These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Importance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum to transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Results of 5 years of sampling for Bulinus rohlfsi in human-water contact sites of villages along the Volta Lake, Ghana, have confirmed that the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum, is the most important ecological factor for sustaining high levels of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium. Data available so far indicate that growth of this weed largely determines the size of the snail populations. Increasing density of Ceratophyllum correlates with increasing levels of cercarial transmission potential in the water contact sites and of S. haematobium infection in the village populations. PMID:6975187

Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

1980-01-01

2

Techniques for estimating densities of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and its horizontal distribution in Volta Lake, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi is the intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis, which is highly endemic in the man-made Volta Lake. In 1971, a WHO/UNDP schistosomiasis project was established in the Pawmpawm branch and part of the Afram branch of Volta Lake. Malacological findings of the preliminary phase indicated that the snails were distributed in the littoral zone of the lake, and that this distribution was correlated with the presence of vegetation, especially Ceratophyllum. Transmission nearly always occurred in “water contact sites”, i.e., places where people come into contact with water. A snail-sampling technique with palm-leaf mats was developed and standardized after it had been shown in sensitivity trials to compare favourably with a modified version of the “man—time” sampling method, in which the number of snails collected per man-hour is recorded. It is recommended that both these methods should be used to conduct ecological studies of B. rohlfsi in water contact sites. PMID:1088354

Chu, K. Y.; Vanderburg, J. A.

1976-01-01

3

Epidemiology of human Schistosoma haematobium infection around Volta Lake, Ghana, 1973-75  

PubMed Central

There was a dramatic rise in the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis around Volta Lake within a year of its full impoundment in 1968. Research was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in preparation for a control programme. The interplay of three factors—age, sex, and ethnic affiliation—largely defined the demographic patterns of the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Both of these increased in young children up to a peak at age 10-14 years, and then declined, the intensity of infection more rapidly than the prevalence. The prevalence and intensity of infection were both greater in males than females (above ages 15-24 years and 5-9 years, respectively), and differences between the two main ethnic groups were related to differences in their lake-related activities. Differences between the patterns of prevalence and intensity of infection are attributed to the greater sensitivity of the latter measurement in indicating changes in the level of transmission. Practical difficulties were encountered in obtaining a precise measurement of incidence, the most important being the considerable degree of population movement. A field cohort study showed a seasonality of transmission, greatest between January and April, during the period of high level of the lake and in the early part of the draw-down. Research on the intermediate snail host (Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi) and lakeside ecology established the focality of transmission at human water-contact sites serving the shore-line communities and, in conjunction with parasitological surveys, its seasonality: variations in ecology that accompanied the annual rise and fall of the lake led to high levels of transmission when the water level was high and lower levels during the draw-down. The geographical distribution of the infection was also affected by differences in ecology, specifically by variations in the distribution and abundance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum demersum. A non-seasonal decline in transmission observed in one locality during the period from 1973 to 1975 resulted from a local decrease in the amount of Ceratophyllum. PMID:6979420

Scott, D.; Senker, K.; England, E. C.

1982-01-01

4

Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the operations research intervention carried out by the Ghana Partnership for Child Development (GPCD) in the Volta Region of Ghana in collaboration with the Ministries of Education and Health and the Ghana Education Service. Ghana was...

J. H. Williams, K. Leherr

1998-01-01

5

Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

2005-01-01

6

[An attempt to explain fertility differentials in Upper Volta and in Ghana].  

PubMed

This study examines fertility differentials in Western Africa, notably in Upper Volta and in Ghana. The relationship between social and cultural transformation and fertility rate is usually seen as a matter of cause and effect. Direct variables caused by social transformation would be education, migration, and urbanization. This is not necessarily so, at least according to the Davis-Blake paradigm, which says that there are intermediate variables which intervene between fertility rate and the social system. For West Africa such variables are of 3 distinct types: 1) those which upset the normal flow of the family, such as separation due to migration, divorce, and marriage age; 2) those which influence conception itself, such as birth control, lactation and sexual abstinence; and, 3) cultural factors, such as poligamy and monogamy, type of conjugal union, and postpartum sexual abstinence. The central point of this study is that direct variables, i.e. migration, education and urbanization, do not directly influence fertility, but they influence the so-called intermediate variables, which, in turn, cause a change in fertility patterns. It must be remembered that birth control is still practically unknown in Western Africa. PMID:12262426

Coulibaly, S P; Pool, I

1975-01-01

7

Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods - The Volta region, Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1956 ??S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ??S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage. ?? 2009 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH.

Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.

2009-01-01

8

Causes and Consequences of Mangrove Deforestation in the Volta Estuary, Ghana: Some Recommendations for Ecosystem Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damming of the Volta River has resulted in reduced flooding and an increase in mangrove cutting, due to the virtual collapse of agriculture and fishing in the estuary. Another ecological consequence of the reduced level of flooding has been reduced dispersal of seedlings of the principal mangrove Rhizophora racemosa. Therefore, after cutting of this species, recolonisation is either by

J. A Rubin; C Gordon; J. K Amatekpor

1999-01-01

9

Results of three years of cercarial transmission control in the Volta Lake*  

PubMed Central

After three years of cercarial transmission control using focal application of niclosamide and weed removal in water contact sites (WCSs) in the project area of the Volta Lake, the numbers of WCSs infested with cercariae and infected snails were reduced by over 90% in areas of both high and low endemicity. This, combined with selective population chemotherapy, reduced the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection by 72% in the area of low endemicity and 40% in the area of high endemicity. The intensity of infection in the villages was reduced by 78% in both areas. The overall annual cost of the cercarial transmission control programme was US $1.09 per capita. PMID:6976224

Chu, K. Y.; Klumpp, R. K.; Kofi, D. Y.

1981-01-01

10

Anaemia among school children older than five years in the Volta Region of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anaemia among children is a public health issue in Ghana. The Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) was instituted on pilot basis in an effort to provide nutritious lunch to school children. Evidence on the nutritional status of pupils is needed to inform the expansion of GSFP. This study sought to assess anaemia among Ghanaian pupils. Methods This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 143 pupils aged 6 to 12 years. Blood samples were collected and analysed for serum-ferritin (SF), C-reactive protein (CRP), haemoglobin and malaria-parasitaemia (MP). Stool samples were examined for soil-transmitted helminthes. Dietary data were collected using the 24 hour-recall method on three non-consecutive days and a food frequency questionnaire. The Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between sexes. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anaemia. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 Results SF and haemoglobin concentrations were 23.9±15ng/ml and 120±11g/L respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 30.8%. More females (41.5%) than males (21.8%) had anaemia (p < 0.005). Seventy-one percent of pupils had low SF levels. MP prevalence was 67.8%. Hookworm infestation was only observed in males (18.0%). Dietary iron and vitamin C intakes were 18.98±8.8mg and 23.7±6.7mg, respectively. Child's sex, SF and MP were associated with anaemia. Males had a lower likelihood of being anaemic (OR = 0.2, CI 0.1-0.5, p = 0.002) Conclusion The study findings underscore the need for multi-pronged approaches that address both malaria control and nutrition in order to reduce anaemia among pupils. PMID:24644526

Egbi, Godfred; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Kwesi, Faribu Saalia; Ayi, Irene; Ofosu, Winfred; Setorglo, Jacob; Klobodu, Seth Selorm; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret

2014-01-01

11

Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

Hall, L.

1982-01-01

12

Assessing the groundwater fortunes of aquifers in the White Volta Basin, Ghana: An application of numerical groundwater flow modeling and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective development and informed management of groundwater resources represent a critical opportunity for improved rural water supply in Ghana and enhanced livelihoods particularly in the northern part of the White Volta Basin, a region already prone to a myriad of water-related infirmities. If adequately developed, the resource will form a sufficient buffer against the effects of climate change/variability and foster food security and sustainable livelihoods among the largely peasant communities in the region. This research presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological conditions and recharge regimes of the aquifers in the Northern parts of the White Volta Basin, Ghana. Results of estimates of groundwater recharge through the conventional isotopic and mass balance techniques are presented. Details of the groundwater flow pattern and preliminary delineation of local and regional groundwater recharge areas are presented from initial simulations of the hydrogeological system with a robust groundwater flow simulation code, MODFLOW, in the Groundwater Modeling System, GMS, version 7.1. The stream flow and evapotranspiration components of the program were activated to incorporate surface flow processes, so that the resulting model represents the conditions of the entire hydrological system. The results of this study form a platform for detailed numerical assessment of the conditions of the aquifers in the area under transient conditions of fluctuating rainfall patterns in the face of climate change/variability.

Oteng, F. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.

2012-12-01

13

Sedimentology and chemostratigraphy of the Bwipe Neoproterozoic cap dolostones (Ghana, Volta Basin): A record of microbial activity in a peritidal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic glacial and post-glacial sediments from the Volta Basin (West Africa) form a stratigraphic 'Triad' of tillites, carbonates and cherts. The carbonates that cap the tillites were studied in detail at Bwipe (Ghana), in the western part of the basin. They are made of finely-laminated dolostones with well-preserved sedimentary features, suggesting that dolomite formation was penecontemporaneous of deposition in a warm, arid peritidal environment, with microbial activity. Rare-earth element distribution display seawater-like patterns. Redox-sensitive trace elements indicate suboxic conditions. High Ba/Al ratios can be related to high organic productivity. ?13C values are nearly constant at -3.7‰ and ?18O PDB are about -6‰. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios range between 0.7061 and 0.7073. The ?13C signatures are nearly similar to those of coeval cap dolostones from the northern part of the Basin. The dolostones change upwards to limestones with secondary textures, as well as more negative ?13C and higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio. Therefore, only the dolostones witness the post-glacial conditions in seawater. It is proposed that, due to a bloom of microbial productivity following ice thaw, organic matter likely accumulated at the water-sediment interface and was consumed by sulphate-reducing bacteria, leading to the precipitation of ?13C-negative dolomite. This microbially mediated model is supported by present-day field evidence from hypersaline lagoons in Brazil and by previously published culture experiments. It is consistent with the sedimentological and geochemical data from the Ghana cap dolostones and can be applied to other Neoproterozoic cap dolostones worldwide.

