into science studies and careers, mainly as a result of the changes that took place through this intervention strategy. The retention rate for girls in science from primary to university has risen considerably and performance is higher.

  14. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Sustainable improvements in injury surveillance in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adofo, Koranteng; Donkor, Peter; Afukaar, Francis; Boateng, Kofi Adomako; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mortuary is an important foundation for injury surveillance. However, mortuary data are incomplete in many developing countries. Methods The KATH mortuary handles most injury deaths for Kumasi, Ghana. During 1994–5, many cases in KATH’s mortuary logbooks had missing information deaths. A low-cost pilot program was adopted to improve recording of injury deaths. During 1996–9, 633 deaths/year were recorded. Results Project sustainability assessment in 2006 showed that reporting was high, with 773 cases per year. Data quality was standard with similar percents of missing values for key variables compared with the pilot period. Supplemental data constituting 20% was obtained from the ICU, for which data recording in the mortuary was incomplete. Conclusion Low-cost improvements can lead to improved mortuary reporting of injury deaths. Collation of data from multiple sources remains a problem at KATH. Improved organization and training could remedy the situation. PMID:20467961

  16. Examining Antenatal Health Literacy in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Jody R.; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y.; Ackah, Jacqueline V.; Adanu, Richard M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore Ghanaian pregnant women’s understanding and recognition of danger signs in pregnancy, birth preparedness and complication readiness, and their understanding of newborn care. Design An exploratory, qualitative study design was used. Methods Data were gathered through six focus group discussions with 68 pregnant women attending antenatal care at a busy urban hospital in Ghana. Qualitative and descriptive data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Health literacy was used as the guiding framework to analyze the qualitative data. Data were analyzed in the content domains of (a) understanding and recognition of danger signs in pregnancy, (b) preparedness for childbirth, (c) understanding and recognition of danger signs in the newborn, and (d) appropriate and timely referral. Findings Women in this study identified danger signs of pregnancy and in the newborn, but had difficulty interpreting and operationalizing information they received during antenatal care visits, indicating that health education did not translate to appropriate health behaviors. Cultural beliefs in alternative medicine, lack of understanding, and prior negative encounters with healthcare professionals may have led to underutilization of professional midwives for delivery and health services. Conclusions Women in this study exhibited low health literacy by incorrectly interpreting and operationalizing health education received during antenatal care. With limited health literacy, pregnant women cannot fully comprehend the scope of services that a health system can provide for them and their families. Clinical Relevance Achieving the greatest impact with limited time in antenatal care is a challenge. Since antenatal care is widely available to pregnant women in Ghana, it is vital to reexamine the way antenatal education is delivered. Pregnant women must receive health information that is accurate and easy to understand in order to make informed health choices that will improve maternal and child health. PMID:24930782

  17. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  18. ELECTRONIC HEALTH IN GHANA: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  19. Identification of amino acids in the leader peptide of Methanococcus voltae preflagellin that are important in posttranslational processing.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N A; Chao, E D; Jarrell, K F

    2001-04-01

    Archaeal flagellins are made initially as preproteins with short, positively charged leader peptides. Analysis of all available archaeal preflagellin sequences indicates that the -1 position is always held by a glycine while the -2 and -3 positions are almost always held by charged amino acids. To evaluate the importance of these and other amino acids in the leader peptides of archaeal flagellins for processing by a peptidase, Methanococcus voltae mutant FlaB2 preflagellin genes were generated by PCR and the proteins tested in a methanogen preflagellin peptidase assay that detects the removal of the leader peptide from preflagellin. When the -1 position was changed from glycine to other amino acids tested, no cleavage was observed by the peptidase, with the exception of a change to alanine at which poor, partial processing was observed. Amino acid substitutions at the -2 lysine position resulted in a complete loss of processing by the peptidase, while changes at the -3 lysine resulted in partial processing. A mutant preflagellin with a leader peptide shortened from 12 amino acids to 6 amino acids was not processed. When the invariant glycine residue present at position +3 was changed to a valine, no processing of this mutant preflagellin was observed. The identification of critical amino acids in FlaB2 required for proper processing suggests that a specific preflagellin peptidase may cleave archaeal flagellins by recognition of a conserved sequence of amino acids. PMID:11382222

  20. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  1. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

    2012-08-01

    The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

  2. Iceberg Lake

    On Iceberg Lake in Glacier National Park, ice from the glacier is breaking up and melting at a rapid rate.  Cold, glacier fed waters provide crucial habitat for native aquatic species such as trout, and as the ice is disappearing, so are the ideal habitats to sustain native ecosystems.  ...

  3. Science reporting in Accra, Ghana: sources, barriers and motivational factors.

    PubMed

    Appiah, Bernard; Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N; Russell, Leon H

    2015-01-01

    In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents' demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p=.017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters' coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana. PMID:25193967

  4. Determinants of unprotected casual heterosexual sex in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Tuoyire, Derek A; Darteh, Eugene K M

    2014-05-01

    Casual heterosexual sex remains a significant contributor to HIV transmissions in Ghana. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to assess the socio-demographic, economic and spatial factors influencing unprotected casual heterosexual sex among men and women. The results of the binary logistic regression models revealed that women aged 35-44 had significantly higher odds of engaging in unprotected casual heterosexual sex than those aged 15-24, unlike the men. There were significantly lower odds of unprotected casual heterosexual sex for women and men with exposure to print media compared with those without exposure. Compared with men residing in the Western Region, unprotected casual heterosexual sex was significantly less likely among those in the Upper East Region. There is the need for behavioural change campaigns in Ghana that take into consideration the multiplicity of factors that determine unprotected casual heterosexual sex. PMID:23931547

  5. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The limnology program provides information on key environmental factors that influence the food chain and fish of the Great Lakes. The annual monitoring of the Great Lakes began in 1983 for Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie; in 1986 in Lake Ontario; and in 1992 for Lake Superior. T...

  6. Career Ladder Policy For Teachers: The Case Of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the past. After critically assessing the major aspects of the policy, along with the voices of Ghanaian teachers, this study argues that the career ladder policy for teachers in Ghana is another prototypical case of a failed experiment in terms of both improving the lives of teachers and maintaining their professional rights.

  7. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

  8. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  9. The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of

  11. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  12. Oburoni outside the Whale: Reflections on an Experience in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angene H.

    1998-01-01

    Reflects on a social studies teacher's experiences during a Fulbright professorship in Ghana. Relates how, as an outsider from the United States, she learned about Ghanian perspectives of history, economics, women's issues, and culture, and was reminded of the dominating power of Western cultural and economic imperialism. (DSK)

  13. Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

  14. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  15. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C.A.; Zhou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805

  16. Skills Development, Employment and Sustained Growth in Ghana: Sustainability Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Against a backdrop of some two decades of sustained economic growth in Ghana, this paper argues that there are a series of sustainability challenges related to technical and vocational skills development (TVSD) that need to be addressed. This paper analyses several sustainability dimensions of TVSD related to: promoting the sustainability of…

  17. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

  18. Gender, Lineage, and Fertility-Related Outcomes in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F.

    2005-01-01

    A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision

  19. Spatial Analysis of Skilled Birth Attendant Utilization in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Asamoah, Benedict O.; Agardh, Anette; Cromley, Ellen K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality is a major health problem in most resource-poor settings, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, maternal mortality remains high and births attended by skilled health professionals are still low despite the introduction, in 2005, of free maternal health care for all women seeking care in public health facilities. Objectives: This study aimed to explore geographical patterns in the risk of not utilizing a skilled birth attendant during childbirth in women of different socioeconomic backgrounds in Ghana. Methods: Global and Geographically Weighted Odds Ratios (GWORs) were used to examine the spatially varying relationships between low socioeconomic status (low education and low income) and non-utilization of skilled birth attendants based on data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) 2008. Results: Low education and low income were associated with non-use of skilled birth attendants. The GWORs revealed a north-south spatial variation in the magnitude of the association between non-use of skilled birth attendants and low education (Log GWOR ranged from 0.75 to 9.26) or low income (Log GWOR ranged from 1.11 to 6.34) with higher values in the north. Conclusion: The relationship between low socioeconomic status and the non-use of skilled birth attendants in Ghana is geographically variable. Effective governmental and non-governmental interventions are needed to address these regional inequalities. PMID:24999146

  20. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansere, Joe K.; Mensah, Eric A.

    This document contains two case studies, one by J. K. Ansere, concerning the modular program of distance education to prepare teachers in Ghana and the other, by E.A. Mensah, reporting on a research experiment that compared teaching methods used to teach the course of study at a Ghanian worker's college. The modular program described by Ansere is…

  1. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  2. Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexander Kyei; Aboagye, Samuel Kwadwo

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices…

  3. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack

  4. Deaf Sociality and the Deaf Lutheran Church in Adamorobe, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of "deaf sociality" in Adamorobe, a village in Ghana, where the relatively high prevalence of hereditary deafness has led to dense social and spatial connections. Deaf people are part of their hearing environment particularly through family networks, and produce deaf sociality through many…

  5. Deaf Sociality and the Deaf Lutheran Church in Adamorobe, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of "deaf sociality" in Adamorobe, a village in Ghana, where the relatively high prevalence of hereditary deafness has led to dense social and spatial connections. Deaf people are part of their hearing environment particularly through family networks, and produce deaf sociality through many

  6. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

  7. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  8. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  9. Pattern of Intentional Burns to Children in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forjuoh, Samuel N.

    1995-01-01

    A community-based survey of children aged 0 to 5 years in Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 5.4 percent were purposefully inflicted. Perpetrators were mostly friends (43 percent), siblings (37 percent), and traditional healers (6 percent). Healers inflicted burns on children who were comatose after convulsions. (Author/DB)

  10. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature

  11. Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Musah; Preston, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)

  12. Newspaper Framing of Climate Change in Nigeria and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Chinenye; Egbra, Stella

    2016-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of two newspapers from Nigeria and Ghana to determine the coverage and framing of climate change issues for a period of 7 months. The main objective of this study is to find out how climate change stories are framed in Nigerian and Ghanaian national dailies. It was found among others, that the overall dominant…

  13. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  14. Revisiting Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…

  15. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  16. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to

  17. An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

  18. Teachers in Ghana: Issues of Training, Remuneration and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses educational reform in Ghana with reference to one of the most important potential agents of change in any system of schooling--its teachers. The empirical data on secondary teachers and trainee teachers used here is taken from a larger case study of the attitudes and opinions of teachers and parents in the education system of…

  19. Secondary Education in Ghana: Private Enterprise and Social Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibby, John; Peil, Margaret

    1974-01-01

    Evidence from Ghana is presented to show the possibility of downward mobility of elite children through lack of success in a selective educational system and the ability of children from lower status homes to use this system to overcome their initial disadvantages. (Author)

  20. Gender, Lineage, and Fertility-Related Outcomes in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F.

    2005-01-01

    A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision…

  1. Developing Higher Education Programs in Emergency Management: Ghana's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubu, Mariama Bisongu

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is highly vulnerable and threatened by several hazards and has sought ways of minimizing impacts of hazards events over time including demonstrating an interest in developing an emergency management training and an higher education degree program. Yet, as of 2013, the country has not developed a disaster management training program or a…

  2. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  3. Molecular epidemiological studies on animal trypanosomiases in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background African trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted between mammalian hosts by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or T. brucei gambiense, while African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is caused mainly by T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae,T. evansi and T. brucei brucei. Trypanosomiasis is of public health importance in humans and is also the major constraint for livestock productivity in sub-Saharan African countries. Scanty information exists about the trypanosomiasis status in Ghana especially regarding molecular epidemiology. Therefore, this study intended to apply molecular tools to identify and characterize trypanosomes in Ghana. Methods A total of 219 tsetse flies, 248 pigs and 146 cattle blood samples were collected from Adidome and Koforidua regions in Ghana in 2010. Initial PCR assays were conducted using the internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) primers, which can detect most of the pathogenic trypanosome species and T. vivax-specific cathepsin L-like gene primers. In addition, species- or subgroup-specific PCRs were performed for T. b. rhodesiense, T. b. gambiense, T. evansi and three subgroups of T. congolense. Results The overall prevalence of trypanosomes were 17.4% (38/219), 57.5% (84/146) and 28.6% (71/248) in tsetse flies, cattle and pigs, respectively. T. congolense subgroup-specific PCR revealed that T. congolense Savannah (52.6%) and T. congolense Forest (66.0%) were the endemic subgroups in Ghana with 18.6% being mixed infections. T. evansi was detected in a single tsetse fly. Human infective trypanosomes were not detected in the tested samples. Conclusion Our results showed that there is a high prevalence of parasites in both tsetse flies and livestock in the study areas in Ghana. This enhances the need to strengthen control policies and institute measures that help prevent the spread of the parasites. PMID:23025330

  4. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

  5. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications. PMID:26771120

  6. Laboratory-based nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Opintan, Japheth A; Newman, Mercy J; Arhin, Reuben E; Donkor, Eric S; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Mills-Pappoe, William

    2015-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A key target in this intervention is surveillance for local and national action. Data on AMR in Ghana are limited, and monitoring of AMR is nonexistent. We sought to generate baseline data on AMR, and to assess the readiness of Ghana in laboratory-based surveillance. Biomedical scientists in laboratories across Ghana with capacity to perform bacteriological culture were selected and trained. In-house standard operating protocols were used to perform microbiological investigations on clinical specimens. Additional microbiological tests and data analyses were performed at a centralized laboratory. Surveillance data were stored and analyzed using WHONET program files. A total of 24 laboratories participated in the training, and 1,598 data sets were included in the final analysis. A majority of the bacterial species were isolated from outpatients (963 isolates; 60.3%). Urine (617 isolates; 38.6%) was the most common clinical specimen cultured, compared to blood (100 isolates; 6.3%). Ten of 18 laboratories performed blood culture. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli (27.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (14.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), Streptococcus spp. (2.3%), and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (0.6%). Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, and over 80% of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing. Minimum inhibitory concentration levels at 50% and at 90% for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and amikacin on selected multidrug-resistant bacteria species ranged between 2 µg/mL and >256 µg/mL. A range of clinical bacterial isolates were resistant to important commonly used antimicrobials in the country, necessitating an effective surveillance to continuously monitor AMR in Ghana. With local and international support, Ghana can participate in global AMR surveillance. PMID:26604806

  7. Condoms too costly for Ghana's youth.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The Red Cross in Ghana has launched a new project to use peer volunteers aged 14-25 years for educating trade apprentices in and around the capital city. The project has funding from the World Health Organization. The aim is to open conversation about taboo subjects, such as HIV infections and reproductive health. A male and female peer educator hold workshops for about 10 apprentices each week for four weeks. Educators use real-life drama role plays to teach women how to say no to unsafe sex and to expand knowledge of HIV infections and other sexually transmitted diseases. An attempt is made to assess the teenaged apprentices knowledge of AIDS. The risk game is used to test existing knowledge. Peer educators give each participant a card, which is marked either high, low, or no risk. Apprentices are asked to match cards with a series of statements, such as sharing food or sleeping with someone who had HIV infection. Findings from a pre-test reveal that over 50% of the apprentices did not consider themselves at risk of contracting the virus. One outcome of discussion was that appendices found that condoms were too costly. Some apprentices earned only about 12 cents per day, but condoms sold for 9 cents for 3 condoms. Role play scenarios involve boyfriends or associates requesting unprotected sex. In one such role play, it was discovered that girls were exchanging sex for money or gifts without considering it prostitution. At the final meeting the story is told of a girl who contracts HIV. A repeat customer eventually invites her to a party, where she is given alcohol to drink. The customer forces her to have unprotected sex. Years later at the birth of her first child within marriage, it is discovered that the baby was infected with HIV. Discussion follows about what went wrong and about transmission and risk. PMID:12291110