Nédélec, Anne; Affaton, Pascal; France-Lanord, Christian; Charrière, André; Alvaro, Javier

2007-03-01

14

Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.  

PubMed

Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system. PMID:20229387

Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Kofi Essumang, David; Eghan, Moses J; Reichert, Barbara; van de Giesen, Nick; Vlek, Paul

2010-03-01

15

A magnetic mineral record of Late Quaternary tropical climate variability from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report magnetic hysteresis results from sediment cores obtained from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana. As a hydrologically closed basin, the water budget of Lake Bosumtwi is extremely sensitive to changes in the precipitation\\/evapotranspiration balance. Lake Bosumtwi lies in the path of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ); hence, the lake is ideally situated to study monsoon variability in

John A. Peck; Ryan R. Green; Tim Shanahan; John W. King; Jonathan T. Overpeck; Christopher A. Scholz

2004-01-01

16

Adolescents and parents’ perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548

2013-01-01

17

Residents' perceptions of the environmental impacts of tourism in the Lake Bosomtwe Basin, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates residents' perceptions of tourism's physical impacts in the Lake Bosomtwe Basin in Ghana. Data were based on a resident survey conducted in the basin in January 2006. Residents perceived both positive and negative impacts of tourism development, but were more inclined to the positive side. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the district assemblies in

Francis Eric Amuquandoh

2010-01-01

18

The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

19

Application of the MIKE SHE hydrological model in exploring sustainable development of water resources for agricultural activities in the White Volta Basin, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable abstraction of groundwater resources for commercial irrigation in the White Volta Basin (WVB) holds promise for a fledging agricultural industry in the basin. This is because erratic rainfall patterns attending climate change/variability has imposed mixed fortunes in terms of rain-fed agricultural activities currently practiced in the WVB. Addressing the sustainability of groundwater for commercial abstraction will require the integration of surface and subsurface flows and analysis of the impacts of climate change scenarios on the resource, employing a surface-subsurface flow model. Here, we present early results from surface flow simulation over the basin using the physically-based surface-subsurface flow model MIKE SHE.

Oteng, F. M.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.

2013-12-01

20

Hydrological parameterization through remote sensing in Volta Basin, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground?based hydrological data collection tends to be difficult and costly, especially in developing countries such as Ghana and Burkina Faso where the infrastructure for scientific monitoring is limited. Remote sensing has the potential to fill the gaps in observation networks. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) seeks to maximize the information to be gained from satellite imagery by combining remotely sensed

Mohsin Hafeez; Marc Andreini; Jens Liebe; Jan Friesen; Andreas Marx; Nick Van De Giesen

2007-01-01

21

Water Atlas of the Volta Basin  

E-print Network

W A Water Atlas of the Volta Basin Atlas de l'eau du Bassin de la Volta Jacques LemoaLLe Devaraj de. Water atlas of the Volta Basin-Atlas de l'eau dans le bas- sin de la Volta. Challenge Program on Water-2-7099-1687-5 Acknowledgements Remerciements This atlas presents findings from the Volta Basin Focal Project (BFP Volta), PN55

Boyer, Edmond

22

The geochemistry of Lake Bosumtwi, a hydrologically closed basin in the humid zone of tropical Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Bosumtwi lies in an isolated, hydrologically closed basin formed by a meteor impact - 1 x lo6 yr'ago. Comparison of lake-water samples taken in 1993 with one from 1934 shows a decrease in the concentrations of dissolved solutes, most likely owing to an estimated 13% increase in lake volume. A mass balance calculation that uses an estimate of the

Benjamin F. Turner; L. R. Gardner; W E. Sharp

23

Tourism development preferences among the residents of Lake Bosomtwe Basin, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy over the extent to develop tourism in tourist destinations remains unresolved. This paper examines the extent\\u000a of tourism development residents are prepared to tolerate in the Lake Bosomtwe. A resident survey undertaken during January\\u000a 2006 in the basin reveals that residents are more oriented to large scale tourism. The major perceived reason for this preference\\u000a is that large scale

Francis E. Amuquandoh; Laud A. Dei

2007-01-01

24

Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the

Lineu Rodrigues; Aidan Senzanje; Philippe Cecchi; Jens Liebe

2010-01-01

25

Mag Lab U: Alessandro Volta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short biography of Alessandro Volta, the 18th-century Italian scientist who proposed the theory that electrical current is generated by contact between different metals. His experimental work resulted in the construction of the "voltaic pile" battery, the first known source of sustainable electric current. The biography includes a link to a Java-based simulation of his voltaic pile device. Mag Lab U is part of a large collection of web-based educational materials for K-20, developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

Neaves, Shannon

2010-05-26

26

Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both input and output) as the driving force, and facilitate people’s access to land and water.

Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

27

Mapping Helminth Co-Infection and Co-Intensity: Geostatistical Prediction in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites. The development of a spatial predictive decision-support tool is crucial for targeting the delivery of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) to those most in need. We investigated the co-distribution of S. haematobium and hookworm infection, plus the spatial overlap of infection intensity of both parasites, in Ghana. The aim was to produce maps to assist the planning and evaluation of national parasitic disease control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings A national cross-sectional school-based parasitological survey was conducted in Ghana in 2008, using standardized sampling and parasitological methods. Bayesian geostatistical models were built, including a multinomial regression model for S. haematobium and hookworm mono- and co-infections and zero-inflated Poisson regression models for S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity as measured by egg counts in urine and stool respectively. The resulting infection intensity maps were overlaid to determine the extent of geographical overlap of S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity. In Ghana, prevalence of S. haematobium mono-infection was 14.4%, hookworm mono-infection was 3.2%, and S. haematobium and hookworm co-infection was 0.7%. Distance to water bodies was negatively associated with S. haematobium and hookworm co-infections, hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. Land surface temperature was positively associated with hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. While high-risk (prevalence >10–20%) of co-infection was predicted in an area around Lake Volta, co-intensity was predicted to be highest in foci within that area. Conclusions/Significance Our approach, based on the combination of co-infection and co-intensity maps allows the identification of communities at increased risk of severe morbidity and environmental contamination and provides a platform to evaluate progress of control efforts. PMID:21666800

Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Gyapong, John O.; Brooker, Simon; Zhang, Yaobi; Blair, Lynsey; Fenwick, Alan; Clements, Archie C. A.

2011-01-01

28

A 12,000-Year-Long, Annually-Resolved Varve Record Spanning the Last Interglacial from Lake Bosumtwi, Southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of continued global warming on the likelihood of severe drought in sub-Saharan West Africa remains uncertain, as climate models generally do not simulate realistic climate dynamics in the region and have inconsistent projections for the future. The Last Interglacial period (LIG), occurring between 128 and 116 thousand years ago, is a partial analog for future warming because at its peak, global temperatures were slightly higher, and this warming was accentuated in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial summer temperatures. Here we present a new, annually-resolved, 12,100-year-long varve record for the LIG from Lake Bosumtwi in southern Ghana (6.5°N, 1.4°W). The abundance of terrigenous elements in the sediment, varve thickness, and the isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of authigenic carbonates in the sediment were used to infer changes in lake level. The varve chronology, varve thickness and elemental abundance records were developed with a new ensemble approach that allows for a more robust determination of uncertainty in the record. The new records reveal a dynamic history of hydrologic variability during the LIG. The LIG lake highstand was lower and shorter-lived than the the prolonged highstand in the early Holocene, and unlike the Holocene, the lake never overflowed during LIG. The overall drier conditions during the LIG are most likely driven by amplified precessional forcing during the interval, resulting in a northward shift in the rainbelt. The LIG, like the Holocene, had two distinct millennial-scale moist intervals, from 125 - 123 and 121 - 120 ka. In both the LIG and the Holocene, these peaks occurred during times of precession-driven insolation maxima in July and October, corresponding to the two rainy seasons in the modern climatology. This suggests that, at least during interglacials, prolonged wet conditions occur at the lake when rainy season insolation is highest. Over the course of the LIG, lake level generally tracked sea surface temperatures (SST) in Gulf of Guinea, including an abrupt drop in lake level that lasted about 500 years ca. 118 ka, corresponding to cooling in the Gulf of Guinea and much of the North Atlantic during the interval. The timing and duration of the event are comparable to the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP) that is observed at several European sites, and has been interpreted to result from abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic, and possibly a reduction of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This scenario would likely result in drought in West Africa, so the aridity ca. 118 ka is the first indication that the LEAP occurred in Africa as well as Europe. The occurrence of quasiperiodic variability at multidecadal to centennial timescales is consistent with the hypothesis that slowly varying changes in Atlantic SST structure (e.g., the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) drives long term hydrologic variability in the region.