  8. Premarital relationships and livelihoods in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankomah, A

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews with a sample of 400 single women aged 18-25 years from the Fante ethnic group in Cape Coast, Ghana, in 1991, and on focus groups. This case study illustrates the importance of economic and living arrangement support expected from partners in premarital relationships. Support may be for living and maintenance ('chopmoney', provisions, household items, and rent); for financial security (provision of capital); and for clothing and hairdressing. Women did not always require economic support in premarital relationships. Women expect boyfriends to provide 'chopmoney' (money for food and general upkeep) and contribute some money for the rent. Only 36% of sexually active women expected their boyfriends to supply food provisions. Premarital sexual relationships are used to obtain start-up capital. The author refers to evidence that senior government officials engaged in sexual transactions with clients before loans and credit facilities were offered. 87% of sexually experienced women expected their partners to pay for at least part of clothing expenses. The study revealed that there was considerable disparity between women's expectations and actual receipt of economic support. 56% desired, but only 36% received, 'chopmoney' in full. 40% expected their partners to pay for household furnishings in full, while only 10% did so. 55% expected capital, but only 15% received it. The three most frequently received benefits in full were hair dressing, shoes, and dresses. Men provided most non-negotiable items as a means of "boosting their egos." Many young women rely on the support of men in order to improve their status. Ghanaian men control financial resources and economic power. Mothers of adolescent daughters encourage premarital sexual behavior. Prostitution is considered different from sexual exchange relationships. It is argued that gender inequalities and domestic abuse are perpetuated through sexual exchange relationships. PMID:12347714

  9. Rediscovery of lake balls in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.; Owens, Randall W.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time in 70 years, the occurrence of a 'lake ball' in Lake Michigan is here reported in the literature. According to a published system of classification, the object we collected in 1978 was a 'false' lake ball. Dissection revealed that it was colonized by 5 chironomid larvae and 162 oligochaetes. The species and numerical proportions of the oligochaetes indicated that it was formed in or near the mouth of a eutrophic tributary rather than in the open waters of Lake Michigan where it was found. Because of their mobility, false lake balls may be ecologically important, serving as natural vehicles for the dispersal of invertebrates.

  10. Community awareness of stroke in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community awareness of stroke, especially the risk factors and warning signs is important in the control of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about community awareness of stroke though the brunt of stroke is currently borne in this region. The aim of the study was to evaluate stroke awareness in Accra (capital city of Ghana) particularly, the risk factors and warning signs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving systematic sampling of 63 households in each of the 11 sub metropolitan areas of Accra. A structured questionnaire was used to collect stroke awareness data from respondents randomly sampled in the selected households. Logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the main outcome variables including recognition of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs and the organ affected by stroke. Results Only 40% (n = 277) of the 693 respondents correctly identified the brain as the organ affected in stroke. Similarly, less than half of the respondents could recognize any of the established stroke risk factors as well as any of the established stroke warning signs. Over 70% (n > 485) of the respondents either believed that stroke is a preventable disease, or lifestyle alterations can be made to reduce the risk of stroke, or stroke requires emergency treatment. In multivariate analysis, predictors of stroke awareness were: age <50 years (OR = 0.56, CI = 0.35-0.92, p = 0.021), presence of a stroke risk factor (OR = 2.37, CI = 1.52-3.71, p < 0.001) and Christian Religion (OR = 14.86, CI = 1.37-161.01, p = 0.03). Conclusion Though stroke is perceived as a serious and preventable disease in Accra, community awareness of the risk factors and warning signs is sub-optimal. This indicates that community-based education programs to increase public awareness of stroke could contribute to decreasing the risk of stroke and to increasing the speed of hospital presentation after stroke onset. PMID:24559414

  11. Scientific equity: experiments in laboratory education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove

    2013-12-01

    During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa. PMID:24783491

  12. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  13. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  14. Librarians in Ghana: A Survey of their Social Origins and Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the social origins and professional status of librarians in Ghana. Topics discussed include personal characteristics, i.e., age, sex, and marital status; types of libraries; parental influences on career choice; satisfaction with current status; the role of the Ghana Library Association; and the training of nonprofessional staff. (19…

  15. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to…

  16. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to

  17. Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

  18. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

  19. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  20. What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Christopher

    This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

  1. Vocationalizing Secondary Education: The Junior Secondary Schooling Reform of 1987 in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses educational reform in Ghana with reference to the junior secondary schooling. The empirical data on junior secondary teachers and pupils used here is taken from a larger case study of the junior secondary school innovation in Ghana. This offers some new perspectives on the realities of Ghanaian junior secondary schooling,…

  2. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  3. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  4. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  5. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555

  6. Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While…

  7. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2013-12-01

    Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

  9. Traditional Herbalists and Cancer Management in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kieran S.; Annan, Kofi; Lartey, Richard N.; Awuah, Baffour; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) are involved in cancer management. Little is known about the specific role that TMPs play in cancer management in Ghana; we hypothesize that an understanding of the practices of TMPs with regard to cancer patients would help to enhance literacy about cancer amongst TMPs and would contribute to the diagnosis of cancer at earlier stages, by avoiding the detrimental delays while enlisting their help in certain activities that enhance cancer care. To elucidate the nature of the involvement of TMPs in cancer management, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 TMPs who practice in Kumasi, Ghana. The interviews elicited information about their knowledge and practices regarding cancer management and interactions with local hospitals. The results showed that TMPs tended to identify cancers as diseases of visible masses, fungating lesions, ulceration, and bleeding reflecting the advanced stages and types of cancers they usually encounter. TMPs identified certain causes of cancer and believed that they can treat and prevent cancer. These results indicate that TMPs are significant health service delivery resources in Ghana for patients potentially affected with cancer. Our work suggests that dedicated efforts to further integrate TMPs into the overall health care system would be beneficial to patients. Future research should examine the role of cancer education and training programs for TMPs to enhance their knowledge, strengthen their ability to complement allopathic practitioners, and increase early detection and treatment efforts through appropriate and timely referrals. PMID:22549472

  10. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding the selenium-free [NiFe]-hydrogenases in the archaeon Methanococcus voltae involves positive and negative control elements.

    PubMed Central

    Noll, I; Müller, S; Klein, A

    1999-01-01

    Methanococcus voltae harbors genetic information for two pairs of homologous [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Two of the enzymes contain selenocysteine, while the other two gene groups encode apparent isoenzymes that carry cysteinyl residues in the homologous positions. The genes coding for the selenium-free enzymes, frc and vhc, are expressed only under selenium limitation. They are transcribed out of a common intergenic region. A series of deletions made in the intergenic region localized a common negative regulatory element for the vhc and frc promoters as well as two activator elements that are specific for each of the two transcription units. Repeated sequences, partially overlapping the frc promoter, were also detected. Mutations in these repeated heptanucleotide sequences led to a weak induction of a reporter gene under the control of the frc promoters in the presence of selenium. This result suggests that the heptamer repeats contribute to the negative regulation of the frc transcription unit. PMID:10430564

  11. [Financial incentives for employees as part of a policy to upgrade care in a public hospital in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; de Rezende, Maria de Fátima Brito; de Magalhaes, Marta Gama; Pinto, Suely Alves

    2002-01-01

    The authors present and analyze six years of regular and steady application of an institutional evaluation policy based on financial incentives in a public hospital in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, as a part of the hospital's administrative modernization policy. This type of policy is considered implicitly capable of developing a sequence of strategic wagers: (1) release of financial resources for payment of bonuses; (2) creation of an operationally feasible and sensitive evaluation instrument; (3) creation of adequate management mechanisms to improve evaluation policy; (4) employee adherence to the hospital upgrading policy based on the bonus system; and (5) maintenance of the effects of evaluation policy over time. The article discusses the "degree of success" of each of these wagers in an attempt to portray possible gains throughout the process, while also identifying inherent difficulties in such a policy. PMID:12488893

  12. Genetics of the methanogenic bacterium, Methanococcus voltae, with attention to genetic control mechanisms: Progress report, January 15, 1988--January 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Konisky, J.

    1989-02-01

    The overall objective of our program is to both develop a genetic system and understand mechanisms of gene expression for the methanogen, Methanococcus voltae. During the past year we have made progress in several areas. During the last several months, we have had very promising results with regard to the utilization of electroporation for the introduction of DNA into Mc.voltae. In summary, we have been able to demonstrate an approximately 2 to 5 fold increase in transformation via electroporation as compared to the frequency obtained via natural transformation. In the coming year, we intend to further optimize this system and to make a serious effort to introduce plasmid and VLP genome DNA. In our efforts to characterize gene expression in methanogens, we have collaborated with T. Demarco and Ralph Wolfe in cloning an enzyme of the C1 cycle. To catalyze the interconversions mediated by the novel coenzymes of methanogenesis, several enzymes exist which have no common analog in non-methanogenic bacteria. One of these enzymes, formylmethanofuran: tetahydromethanopter in fiormyltransferase was cloned into E. coli HB101. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (H) DNA digested with BAM H1 was ligated into pBR329 and probed with a synthetic oligonucleotide directed against the portion of the gene encoding the amino terminus of the enzyme. The cloned 5.0-kilobase genomic insert contained the entire gene for this polypeptide as well as 200 bp of the upstream region. A ribosome binding site just upstream of the initiation codon was identified, however a promoter was not clearly visible owing to the naturally high A plus T content of this intergenic region. 4 refs.

  13. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.

  14. Lake Michigan Sand Waves

    Calm Lake Michigan morning while sampling dead and dying fish for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). This virus has recently emerged in the Great Lakes and caused severe epidemics in many fish species....

  15. Cladophora Along Lake Michigan

    Large patches of Cladophora, a green algae, lining the shore of Lake Michigan. Accumulation of Cladophora in shoreline waters is believed to be linked to avian botulism outbreaks, which have recently increased in the Great Lakes. ...

  16. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  17. Perception of university students in Ghana about emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Frank; Awini, Elizabeth; Clerk, Christine

    2002-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) refers to methods that women can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, method failure, or incorrect use. There is growing worldwide acceptance and promotion of EC as a measure to reduce the level of unwanted pregnancies and, hence, unsafe abortions. The potential effect of EC in this regard could be most evident in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, the Ministry of Health has since 1996 included EC in its reproductive health service policy and standards. The Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana is the only agency involved in the promotion of EC in the country. Very little is known about societal perception of EC. We undertook a study to assess knowledge and attitude toward EC among a sample of students at the University of Ghana. We used a two-page, self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study among students chosen by random sampling. The aspects of EC assessed included level of knowledge, extent of use, common traditional methods of emergency contraception, as well as socially and culturally acceptable ways to promote EC in Ghana. We also assessed how the availability of EC could influence the use of condoms among male respondents. Less than half (43.2%) of the 194 respondents (88 males and 106 females) had heard of modern emergency contraceptive methods. Postinor-2, a dedicated emergency contraceptive product, which was already on the Ghanaian market, was known to 1.5% of respondents. Only 11.3% of respondents indicated correctly the recommended time within which emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are to be taken after unprotected sex. Taking concentrated sugar solutions, having an enema, and douching were commonly used traditional methods of EC. More than half (55.0%) of the male respondents indicated that they would either "certainly" or "probably" reduce how often they used condoms once they knew that EC was available. Almost all (97.4%) the respondents wanted to learn more about EC. The indications from this study are that the promotion of EC in Ghana is desired and must be encouraged. The fact that EC does not offer protection against sexually transmitted infections should always be emphasized. PMID:12169377

  18. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  19. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  20. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  1. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  2. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows the Lake Nyos pipe ...

  3. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. A small CO2 cloud from Lake Monoun k...

  4. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  5. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.

  6. Earthquake catalogue of Ghana for the time period 1615-2003 with special reference to the tectono-structural evolution of south-east Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, Paulina; Leydecker, Günter; Muff, Rolf

    2012-10-01

    Ghana is situated on the West Africa Craton and far away from any plate boundary. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. The continental and coastal area of southeast Ghana is dominated by the Akwapim fault zone and coastal boundary fault. The Akwapim fault zone represents overthrusts of Neoproterozoic age, but there are also indications of recent faulting on some sections of the fault zone. The coastal boundary fault commenced to become tectonically active in Jurassic times and is probably still active. The two fault systems intersect some tens of kilometers to the southwest of Accra and it is at this intersection where most of the seismic activity has been observed. Historical documents describing damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. The two major destructive earthquakes which struck Southern Ghana occurred close to the capital city Accra in 1862 (intensity IX) and 1939 (intensity VIII). The surveillance of the seismic activity of Southern Ghana with seismometers has been discontinuous with irregular long periods of disruption. All known earthquakes from 1615 to 2003, based on historical documents and instrumental recordings are collected in a data catalogue and compiled in a computer readable format. Based on macroseismic maps and detailed descriptions of the damages, the epicentral intensity of some strong events as well as the radii of different isoseismals could be newly estimated. The catalogue can be the basis for a deterministic seismic hazard assessment for Southern Ghana to develop a building code for this region.

  7. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by undersize (less than 17 inches) lake trout.

  8. Lithological and structural characteristics of the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Interpretation of acoustic televiewer images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunze, Sabine; Wonik, Thomas

    An impact event always creates a cloud of ejecta generated through excavation of the target. Subsequent in-filling of the void by crater-fill deposits provides a record of post-impact processes. Full-core digital photographic scans of core segments from borehole LB-07 in the Bosumtwi impact crater provide a complete record of the in-fill process. The shape, orientation, and size of clasts within the impact breccia were measured using a best-fit ellipsoid approach. Clast size and variance, together with clast orientation data, suggest the impact breccias at Bosumtwi can be divided into a simple two-fold subdivision that loosely agrees with the lithological zonation of a lower monomict breccia overlain by a polymict breccia. The lower unit is characterized by a uniform and finer-grained clast size together with a uniform flat-lying clast orientation. The boundary between the two zones is defined by a sharp increase in clast size. The upper zone shows an average increase in clast size with decreasing depth, but full grain size spectrum together with increased grain size deviation suggest that this is a result of mixing between two populations with different grain size distribution. The main population of clasts shows an incremental decrease of clast size with decreasing depth. The upper zone also contains weakly defined shallowly dipping clast fabrics, which may be suggestive of horizontal transport or deposition onto an inclined surface.