McKay, N.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; Heil, C. W.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.

2012-12-01

29

Antibiotic producing microorganisms from River Wiwi, Lake Bosomtwe and the Gulf of Guinea at Doakor Sea Beach, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Microorganisms have provided a wealth of metabolites with interesting activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral and anticancer. In this study, a total of 119 aquatic microbial isolates from 30 samples (taken from water bodies in Ghana) were screened by the agar-well diffusion method for ability to produce antibacterial-metabolites. Results Antibacterial activity was exhibited by 27 of the isolates (14 bacteria, 9 actinomycetes and 4 fungi) against at least one of the indicator microorganisms: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Bacillus thuringiensis (ATCC 13838), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Proteus vulgaris (NCTC 4635) and Bacillus Subtilis (NCTC 10073). A sea isolate MAI2 (identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity (lowest zone of inhibition?=?22 mm). The metabolites of MAI2 extracted with chloroform were stable to heat and gave minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 250 and 2000 ?g/ml. Bioautography of the extract revealed seven active components. Conclusion This study has therefore uncovered the potential of water bodies in the West African sub-region as reservoirs of potent bioactive metabolite producing microorganisms. PMID:23072432

2012-01-01

30

Late Quaternary sedimentological and climate changes at Lake Bosumtwi Ghana: new constraints from laminae analysis and radiocarbon age modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast. This is inconsistent with a simple southward shift in the mean position of the monsoon rainbelt, and requires changes in moisture convergence as a result of either a reduction in the moisture content of the tropical rainbelt, decreased convection, or both.

Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W., Jr.; King, John

2012-01-01

31

LAY CONCEPTS OF TOURISM IN BOSOMTWE BASIN, GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the subjective definitions of tourism and its perceived impacts by the residents around a natural lake, Lake Bosomtwe Basin, in Ghana. Data were based on a survey of residents on their understanding of the term tourism in January, 2006. Although, residents demonstrated possessing an ample knowledge of tourism, a marked difference was found in their knowledge about

Francis Eric Amuquandoh

2010-01-01

32

Nutrition and carbon metabolism of Methanococcus voltae.  

PubMed Central

Methanococcus voltae is a heterotrophic, H2-oxidizing methanogenic bacterium. In complex medium, this bacterium has a doubling time of 1.2 h at its temperature optimum of 38 degrees C. In defined medium, optimal growth is obtained with 0.75 mM isoleucine, 0.75 mM leucine, 2.5 mM acetate, 5 mM NH4Cl, 84 mM MgSO4, 0.4 M NaCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 10 microM Fe2O3, and 0.2 microM NiCl2. In addition, pantothenate, sodium selenate, and cobalt stimulate growth. Optimal growth is obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0 with either H2 or formate as the electron donor. The volatile fatty acids 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate can substitute for isoleucine and leucine, respectively. Cellular carbon is derived from acetate (31%), isoleucine (22%), leucine (25%), and carbon dioxide (23%). The amino acids and fatty acids are incorporated almost exclusively into protein. A comparison of the incorporation of U-14C-amino acids and 1-14C-fatty acids indicated that the fatty acids are degraded during incorporation into cell protein. The distribution of carbon from the amino acids suggests that acetyl coenzyme A is not a major intermediate in the degradation of these compounds. Thus, M. voltae may convert isoleucine and leucine to other amino acids by a unique mechanism. The lipid carbon is derived largely from acetate. Thus, the isoprenoid lipids are synthesized de novo from acetate rather than by degradation of leucine. The carbon in the nucleic acids is derived from carbon dioxide (45%), the C-1 of acetate (25%), the C-2 of acetate (22%), and isoleucine and leucine (7%). This labeling pattern is consistent with known biochemical pathways. PMID:6801012

Whitman, W B; Ankwanda, E; Wolfe, R S

1982-01-01

33

Chemical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Akatsi and Ketu Districts of the Volta Region, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical characteristics of the groundwater at Akatsi and Ketu districts were investigated . Water samples were collected from 34 boreholes in the Akatsi Dist rict and 27 boreholes in the Ketu District and anal ysed for their quality parameters, using appropriate certified and acceptable international standard methods. Most of the water quality variables measured were within the WHO and

C. K. Tay

34

Lake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

Wien, Carol Anne

2008-01-01

35

Monitoring of pesticide residues of five notable vegetables at Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

The study monitored the concentrations of pesticide residues in vegetables arriving at Agbogbloshie, a central market in the Accra Metropolis from different parts of Ghana and beyond. A total of 810 samples of 5 different vegetables from Central, Volta, Greater Accra, Ashanti, Eastern Regions, and neighboring country (Togo) were collected from January 2009 through to December 2011. In all, 18 % of the samples had no detectable residues, 62 % were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 20 % also exceeded the EU (MRLs) adopted values. Overall, lettuce contained the highest number of residues above their MRLs besides cucumber and cabbage. The pesticide residues were mainly organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. The results demonstrate the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables arriving at the various major markets in Ghana. PMID:25007773

Osei-Fosu, P; Donkor, A K; Nyarko, S; Nazzah, N K; Asante, I K; Kingsford-Adabo, R; Arkorful, N A

2014-11-01

36

Transduction-Like Gene Transfer in the Methanogen Methanococcus voltae  

PubMed Central

Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 × 10?5 (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10?3 (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae. PMID:10321998

Bertani, Giuseppe

1999-01-01

37

Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.

Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.

1987-01-01

38

Development of the VOLT-A shuttle experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating potential problems associated with the operation of high voltage solar cell arrays in the space plasma environment. At high voltages, interactions between the solar array and the space plasma could result in unacceptable levels of electrical discharge (arcing) and/or parasitic losses (current drains from the array to the plasma). The objective of the Voltage Operating Limit Tests (VOLT-A) Shuttle bay experiment is to characterize space plasma/solar cell panel interactions in low earth orbit. VOLT-A consists of an experiment plate subassembly which contains four solar panels, an electronics subassembly and a Langmuir probe subassembly mounted on an MPESS carrier. During a given 8.25 hour data taking period (5-1/2 continuous orbits), the solar panels, which represent state-of-the-art solar cell technologies, will be sequentially subjected to bias voltages in steps ranging from minus 626 V to plus 313 V. Appropriate measurements will be made at each voltage to characterize arcing and parasitic losses. Corresponding measurements of the plasma environment (plasma density, electron temperature and neutral density) will also be made. Data will be recorded on an on-board tape recorder for subsequent data reduction and analysis.

Bifano, W. J.; Bozek, J. M.; Ferguson, D. C.

1985-01-01

39

Developing a decision support tool for landscape planning and management to minimize land and water degradation in Volta basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many soil/water-landscape studies have been published in the last two decades, progress in developing operational tools for supporting landscape planning to minimize land and water degradation in developing regions is still modest. Some of the existing tools are very data demanding and/or too complicated to be useful to data scarce regions. A research group at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn has developed a LAndscape Management and Planning Tool (LAMPT) to facilitate land management decision making and landscape planning by optimization. Firstly, we used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a Distributed Sediment Delivery Model (DSDM) in a GIS environment to estimate the spatial distribution of areas experiencing different levels of soil loss in the White Volta basin. The RUSLE is employed to map the spatial patterns of major sediment source areas based on data calibrated for the study region. As RUSLE only estimates the potential gross erosion of each grid cell, a DSDM is used to estimate the sediment delivery efficiency of each cell using flow distance and velocity along the flow path. The combined models allow a classification of sub-watersheds experiencing different levels of soil loss using a soil tolerance threshold suitable for the study areas (Burkina Faso and Ghana). The result shows that the majority of areas around north-eastern and eastern parts of the White Volta basin (mainly south-eastern Burkina Faso and upper east region of Ghana) are associated with high levels of sediment yield (over 15 t ha-1 yr-1). The main reason could be high population pressure, poor surface cover and relatively high slope of some of the areas in Ghana. On the other hand, the north-western and southern parts of the basin experience low levels of sediment yield (less than 5 t ha-1 yr-1) mainly due to their flat terrain and good surface cover that encourage sediment deposition rather than erosion. We revealed that a GIS-based soil erosion and sediment delivery model can successfully be used for identifying and prioritizing critical sub-watersheds for management purposes. Such a tool can be of significance in developing areas where problems are severe but resources are scarce. Next, we implemented the RUSLE-DSDM model into NetLogo, an agent-based programming platform, producing a LAMPT's prototype. The operational model was designed in such a way that fast and robust sensitivity analyses can be performed, after users are allowed to (i) select and set different physical parameters, and (ii) choose different sets of land-use management and planning options. The physical parameters choice meets the scientific needs of landscape modelers in their exploration of adequate values of the many parameters in soil/sedimentation models that are often not well-calibrated in developing regions. The latter is expected to meet the needs of practitioners in catchment management and planning. As the tool allows front-end users to handle the selection of management/planning options, and provide a fast and responsive outputs (in terms of both maps and graphs), LAMPT can assist in effective multi-stakeholder negotiations over land-use planning where the minimization the degradation of land/water resources is the ultimate goal. The LAMPT model can be easily coupled with LUDAS, an agent-based land-use change model using the same platform, to comprehensively simulate environment-community loops. During the further development of LAMPT, the research team intends to follow a participatory approach to enhance the relevance of the tool to local community needs. To plausibly calibrate LAMPT at the catchment/community levels in the data scarce environment of West Africa, additional long-term research catchments are essential.

Vlek, Lulseged Tamene, Quang Bao Le, Jens Liebe, Paul L. G.

2009-04-01

40

SCANNING VOLTA POTENTIALS MEASUREMENTS OF METALS IN IRRADIATED AIR.  

SciTech Connect

A method for direct dc measurement of the Volta potential is presented. High intensity synchrotron x-ray beams were used to locally irradiate the atmosphere adjacent to the metal surface and produce a conducting path between a sample and a reference probe. The direct measurements of potential in the ionized air could be made at probe heights of around 1 mm compared to less than 0.1 mm for the Kelvin probe. The measurements were similar to traditional Kelvin probe measurements, but had a poorer spatial resolution. In contrast to the Kelvin probe methods, the approach described allows observation of the current as a function of impressed voltage. Methods to improve the special resolution of the technique and applications to corrosion under coating will be presented.

ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.; AND ENERGY SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT; JEFFCOATE, C.S.

2000-10-22

41

Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

2009-04-01

42

GHANA'S ACTIVIST-DEVELOPERS DIGITAL NATIONALISM  

E-print Network

GHANA'S ACTIVIST-DEVELOPERS DIGITAL NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA Reginold Royston - BCNM, African · Conflict Coltan (CONGO) · 419 Scams + Sakawa (NIGERIA / GHANA) · eWaste (WEST AFRICA) #12;`LEAPFROG

California at Irvine, University of

43

Flathead Lake Lake Pend Oreille  

E-print Network

Flathead Lake Lake Pend Oreille Priest Lake Lake Koocanusa Hungry Horse Reservoir Coeur d'Alene Lake Dworshak Reservoir McDonald Lake Noxon Reservoir Swan Lake Hayden Lake St. Mary Lake Ashley Lake Whitefish Lake St. Mary Lake Cabinet Reservoir Kintla Lake Little Bitterroot Lake Duck Lake Bull Lake Bowman

44

Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ?200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created "on the fly" by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

2014-11-01

45

Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ?200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created “on the fly” by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

46

Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))

1993-06-01

47

Emended Description of Strain PS (= OGC 70 = ATCC 33273 = DSM 1537), the Type Strain of Methanococcus voltae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balch and Wolfe proposed the name Methanococcus voltae for a new species of methanogens because M. voltae PST (T = type strain) differed from the type strain of Methanococcus vannielii, the only other recognized species in the genus Methanococcus at that time (1). Comparisons of ribosomal ribonucleic acid catalogs documented the phylo- genetic differences between these strains (the S,, value

JANICE M. WARD; PAUL H. SMITH; DAVID R. BOONE

48

An Analysis of Some Factors That Affect Curriculum Implementation in Upper Volta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed reforms in the educational system of Upper Volta have brought to the surface a variety of opposing and negative reactions against implementing suggested changes. Factors that have emerged to hamper change are: (1) language of instruction (French vs Voltaic); (2) concentration on productive instruction (e.g., animal husbandry) gives rise…

Ouedraogo, Mathieu R.

49

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

2010-12-01

50

Ghana Green Building Council public launch  

E-print Network

of : . overcrowding . irregular supplies of water and energy . poor sanitation and transport infrastructure social . compelling each other water waste people food security #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch water waste people food security #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch | examples of green

51

Copyright, folklore and music piracy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problems inadvertently created by modern notions of musical copyright (i.e. based on the individual ownership of specific works) introduced to Ghana via trans-national organisations such as multinational record companies, the business side of international ‘superstars’ and global copyright societies. The resulting conundrums for Ghana's musical evolution that will be examined in this paper, are of three

John Collins

2006-01-01

52

Ghana. Country Demographic Profiles, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tables of demographic information about Ghana are presented, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality. The data were obtained primarily from population censuses in 1960 and 1970, a 1960 post-enumeration survey, and a 1971 supplementary enquiry. Because Ghana's vital registration system is incomplete, the data are not…

Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

53

Laurance LakeLaurance Lake Lost LakeLost Lake  

E-print Network

Hood River Odell Parkdale Laurance LakeLaurance Lake Lost LakeLost Lake gler2frnh2hm owerdle2hm County #12;Hood River Odell Parkdale Laurance LakeLaurance Lake Lost LakeLost Lake gler2frnh2hm owerdle2. Zoning Data Source: Hood River County #12;Hood River Odell Parkdale Laurance LakeLaurance Lake Lost Lake

54

Ghana Business News Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM  

E-print Network

Ghana Business News » Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products » Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM] - Ghana Business News - http://ghanabusinessnews.com - Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Posted

55

Stability and change in the distribution of cytospecies of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in southern Ghana from 1971 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental change (e.g. deforestation), with potential disease consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in southern Ghana and report changes observed with reference to historical data collated from 1971 to 2005 and new identifications made between 2006 and 2011. Methods/Results Larvae were collected from riverine breeding sites, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and chromosome preparations made. Cytotaxonomic identifications from 1,232 samples (including 49 new samples) were analysed. We report long-term stability in cytospecies distribution in the rivers Afram, Akrum, Pawnpawn and Pru. For the rivers Oda, Ofin and Tano we describe (for the first time) patterns of distribution. We could not detect cytospecies composition changes in the upper Pra, and the lower Pra seems to have been stable. The elimination of the Djodji form of S.?sanctipauli in the Volta Region seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S.?yahense. There has been a recent increase in the occurrence of savannah cytospecies in the river Asukawkaw, and this might be related to continuing deforestation. Conclusions Cytospecies’ distributions have not been stable from 1971 to 2011. Although there are no obvious causes for the temporary appearance and subsequent disappearance of cytospecies in a particular location, a major influence has been vector control and migration patterns, probably explaining observed changes on the Black Volta and lower Volta rivers. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savannah cytospecies in southern Ghana (1975–1997). Our data had little power to support (or refute) suggestions of a continuing increase, except in the Asukawkaw river basin. PMID:23849451

2013-01-01

56

Assessment of rainwater harvesting in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

This study assesses the current state of rainwater harvesting in the Northern Region of Ghana and makes recommendations regarding if and how rainwater harvesting could be used to address Pure Home Water's goal of reaching ...

Barnes, David Allen

2009-01-01

57

Designing sanitation projects in rural Ghana  

E-print Network

Providing sanitation to rural areas in Ghana remains a huge challenge. Government funding is scarce while many international donor projects are ineffective. This thesis explores the difficulties with rural sanitation ...

Lau, Jonathan (Jonathan Ho Yin)

2011-01-01

58

Aging and Old Age in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a profile of aging and old age in Ghana. It covers aging trends and their implications for development. It is noted that, although the population aged 60 and over in Ghana is estimated to rise from 286,000 in 1960 to 2,425,000 in 2025, the aging of the population will not get under way until well after 2025. It is suggested…

Brown, C. K.

59

Shock Levels in Fallback and Fallout Impact Breccias at the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana: Results of Drill Core Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10.5-km-diameter Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, 1.07 Ma old, is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi. During a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project, two boreholes (LB-07A and LB-08A) were drilled into the crater fill and underlying bedrock of the structure, into the deep crater moat and the outer flank of the central uplift, respectively. The 545.1-meter-deep ICDP borehole LB-07A contains two different

C. Koeberl; L. Ferriere; W. U. Reimold

2006-01-01

60

[Two new nodular Onchocerca spp. in wild Bovidae, in Upper Volta (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Description of two new Onchocerca from wild Bovidae, O. schulzkeyi n. sp. and O. hamoni n. sp., respectively parasite of Hippotragus equinus and Kobus (A.) kob; both species have been recorded in the Volta region, where human onchocerciasis is prevalent. O. schulzkeyi and O. hamoni are located in respectively, dermic and subcutaneous nodules, the females of both species are devoid of cuticular rings. Those two new species belong to the line of O. volvulus and nodular Onchocerca of Bovinae. This finding suggests that, as for O. ochengi, they can disturb the evaluation of the annual potential of transmission, necessary in the epidemiological studies concerning the human onchocerciasis. PMID:7198423

Denké, A M; Bain, O

1981-01-01

61

Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID:20441816

Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

2010-01-01

62

Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.  

PubMed

There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development. PMID:12290510

Tawiah, E O

1995-01-01

63

The Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project: A 1 Ma West African Paleoclimate Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Bosumtwi occupies a 1.07 Ma impact crater located in Ghana, West Africa centered at 06*32'N and 01*25'W. This 78 m deep, hydrologically-closed lake has a water budget extremely sensitive to the precipitation\\/evapotranspiration balance and is located in the path of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ. Therefore, Lake Bosumtwi is ideally situated to provide a long record of change

J. A. Peck; C. Heil; J. W. King; C. A. Scholz; T. M. Shanahan; J. T. Overpeck; P. A. Fox; P. Y. Amoako; S. L. Forman; C. Koeberl; B. Milkereit

2005-01-01

64

Atmospheric burden of organochlorine pesticides in Ghana.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are subject to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and have been banned or restricted globally. In Ghana, concerns of illicit applications of some OCPs have been raised in recent times. Applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS), the levels of OCPs in the atmosphere and their spatial resolution were investigated. It was the first nationwide coverage of OCPs monitoring in Ghana. ?DDTs and endusulfans constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in Ghana, at average concentrations of 156±36 and 153±28 pg m(-3), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration (0.2±0.01 pg m(-3)). From the chemical signatures of the various OCPs, we deduced that DDT, endosulfans and heptachlor were freshly applied at certain sites, which were all agricultural sites. The OCPs were spatially resolved as a function of the types of crops cultivated in different areas, legacy issues and recent applications. PMID:24210596

Hogarh, J N; Seike, N; Kobara, Y; Ofosu-Budu, G K; Carboo, D; Masunaga, S

2014-05-01

65

National waste management infrastructure in Ghana.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643

Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J

1998-12-01

66

Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta  

SciTech Connect

The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

Martz, J.E.; Ratajczak, A.F.; Delombard, R.