  9. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  10. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  11. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  12. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  13. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public health issue. Thus, disease surveillance strengthening is urgently needed in Ghana. PMID:27146443

  14. Wonsuom--a rural communication project in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boafo, S T

    1984-01-01

    The urban bias of the communication infrastructure in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has comprised a major obstacle to the participation of the rural population in development decsion making. This article describes the Wonsuom rural communication pilot project in Ghana, aimed at providing communication technologies at the grassroots level to enhance the contribution of communication in rural development. When fully operational, the project will use a combination of a rural newspaper published in the local Fante language, rural radio broadcasts, radio listening clubs, and slide projectors to carry development-oriented information to rural communities and mobilize people for development programs. The project, which is carried out by the School of Journalism and Communication of the University of Ghana, covers 22 rural communities with a population of 150,000. The radio programs, started in 1983, include local and national news; discussions involving local community leaders, farmers, fishermen, and extension agents on problems facing the community and on issues such as primary health care and family planning; and features on the achievements of individual community members and development activities. Radio listening clubs meet on a regular basis to listen to the broadcasts, discuss issues highlighted, and deliberate on ways to generate development projects in their community. The discussions are recorded for subsequent broadcast on the program, creating a 2-way communication process. The listening clubs also serve as the focus of social and cultural life in the communities. Publication of the newspaper has been delayed by problems stemming from Ghana's socioeconomic crisis, but newspaper reading clubs are also projected. PMID:12279924

  15. The hydrochemical framework of surface water basins in southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark

    2009-04-01

    Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.

  16. Paleomagnetic and Mineral-Magnetic Results From the Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. W.; Heil, C. W.; Peck, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi is an impact crater lake located at 6.5ºN and 1.5ºW in Ghana. The Bosumtwi impact event and the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field generated by the event have an age of 1.07 Myr. The lake contains an approximately 300m sedimentary section that provides a nearly continuous stratigraphy of this interval. In addition, the majority of the section is annually laminated. Advantages of magnetic studies of Lake Bosumtwi sediments include: (1) duplicate drill holes; (2) high sedimentation rates; (3) laminations allow assessmet of core disturbance; and (4) sediments record polarity transitions, excusions, and possibly paleointensity at a low-latitude site; and (5) Milankovitch and sub- Milankovitch scale paleoclimate variations. Challenges include: (1) low-latitude site location makes it difficult to recognize excursions and polarity transitions; (2) anoxia that produces annual laminations also causes some reductive diagenesis; and (3) some intervals are weakly magnetic and have noisy data. Overall, with respect to its magnetic record, Lake Bosumtwi is neither a "silk purse," nor a "sows ear." We will detail our efforts to maximize the former and minimize the latter.

  17. Malaria epidemiology in the Ahafo area of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The epidemiology of malaria in special areas, such as mining areas needs to be monitored and controlled. Newmont Ghana Gold Limited is conducting mining activities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana that may have an impact on the diseases such as malaria in the mining area. Methods Prior to the start of mining activities, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to determine malaria epidemiology, including malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among children < 5 years and monthly malaria transmission in a mining area of Ghana. Results A total of 1,671 households with a child less than five years were selected. About 50% of the household heads were males. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia was 22.8% (95% CI 20.8 - 24.9). Plasmodium falciparum represented 98.1% (95% CI 96.2 - 99.2) of parasitaemia. The geometric mean P. falciparum asexual parasite count was 1,602 (95% CI 1,140 - 2,252) and 1,195 (95% CI 985 - 1,449) among children < 24 months and ≥ 24 months respectively. Health insurance membership (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.80, p = 0.001) and the least poor (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.90, p = 0.001) were protected against malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was high among children < 24 months compared to children ≥ 24 months (44.1% (95% CI 40.0 - 48.3) and 23.8% (95% CI 21.2 - 26.5) respectively. About 69% (95% CI 66.3 - 70.9) of households own at least one ITN. The highest EIRs were record in May 2007 (669 ib/p/m) and June 2007 (826 ib/p/m). The EIR of Anopheles gambiae were generally higher than Anopheles funestus. Conclusion The baseline malaria epidemiology suggests a high malaria transmission in the mining area prior to the start of mining activities. Efforts at controlling malaria in this mining area have been intensified but could be enhanced with increased resources and partnerships between the government and the private sector. PMID:21801344

  18. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria. PMID:22676841

  19. Balancing nurturance, cost and time: complementary feeding in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a picture of the general patterns of complementary feeding behaviours in urban Ghana. A focused ethnographic study protocol for assessing complementary feeding developed for the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition was used to collect data from caregivers of children 6-24 months of age. We examined the multiple factors that influence the selection of foods for infants and young children in this urban setting, and found that economic factors, health beliefs and other nurturing-related values, access to food and issues of convenience all play important roles. We conclude that the interactions of nurturance, cost and time are vectors that affect feeding decisions. PMID:21929636

  20. Intimate Partner Violence Among Mothers of Sick Newborns in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  1. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  3. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  4. Lakes, Tibeten Plateau, Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pristine lakes in the high Tibeten plateau, (34.0N, 89.5E) one of the most remote regions of the world, are still partially frozen in this early spring photo. The lakes are almost the only source of water to support life in this harsh region and have been formed as a result of the Indian sub continent's incursion into the Asian continent, raising the water table and forming these many lakes in an otherwise barren landscape.

  5. An Analysis of Nursing Education in Ghana: Priorities for Scaling-up the Nursing Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sue Anne; Rominski, Sarah; Bam, Victoria; Donkor, Ernestina; Lori, Jody

    2012-01-01

    The cross-sectional study sought to describe the strengths, challenges and current status of baccalaureate nursing education in Ghana, using a descriptive design. The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives standards were used as the organizing framework, with baseline data on the status of nursing education from two state funded universities in Ghana presented. A serious shortage of qualified faculty was identified, along with the need for significant upgrading to the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the number of qualified applicants far exceeds the available training slots. Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion, however in low resource countries such as Ghana, these issues are compounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury. An understanding of the strengths and challenges of nursing education in Ghana can inform the development of strategies for nursing workforce expansion for other low resource countries. PMID:23347003

  6. Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    2000-01-01

    Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)

  7. Transferred and Adapted Models of Secondary Education in Ghana: What Implications for National Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2003-09-01

    The secondary-education models implemented in Ghana since colonial times constitute a classic case of "educational transfer and adaptation". Transferred from England, and in recent years the United States of America and Japan, these models have had a significant impact on Ghana's development in diverse ways. Yet educational research on Ghana has under-recognized this important issue of "educational transfer and adaptation", especially the relationship between these transferred models and national development. This study addresses such neglect by first focusing on those institutions that served as prototypes. Second, it appraises the models pointing out their implications for national development. It is contended that the foreign models that were adapted (indigenised) have been significant instruments for the human- resource and socio-political development of Ghana. However, their emphasis on the academic type of education ultimately has tended to create a situation of dependency particularly with respect to techno-scientific and economic development.

  8. Review: Abortion care in Ghana: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords “Ghana and abortion” and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  9. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  10. Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-06-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

  11. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data. PMID:22035060

  12. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  13. Further observations on Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus rohlfsi (Clessin) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Fergus S.

    1962-01-01

    Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes. PMID:20604118

  14. Housing and health in three contrasting neighbourhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Arku, Godwin; Luginaah, Isaac; Mkandawire, Paul; Baiden, Philip; Asiedu, Alex B

    2011-06-01

    Although the literature on housing and health is extensive, most research comes from developed countries. Relatively little work on the topic has been done in developing countries such as Ghana where socio-economic and cultural characteristics are generally different. This paper reports on primary research that investigates the relationship between housing and self reported general and mental health in Accra, Ghana. The study focused on how the social and economic dimensions of housing, specifically, demand, control and material attributes (affordability, dwelling type) influence individuals' attachment to their home as a refuge for daily living. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a randomly selected sample (n = 562) in three contrasting neighbourhoods. Overall, housing conditions, demand and control residents have to where they live, emerged as significant predictors of self reported general and mental health status. The influence of these variables superseded well known correlates of health status, income and educational attainment, attesting to their importance in a worsening housing environment. The findings point to the need for policy that recognizes that housing is not only a physical shelter but also an important health resource. PMID:21561698

  15. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  16. Women's cultural perceptions and attitudes towards breast cancer: Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asobayire, Alice; Barley, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates problems confronting breast cancer awareness in Ghana by ascertaining how societal perceptions and attitudes influence women's awareness of breast cancer in the Kassena-Nankana district. Data were gathered through focus group interviews and documentary analysis of current practices within the region. The data were then thematically analysed following an inductive analytical framework. The study concludes that women's perceptions of and attitudes towards breast cancer and its treatment are influenced by a myriad of economic and socio-cultural factors, which practitioners need to take into account when planning public health initiatives. There are a number of economic challenges facing breast cancer education and awareness programmes due to a lack of adequate numbers of specialized health personnel and breast cancer screening facilities in the district. Additionally, socio-cultural factors such as the absence of biomedical terminology in the local language, gender inequality and the prevailing influence of traditional health practitioners further compound the situation. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes of women towards breast cancer can also be improved if husbands of married women and respective community compound heads are targeted by public health educationists to get actively involved in education and awareness campaigns. The need to incorporate indigenous languages in public health educational materials for breast cancer in remote communities of deprived districts of Ghana is also recommended. PMID:24474424

  17. The first private sector health insurance company in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huff-Rousselle, M; Akuamoah-Boateng, J

    1998-01-01

    This article analyses the development of Ghana's first private sector health insurance company, the Nationwide Medical Insurance Company. Taking both policy and practical considerations into account (stakeholders' perspectives, economic viability, equity and efficiency), it is structured around key questions which help to define the position and roles of stakeholders--the insurance agency itself, contributors, beneficiaries, and providers--and how they relate to one another and the insurance scheme. These relationships will to a large extent determine Nationwide's long-term success or failure. By creating a unique alliance between physician providers and private sector companies, Nationwide has used employers' interest in cost containment and physicians' interest in expanding their client base as an entrée into the virgin territory of health insurance, and created a hybrid variety of private sector insurance with some of the attributes of a health maintenance organization or managed care. The case study is unusual in that, while public sector programs are often open to academic scrutiny, researchers have rarely had access to detailed data on the establishment of a single private sector insurance company in a developing country. Given that Ghana is planning to launch a national health insurance plan, the article concludes by considering what the experience of this private sector initiative might have to offer public sector planners. PMID:10185507

  18. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  19. Optical and thermoluminescence dating of Middle Stone Age and Kintampo bearing sediments at Birimi, a multi-component archaeological site in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quickert, Nicole A.; Godfrey-Smith, Dorothy I.; Casey, Joanna L.

    2003-05-01

    We report the first luminescence ages for the archeological and geological sediments forming the substrate of the Birimi archaeological site in the Northern Region of Ghana. The site's significance rests on the fact that it contains a rich collection of artifact assemblages representative of three distinct cultures, and that, on the basis of artifact typology, the earliest assemblage is diagnostic of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) . In situ occurrences of MSA artifacts are found at over 1 m below today's surface. They are overlain by a ceramic-rich complex of a sedentary or semi-sendentary Later Stone Age culture known as the Kintampo. The western half of the site is dominated by the industrial remains of Iron Age smelting activity. Elemental, mineralogical, and sedimentological analysis of the cultural and sub-cultural sedimentary horizons at the site revealed at least three distinct lithostratigraphic units. The quartz sediments are derived from the sandstone of the Gambaga escarpment, mass wasted and accreted fluvially at a rate of 3.2 cm/ka, forming a wide terrace at Birimi. Silts and finer fractions derive from windblown dust, likely from White Volta River and granitic sources to the north. Soil forming processes and wide fluctuations in moisture have progressively reduced the sediments at depth to the resistant quartz and kaolinite, with rich iron oxide coatings, and created two ironstone horizons composed of goethite-cemented quartz nodules. Multiple aliquot green-light stimulated optical ages for 125-150 μm quartz grains yielded ages of 23.6±2.9 and 40.8±11.8 ka for the MSA-bearing sediments, and 58.4±15.3 ka for the base of the terrace. Radiocarbon ages on charcoal from Kintampo-bearing units are 3.36-3.83 ka cal BP, and are supported by thermoluminescence (TL) ages on pottery sherds and burnt house daub fragments of this cultural complex. A 0.4 ka age on sediment from the site's surface confirms that the quartz zeroes well when exposed to natural light. Sediments bearing the Kintampo artifacts, however, yielded ages of 7.8-16.9 ka. These ages were obtained on sediments from large pits, some over 50 cm deep, and they deviate only slightly from the ages expected for naturally aggraded sediments at these depths. We conclude, therefore, that extensive digging of pits by the Kintampo dwellers was followed by rapid refilling, and that the bulk mobilization of the matrix did not permit the sedimentary quartz grains to experience any appreciable zeroing at that time.

  20. Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. PMID:23847431

  1. Antarctic subglacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin J.

    2000-05-01

    Antarctic subglacial lakes were first identified by Robin et al. (1970) after airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) investigations of the ice-sheet interior. Recently, satellite altimetry was used to measure anomalous near-flat regions on the ice-sheet surface that represent a manifestation of the subglacial lake beneath. Using RES and satellite altimetry, the location and extent of Antarctic subglacial lakes can be identified. The largest subglacial lake exists beneath Vostok Station, and is 14,000 km 2 in area. The combined area of additional subglacial lakes beneath Dome C is 15,000 km 2 and at least 15,000 km 2 of lake surface lies beneath the remainder of the ice sheet. The water depth of subglacial lakes can be estimated through seismic investigations (although data exist only for Lake Vostok) and consideration of the bedrock slopes that border subglacial lakes. The depths of many subglacial lakes are of the order of 10's-100's of metres. The total volume of water held beneath the ice sheet is estimated between 4000 and 12,000 km 3. To date, there are six known examples of radio-echo reflections from the lake floors (at a depth of no more than 20 m). Since e/m attenuation through water is related to the salinity, these data indicate that subglacial water is very pure and fresh. Some near-flat surface regions that usually occur over lakes have been observed where no lakes exist. Such features are may be caused by water-saturated basal sediments rather than subglacial lakes. Finally, the spatial variation in geothermal heat flux around the central regions of Antarctica can be established estimated by employing a simple thermal model of the ice sheet under an assumption that the basal ice temperature above subglacial lakes is equal to the pressure melting value. Calculations indicate that the geothermal heat flux varies spatially over the Antarctic Plate between 37 and 65 mW m -2.

  2. Lake Effect Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  4. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  5. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology

  6. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  7. Lake Darling Comparison

    The photo on the left was taken on April 18, 1997 by a USGS Personnel, of the new gates at Lake Darling. The photo to the right was taken on June 13, 2011 by Nathan A. Stroh (USGS), of Lake Darling....

  8. Great Lakes Beach Health

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  9. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... data from MISR's 46-degree forward-looking camera, and green and blue-band data from the nadir camera. In order to facilitate stereo ...

  10. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  11. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows a pipe top and raft...

  13. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. The gas burst in 1986 from the 200-m...

  14. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  15. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  16. Institutional, Legal, and Economic Instruments in Ghana's Environmental Policy.