1982-02-01

67

First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-01-01

68

Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

1982-01-01

69

Rights of the Child in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

Lacroix, Anne Laurence

70

The enforcement of commercial contracts in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using case studies of manufacturing and trading firms, this paper documents how commercial contracts are enforced in Ghana. Interviews were guided by a conceptual framework emphasizing credible enforcement mechanisms and information asymmetries. Results show that compliance with contractual obligations is mostly motivated by the desire to preserve personalized relationships based on mutual trust. Harassment is the main form of debt

Marcel Fafchamps

1996-01-01

71

Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. Methods In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. Results In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%. Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals. Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%). From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. Conclusions It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the least efficient hospitals to correct widespread inefficiency. This would include reconsidering the number of hospitals and their distribution, improving efficiency and reducing duplication by closing or scaling down hospitals with efficiency scores below a certain threshold. For private hospitals with inefficiency related to large size, there is a need to break down such hospitals into manageable sizes. PMID:24708886

2014-01-01

72

Patterns of female suicidal behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863

Adinkrah, Mensah

2011-10-01

73

The James Koetting Ghana Field Recording Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the 1970s, Professor James Koetting of Brown University spent a great deal of time in Ghana recording traditional and popular music. Recently the Center for Digital Initiatives at the Brown University Library created this excellent online digital collection that brings together Koetting's field recordings, field notebooks, photographs, and recorded interviews. The collection affords a number of insights into the performances of musicians in Accra and others in the Kasena region of Ghana. Visitors can read through several essays before looking closer into the collection, which they can navigate by clicking on sections like "Gallery" and "Field Recordings". The "Field Recordings" section offers a fine introduction into Koetting's important work and this particular genre of music. Lastly, visitors can also look through the additional "Resources", which include a bibliography, a discography, and a glossary of relevant musical terms.

74

Second Lake Lake William  

E-print Network

Lake M arshallBro ok Sackville River Willis L. Juniper L. Black L. Barrett L. Fenerty Lake Horse Shoe S H R M F F Downsview Mall F Windsor Junction Lower Sackville Burnside Industrial Park Cobequid Multi. NictauxDr Newcombe Dr Neily Dr. Lennox Dr. Lu m sden Cres Lynnville Dr. Beaverbank - Windsor Junction Road

Beaumont, Christopher

75

Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

2010-01-01

76

Ghana and the World Music Boom  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1950s to the early 1970s Ghana led the way in West Africa with its popular highlife and Afro-rock music and its viable recording and music production industry. However, things began to decline from the late 1970s due to a corrupt military government, followed by two coups, several years of night curfew and the imposition of massive import duties

John Collins

2009-01-01

77

www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia  

E-print Network

1 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia Development and Energy in Africa countries · Senegal to Tanzania · Ethiopia to South Africa · Plus 14 in between! · Wide selection of energy (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha, 16-18 Oct. 2007 #12;2 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal

78

Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the environmental impact of artisanal mining of gold with mercury (Hg) in Ghana. In spite of its positive socio- economic contributions, it is well known that artisanal mining of gold contributes in no small measure to land degradation, loss of biodiversity and natural resources, deforestation, water pollution, etc. In Ghana, these environmental problems remain poorly studied. In

A. K. Donkor; V. K. Nartey; J. C. Bonzongo; D. K. Adotey

79

USAID, Disability and Development in GhanaAnalysis and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted research in Ghana in 1995 to determine the extent to which the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in Ghana included people with disabilities as providers and recipients of services. Finding that no attempt had been made by USAID to include people with disabilities in any of its activities, the authors then examined the current

ROBERT L. METTS; NANSEA METTS

1998-01-01

80

Prospects for the control of onchocerciasis in Africa with special reference to the Volta River basin.  

PubMed

Onchocerciasis is found in association with all the main river systems of northern tropical Africa, and there are endemic foci south of the Equator. Heavy and prolonged infection may cause blindness and intense pruritus. The vectors, Simulium damnosum and S. neavei, are also intolerable pests when they swarm. The disease and its vector together cause serious economic loss and are a main cause of the depopulation of river valleys in the savanna lands.The basin of the River Volta, in which the worst endemic area in the world is situated, is considered to be the most favourable area for a study of the problems involved in the large-scale control of onchocerciasis carried by S. damnosum. Mass treatment or prophylaxis are not practicable at present. The clinical condition progresses for many years in the absence of fresh infection, and drugs capable of mass application are needed. However, the first aim is to attack the larval stages of the vector with insecticides. DDT is ideal for this purpose in large, steadily flowing rivers, but a more suitable insecticide and formulation are needed for small, irregularly flowing streams.Research is needed into many aspects of the adult life of S. damnosum, including feeding and resting habits, dry season survival and flight range. One of the main practical problems is prevention of reinfestation of a treated river system. PMID:5307598

Waddy, B B

1969-01-01

81

(Genetics of the methanogenic bacterium Methanococcus voltae with attention to genetic control mechanisms): Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The development of methanogen plasmid gene vectors would be greatly expedited by knowledge of the structure of methanogen transcription and translation signals. This would allow the directed insertion of a gene of choice downstream of the appropriate DNA sequences so as to bring about expression of that gene in the methanogen. The cloning of a Mc. voltae gene which complemented a hisA mutation in both E. coli and S. typhimurium has been reported. Characterization of the cloned gene indicated that both transcription and translation of the methanogen gene were initiated on the cloned methanogen DNA fragment. The methanogen hisA gene was sequenced and its sequence compared to a hisA-complementing gene isolated from Mc. vannielii. These studies demonstrated that each of these genes contained a eubacterial-like ribosome binding site (G-G-T-G) immediately upstream of the translation initiation codon which strongly suggests that methanogen messenger RNA can be recognized and translated by E. coli ribosomes and, perhaps, vice versa. 5 refs.

Not Available

1986-01-01

82

Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data  

PubMed Central

This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ?2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

Opoku-Duah, S.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Burt, T. P.

2008-01-01

83

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…

Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

84

Feasibility evaluation of fired brick technology as a construction material and income-generating industry in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

This work evaluates the potential to develop fired brick production in the Northern Region of Ghana. While several brick factories operate in southern Ghana, no factories are known to exist in northern Ghana, which remains ...

Bates, Caroline Nijole

2014-01-01

85

Who pays for health care in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced. PMID:21708026

2011-01-01

86

Ethnicity and sexual behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

Using data from the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, this study explores the relationship between ethnicity and sexual behavior: having sex before age 17 and premarital sexual experience. All ethnic groups show substantial sexual experience before age 17 and premarital sexual engagement. Logistic regression analyses reveal that in general ethnicity influences the behaviors studied, especially for ever-married women. The data suggest that groups that practice matrilineal and patrilineal systems show differences in the likelihood of having sex before age 17. Contrary to expectation, there is an inverse relationship between education and sexual experience before age 17. The findings highlight the importance of group-specific programs in Africa. PMID:10842499

Addai, I

1999-01-01

87

Sustainable and Unsustainable Agriculture in Ghana and  

E-print Network

The agricultural sector of African economies has faced considerable challenges within the past 50 years or so. Although agricultural production on the continent rose by an annual average of 2 % between 1965 and 1980 and has continued to increase by 1.8 % annually since then, population growth of 2.9 % per year has resulted in a per capita decline in agricultural production. From self-sufficiency in food production before the 1960s, many African countries have become net food importers, with a handful of them facing severe food shortages arising from drought, desertification, climate change and wars. In this paper we use the case of Ghana and Nigeria to explore some of the salient dynamics that have resulted in the current crisis in the agricultural sector of African economies. We argue that soil conditions, climate change, population growth, in combination with ineffective economic policies have contributed immensely to the sordid state of agriculture in Africa. We use historical and contemporary evidence gathered from Ghana and Nigeria during several visits to show how economic policies have interacted with biophysical and environmental factors to generate an unsustainable use of land, agricultural labor, and natural resources. Based on our field research, we propose an “agroentrepreneurial” model of agriculture that combines sustainable farming practices with entrepreneurship. This model enables farmers to take advantage of emerging markets in the food value chain, as well as enhance their living standards and self-esteem.

Steve Onyeiwu; Eric Pallant; Meredith Hanlon

88

Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana  

E-print Network

- The Forest of Ghana · Deforestation: 30% in 17 years (1955-1972) 750 km2/year since the turn of the 20C productive · Causes: farming, bush fires, fuel wood, wasteful logging practices, mining and quarrying #12

89

Household water treatment and safe storage product development in Ghana  

E-print Network

Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...

Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

90

Consultative Processes in Community Development in Northern Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the newly decentralized local government system in Ghana, communities have been slow to develop broad-based participatory consultative processes for community development. Inflexible bureaucracy also hinders involvement of stakeholders. (SK)

Aryeetey, Ellen Bortei-Doku

1998-01-01

91

Yaoundé-like virus in resident wild bird, Ghana  

E-print Network

Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA...

Williams, Richard A. J.; Vá zquez, Ana; Asamte, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sá nchez-Seco, Marí a Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend

2012-03-01

92

Dependence on forest resources and tropical deforestation in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana, forests provide many products on which the local population subsists. However, these resources are depleting due\\u000a to a variety of factors including agricultural expansion and over-exploitation of forest resources. This paper presents an\\u000a analysis of the level of local dependence on forest resources and its implications for forest management in Ghana. The paper\\u000a also outlines the causes of

Mark Appiah; Dominic Blay; Lawrence Damnyag; Francis K. Dwomoh; Ari Pappinen; Olavi Luukkanen

2009-01-01

93

Ceramic filter manufacturing in Northern Ghana : water storage and quality control  

E-print Network

In 2009, Pure Home Water (PHW), a Ghana based non-profit organization working to provide affordable and safe drinking water to people in the Northern Region of Ghana, began the construction of a ceramic pot filter (CPF) ...

Kleiman, Shanti Lisa

2011-01-01

94

Evaluation of the complementary use of the ceramic (Kosim) filter and Aquatabs in Northern Region, Ghana  

E-print Network

The Kosim filter is a ceramic water filter that is currently used in Northern Ghana. Based on prior MIT research in Northern Ghana, this technology is effective at removing 92% of turbidity, 99.4% of total coliforms, and ...

Swanton, Andrew A

2008-01-01

95

Hemispheric ceramic pot filter evaluation and quality assurance program in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a non-profit based in Ghana that seeks to bring safe drinking water to those most in need in Northern Ghana through the production, sale, and distribution of ceramic pot filters (CPF) and other ...

Miller, Matthew Rhodes

2012-01-01

96

A Strategic Overview of the Forest Sector in Ghana Odoom Domson  

E-print Network

, 2007 #12;2 A Brief Description of Ghana Geography Ghana is located on the west coast of Africa in the south. Ecologically, the country is divided into a highforest zone in the south, accounting for about

97

Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and ?-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the most abundant and the concentrations of sums of DDTs were in tens of pg m-3. This suggests that the main source of DDTs was possibly due to past agricultural and public health usage. The soil concentrations of DDTs at the various sites were however negligible (approx. 1 ngg-1). The highest levels of HCHs were recorded in November and December 2008. HCB and PeCB concentrations in air were low and uniform and soil levels of HCB and PeCB were negligible. Only traces of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were detected from both sites. PCBs were found at levels typical for the urban sites and the levels at the Kwabenya site were slightly lower than those measured at the East Legon site. Levels of PCBs at the rural/agricultural site (Lake Bosumtwi) were relatively lower than those measured at the urban sites. The levels of PAHs in ambient air were quite high at all sites with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Benzo(a)pyrene (a known carcinogen) levels in ambient air were however very low. The highest levels of PAHs were detected in January 2008, February 2008 and July/August 2008 at Kwabenya, East Legon, and Lake Bosumtwi, respectively. PCDD/F levels were also quite high, maximal I-TEQ was the third highest in the African region (after Egypt and Senegal). Keywords: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Background Concentrations; Ghana; PUF-disk sampler

Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

2010-05-01

98

Simulating the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis and Policy Responses on Children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is experiencing the impact of the global crisis and the uncertain economic outlook. Indeed, as Ghana’s economy is among the most open in Africa, it is expected that the country has been and will continue to be severely affected by the crisis, although strong export prices of its main exports (gold and cocoa)

John Cockburn; Luca Tiberti; Ismaël Fofana; Theodore Antwi-Asare; Edgar A. Cooke; Daniel K. Twerefou

2010-01-01

99

Mass media effects on AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior in Africa with special reference to Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shows, in detail, how many African countries have concentrated on prevention of HIV through changing their citizens sexual behaviours with Ghana being spotlighted. Posits that Ghana is at the mid-stage of the epidemic and uses data to explain this. Uses tables to show the lack of knowledge, by the citizens of Ghana, to AIDS prevention. Concludes that this study has

Kofi D. Benefo; Baffuor K. Takyi

2002-01-01

100

Lake Constance  

article title:  Lake Constance, Europe     View ... This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Lake Constance covers an area measuring 355 kilometers x 287 kilometers, and ... (nadir) camera on August 14, 2000. The large lake near the left-hand side of the image is bordered by Switzerland, Germany, ...

2013-04-17

101

Lake Powell  

article title:  Lake Powell     View Larger Image ... format (14.42 mb)   This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on ...

2014-05-15

102

CONNECTICUT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

103

Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

Afarikumah, Ebenezer

2014-01-01

104

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

105

ELECTRONIC HEALTH IN GHANA: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

PubMed Central

The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

Afarikumah, Ebenezer

2014-01-01

106

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

107

Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme. PMID:21483707

Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

2011-01-01

108

Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.  

PubMed

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme. PMID:21483707

Hayman, David T S; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R; Banyard, Ashley C; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R

2011-01-01

109

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

110

Supply of essential drugs for church hospitals in Ghana.  

PubMed

Based on the results of an inquiry, answered by 39 out of the 53 rural Church hospitals and clinics in Ghana, a list of 34 indispensable drugs was compiled. At a cost of less than US $600 000 it is possible to provide all Church health institutions (30% of all health facilities in Ghana) with these 34 essential drugs for one year (at 1982 prices). When the drugs are prepacked in Units, distribution can easily be carried out from a very limited number of distribution points, without the need for extensive logistic provisions such as trucks, stores, personnel and security checks. PMID:6729969

Hogerzeil, H V; Lamberts, P J

1984-01-01

111

Biochar/compost project in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

2012-04-01

112

Use of Paleomagnetic Secular Variation, Excursion, and Reversal Records to Correlate African Lake Climate Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic secular variation, excursions, and reversal records can provide an excellent means for high resolution correlation of sedimentary climate records. Recent drilling projects on Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, and Lake Malawi, Malawi, have provided the opportunity to study long African climate records (<1 Ma). Magnetic studies of these sedimentary archives indicate that high quality SV records are preserved through most of the sequence despite the fact that anoxia is the usual condition of bottom waters in both lakes. We compare the magnetic records of Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Malawi to test our ability to correlate between West African and East African lakes. In addition, we compare the magnetic record of Lake Malawi to records from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa and the Indian Ocean region, and the record of Lake Bosumtwi to that of Lake Barombi Mbo in West Africa. Correlations within regions are straightforward and highly useful for intrasite correlation. Correlation between East and West Africa is also possible, although the resolution of the correlation is more limited.

King, J.; Heil, C.; Peck, J.; Scholz, C.; Shanahan, T.; Overpeck, J.

2005-12-01

113

The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

2011-01-01

114

Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

2008-01-01

115

Health education in rural settings in Ghana: a methodological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the search for appropriate methodol- ogy in educating and training rural community populations is on going, previous efforts have yielded few results, some of which have not been successful with consequences for scarce resour- ces. This paper, based on field reports from the Population Communication Project in Ghana, demonstrates that community learning theory can offer understanding of appropriate method-

Theophilus Kofi Gokah

2007-01-01

116

Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.  

PubMed

Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

Adinkrah, Mensah

2014-03-01

117

Situation Report--Ghana, India, and South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, India, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics: general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic groups,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

118

Employee Motivation in University Libraries in Ghana: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of motivational preferences of the staff of two university libraries in Ghana indicates that age groups and professional positions of the workers in a survey determine their motivational factor preferences. Respondents from the two sites have different motivational values. Different strategies are therefore required to motivate the workers and it is suggested that library managers avoid the assumption that

Edwin Ellis Badu

2005-01-01

119

Economic reform and food prices: Evidence from markets in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates trends in food prices in Ghana during 1970–1993. Regression results confirm that real wholesale prices of food have been declining since the 1970s. Price trends in the 1980s are characterized by a downward shift at the beginning of the postreform period and a subsequent continuing downward trend. Despite falling grain prices, we find that agricultural wage rates

Gerald Shively

1996-01-01

120

Police effectiveness and police trustworthiness in Ghana: An empirical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although police researchers have often assumed that perceptions of police effectiveness enhance police legitimacy, there has been very little empirical support for this assumption. Employing the legitimacy scale developed by Sunshine and Tyler, this study sought to fill this gap in our criminological knowledge using data from a representative public survey in Accra, Ghana (N= 374). The article reports a

Justice Tankebe

2008-01-01

121

Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented

William K Bosu

2010-01-01

122

U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…

Johnson, Caryl

2006-01-01

123

Gender, Lineage, and Fertility-Related Outcomes in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision…

Takyi, Baffour K.; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F.

2005-01-01

124

Asynchronous Remote Medical Consultation for Ghana Intel Research  

E-print Network

Ghana and draws on three key design principles (social networks as a framework on which to build social networks as a framework on which to build incentives within a self-organizing network; optional remote consultation system intended to provide the social, institutional and infrastructural context

Aoki, Paul M.