    PubMed

    Hens; Boon

    1999-10-01

    / This paper reviews the state of the environment in Ghana and explores the potential for the use of institutional, legal, and economic instruments in environmental management in the specific context of this developing country.The environmental situation in Ghana is characterized by desertification, land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate water supply in the northern regions of the country. The population as a whole is growing at a rate of 3% per annum, with even greater urban growth rates, due to rural out-migration. Large parts of the coastal zone in the south are rapidly developing to become one large suburbanized area. Water quality is particularly threatened in the urban and industrialized areas, which are mainly located in the southern part of the country. The coastal lagoons and coastal waters are moderately to heavily polluted. Erosion extends along the whole Ghanaian coast with excesses, for example, in the Keta area, where during the last century over 90% of the original buildings have been washed awayby the sea. The obvious environmental consequences of the mining sector are illustrative of the environmental threats caused by a fast growing industry and industrializing agriculture, in a country where environmental policy is only in its formative years. Desertification, food insecurity and coastal erosion all contribute to an increasing number of environmental refugees.Environmental policy in Ghana is a post-Rio phenomenon. Environmental laws, a Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, an advisory National Committee for the Implementation of Agenda 21, and a fully mandated environmental administration have been established. This administration advocates a progressive attitude towards environmental legislation and points out the specific utility of economic and legal instruments in environmental management in this relatively fast developing country.The choice of instruments for environmental management is increasingly influenced by the specific state of African environmental and technological capacity and by a call for the recognition of the role of traditional customs in nature conservation. This African perspective on environmental management is further intensified by an unmet need for regional, transboundary cooperation in the West African subcontinent. This specific West African context calls for an elaboration of an effective capacity-building program for environmental management in the area.KEY WORDS: Environmental profile; Environmental policy; Legal instruments; Economic instruments; African perspective; State of the environmenthttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n3p337.html PMID:10486044

  17. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  18. The development of community water supplies in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, W. R. W.

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  19. Development of an emergency nursing training curriculum in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: (a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model, (b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and (c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMERGENCY NURSING TRAINING CURRICULUM IN GHANA

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161

  1. Light trap collections of ovipositing Simulium squamosum in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Service, M W

    1979-10-01

    At a site near Boti waterfalls in southern Ghana a total of 14 644 female and two male Simulium squamosum were caught in four nights in Monks Wood light traps. The highest catch, of 6520 females, was obtained in a single night with an ultraviolet light tube that had a one-second flash rate. About 12% of the females caught were gravid and dissections of non-gravids showed that they had oviposited very recently. The traps were clearly catching females before or soon after oviposition. The same traps caught none or very few blackflies when placed in two other localities near Akosombo. Trap location appeared very important in sampling ovipositing females of S. squamosum. PMID:534449

  2. Groundwater resources of the Birim basin in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asomaning, G.

    1992-11-01

    An attempt to assess ground water resources of a medium size (4775 km 2) drainage basin located on the Crystalline Complex in southern Ghana is presented. Mean annual rainfall 1578 mm, total river discharge 1,886,588 064 m 3 a -1, surface runoff 1,320,611,645 m 3 a -1, base flow 565,976,419 m 3 a -1, were determined from 13 meteorological and 1 river gauging stations located within the basin. From these data, the total runoff coefficient was 36%, surface runoff coefficient was 25% and the base flow coefficient was 11%. Then, Permanent Water Reserve, Qt = 5,333.20 × 106 m 3 and Recoverable Water Reserve, 2,133.28 × 10 6 m 3 a -1 for the aquifer of the basement complex aquifer of the basin were calculated from 42 boreholes.

  3. Wound Care in Buruli Ulcer Disease in Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002

  4. Tropheryma whipplei in children with diarrhoea in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Vinnemeier, C D; Klupp, E M; Krumkamp, R; Rolling, T; Fischer, N; Owusu-Dabo, E; Addo, M M; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Ksmaier, J; Aepfelbacher, M; Cramer, J P; May, J; Tannich, E

    2016-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei has been hypothesized to be able to cause diarrhoea, but data from young children are scarce. In this hospital-based case-control study 534 stool samples of children aged between 2 months and 15 years from rural Ghana were analysed for the presence of T.whipplei. Overall stool prevalence of T.whipplei was high (27.5%). Although there was no difference in T.whipplei carriage overall between cases and controls, cases aged between 0 and 12 months carried T.whipplei in their stool twice as often as controls without diarrhoea. The results from this study may support the hypothesis that T.whipplei can cause diarrhoea in first-time infection. PMID:26456475

  5. Migration, sexual networks, and HIV in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298

  6. Quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli from Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is under-documented and commensal Escherichia coli can be used as indicator organisms to study the resistance in the community. We sought to determine the prevalence of resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials with particular focus on the quinolones, which have recently been introduced in parts of Africa, including Ghana. Results Forty (13.7%) of 293 E. coli isolates evaluated were nalidixic acid-resistant. Thirteen (52%) of 2006 and 2007 isolates and 10 (66.7%) of 2008 isolates were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. All but one of the quinolone-resistant isolates were resistant to three or more other antimicrobial classes. Sequencing the quinolone-resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC, which encode quinolone targets, revealed that 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli harboured a substitution at position 83 of the gyrA gene product and 20 of these isolates had other gyrA and/or parC substitutions. Horizontally-acquired quinolone-resistance genes qnrB1, qnrB2, qnrS1 or qepA were detected in 12 of the isolates. In spite of considerable overall diversity among E. coli from Ghana, as evaluated by multilocus sequence typing, 15 quinolone-resistant E. coli belonged to sequence type complex 10. Five of these isolates carried qnrS1 alleles. Conclusions Quinolone-resistant E. coli are commonly present in the faecal flora of Accra residents. The isolates have evolved resistance through multiple mechanisms and belong to very few lineages, suggesting clonal expansion. Containment strategies to limit the spread of quinolone-resistant E. coli need to be deployed to conserve quinolone effectiveness and promote alternatives to their use. PMID:21352598

  7. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  8. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  9. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  11. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead. In this harsh desert environment, color infrared photography readily penetrates haze, detects and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  12. A Ghanaian Response to the Study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effah, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening participation in…

  13. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  14. Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98: Issues of Equity and Efficiency. Working Paper No. 2579.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao

    This paper analyzes efficiency and equity issues in public expenditures on education and health in Ghana during the 1990s. Data were drawn from reports of the ministries of education and health and from household surveys conducted 1988-98. In the late 1990s, Ghana's public expenditures on education decreased. Basic education enrollment was

  15. Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98: Issues of Equity and Efficiency. Working Paper No. 2579.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao

    This paper analyzes efficiency and equity issues in public expenditures on education and health in Ghana during the 1990s. Data were drawn from reports of the ministries of education and health and from household surveys conducted 1988-98. In the late 1990s, Ghana's public expenditures on education decreased. Basic education enrollment was…

  16. Are the Schools We HAVE the Schools We NEED in Ghana? A Contribution to the Ongoing Debate on Ghana's Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Padmore E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…

  17. Evaluation of cycling patterns of dissolved oxygen in a tropical lake as an indicator of biodegradable organic pollution.

    PubMed

    Ansa-Asare, O D; Marr, I L; Cresser, M S

    1999-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen cycling patterns in a tropical lake (Weija Lake) were shown to be useful as a potential indicator of biodegradable organic pollution, by dosing with liquid malt to give an additional organic burden of 2.5 and 5.0 mg l-1 TOC, and monitoring the DO values continuously for 140 h. These loadings were added to water columns (in tubes) suspended from a raft in a lake in south-east Ghana. The addition of organic pollution burden to the lake water produced two main effects: the mean DO value was lowered, and the amplitude of the DO cycle decreased as organic loading increased from 2.5 to 5.0 mg l-1 TOC. There was also an indication of heterotrophic respiration associated with organic inputs for the 5.0 mg l-1 added TOC suggesting a P/R ratio of well below 1.0. Taking the results of a DO cycling computer model together with those from the lake raft experiments, it can be concluded that dissolved oxygen cycles can be a good indicator of biodegradable organic pollution load. PMID:10472131

  18. Geology and geochemistry of shallow drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact struture, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, D.; Koeberl, C.

    2003-08-01

    The 1.07 Ma well-preserved Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (10.5 km in diameter) formed in 2 Ga-old metamorphosed and crystalline rocks of the Birimian system. The interior of the structure is largely filled by the 8 km diameter Lake Bosumtwi, and the crater rim and region in the environs of the crater is covered by tropical rainforest, making geological studies rather difficult and restricted to road cuts and streams. In early 1999, we undertook a shallow drilling program to the north of the crater rim to determine the extent of the ejecta blanket around the crater and to obtain subsurface core samples for mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of ejecta of the Bosumtwi impact structure. A variety of impactite lithologies are present, consisting of impact glass- rich suevite and several types of breccia: lithic breccia of single rock type, often grading into unbrecciated rock, with the rocks being shattered more or less in situ without much relative displacement (autochthonous?), and lithic polymict breccia that apparently do not contain any glassy material (allochtonous?). The suevite cores show that melt inclusions are present throughout the whole length of the cores in the form of vesicular glasses with no significant change of abundance with depth. Twenty samples from the 7 drill cores and 4 samples from recent road cuts in the structure were studied for their geochemical characteristics to accumulate a database for impact lithologies and their erosion products present at the Bosumtwi crater. Major and trace element analyses yielded compositions similar to those of the target rocks in the area (graywacke-phyllite, shale, and granite). Graywacke-phyllite and granite dikes seem to be important contributors to the compositions of the suevite and the road cut samples (fragmentary matrix), with a minor contribution of Pepiakese granite. The results also provide information about the thickness of the fallout suevite in the northern part of the Bosumtwi structure, which was determined to be 15 m and to occupy an area of ~1.5 km2. Present suevite distribution is likely to be caused by differential erosion and does not reflect the initial areal extent of the continuous Bosumtwi ejecta deposits. Our studies allow a comparison with the extent of the suevite at the Ries, another well-preserved impact structure.

  19. GREAT LAKES PLANKTON PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton, which have short carbon turnover rates, are sensitive to water quality conditions and grazing by zooplankton, and thus respond rapidly to perturbations of the lake ecosystem. The determination of phytoplankton abundance and species composition is one method to tra...

  20. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  1. Influence of the inter tropical discontinuity on Harmattan dust deposition in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyngsie, G.; Olsen, J. L.; Awadzi, T. W.; Fensholt, R.; Breuning-Madsen, H.

    2013-09-01

    The Harmattan is a dry dust-laden continental wind, and in the boreal winter Harmattan dust plumes affects many West African countries, including Ghana. When the Harmattan is strongest the southern part of Ghana is affected by the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD). In this study, we investigate if the ITD functions as a barrier, preventing long transported Harmattan dust to settle south of, and below, it. This is done by analyzing a Harmattan dust outbreak, mapped using Earth observation (EO) data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, coupled with data from West African AERONET stations, and comparing these observations with wind data from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) program and the mineral suite of samples from seasonal dust deposits in north and south Ghana. In northern Ghana traces of minerals indicate a weak influence of particles from an arid environment, which is found consistent with the mapped dust plumes and NE wind directions. In southern Ghana the mineral composition show no sediments of an arid origin, the mapped dust plumes is less intense, and the surface wind directions and wind mass trajectories are more varying with lower wind speeds. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that dust deposited, or measured near ground, in the Harmattan period under the ITD, and south of it, does not contain material from the Chad Basin due to the local winds conditions.

  2. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  3. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d) the climatic water deficit will increase, especially at high elevations that will be most affected by the loss of snow, with likely consequences for existing vegetation and fire frequency. Hydrologically, Lake Tahoe is intermittently terminal; in a medical sense it is not yet terminal, but its condition—especially its valued clarity and deep blue color--is serious.

  4. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Once a great inland lake, Lake Chad (13.0N, 14.0E) in the Sahara Desert at the intersection of the African nations of Chad, Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon, is now in decline. The larger northern lobe is almost totally dry and slowly filling in with encroaching sand dunes. The southern lobe, still retains some water in the lower center but the water surface area is less than 2000 square kilometers and sand dunes are filling in the north end.

  5. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  6. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  7. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  8. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Cetron, M S; Chitsulo, L; Sullivan, J J; Pilcher, J; Wilson, M; Noh, J; Tsang, V C; Hightower, A W; Addiss, D G

    1996-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by trematodes. Humans are infected through skin contact with free-swimming cercariae which develop in freshwater snails. Schistosomiasis has been endemic to Malawi for several decades, but the open waters and shores of Lake Malawi have long been thought to be risk-free with regard to schistosomiasis transmission. However, in 1992, two US Peace Corps volunteers developed central nervous system schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium following recreational water exposure at Cape Maclear on Lake Malawi. In light of these infections, a cross-sectional survey of resident expatriates and visitors to Malawi was subsequently conducted during March-April 1993 to determine the transmission potential and risk for acquiring schistosomiasis in the lake. 305 US citizens and 650 non-US foreign nationals participated in the study. Serological evidence of current or past schistosome infection was identified in 303 subjects. Indeed, seroprevalence was 32% among expatriates whose freshwater exposure was limited to Lake Malawi; S. haematobium antibodies were found in 135 of 141 seropositive specimens. The risk of seropositivity increased with the number of freshwater exposures at Lake Malawi resorts. While many resort areas in the southwestern lake region posed a significant risk, Cape Maclear was the location most strongly associated with seropositivity. Schistosome-infected Bulinus globosus, the snail vector of S. haematobium in Malawi, were found at Cape Maclear and other locations along the lakeshore. PMID:8909380

  9. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  10. Overview: Ancient Lake Creede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, Philip M.; Hay, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Creede was moderately saline closed-basin lake that developed in the 26.9 Ma Creede caldera in the San Juan Mountains in the southwest Colorado. The volcaniclastic sediments deposited within the late Oligocene lake were first described and named as the Creede Formation by Emmons and Larsen (1923). The lake and its sedimentary fill are of interest first as representatives of a caldera-hosted lake in a silicic volcanic terrane, and second because of the likely involvement of lake fluids or related pore waters in the deposition of the 25 Ma silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district north of the Creede caldera (Fig. 1), as proposed Bethke and Rye (1979). Much of the material presented in this volume is based on observation of core samples and on downhole geophysical measurements obtained as part of a U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program in the moat of the Creede caldera. These core and downhole studies are supplemented by outcrop studies, some initiated in support of the drilling program (Bethke and Lipman, 1987), and by conceptual studies of the evolution of the Creede caldera and its surrounding landscape. Not surprisingly, not all authors agree on all interpretation. Most disagreements are pointed out in this overview chapter, and may present opportunities for future study.

  11. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.

  12. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  13. Who Cares? Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Esia-Donkoh, Kobina; Darteh, Eugene K M; Blemano, Harriet; Asare, Hagar

    2015-06-01

    Issues of abortion are critical in Ghana largely due to its consequences on sexual and reproductive health. The negative perception society attaches to it makes it difficult for young females to access services and share their experiences. This paper examines the pre and post abortion experiences of young females; a subject scarcely researched in the country. Twenty-one clients of Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) clinic at Cape Coast were interviewed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the study revealed that fear of societal stigma, shame, and rejection by partners, as well as self-imposed stigma constituted some of the pre and post abortion experiences the respondents. Other experiences reported were bleeding, severe abdominal pain and psychological pain. The Ghana Health Services (GHS) and other service providers should partner the PPAG clinic to integrate psychosocial treatment in its abortion services while intensifying behaviour change communication and community-based stigma-reduction education in the Metropolis. PMID:26506657

  14. Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2012-02-01

    In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496

  15. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

  16. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  17. Big lake records preserved in a little lake's sediment: An example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan.

  18. Satellite view of Swim Lake and nearby lakes.

    Satellite view of Swim Lake (upper right) and nearby lakes in Polk County, Florida, surrounded by citrus groves. Courtesy Florida State University, 2008; Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008....