125

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

126

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2012-01-01

127

Funeral rites participation and health services utilization in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional health care services (CHCS) have failed to meet the health needs of many people in rural Ghana. Relevant literature highlights poverty, underdevelopment and inequities in allocation of resources as largely accountable. Currently in vogue and as a solution to these inequalities is the concept of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) which implies community participation or \\

Daniel Anleu-Mwine Bagah

1996-01-01

128

Funeral Rites Participation and Health Services Utilization in Rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional health care services (CHCS) have failed to meet the health needs of many people in rural Ghana. Relevant literature highlights poverty, underdevelopment and inequities in allocation of resources as largely accountable. Currently in vogue and as a solution to these inequalities is the concept of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) which implies community participation or \\

Daniel Anleu-Mwine Bagah

1995-01-01

129

The Perils and Promises of Inclusive Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion of students with disabilities into the mainstream educational system continues to be a major issue and concern faced by many developing nations. Many individuals with disabilities face the challenge of exclusion from any form of education and failure by society to recognize their capabilities and rights. The educational system in Ghana

Adera, Beatrice A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

2011-01-01

130

Notions and treatment of guinea worm in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams.This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the

Bernhard Bierlich

1995-01-01

131

Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAHOKANTEY  

E-print Network

Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAH­OKANTEY Barend K�BBEN 1 Introduction With the development of Web GIS and the emergence of Mobile GIS new possibilities of data capture and maintenance objective was to design a system of Mobile GIS suitable for building and revising a cadastral database. Up

Köbben, Barend

132

How do rms organize trade? Evidence from Ghana Jens Krger  

E-print Network

How do rms organize trade? Evidence from Ghana Jens Krüger Abstract The literature on rm at how rms organize their export trade. If selling directly, sunk costs of foreign market entry heterogeneity in international trade posits that only the most productive rms become exporters (Melitz 2003

Krivobokova, Tatyana

133

AN ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND TARIFF OPTIONS IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most electric utility in developing countries the choice of generation technology, the type of financing that is available, the type of ownership of the facility, and electricity tariff policies are not independent variables. This paper reports on an integrated financial, economic and stakeholder analysis of a prospective investment in the Bui hydroelectric generation dam in Ghana. The appraisal of

Glenn P. Jenkins; MARIA MARCHESINI

1999-01-01

134

BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD BURULI ULCER IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buruli ulcer is a devastating emerging disease in tropical countries. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by interviewing patients with this disease and control subjects in Ghana. Common perceived causes were witchcraft and curses. Other reported causes were personal hygiene, environment, and close contact with a patient with this disease. Financial difficulties, fear of the mutilating aspects of treatment, and

YMKJE STIENSTRA; T. A. VAN DER GRAAF; KWAME ASAMOA; S. VAN DER WERF

135

Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana.  

PubMed

During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

2014-06-01

136

Two Novel Arenaviruses Detected in Pygmy Mice, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212

Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C.; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

137

Race Portrayals in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa Television Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines racial portrayals in television advertisements from Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. Whites are over-represented relative to their actual demographic presence in all three countries, and both Blacks and Whites are depicted as over-employed. In general, however, depictions are not significantly different for either race, though there is a hint that a stereotyped portrayal of Blacks as

Laura M. Milner

2007-01-01

138

Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

2007-01-01

139

Capturing Ambiguities: Communal Conflict Management Alternative in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative land conflict management method for rural Ghana. The paper adopts the country's legislative and judicial decentralization programs as a framework for integrating aspects of the existing conflict management methods and skills of the national government and the country's ethnic groups. The paper argues that the continuing outbursts and protraction

Ben K. Fred-Mensah

1999-01-01

140

Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-01-01

141

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

PubMed

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-12-01

142

Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

1985-01-01

143

Lake Nipigon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

144

The rise of gated housing estates in Ghana: Empirical insights from three communities in metropolitan Accra  

Microsoft Academic Search

In metropolitan Accra, Ghana’s economic and administrative hub, the global phenomenon of the gated housing estate is burgeoning,\\u000a representing a substantial part of the new housing market. It has a recent history dating back only to the neoliberal era\\u000a of the mid-1990s. Because it is a new phenomenon in Ghana very little is known about the motivations and contentment of

Alex Boakye Asiedu; Godwin Arku

2009-01-01

145

Correlates of HIV testing among women in Ghana: some evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's strategic framework for controlling HIV\\/AIDS endorses voluntary HIV testing as an important strategy toward risk reduction and HIV\\/AIDS prevention. Yet, like other sub-Saharan African countries, utilization of testing services in Ghana is very low. Using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys and applying both complementary and negative log-log models, this study investigates the correlates of HIV testing among

Eric Y. Tenkorang; Gertrude A. Owusu

2010-01-01

146

Land use, food production, and the future of tropical forest species in Ghana  

E-print Network

cedi, the unit of currency of Ghana GIS Geographic Information System GJ Gigajoule: one billion joules (1 GJ = 109 J) GMT Greenwich Mean Time GOPDC Ghana Oil Palm Development Company, Eastern Region, Ghana GPS Global Positioning System GSBA... written I = P?A?T where A represents affluence and T represents technology. Affluence and technology are just two of the determinants of per capita impact. Others include behavioural choices and spatial patterns of resource consumption. 4 the world...

Phalan, Benjamin Timothy

2010-07-06

147

Lake Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lake Study for Windows is a two-part simulation designed to involve students with the scientific method. It allows them to collect data, formulate hypotheses, and test the hypotheses with controlled experiments.

148

Community awareness of stroke in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Community awareness of stroke, especially the risk factors and warning signs is important in the control of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about community awareness of stroke though the brunt of stroke is currently borne in this region. The aim of the study was to evaluate stroke awareness in Accra (capital city of Ghana) particularly, the risk factors and warning signs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving systematic sampling of 63 households in each of the 11 sub metropolitan areas of Accra. A structured questionnaire was used to collect stroke awareness data from respondents randomly sampled in the selected households. Logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the main outcome variables including recognition of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs and the organ affected by stroke. Results Only 40% (n?=?277) of the 693 respondents correctly identified the brain as the organ affected in stroke. Similarly, less than half of the respondents could recognize any of the established stroke risk factors as well as any of the established stroke warning signs. Over 70% (n?>?485) of the respondents either believed that stroke is a preventable disease, or lifestyle alterations can be made to reduce the risk of stroke, or stroke requires emergency treatment. In multivariate analysis, predictors of stroke awareness were: age <50 years (OR?=?0.56, CI?=?0.35-0.92, p?=?0.021), presence of a stroke risk factor (OR?=?2.37, CI?=?1.52-3.71, p?

2014-01-01

149

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

150

PH-dependent Activities and Structural Stability of Loop-2-anchoring Helix of RadA Recombinase from Methanococcus voltae  

PubMed Central

RadA is an archaeal orthologue of human recombinase Rad51. This superfamily of recombinases, which also includes eukaryal meiosis-specific DMC1 and remotely related bacterial RecA, form filaments on single-stranded DNA in the presence of ATP and promote a strand exchange reaction between the single-stranded DNA and a homologous double-stranded DNA. Due to its feasibility of getting crystals and similarity (> 40% sequence identity) to eukaryal homologues, we have studied RadA from Methanococcus voltae (MvRadA) as a structural model for understanding the molecular mechanism of homologous strand exchange. Here we show this protein’s ATPase and strand exchange activities are minimal at pH 6.0. Interestingly, MvRadA’s pH dependence is similar to the properties of human Rad51 but dissimilar to that of the well-studied E. coli RecA. A structure subsequently determined at pH 6.0 reveals features indicative of an ATPase-inactive form with a disordered L2 loop. Comparison with a previously determined ATPase-active form at pH 7.5 implies that the stability of the ATPase-active conformation is reduced at the acidic pH. We interpret these results as further suggesting an ordered disposition of the DNA-binding L2 region, similar to what has been observed in the previously observed ATPase-active conformation, is required for promoting hydrolysis of ATP and strand exchange between single- and double-stranded DNA. His-276 in the mobile L2 region was observed to be partially responsible for the pH-dependent activities of MvRadA. PMID:24654848

D. E. C. S, Rao; Luo, Yu

2014-01-01

151

Lake Powell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

152

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust\\u000a and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized\\u000a in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities\\/consumptive deprivations, each of which a separate outcome (food,\\u000a water, medical care, cooking fuel, and cash income). Five

Isaac Addai; Jelena Pokimica

153

Histories of water and fisheries management in North Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To counteract low water productivity in many developing countries, international donors promote community-based management. This practice was meant to replace top-down governmental approaches. In Ghana, the water sector has come under review in the 1990s. Institutions have been decentralized, and management tasks transferred to communities, associations, and private-sector entities. While assigning ownership and responsibilities to communities is feasible for rural

Jennifer Hauck; Eva Youkhana

154

Determinants of banks selection in USA, Taiwan and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate bank choice\\/selection criteria in a range of cultural and country economic scenarios. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand international consumers' selection criteria of banks using the USA, Taiwan, and Ghana as illustrations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Following a literature review, the paper adopts the classical multi-step scale development

Charles Blankson; Julian Ming-Sung Cheng; Nancy Spears

2007-01-01

155

Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses work-in-progress on the ESRC-DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (www.sussex.ac.uk\\/education\\/wideningparticipation). This project is examining patterns of inclusion and exclusion in higher education in two African countries with a view to interrogating the role that universities play in poverty reduction and achievement of the Millennium Development

Louise Morley; Fiona Leach; Rosemary Lugg

156

Buruli Ulcer in Ghana: Results of a National Case Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national search for cases of Buruli ulcer in Ghana identified 5,619 patients, with 6,332 clinical lesions at various stages. The overall crude national prevalence rate of active lesions was 20.7 per 100,000, but the rate was 150.8 per 100,000 in the most disease-endemic district. The case search demonstrated wide- spread disease and gross underreporting compared with the routine reporting

George Amofah; Frank Bonsu; Christopher Tetteh; Jane Okrah; Kwame Asamoa; Kingsley Asiedu; Jonathan Addy

2002-01-01

157

Comparative urbanization in Ghana and Kenya in time and space  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few inter-African country urban analyses because of the continent’s enormous size and socioeconomic diversity, language\\u000a barriers, and wide variations in national and regional urban research capacity. Nevertheless, comparative urban studies are\\u000a critical in understanding contemporary African urbanization. In this comparative spatial and temporal analysis of Ghana and\\u000a Kenya’s urbanization, we find that both countries are urbanizing rapidly and

Kefa M. Otiso; George Owusu

2008-01-01

158

Lake acidification  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined a National Research Council (NRC) report called Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. The report has been the final word on acid deposition as the cause of acidification of lakes. The authors considered it important that the tentative nature of this report be kept in perspective so that the work of the NRC would promote rather than inhibit scientific inquiry on the lake acidification issue. In this spirit, this report proposed that degradation of storm damaged trees could increase the acidity of the forest humus and as a result the ground water which would fed local streams and lakes. They proposed that extensive forest blowdown could be a factor in acidification of surface waters.