  19. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2015-12-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  20. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  1. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  2. Meteotsunami in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Bechle, A.; Schwab, D. J.; Anderson, E. J.; Roebber, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Meteotsunamis, or meteorological induced tsunamis, are meteorological in origin but exhibit long-period tsunami characteristics. Both meteotsunamis and seismic tsunamis have wave periods of 2 minutes to 2 hours and undergo resonant amplification that transforms relatively small waves in the open water into destructive forces at the coast. There are a number of amplification mechanisms including Proudman resonance, edge wave Greenspan resonance, as well as shoaling and harbor resonance. In this talk, we discuss several incidences of meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes. In Lake Michigan, an unexpected and destructive meteotsunami event occurred on June 26, 1954 when a 3 meter high wave struck the Chicago waterfront, resulting in seven fatalities. Ten days later on July 6, 1954, another meteotsunami event in southern Lake Michigan resulted in edge waves in excess of 1 m height. Nevertheless, these two events were generated by storms of vastly different size and propagation direction. More recently, in 2008 at least 25 meteotsunamis events with amplitudes of to 30 ~ 45 cm were observed in several major Lake Michigan harbors and were correlated with high-frequency pressure fronts passing along the west coast of Lake Michigan. Historical water level and meteorological records are analyzed to determine the mechanisms responsible for these meteotsunami events. Finally, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is employed to simulate select events to further explore in detail the possible meteotsunami mechanisms in the Great Lakes. Our ultimate goal is to provide real-time warning system to assess the coastal hazard and risk areas associated with meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes.

  3. Lake Sarez, Tajikistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. The Wandering Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  5. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (<0·5 % of GDP). We conclude that Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition. PMID:26242904

  6. Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  7. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118

  8. SOMARC teams with private distribution firm to implement CSM program in Ghana.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    SOMARC, together with a private manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceutical products (Danafco, Limited), is launching a new contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program designed to make low cost, modern contraceptive products widely available in Ghana's cities. Danafco will directly implement the CSM program. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the government of Ghana will provide support to the program. James R. Kirland, USAID Population Officer, will assume overall responsibility for coordination and monitoring of CSM program activities. By a special amendment to the Pharmacy and Drug Act of 1961, the Ghanaian government has enabled the CSM program to conduct a demonstration project. Under the project, chemical sellers and retailers who successfully complete a special training session will be entitled to dispense oral contraceptives (OCs) without prescription. With the successful completion of this project, it is hoped that the Ghanaian government will further amend the Pharmacy Act to make contraceptives available nationwide on a nonprescription basis. Initially, the Ghana CSM program will market 3 products: a standard dosage OC; a foaming vaginal tablet; and an uncolored condom. Market research is now underway to determine product names for the OCs and vaginal tablets. The condom will be marketed under the name Panther. The project plans to conduct a retail audit to define current prices in the Ghanaian contraceptive market. Danafco will subcontract with Lintas Ghana Limited to provide advertising, package design, and promotion for the Ghana CSM program. Overall campaign efforts will focus on generating a positive climate for the program among influentials in government, religion, education, and health as well as consumers. The advertising campaign will include radio, television, print, and outdoor media. SOMARC, in collaboration with the USAID/Accra mission, hopes to establish an appropriate climate prior to the advertising launch by promoting a conference on the role of family planning in the national reconstruction of Ghana. In subsequent years, product extension may be considered. PMID:12280423

  9. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862

  10. Healthy Firms: Constraints to Growth among Private Health Sector Facilities in Ghana and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas E.; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P.; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business and health facility. PMID:22383944

  11. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre—pregnancy BMI and socio—economic status in Northern Ghana. Methods The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri—urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37–42 weeks). Mother’s height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions. Results The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37%) but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%). Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18–444) heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682– (-276) lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87–405) and 595g (95% CI 375–815) respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 –(-44) lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg. Conclusion Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight gain ranges. PMID:26281013

  12. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 μm. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.

  13. Incidence and Characteristics of Bacteremia among Children in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maja Verena; Sarpong, Nimako; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Loag, Wibke; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Marks, Florian; Huenger, Frank; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data. Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior. Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n = 129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9–52.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1–29.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1–8.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5–6.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8–4.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered. PMID:22970162

  14. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. among Children in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Eibach, Daniel; Krumkamp, Ralf; Al-Emran, Hassan M.; Sarpong, Nimako; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background The relevance of Cryptosporidium infections for the burden of childhood diarrhoea in endemic settings has been shown in recent years. This study describes Cryptosporidium subtypes among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in rural Ghana to analyse subtype-specific demographic, geographical, seasonal and clinical differences in order to inform appropriate control measures in endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 2232 children below 14 years of age presenting with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the rural Ashanti region of Ghana between May 2007 and September 2008. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR and isolates were classified into subtypes based on sequence differences in the gp60 gene. Subtype specific frequencies for age, sex, location and season have been determined and associations with disease symptoms have been analysed within a case-control study. Cryptosporidium infections were diagnosed in 116 of 2232 (5.2%) stool samples. Subtyping of 88 isolates revealed IIcA5G3 (n = 26, 29.6%), IbA13G3 (n = 17, 19.3%) and IaA21R3 (n = 12, 13.6%) as the three most frequent subtypes of the two species C. hominis and C. parvum, known to be transmitted anthroponotically. Infections peak at early rainy season with 67.9% and 50.0% of infections during the months April, May and June for 2007 and 2008 respectively. C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–4.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2–5.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5–6.1). Conclusions/Significance Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by seasonal anthroponotic transmission of strains typically found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection. Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections. PMID:25749411

  15. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 60 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  16. Sensitivity of Lake-Enhanced Snowfall to Lake Ice Cover in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. M.; Posselt, D. J.; Steiner, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes exert a significant influence on the regional climate of northern United States and southern Canada, including enhancement of cold-season precipitation on and downwind of the leeward shores. Lake-enhanced snowfall occurs when air that is significantly colder than the lake's surface temperature travels over the lake. Enhanced surface sensible and latent heat fluxes relative to the surrounding land surface result in moistening and destabilization of the atmosphere and subsequent development of low-level convection. In the Great Lakes region, lake-enhanced snow occurs during late fall through early winter, with decreasing numbers of events in the late winter due to the formation of widespread lake ice. Lake ice reduces both sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface, thereby increasing atmospheric stability and reducing lake induced convection. The degree to which ice coverage may change in future climate scenarios is largely unknown, but it is clear that any change to the fraction and duration of lake ice coverage will have an effect on lake-atmosphere interaction and the development and intensity of lake-enhanced precipitation. This study uses the NCAR Weather, Research, and Forecasting (WRF) model to examine how changes in Great Lakes fractional ice coverage affect the presence, intensity, and quantity of lake-enhanced precipitation. Sensitivity studies are used to evaluate the evolution and change in intensity of lake-enhanced snowfall in the Great Lakes region for scenarios that include (1) lake ice cover obtained from analysis fields (control simulation), (2) ice-free lakes, and (3) 100% ice coverage. Distinct lake-effect snow bands were observed in both the control and ice-free simulations, with placement of these bands further to the south and propagating further inland in the ice-free case. Melted precipitation totals increased on the order of 10 mm for ice-free lakes along the southern edges of Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and the eastern coast of Lake Ontario, while complete ice coverage extinguished nearly all lake-effect snow bands.

  17. Assesssing herbal medical practitioners in professional qualifying examination in Ghana, a model.

    PubMed

    Adusi-Poku, Yaw; Okine, Laud K-N; Hlortsi-Akakpo, F K; Fleischer, Theophilus C; Mensah, M L K; Arhin, Peter; Agyemfra, George; Dabra, Togbega; Mensah, E N

    2010-01-01

    About 70% of Ghanaians depend on Alternative health practice for their primary health care needs. Hence, there is the need to streamline and regulate these practices. Graduates from the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (K.N.U.S.T), Kumasi-Ghana were assessed by the Professional Qualifying Examination Board of the Traditional Medicine Practice Council (TMPC), Ghana, after two years of internship training. A model of assessment took into consideration, the scope of the university training, internship and the primary health care needs of the society. PMID:21304617

  18. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  20. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin with the upstream side of the outlet structure visible at photo center, view to north-northwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. Lake Nyos Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeth, S. J.

    Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the Lake Nyos gas disaster, which killed an estimated 1700 people in August 1986, presented a paper on the potential for disastrous failure of the Lake Nyos dam to the AGU Fall Meeting. Part of what they said was subsequently reported in New Scientist (December 10, 1987, p. 18). They have placed on record their view that the dam is only 400 years old and are reported to have stated that it is eroding away at the alarming rate of 1.5 m/yr. If their figures are correct, then surely the dam will fail within a decade or two at the most, and there is indeed cause for alarm and immediate action. However, teams from Cameroon, France, Italy, Japan , Switzerland, Britain, Nigeria, and Germany also visited Lake Nyos in the immediate aftermath of the gas disaster, and none of their reports have suggested that the dam is in itself an imminent threat.

  2. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. PMID:27104923

  3. The composition and origin of Ghana medicine clays

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Bart E.; Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043

  4. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options

    PubMed Central

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  5. Lead exposure in urban and rural school children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankrah, N A; Nyarko, A K; Ofosuhene, M; Appiah-Opong, R; Akyeampon, Y A

    1998-01-01

    Human exposure to lead in non industrial urban areas is commonly ascribed to vehicular combustion of leaded gasoline. This belief is based on results of studies in societies with high vehicular density which show emission of lead fumes into the air by automobiles that use gasoline with high lead content. To assess this view, blood lead levels were evaluated in 11 to 15-year old school children in urban and rural communities of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Blood lead levels was significantly higher in all the urban children studied (mean +/-SD: 8.3+/- 12.7g/dl) than in their rural counterparts (4.0+/-7.2g/dl) (P<0.002). The trend was the same when only those who tested positive for blood lead were considered (24.1+/- 9.2g/dl, urban compared with 14.6+/- 5.8g/dl, rural). The prevalence of lead exposure was, however, not significantly different between the two groups (34.3. percent, urban and 27.1 per cent, rural). The presence of anaemia and/or increased urine total protein levels was unrelated to the blood lead levels in the children form both communities. Although a set goal to achieve lead free gasoline is desirable, the closeness of the prevalence rate of lead exposure obtained in the study indicate that factors other than leaded gasoline may be important determinant in exposure to lead in the Ghanaian community. PMID:17580999

  6. Risk factors for meningococcal meningitis in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, A; Smith, T; Gagneux, S; Adjuik, M; Pluschke, G; Mensah, N K; Binka, F; Genton, B

    2001-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa where it occurs in epidemics every 8-12 years. Risk factors for the disease in this setting remain largely unknown. We carried out a case-control study to investigate possible risk factors among survivors of a meningitis epidemic occurring in 1997 in northern Ghana. A structured questionnaire on socio-economic factors, housing and household overcrowding, smoking and exposure to smoke and close contact with a case was administered to 505 of the survivors and 505 of age-, sex- and location-matched controls. Cooking in kitchens with firewood stoves (OR 9.00, CI 1.25-395) and sharing a bedroom with a case (OR 2.18 CI 1.43-3.4) were found to be risk factors for disease. Socio-economic factors, overcrowding, smoking and passive exposure to tobacco smoke were not found to be risk factors. Exposure to smoke from cooking fires or close contact with a case puts people at risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis. In the hot dry months, exposure to smoke from cooking fires should be minimized by encouraging alternatives to cooking over wood fires, or cooking outside. If wood-burning stoves cannot be avoided, kitchens should be made larger with improved ventilation. Meningitis cases should be nursed in well-ventilated rooms and the number of people sharing a room with a case kept at a minimum. PMID:11706652

  7. Utilization of maternal health services in Ejisu District, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Martey, J O; Djan, J O; Twum, S; Browne, E N; Opoku, S A

    1995-01-01

    A study on the utilization of maternal health services in Ejisu district of Ghana was carried out in January and February 1990. 1200 women aged between 15 and 49 were interviewed in 80 communities. The findings of the study indicated that over 50% of respondents married under 20 years, 70% of them attended antenatal clinic at least 4 times in their last pregnancy, over 80% had their last delivery in a health facility and over 80% knew about at least one modern method of family planning. Only 5.5% were currently using a modern family planning method. 90% of them were willing to stay in a maternity waiting home if advised to do so. Most would be prepared to stay for a month or 2. 20% of the respondents knew about local herbal preparations used for first aid in bleeding in pregnancy, although they would seek definitive treatment at a health facility. From the study, some women were not using the services. These would have to be reached through improving the quality of care in health facilities and increasing community awareness on maternal health in order to improve accessibility and utilization further. PMID:7626528

  8. Is routine human papillomavirus vaccination an option for ghana?

    PubMed

    Edwin, A K

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer remains an important public health problem in developing countries where over 80% of the global burden occurs annually but screening has been ineffective. In a polygamous country like Ghana with a high incidence of cervical cancer but no national screening program, the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine presents a unique opportunity to reduce the burden of HPV infection and cervical cancer in Ghanaian women. The evidence so far indicates that the vaccines are safe and efficacious. Although routine HPV vaccination of girls raises several religious, political, socioeconomic and ethical challenges, the emphasis of this paper will be on addressing the ethical challenges using the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice as a framework. Parental autonomy can be preserved with judicious exemptions for those who decline the vaccine on religious and philosophical grounds. This promotes public health without trampling parental authority. Routine HPV vaccination confers several benefits to individuals and society by preventing HPV infection. Instead of causing harm; it reduces harm by preventing the development of about 70% of cervical cancers and removing the negative physical and psychological impact of a cervical cancer diagnosis. It also has the potential to reduce the disparities in cervical cancer rates and its cost effectiveness will ensure considerable cost savings in terms of the money spent on diagnosis and treatment. Consequently, the HPV vaccine is an important public health landmark and achievement in women's health that must be heralded, especially in developing countries where the bulk of the disease and death occur. PMID:21327007

  9. Mycobacterium africanum is associated with patient ethnicity in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Aboagye, Samuel Y; Stucki, David; Hattendorf, Jan; Borrell, Sonia; Feldmann, Julia; Danso, Emelia; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and an important cause of human tuberculosis in West Africa that is rarely observed elsewhere. Here we genotyped 613 MTBC clinical isolates from Ghana, and searched for associations between the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC and patient variables. We found that 17.1% (105/613) of the MTBC isolates belonged to M. africanum, with the remaining belonging to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. No M. bovis was identified in this sample. M. africanum was significantly more common in tuberculosis patients belonging to the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio: 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.67-5.47, p<0.001). Stratifying our analysis by the two phylogenetic lineages of M. africanum (i.e. MTBC Lineages 5 and 6) revealed that this association was mainly driven by Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 1). Our findings suggest interactions between the genetic diversity of MTBC and human diversity, and offer a possible explanation for the geographical restriction of M. africanum to parts of West Africa. PMID:25569290

  10. Peer Influences on Sexual Activity among Adolescents in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health. Using two waves survey data from adolescents (n=1275) in two towns in southeastern Ghana, we examined age, gender, and community differences in peer group characteristics. We also examine prospective associations between peer group characteristics and self-reported sexual initiation, multiple partnerships, and lack of consistent condom use with most recent partner over a 20-month follow-up period. Gender differences in peer context variables were small. Affiliation with antisocial peers and perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of transition to first sex. Having more friends increased the odds of accruing multiple new sexual partners among younger respondents. Among males, perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of accruing multiple partners. No peer context variables were significantly associated with condom use with most recent partner. We discuss the implications of these findings for adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753056

  11. Mycobacterium africanum Is Associated with Patient Ethnicity in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otchere, Isaac Darko; Aboagye, Samuel Y.; Stucki, David; Hattendorf, Jan; Borrell, Sonia; Feldmann, Julia; Danso, Emelia

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and an important cause of human tuberculosis in West Africa that is rarely observed elsewhere. Here we genotyped 613 MTBC clinical isolates from Ghana, and searched for associations between the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC and patient variables. We found that 17.1% (105/613) of the MTBC isolates belonged to M. africanum, with the remaining belonging to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. No M. bovis was identified in this sample. M. africanum was significantly more common in tuberculosis patients belonging to the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio: 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.67–5.47, p<0.001). Stratifying our analysis by the two phylogenetic lineages of M. africanum (i.e. MTBC Lineages 5 and 6) revealed that this association was mainly driven by Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 1). Our findings suggest interactions between the genetic diversity of MTBC and human diversity, and offer a possible explanation for the geographical restriction of M. africanum to parts of West Africa. PMID:25569290

  12. Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

    2009-01-01

    As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818

  13. The expression of perinatal depression in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Pamela; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asampong, Emmanuel; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, perinatal depression (PND) has been associated with poor infant health outcomes, including frequency of infant diarrheal episodes, preterm delivery and low birth weight, and discontinuation or problems breastfeeding. Yet little is known about the awareness or expression of PND depression in Ghana. A total of 12 in-depth key-informant interviews were conducted with women who had experienced PND within the previous two-and-a-half years. Three focus-group discussions were conducted with new mothers (n = 11), grandmothers (n = 8), and fathers (n = 9) for contextual and supporting information. ‘Thinking too much’ was the term most commonly used to describe PND. The women saw their distress as caused largely by poverty, lack of social support, and domestic problems. Women sought help through family and religious organizations, rather than through medical services. Problems producing breast milk or breastfeeding were nearly universal complaints and suggest significant effects on infant health in the study area. These results present evidence to support the increasing consensus that depression presents in similar and disabling ways across cultures and contexts. This formative qualitative data is required to tailor depression prevention or treatment interventions to this particular socio-cultural context. PMID:26539247

  14. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  15. Extreme value modelling of Ghana stock exchange index.

    PubMed

    Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Asare, Kwabena; Mettle, Felix Okoe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana stock exchange all-shares index (2000-2010) by applying the extreme value theory (EVT) to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before the EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model's goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the value at risk and expected shortfall risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model. PMID:26587364

  16. Aptian Maastrichtian palynomorphs from the offshore Tano Basin, western Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta-Peters, D.; Salami, M. B.

    2006-11-01

    Cretaceous dinoflagellate cysts and miospores have been recovered from the Tano 1-1 and 1S-3AX wells, offshore of western Ghana. Based on marker palynomorphs ( Afropollis jardinus, Elaterosporites klaszii, Elaterocolpites castelainii, Sofreipites legouxae, Reyrea polymorphus, Cyclonephelium vannophorum) an Aptian-early Cenomanian age has been assigned to sediments from the well Tano 1-1. The taxa Auriculiidites reticulatus, Spinizonotriletes echinatus, Buttinia andreevi, Longapertites spp., Echitriporites trianguliformis, Dinogymnium spp., Trichodinium castanea, Andalusiella spp., which are elements typical of Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments have been recognized in the sediments from 1S-3AX. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation based on identified palynomorphs in the light of their ecological preferences and also on the relative proportions of palynomorph groups, indicate that the Aptian-lower Cenomanian sediments were deposited in a marginal marine environment with vegetation on wetlands, under a relatively dry climate. The Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments suggest a fluctuation between marginal to open marine (inner shelf) conditions. The sediments have characteristic elements indicative of the Albian-Cenomanian "Elaterate Province", and the late Cretaceous "Senonian Palmae Province", which supports a warm tropical climate.

  17. Ghana's army goes into combat readiness against HIV.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Ghana's professional army of 12,000 men were joined by the national police in launching a campaign of education about AIDS which promotes condom use. The campaign received some funding from USAID and AIDS Tech/Family Health International. 94% of the soldiers had 7 years of education and 95% were married. 47% had never used the condom, 37% used it only occasionally, and only 19% used it regularly. An AIDS Awareness Day was followed up by 3000 posters, 1800 bumper stickers, 1500 T-shirts, 300 press packs, 1000 keychains and a video. Comic books in the local pidgin English idiom also proved popular for promotion. In a social marketing scheme, condoms were made available in barracks, army shops, and canteens for a modest price. The sales of condoms rose from about 500 a month in 1991 to 6000-7000 by January 1992. The army AIDS policy spelled out that HIV positivity will be revealed to the infected soldier. HIV-positive soldIers will not be sent abroad, curtailing the chances of disease transmission. They are kept in active service as long as they are capable of meeting their duties. Nevertheless, this policy hinges on the outcome of the AIDS education campaign whose failure could result in a policy of dismissing HIV-infected soldiers. PMID:12317821

  18. Lake restoration by dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Gorini, R.F.

    1992-04-01

    This paper is a summary overview of the $17 million Vancouver Lake Restoration Project, the largest project of its type ever undertaken through the Federal Clean Lakes Program. It was funded jointly by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the Port of Vancouver. Although the project was conceived in 1965, a nationwide program to help fund such projects did not exist until 1976. Then, final approval was not received until 1981, after many volumes of studies and reviews. Construction was completed in June 1983, after 30 months--6 months ahead of schedule and underbudget. A great deal of time, money, and energy was expended to demonstrate to Federal and state environmental agencies that dredging was a key tool in effecting this lake's restoration.

  19. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  20. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  1. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.

  2. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  3. Maturity schedules of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    We determined maturity schedules of male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan from nearshore populations and from an offshore population on Sheboygan Reef, which is located in midlake. Gill nets and bottom trawls were used to catch lake trout in fall 1994 and 1995 from two nearshore sites and Sheboygan Reef. Each lake trout was judged immature or mature, based on visual examination of gonads. Probit analysis, coupled with relative potency testing, revealed that age-at-maturity and length-at-maturity were similar at the two nearshore sites, but that lake trout from the nearshore sites matured at a significantly earlier age than lake trout from Sheboygan Reef. However, length at maturity for the nearshore populations was nearly identical to that for the offshore population, suggesting that rate of lake trout maturation in Lake Michigan was governed by growth rather than age. Half of the lake trout males reached maturity at a total length of 580 mm, whereas half of the females were mature at a length of 640 mm. Over half of nearshore males were mature by age 5, and over half the nearshore females matured by age 6. Due to a slower growth rate, maturity was delayed by 2 years on Sheboygan Reef compared with the nearshore populations. Documentation of this delay in maturation may be useful in deciding stocking allocations for lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Michigan.

  4. Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly different from those of the metasediments, or compared to target rocks from outside the crater rim. So far, no evidence for a meteoritic component has been detected in polymict impact breccias during this study, in agreement with previous work.

  5. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption. PMID:25719892

  6. Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

  7. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  8. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  9. Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in Ghana. Country Study No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John W.

    This is one of 15 studies of the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa. Following an introduction which examines the economic and social development of Ghana, there are four main sections: 1) Probable Growth of Secondary School and Teacher Training College Enrollments Through 1975"; 2) "The Supply of Teachers for Secondary…

  10. Maternal health-seeking behavior: the role of financing and organization of health services in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's health system has shaped maternal health-seeking behavior of women in the district. The paper employs a qualitative case study technique to build a complex and holistic picture, and report detailed views of the women in their natural setting. A purposeful sampling technique is applied to select 16 women in the district for this study. Through face-to-face interviews and group discussions with the selected women, comprehensive and in-depth information on health- seeking behavior and health outcomes are elicited for the analysis. The study highlights that characteristics embedded in decentralization and provision of free maternal health care influence health-seeking behavior. Particularly, the use of antenatal care has increased after the delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Interestingly, the study also reveals certain social structures, which influence women's attitude towards their decisions and choices of health facilities. PMID:23985108

  11. First Report of Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigeria is the only country in West Africa where soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has been officially reported (1). During a disease survey in Ghana in October 2006, soybean (Glycine max) leaves with rust symptoms (tan, angular lesions with erumpent sori exuding urediniospores) were ob...

  12. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  13. Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of

  14. Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity Structures and Social Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.…

  15. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  16. "The Older Women Are Men:" Navigating the Academic Terrain, Perspectives from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates how the intersection of gender, socio-cultural factors, and organizational culture impact professional experiences of women academics at a selected public university in Ghana. Given the glaring absence of women in academic positions across many African universities, particularly at academic ranks beyond the

  17. Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior: The Role of Financing and Organization of Health Services in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's health system has shaped maternal health-seeking behavior of women in the district. The paper employs a qualitative case study technique to build a complex and holistic picture, and report detailed views of the women in their natural setting. A purposeful sampling technique is applied to select 16 women in the district for this study. Through face-to-face interviews and group discussions with the selected women, comprehensive and in-depth information on health- seeking behavior and health outcomes are elicited for the analysis. The study highlights that characteristics embedded in decentralization and provision of free maternal health care influence health-seeking behavior. Particularly, the use of antenatal care has increased after the delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Interestingly, the study also reveals certain social structures, which influence women's attitude towards their decisions and choices of health facilities. PMID:23985108

  18. Perception of Basic Education School Teachers towards Inclusive Education in the Hohoe District of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocloo, Mark Anthony; Subbey, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of basic school teachers towards inclusive education in the Hohoe District of Ghana. The research makes use of a descriptive survey design, which engaged both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. A sample size of 100 respondents, comprising of 60 male teachers and 40 female…

  19. Typology of School Dropout: The Dimensions and Dynamics of Dropout in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananga, Eric Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the dropout experience of children who dropped out of schools located in two rural communities in the Central Region of Ghana. The main research question sought to explore the meaning and types of drop out founded on the views of children who had dropped out of school. The study tracked 18 children aged 7-17 years. Snowball…

  20. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  1. Decolonising Knowledge Production: The Pedagogic Relevance of Gandhian Satyagraha to Schooling and Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adjei, Paul Banahene

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…

  2. Critical Factors in Selecting a Course Management System for Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    Course management systems (CMSs) currently drive educational delivery in most developed countries. Their absence in higher education in most developing countries creates a digital divide between first- and third-world students. Meeting the needs of higher education in Ghana therefore depends on identifying the factors that should inform the choice…

  3. The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

  4. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…

  5. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to

  6. Gender Differences in Participation in Elective Mathematics of Senior Secondary School Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah-Korang, Kwame; Gyan, Emmanuel; McCarthy, Paul; McCarthy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the body of knowledge that exists in the area of differences in participation in elective mathematics, between boys and girls in Secondary Schools in Ghana. A sample of 738 respondents from five Secondary Schools was purposively selected using purposive sampling technique. All the respondents were final year…

  7. Solving the Teacher Shortage Problem in Ghana: Critical Perspectives for Understanding the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbold, Cosmas

    2015-01-01

    The problem of getting sufficient numbers of qualified teachers to staff classrooms is one of the most significant public policy issues facing many countries. In Ghana, the problem of teacher shortage has been a perennial one, necessitated by educational expansion as well as adverse socio-economic and political circumstances, and exacerbated by…

  8. Mapping the Incidence of School Dropouts: A Case Study of Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey; Adu-Yeboah, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of school dropout in six communities in the Savelugu-Nanton District in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study focused on 89 children (64 boys and 25 girls) aged 7-16 years, who had dropped out of school. A snowballing sampling method was employed to recruit participants to the study. Two researchers interviewed the…

  9. Barriers to Teacher Motivation for Professional Practice in the Ghana Education Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in…

  10. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…

  11. Pre-Service Teachers' Views on Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nketsia, William; Saloviita, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Pre-service teacher training has been identified as one of the key factors in the promotion of inclusive education. In this study, 200 final-year pre-service teachers from three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed about their views and knowledge on inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN). The results showed that almost all…

  12. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges

  13. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  14. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy

  15. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  16. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  17. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Ghana and Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Mangope, Boitumelo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Ghana and Botswana. A three-part survey questionnaire consisting of background variables, attitudes, and concerns was completed by 202 students from four teacher training institutions in both countries. One of the institutions was a university and the others…

  18. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good

  19. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  20. Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

  1. Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…

  2. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce

  3. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: The Evidence and the Issues. Country Analytic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame; Djangmah, Jerome; Oduro, Abena; Seidu, Alhassan; Hunt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of access to education in Ghana builds on the Ministry of Education Sector Performance Report and the World Bank sector studies. Though access has improved it remains uneven and has not grown as fast enough to reach universal levels of participation in primary school and JSS [Junior Secondary School] by 2015. More needs to be…

  4. Exploring Perceptions of Private University Education by Hiring Professionals in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the perceptions of private university education compared to public university education by hiring professionals in Ghana using four dimensions: quality of degree and diploma programs, credibility of degree and diploma programs, characteristics of graduating student applicants, and skills of graduating student…

  5. Radio Lectures in Ghana: An Innovation for the Twenty First Century Instructional Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    In the developing countries of the world, Nigeria and Ghana especially have consistently been battling with large enrollment of students into the institutions of higher learning. The attendant problem of the traditional instructional delivery system that poses a serious challenge to the 21st century educational development therefore needs…

  6. The Association Between Health Insurance Coverage and Skilled Birth Attendance in Ghana: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shane M; Singh, Kavita

    2016-03-01

    Objectives Skilled birth attendance (SBA) is a key health intervention used by roughly two-thirds of women in Ghana. The National Health Insurance Scheme provided by the Government of Ghana is widely expected to improve maternal health outcomes by removing financial barriers to health services. In this paper, we examine if indeed health insurance is able to improve SBA, a key maternal outcome. Methods We use data from the 2011 Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey implemented by the Ghana Statistical Services with support from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). We use a multivariate logistic model controlling for a number of enabling and predisposing factors and past experience with the health system to examine the effect of health insurance on skilled birth attendance. The sample is 2528 women. Results Our results show that women with health insurance are 47 % more likely to use SBA than women without health insurance. Results also underscore that women with repetitive contact with the health system (such as antenatal care) are more likely to have a skilled delivery (OR 3.00, p value 0.000). We also find that higher parity, rural and poor women are much less likely to use SBA. Conclusions Health insurance may indeed be a useful mechanism to improve coverage of SBA, though many barriers to delivery care still exist for women. Further work to understand the effect of health insurance on other maternal outcomes is also warranted. PMID:26525559

  7. Re-Examining the Fluctuations in Language in-Education Policies in Post-Independence Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansah, Gladys Nyarko

    2014-01-01

    Language-in-education policy in Ghana has been in a flux since British colonial rule but particularly so after independence. A close examination of post independence language in education policies shows these fluctuating policies have moved from one form of bilingual education policy to another. Many tensions and paradoxes that arise from…

  8. Publishing for Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Ghana: Politics and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2015-01-01

    One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…

  9. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender

  10. Determinants of Psychological Help-Seeking Intentions of University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Non-utilization of mental health resources is a well-documented problem among adolescents and young adults. However, little is known about the psychological help-seeking intentions of young adults in Ghana. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of psychological help-seeking intentions among university students in Accra, Ghana…

  11. Teachers' ICT Usage in Second-Cycle Institutions in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buabeng-Andoh, Charles; Yidana, Issifu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' use of ICT and the factors that affect their ICT use in secondary schools in Ghana. A focus group interview was used to gather data from participants. Ten groups of six students each from urban, semi-urban and rural schools were chosen for the focus group interviews. The results of this study…

  12. Barriers to Teacher Motivation for Professional Practice in the Ghana Education Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in

  13. Language-Learner Strategy Instruction and English Achievement: Voices from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agor, John T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a one-year longitudinal study which sought to investigate the effect that strategy instruction may have on English language achievement. Two classes of junior high school students at Madina in Ghana were involved in an experiment. The experimental class was taught various language-learner strategies both…

  14. Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

    2010-01-01

    Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better…

  15. Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.

    PubMed

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2013-03-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  16. Implementation of Innovations in Higher Education: The Case of Competency-Based Training in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that

  17. Critical Factors Underlying Students' Choice of Institution for Graduate Programmes: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi

    2015-01-01

    The growth in higher education industry has caused a tremendous increase in the number and type of colleges, polytechnics and universities offering similar academic programmes especially in business disciplines in Ghana. The resultant competition in the education industry makes it crucial for education managers to understand the latent factors…

  18. Whose Voices Are Being Heard? Mechanisms for Community Participation in Education in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed; Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of community participation in School "for" Life, a complementary education programme operating in northern Ghana. The researchers investigated three components of community participation: the nature of the mechanisms used to engage community members as participants in the education process; the actors who…

  19. Impact of Non-Formal Primary Education Programs: A Case Study of Northern Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed

    A study assessed the impact of the Shepherd School program, a nonformal basic education program in rural northern Ghana implemented by a nongovernmental organization. Data were gathered through observation; document analysis; and interviews with 42 children, parents, community members, chiefs, school staff, NGO members, and assemblymen in 2…

  20. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered…

  1. International trends in health science librarianship part 15: West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal).

    PubMed

    Sulemani, Solomon Bayugo; Afarikumah, Ebenezer; Aggrey, Samuel Bentil; Ajuwon, Grace A; Diallo, Ousmane

    2015-09-01

    This is the 15th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. It is the third of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal). The next feature column will investigate trends in North Africa. JM. PMID:26268520

  2. Multivariate co-integration analysis of the Kaya factors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental goal of the Government of Ghana's development agenda as enshrined in the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy to grow the economy to a middle income status of US$1000 per capita by the end of 2015 could be met by increasing the labour force, increasing energy supplies and expanding the energy infrastructure in order to achieve the sustainable development targets. In this study, a multivariate co-integration analysis of the Kaya factors namely carbon dioxide, total primary energy consumption, population and GDP was investigated in Ghana using vector error correction model with data spanning from 1980 to 2012. Our research results show an existence of long-run causality running from population, GDP and total primary energy consumption to carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is evidence of short-run causality running from population to carbon dioxide emissions. There was a bi-directional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy consumption and vice versa. In other words, decreasing the primary energy consumption in Ghana will directly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, a bi-directional causality running from GDP to energy consumption and vice versa exists in the multivariate model. It is plausible that access to energy has a relationship with increasing economic growth and productivity in Ghana. PMID:26857005

  3. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education: Opinions of Students and Educators in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geugten, Jolien; Dijkstra, Marlies; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H. G.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators regarding the implementation of the…

  4. "The Older Women Are Men:" Navigating the Academic Terrain, Perspectives from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates how the intersection of gender, socio-cultural factors, and organizational culture impact professional experiences of women academics at a selected public university in Ghana. Given the glaring absence of women in academic positions across many African universities, particularly at academic ranks beyond the…

  5. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  6. Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…

  7. The 1987 Junior Secondary-School Reform in Ghana: Vocational or Pre-Vocational in Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2004-01-01

    The secondary-education system in Ghana was reorganised in the early 1980s. The present study addresses one part of this reform: the attempt to introduce a more vocationally oriented curriculum in junior secondary schools. The findings on which this study is based are drawn from interviews at several levels as well as from documentary analysis and…

  8. Implementation of Innovations in Higher Education: The Case of Competency-Based Training in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that…

  9. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…

  10. Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…

  11. Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Basic Education in Ghana: Challenges and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Growing private-sector participation in basic education service delivery in many developing countries has led to calls for greater partnership arrangements with the public sector to improve access for poor and disadvantaged groups. In Ghana there is some interest in forging closer public-private partnerships to improve access for children who have…

  12. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or

  13. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to

  14. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering

  15. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the

  16. Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Training Needs: The Case of Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became…

  17. Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

    A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

  18. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed

  19. Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…

  20. The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and

  1. Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Training Needs: The Case of Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became

  2. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…

  3. Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Senior High School Students: A Case of Ghana National College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina; Offoe, Adelaide Koryoe

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research was conducted to find out differences in mathematics performance of students using performance assessment-driven instructions at the senior high school level at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental and control groups. These two…

  4. Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically

  5. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…

  6. Between Tradition and Modernity: Girls' Talk about Sexual Relationships and Violence in Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…

  7. Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

  8. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  9. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  10. Corporal Punishment in the Schools of Ghana: Does Inclusive Education Suffer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that compared the practice of corporal punishment in ten basic schools in the Greater Accra District in Ghana. Five of the ten schools were designated as inclusive project schools (IPS) and the other five as non-inclusive project schools (NIS). The primary purpose was to find out if the inclusive project schools were…

  11. Teachers' Perception on Sustainability of Distance Education in Ghana: Evidence from Ashanti Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei-Owusu, Benedict; Awunyo-Vitor, Dadson

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the sustainability of distance education in the context of finance, management and availability of support services in Ashanti region of Ghana. Data for the study were obtained from five groups of respondents namely; centre coordinators, educational administrators, facilitators of distance education programme, potential and…

  12. The Efficacies of Secretarial Profession by Ghana Education Service and Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Abdul-Kahar

    2015-01-01

    This project is carried out by employing an empirical method through questionnaire design and administration and tapped the perceptions and knowledge of the target elements of this study. The research frame was about Ghana Education Service office workers within the Accra Metropolis including higher education institutions. A qualitative data…

  13. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  14. Lake Huron Coast

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  15. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  16. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  17. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  18. CONTOURITES IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contour currents influence sedimentation in an area 15 km wide and 65 km long at the base of the slope off the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan. Seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) from this area show distinct wavy reflectors in a scoured trough at a d...

  19. The People's Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    1975-01-01

    Citizen action to stop the disposal of taconite tailings into Lake Superior was unsuccessful when the courts settled in the favor of industry. Although citizen research revealed a form of asbestos, as well as other toxic chemicals in the discharged wastes, company representatives stated that there were no health hazards. (MA)

  20. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  1. Lake and Stream Acidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in the percentage of lakes and streams in selected regions in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states that have been considered chronically acidic between 1987 and 2007. This information describes how the extent of acidification, a serious danger t...

  2. LAKE TAHOE VISIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Visibility monitoring and airborne particulate sampling in the Lake Tahoe Basin were used to document visual air quality levels and to assess the relative impacts of major contributing emission source categories. Visibility data were obtained by long path contrast and particle sc...

  3. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  4. Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. Methods This work was based on the World Health Organization’s multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Results Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher in the 70+ years age group, in women, among urban residents and in those with at least secondary education. Quitting tobacco use also increased with increasing income levels. Conclusions Tobacco use among older adults in Ghana was associated with older men living in rural locations, chronic ill-health and reduced life satisfaction. A high proportion of older adults have stopped using tobacco, demonstrating the possibilities for effective public health interventions. Health risk reduction strategies through targeted anti-smoking health campaigns, improvement in access to health and social protection (such as health insurance) will reduce health risks among older persons who use tobacco. PMID:24138966

  5. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo

    2015-07-01

    The Government of Ghana has established a National Digital Seismic Network Observatory in Ghana with the aim of monitoring events such as earthquakes, blasts from mining and quarrying, nuclear tests, etc. The Digital Observatory was commissioned on 19 December 2012, and was dedicated to Geosciences in Ghana. Previously Ghana did not have any operational, digital seismic network acquisition system with the capability of monitoring and analysing data for planning and research purposes. The Ghana Geological Survey has been monitoring seismic events with an analogue system which was not efficient and does not deliver real-time data. Hence, the importance of setting up the National Digital Seismic Network System which would enable the Geological Survey to constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, to some extent on real-time basis. The Network System is made up of six remote digital stations that transmit data via satellite to the central observatory. Sensors used are 3× Trillium Compact and 3× Trillium 120PA with Trident digitizers. The department has also acquired strong motion equipment: Titan accelerometers with Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics. Three of each of these instruments have been installed at the Akosombo and Kpong hydrodams, and also at the Weija water supply dam. These instruments are used to monitor dams. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values established from the analysed data from the accelerometers will be used to retrofit or carry out maintenance work of the dam structures to avoid collapse. Apart from these, the observatory also assesses and analyses seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) system operated by the US Geological Survey. The Ghana Geological Survey, through its Seismic Network Observatory makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of seismic-related disasters to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; and provides information to assist government institutions develop appropriate land and building policies. The Geological Survey Department, in collaboration with stakeholder agencies, periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

  6. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a lake.

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high concentrations of Al are associated with shallow wells and ponds. There is a highly positive correlation (r = +1) between Fe and Al, suggesting that dissolution of weathered lateritic material (e.g., Fe oxides, gibbsite, etc.) is the common source for these elements. Manganese concentrations are generally within acceptable limits, except for 11 wells that have concentrations above the guideline limit of 0.1 mg/L. These anomalous concentrations may be associated with manganiferous deposits in the study area. A majority of the samples contain very low concentrations of the trace elements Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Se; however, the highest concentrations occur in areas where small-scale mining is practiced.

  8. Sexual dysfunction among married couples living in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexuality and its manifestation constitute some of the most complex of human behaviour and its disorders are encountered in community. Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in women than in men. While studies examining sexual dysfunction among males and females in Ghana exist, there are no studies relating sexual problems in males and females as dyadic units. This study therefore investigated the prevalence and type of sexual disorders among married couples. Method The study participants consisted of married couples between the ages of 19 and 66 living in the province of Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic information and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaires were administered to 200 couples who consented to take part in the study. All 28 questions of the GRISS are answered on a five-point (Likert type) scale from "always", through "usually', "sometimes", and "hardly ever", to "never". Responses are summed up to give a total raw score ranging from 28-140. The total score and subscale scores are transformed using a standard nine point scale, with high scores indicating greater problems. Scores of five or more are considered to indicate SD. The study was conducted between July and September 2010. Results Out of a total of 200 married couples, 179 completed their questionnaires resulting in a response rate of 89.5%. The mean age of the participating couples as well as the mean duration of marriage was 34.8 8.6 years and 7.8 7.6 years respectively. The husbands (37.1 8.6) were significantly older (p < 0.0001) than their corresponding wives (32.5 7.9). After adjusting for age, 13-18 years of marriage life poses about 10 times significant risk of developing SD compared to 1-6 years of married life among the wives (OR: 10.8; CI: 1.1 - 49.1; p = 0.04). The total scores (6.0) as well as the percentage above the cut-off (59.2) obtained by the husbands compared to the total score (6.2) and the percentage above cut-off (61.5) obtained by the wives, indicates the likely presence of sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of impotence and premature ejaculation were 60.9% and 65.4% respectively from this study and the prevalence of vaginismus and anorgasmia were 69.3% and 74.9% respectively. The highest prevalence of SD subscales among the men was dissatisfaction with sexual act followed by infrequency, whereas the highest among the women was infrequency followed by anorgasmia. Dissatisfaction with sexual intercourse among men correlated positively with anorgasmia and wife's non-sensuality and infrequency of sex. Conclusion The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in married couples is comparable to prevalence rates in the general male and female population and is further worsened by duration of marriage. This could impact significantly on a couple's self-esteem and overall quality of life. PMID:21366917

  9. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  10. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    PubMed Central

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  11. Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

  12. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being. The study shows that broader characteristics in the population rather than parental migration per se are associated with decreased levels of well-being. PMID:25464874

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Frequent Opportunities for Exposure to Hepatitis C Virus in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Richard O.; Mora, Nallely; Xia, Guo-liang; Campo, David S.; Purdy, Michael A.; Dimitrova, Zoya E.; Owusu, Dorcas O.; Punkova, Lili T.; Skums, Pavel; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Vaughan, Gilberto; Roh, Hajung; Opare-Sem, Ohene K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is responsible for a large proportion of persons with liver disease, including cancer. The infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. West Africa was identified as a geographic origin of two HCV genotypes. However, little is known about the genetic composition of HCV populations in many countries of the region. Using conventional and next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified and genetically characterized 65 HCV strains circulating among HCV-positive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Phylogenetic analysis using consensus sequences derived from 3 genomic regions of the HCV genome, 5'-untranslated region, hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and NS5B gene, consistently classified the HCV variants (n = 65) into genotypes 1 (HCV-1, 15%) and genotype 2 (HCV-2, 85%). The Ghanaian and West African HCV-2 NS5B sequences were found completely intermixed in the phylogenetic tree, indicating a substantial genetic heterogeneity of HCV-2 in Ghana. Analysis of HVR1 sequences from intra-host HCV variants obtained by NGS showed that three donors were infected with >1 HCV strain, including infections with 2 genotypes. Two other donors share an HCV strain, indicating HCV transmission between them. The HCV-2 strain sampled from one donor was replaced with another HCV-2 strain after only 2 months of observation, indicating rapid strain switching. Bayesian analysis estimated that the HCV-2 strains in Ghana were expanding since the 16th century. The blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana, are infected with a very heterogeneous HCV population of HCV-1 and HCV-2, with HCV-2 being prevalent. The detection of three cases of co- or super-infections and transmission linkage between 2 cases suggests frequent opportunities for HCV exposure among the blood donors and is consistent with the reported high HCV prevalence. The conditions for effective HCV-2 transmission existed for ~ 3–4 centuries, indicating a long epidemic history of HCV-2 in Ghana. PMID:26683463

  14. Informing evidence-based policies for ageing and health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Byles, Julie; Aquah, Charles; Amofah, George; Biritwum, Richard; Panisset, Ulysses; Goodwin, James; Beard, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Ghana’s population is ageing. In 2011, the Government of Ghana requested technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to help revise national policies on ageing and health. Approach We applied WHO’s knowledge translation framework on ageing and health to assist evidence based policy-making in Ghana. First, we defined priority problems and health system responses by performing a country assessment of epidemiologic data, policy review, site visits and interviews of key informants. Second, we gathered evidence on effective health systems interventions in low- middle- and high-income countries. Third, key stakeholders were engaged in a policy dialogue. Fourth, policy briefs were developed and presented to the Ghana Health Services. Local setting Ghana has a well-structured health system that can adapt to meet the health care needs of older people. Relevant changes Six problems were selected as priorities, however after the policy dialogue, only five were agreed as priorities by the stakeholders. The key stakeholders drafted evidence-based policy recommendations that were used to develop policy briefs. The briefs were presented to the Ghana Health Service in 2014. Lessons learnt The framework can be used to build local capacity on evidence-informed policy-making. However, knowledge translation tools need further development to be used in low-income countries and in the field of ageing. The terms and language of the tools need to be adapted to local contexts. Evidence for health system interventions on ageing populations is very limited, particularly for low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25558107

  15. Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

  16. [Primary health care in Ghana: no pay no cure?].

    PubMed

    Kyei-Faried, S; Hermans, M

    1995-11-11

    Between 1975 and 1983 health care expenditures in Ghana dropped to a low point as a consequence of the structural readjustment program instituted by the World Bank. During 1975-76 only 15% of available funds were spent on primary health care (PHC), which was officially introduced in the late 1970s. PHC made up 20-25% of the health care expenditures by 1991 with about 25% of health personnel engaged in PHC. 2/3 of health care delivery covered urban areas when 60% of the population lived in the countryside. The district of Ejisu-Juaben in the Ashanti region had high morbidity. Tetanus, polio, whooping-cough, and diphtheria had been brought under control, but measles, diarrhea, and malnutrition were still widespread among children under 5 years old. Malaria, bilharzia, intestinal parasites, respiratory infections, hepatitis, anemia, hypertension, and vitamin A deficiency were also grave problems. AIDS was on the rise. Child mortality amounted to 130/1000 live births and maternal mortality to 1400/100,000 cases. The medical structure of the district comprises 10 health posts (6 governmental and 4 mission). Only 72 villages and 120,000 people are cared for. Each post has a mobile team. In 1993 a new community-based health care program began funded by Save the Children Netherlands. In 60 villages a village health committee existed but they were substandard. They were either reactivated or new committees were set up. Training activities were also started in prenatal care, delivery, care of malnutrition and diarrhea, hygiene, and sanitation. Two years later safe motherhood indicators had improved; postnatal care increased from 16% to 49%; medical deliveries increased from 27% to 37%; the share of families with contraceptive acceptance increased from 7% to 21%; and tetanus vaccination among mothers was estimated to have increased from 27% to 86%. PMID:7501068

  17. Community-based surveillance of maternal deaths in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adomako, Joseph; Asare, Gloria Q; Ofosu, Anthony; Iott, Bradley E; Anthony, Tiffany; Momoh, Andrea S; Warner, Elisa V; Idrovo, Judy P; Ward, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of community-based maternal mortality surveillance in rural Ghana, where most information on maternal deaths usually comes from retrospective surveys and hospital records. Methods In 2013, community-based surveillance volunteers used a modified reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS 4+2) to interview family members of women of reproductive age (13–49 years) who died in Bosomtwe district in the previous five years. The survey comprised four yes–no questions and two supplementary questions. Verbal autopsies were done if there was a positive answer to at least one yes–no question. A mortality review committee established the cause of death. Findings Survey results were available for 357 women of reproductive age who died in the district. A positive response to at least one yes–no question was recorded for respondents reporting on the deaths of 132 women. These women had either a maternal death or died within one year of termination of pregnancy. Review of 108 available verbal autopsies found that 64 women had a maternal or late maternal death and 36 died of causes unrelated to childbearing. The most common causes of death were haemorrhage (15) and abortion (14). The resulting maternal mortality ratio was 357 per 100 000 live births, compared with 128 per 100 000 live births derived from hospital records. Conclusion The community-based mortality survey was effective for ascertaining maternal deaths and identified many deaths not included in hospital records. National surveys could provide the information needed to end preventable maternal mortality by 2030. PMID:26908958

  18. Sulfur status and forms in some surface soils of Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaye, D.K.; Kang, B.T.

    1987-07-01

    The authors analyzed surface samples of 48 important soil series in the different ecological zones of Ghana for total S, inorganic sulfate-S, HI-reducible S, carbon-bonded S, organic C, total N, and total and organic P. Total S ranged from 44-281 ppm, organic S ranged from 37-268 ppm and sulfate-S content ranged from 3-22 ppm. Ester sulfate, calculated from HI-reducible S, ranged from 5-123 ppm, and carbon-bonded S ranged from 1-57 ppm. Total S was significantly correlated with organic C, with total N, and with organic P. The soils had average C:N, N:S, N:P, P:S, C:S, and C:N:P:S ratios of 10.7:1, 6.8:1, 11.4:1, 0.7:1, 65.7:1, and 102:10:1.0:1.5 respectively. Assessment of the data indicated that parent material, organic matter content, vegetative cover, and, to a lesser extent, pH had influenced the S status of the soils. Soils formed over Birrimian rocks and phyllite and basic rocks had higher S status than soils formed over acidic rocks, alluvium, and shales or sandstones and Tertiary sands. Forest soils had higher S status than savanna soils on account of their higher organic matter content. Incubation studies showed that, of the 48 soils, 18 resulted in net immobilization, and the rest yielded only small amounts of mineralized S (average, 2.2 ppm). Net mineralized S was weakly correlated with sulfate-S and pH, but not with total S, organic C, total N, or arylsulfatase activity. Generally, the soils showed relative low sulfate adsorption capacity (range 6-46).

  19. Maternal mortality and related factors in Ejisu District, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Martey, J O; Djan, J O; Twum, S; Browne, E N; Opoku, S A

    1994-10-01

    A community-based survey on maternal mortality was carried out in the Ejisu health district of Ghana in January and February 1990 to identify all women who died in pregnancy, delivery or the puerperium from January 1985 to December 1989, determine their characteristics, the presumptive causes of death and related factors. Forty-four women who died in pregnancy, delivery or the puerperium were identified over the stated period. 59% were aged between 20 and 34 years. Eighty-two percent were married and sixty-six percent had at least primary education. Based on an average crude birth rate of 40 per 1000 population for the district over the period, the lowest maternal mortality rate occurred in 1988, 120 per 100,000 total births and the highest occurred a year later, 235 per 100,000 total births. The main presumptive causes of maternal mortality in the district were postpartum haemorrhage 45.5%, jaundice in pregnancy 22.7%, obstructed labour 6.8%, eclampsia 6.8% and fever 4.6%. 59% of them died in a hospital, 2% died at a Government Maternity Home and 7% died during referral from health facilities in the district. Thirty-four percent of the women who died did not attend any antenatal clinic. The actual number of deaths may be underestimated due to the sampling method used and the difficulties encountered in linking survey data with hospital records. Based on the survey findings and other related PMM research, plans have been developed to reduce maternal mortality in the district as outline in the conclusion. PMID:7821246

  20. Source Tracking Mycobacterium ulcerans Infections in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Narh, Charles A.; Mosi, Lydia; Quaye, Charles; Dassi, Christelle; Konan, Daniele O.; Tay, Samuel C. K.; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) infection, Buruli ulcer (BU), with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM). Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains. PMID:25612300

  1. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

  2. Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Abaidoo, R C; Ntow, W J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food preparation at the household or "chop" bar (street restaurant). PMID:16328619

  3. The timing of alluvial sedimentation and floodplain formation in the lowland humid tropics of Ghana, Sierra Leone and western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, Martin; Thomas, Michael

    1992-04-01

    Temporal patterns in floodplain genesis and alluvial sedimentation in lowlands tropical rain forest zones of Ghana, Sierra Leone and western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) based upon 14C age determinations are described. Alluvial low terraces or buried sediments in West Africa yielded ages of 36-21 ka. In west Kalimantan a widespread episode of alluviation has yielded dates of 54-51 ka. The 20-13 ka interval was characterised by channel incision with valley floor erosion and neither region records sedimentation. Holocene alluvial sedimentation and floodplain construction in West Africa occurred during two temporal intervals: 10-7 ka and 4 ka to present and in western Kalimantan in response to early Holocene sea level rise followed by late Holocene regression and coastal outgrowth. The clustering of 14C dates closely corresponds to regional lake level fluctuations and vegetational changes and to global indications of climatic change. We propose that periods of more frequent episodes of accelerated floodplain erosion and reconstitution, channel morpho-sedimentary activity and alluvial accumulation (1) are responses to interstadial and interglacial periods of higher precipitation following intervening periods of cooler and drier conditions; and (2) may be synchronous during the last 60 ka throughout the African and Asian inner humid lowland tropics.

  4. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake Erie could be utilized.

  5. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  6. Great Salt Lake Breach at Lakeside, Utah

    A gage to measure lake water levels stands dry in the lake bed of the Great Salt Lake. For the first time since it was opened in 1984, water has stopped flowing through the Great Salt Lake causeway breach, an area that allows water to travel between the southern and northern parts of the lake....

  7. Barriers to Accessing Emergency Medical Services in Accra, Ghana: Development of a Survey Instrument and Initial Application in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Rominski, Sarah D; Bogus, Joshua; Ginde, Adit A; Zakariah, Ahmed N; Boatemaah, Christiana A; Yancey, Arthur H; Akoriyea, Samuel Kaba; Campbell, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) systems provide professional prehospital emergency medical care and transportation to help improve outcomes from emergency conditions. Ghana’s national ambulance service has relatively low public utilization in comparison with the large burden of acute disease. Methods: A survey instrument was developed using Pechansky and Thomas’s model of access covering 5 dimensions of availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. The instrument was used in a cross-sectional survey in 2013 in Accra, Ghana; eligible participants were those 18 years and older who spoke English, French, or Twi. Although the analysis was mainly descriptive, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported intention to call for an ambulance in the case of a medical emergency. Results: 468 participants completed surveys, with a response rate of 78.4%. Few (4.5%) respondents had ever used an ambulance in prior emergency situations. A substantial proportion (43.8%) knew about the public access medical emergency telephone number, but of those only 37.1% knew it was a toll-free call. Most (54.7%) respondents believed EMTs offered high-quality care, but 78.0% believed taxis were faster than ambulances and 69.2% thought the number of ambulances in Accra insufficient. Many (23.4%) thought using ambulances to transport corpses would be appropriate. In two hypothetical emergency scenarios, respondents most commonly reported taxis as the preferred transportation (63.6% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 64.7% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle). About 1 in 5 respondents said they would call an ambulance in either scenario (20.7% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 23.3% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle) while 15.5% and 10.2%, respectively, would use any available vehicle. Those aged 18–35 years were more likely than older respondents to prefer an ambulance (odds ratio [OR], 2.27; confidence interval [CI], 1.47 to 3.68), as were those with prior ambulance experience (OR, 1.75; CI, 0.98 to 3.09) (compared with those with no prior experience) and those who believed ambulances were safer than taxis (OR, 2.17; CI, 1.1 to 4.2) (compared with those who did not hold such beliefs). Conclusions: Perceptions of public ambulance services in Accra, Ghana, are generally favorable, although use is low. Public health education to improve awareness of the toll-free medical emergency number and about appropriate use of ambulances while simultaneously improving the capacity of ambulance agencies to receive increased caseload could improve use of the EMS system. PMID:26681705

  8. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  9. Expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: report of the first autochthonous case in the municipality of Volta Redonda and the difficulty of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Lima, Sebastião Roberto de Almeida; de Mello, Cíntia Xavier; Cardoso, Daniela Trindade; Mello, Jurema Nunes; Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho do Espírito; Tavares, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis has been showing remarkable epidemiological changes in recent decades, with marked expansion and an emergence of cases in urban areas of the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. The Kala-azar cases reported here, despite being very characteristic, presented a great difficulty of diagnosis, because the disease is not endemic in Volta Redonda. The child underwent two hospitalizations in different hospitals, but got the correct diagnosis only after 11 months of symptom onset. In this report we discuss the main differential diagnoses and call attention to the suspected symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, even in areas not traditionally endemic for the disease. PMID:24879008

  10. EXPANSION OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: REPORT OF THE FIRST AUTOCHTHONOUS CASE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF VOLTA REDONDA AND THE DIFFICULTY OF DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Lima, Sebastião Roberto de Almeida; de Mello, Cíntia Xavier; Cardoso, Daniela Trindade; Mello, Jurema Nunes; do Espírito Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Tavares, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis has been showing remarkable epidemiological changes in recent decades, with marked expansion and an emergence of cases in urban areas of the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. The Kala-azar cases reported here, despite being very characteristic, presented a great difficulty of diagnosis, because the disease is not endemic in Volta Redonda. The child underwent two hospitalizations in different hospitals, but got the correct diagnosis only after 11 months of symptom onset. In this report we discuss the main differential diagnoses and call attention to the suspected symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, even in areas not traditionally endemic for the disease. PMID:24879008

  11. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  12. Life history of lake herring in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph

    1964-01-01

    The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.

  13. Aeolian sand preserved in Silver Lake: a new signal of Holocene high stands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Loope, Walter L.

    2005-01-01

    Aeolian sand within lake sediment from Silver Lake, Michigan can be used as a proxy for the timing of high lake levels of Lake Michigan.We demonstrate that the sand record from Silver Lake plotted as percent weight is in-phase with the elevation curve of Lake Michigan since the mid-Holocene Nipissing Phase. Because fluctuations in Lake Michigan's lake level are recorded in beach ridges, and are a response to climate change, the aeolian sand record within Silver Lake is also a proxy for climate change. It appears that increases in dune activity and lake sand are controlled by similar climatic shifts that drive fluctuations in lake level of Lake Michigan. High lake levels destabilize coastal bluffs that drive dune sand instability, and along with greater wintertime storminess, increase niveo-aeolian transport of sand across lake ice. The sand is introduced into the lake each spring as the ice cover melts.

  14. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    PubMed

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

  15. Method for lake restoration

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Gaynor W.; Mercer, Basil W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for removing pollutants or minerals from lake, river or ocean sediments or from mine tailings is disclosed. Magnetically attractable collection units containing an ion exchange or sorbent media with an affinity for a chosen target substance are distributed in the sediments or tailings. After a period of time has passed sufficient for the particles to bind up the target substances, a magnet drawn through the sediments or across the tailings retrieves the units along with the target substance.

  16. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (?51?000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ?6984% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (9697% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

  17. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  18. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  19. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  20. Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, Giuseppe; Showman, Adam P.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2007-02-01

    The Huygens Probe detected dendritic drainage-like features, methane clouds and a high surface relative humidity (∼50% ) on Titan in the vicinity of its landing site [Tomasko, M.G., and 39 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 765-778; Niemann, H.B., and 17 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 779-784], suggesting sources of methane that replenish this gas against photo- and charged-particle chemical loss on short (10-100) million year timescales [Atreya, S.K., Adams, E.Y., Niemann, H.B., Demick-Montelara, J.E., Owen, T.C., Fulchignoni, M., Ferri, F., Wilson, E.H., 2006. Planet. Space Sci. In press]. On the other hand, Cassini Orbiter remote sensing shows dry and even desert-like landscapes with dunes [Lorenz, R.D., and 39 colleagues, 2006a. Science 312, 724-727], some areas worked by fluvial erosion, but no large-scale bodies of liquid [Elachi, C., and 34 colleagues, 2005. Science 308, 970-974]. Either the atmospheric methane relative humidity is declining in a steady fashion over time, or the sources that maintain the relative humidity are geographically restricted, small, or hidden within the crust itself. In this paper we explore the hypothesis that the present-day methane relative humidity is maintained entirely by lakes that cover a small part of the surface area of Titan. We calculate the required minimum surface area coverage of such lakes, assess the stabilizing influence of ethane, and the implications for moist convection in the atmosphere. We show that, under Titan's surface conditions, methane evaporates rapidly enough that shorelines of any existing lakes could potentially migrate by several hundred m to tens of km per year, rates that could be detected by the Cassini orbiter. We furthermore show that the high relative humidity of methane in Titan's lower atmosphere could be maintained by evaporation from lakes covering only 0.002-0.02 of the whole surface.