Dobson, J.E.; Peplies, R.W.; Rush, R.M.

1987-06-01

159

The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…

Rolleston, Caine

2009-01-01

160

Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-01-01

161

Democratic consolidation in Ghana: the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a democratic transition in 1992, Ghana has made significant efforts to promote a liberal democratic culture and system of government. This paper provides an analysis of the extent to which Ghana's liberal democratic process is being consolidated, focusing on the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state political institutions to this process. It is argued that

Peter Arthur

2010-01-01

162

The Determinants of School Attendance and Attainment in Ghana: A Gender Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance

Harry A. Sackey

2007-01-01

163

What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

Heady, Christopher

164

The Growth of Islamic Learning in Northern Ghana and Its Interaction with Western Secular Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the growth of Islamic learning in northern Ghana and its in- teraction with western secular education. It argues that colonial policies and prac- tice had far-reaching implications for Islamic learning, stifling attempts at growth, and suggests that the contemporary situation with regard to Islamic learning in Ghana cannot be properly understood without an appreciation of the historical

Abdulai Iddrisu

165

Migrant fertility in Ghana: Selection versus adaptation and disruption as causal mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study presented in this paper is to disentangle the roles of three mechanisms—selection, adaptation, and disruption—in influencing migrant fertility in Ghana. Using data from the 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we fit Poisson and sequential logit regression models to discern the effects of the above mechanisms on cumulative fertility and annual probabilities of birth. Characteristics

Arpita Chattopadhyay; Michael J. White; Cornelius Debpuur

2006-01-01

166

Cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid: operational experiences from Ghana and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand in 2000 and Ghana in 2001 initiated cervical cancer prevention programmes using a single-visit approach with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) with cryotherapy for pre-cancerous lesions. This service was integrated into existing reproductive health services, provided by trained nurses. The providers maintained a high level of competence and performance, including after the withdrawal of external funding. In Ghana,

Harshad Sanghvi; Khunying Kobchitt Limpaphayom; Marya Plotkin; Elaine Charurat; Amy Kleine; Enriquito Lu; Wachara Eamratsameekool; Buncha Palanuwong

2008-01-01

167

Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

2011-01-01

168

Restructuring the delivery of clean water to rural communities in Ghana: the institutional and regulatory issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean water is an important natural resource. In recent times, there has been a radical change in the institutional and regulatory mechanism for providing clean water to the rural communities of Ghana. The object of this paper is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the two regimes for providing water to rural communities in Ghana. These are the traditional

Kwadwo B Mensah

1998-01-01

169

Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have

Kaakpema Yelpaala; Saleem H. Ali

2005-01-01

170

Policies and programs to prevent child maltreatment and promote family wellness in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined policies and programs to prevent child maltreatment and promote family wellness in Ghana. In the thesis, I discussed values that guide child-care in Ghana, the daily realities of children and families, and policies and programs to promote family wellness and prevent child maltreatment. Lastly, I looked at the climate for prevention and early intervention. I presented recommendations

Bright Isaac Asante

1999-01-01

171

Local responses to an agrarian crisis: Evidence from northern Ghana Dr. Joseph Yaro  

E-print Network

that of the 1970s as global commodity chains intensified under globalization with negligible state support for foodLocal responses to an agrarian crisis: Evidence from northern Ghana Dr. Joseph Yaro Visiting adequate food for feeding and surplus for markets southern Ghana. The surplus agrarian system over

172

Stakeholders' perceptions of the main challenges facing Ghana's mental health care system: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health remains a low priority in Ghana. No comprehensive studies have assessed the current status of mental health policy, legislation and services in Ghana. This paper presents the qualitative results of a situation analysis conducted as part of the first phase of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. The aim of this paper was to explore what a range

Victor Doku; Angela Ofori-Atta; Bright Akpalu; Akwasi Osei; Ursula Read; Sara Cooper

2011-01-01

173

A statistical model for spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in the Amansie West district, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buruli ulcer (BU), a skin ulceration caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is the second most widespread mycobacterium infection in Ghana. Its infection pathway is possibly related to the potable and agricultural water supply. This study aims to identify environmental factors that influence infection in a part of Ghana. It examines the significance of contaminated surface drainage channels and groundwater using

Alfred A. Duker; Alfred Stein; Martin Hale

2006-01-01

174

Sustainable Waste Management in Africa Accra, Ghana, May 26th-30th, 2014  

E-print Network

& Waste Management (ISWM) of Ghana are pleased to announce that an interdisciplinary course and workshop course will focus on state of the art technologies for advancing sustainable waste management in AfricaSustainable Waste Management in Africa Accra, Ghana, May 26th-30th, 2014 The Earth Engineering

175

Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

Adinkrah, Mensah

2013-12-01

176

Sustaining water supply through a phased community management approach: lessons from Ghana’s “oats” water supply scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system

2011-01-01

177

Lake Biwa as a topical ancient lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present knowledge concerning the Japanese ancient Lake Biwa is briefly summarized, and extant and potential threats to its well-being are documented. From this example of Lake Biwa, strengths and weaknesses in our knowledge of other ancient lakes and the problems that they face were identified. Several areas of concern were evident.Knowledge of the geological history of ancient lakes is uneven,

A. Rossiter

2000-01-01

178

Lake Victoria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.

179

To Brunswick Folsom Lake  

E-print Network

92 To Brunswick Lake Tahoe Folsom Lake Clear Lake Indian Valley Reservoir Lakeport CALPELLA MASONITE UPPER LAKE LUCERNE WILLIAMS MERIDAN CORTINA PEASE BARRY BOGUE OLIVEHURST HARTER Marysville Yuba GARCIA POINT ARENA GUALALA ANNAPOLIS FORT ROSS SONOMA Lake Sonoma MONTE RIO SALMON CREEK CALISTOGA

180

Changing Planet: Warming Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.

Learn, Windows T.; National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)

181

Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

Edsall, Thomas A.

1998-01-01

182

The large lake ecosystems of northern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes of northern Canada are relatively understudied ecosystems in comparison to the better-investigated Laurentian Great Lakes. This chain of lakes extends north from Lake Winnipeg (a shallow prairie lake) to Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca (moderately deep arboreal lakes) to Great Slave Lake (a deep subarctic lake) to Great Bear Lake (a deep lake located in the Arctic

M. S Evans

2000-01-01

183

The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

2012-01-01

184

Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

1999-12-10

185

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to meningitis in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016

Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul

2013-08-01

186

Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

McKay, W. A.

2001-05-01

187

Mono Lake, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sierra Webpage is dedicated to Mono Lake, CA. It offers a brief description of Mono Lake, including photos and sightseeing tips, and features numerous writings by Mono Lake Park Ranger David Carle. Subjects include the Mono Lake environment, visiting the lake, and the water issue. An entry of particular interest is Strange Water- Mono Lake Gourmet: An Unusual Recipe. It includes 'Mock Mono Lake Soup' and 'Tufa Porridge Extraordinaire'- two recipes designed to illustrate the composition of Mono Lake and the chemical processes involved in tufa formation.

Webpage, Sierra

188

Determinants of nurses' knowledge gap on pain management in Ghana.  

PubMed

There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required. PMID:24011564

Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka

2014-03-01

189

Women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana.  

PubMed

Pervasive gendered inequities and norms regarding the subordination of women give Ghanaian men disproportionately more power than women, particularly in relation to sex. We hypothesize that lack of sexual empowerment may pose an important barrier to reproductive health and adoption of family planning methods. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey, we examine the association between women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana among nonpregnant married and partnered women not desiring to conceive in the next three months. Increasing levels of sexual empowerment are found to be associated with use of contraceptives, even after adjusting for demographic predictors of contraceptive use. This association is moderated by wealth. Formal education, increasing wealth, and being in an unmarried partnership are associated with contraceptive use, whereas women who identify as being Muslim are less likely to use contraceptives than those who identify as being Christian. These findings suggest that to achieve universal access to reproductive health services, gendered disparities in sexual empowerment, particularly among economically disadvantaged women, need to be better addressed. PMID:23185863

Crissman, Halley P; Adanu, Richard M; Harlow, Siobán D

2012-09-01

190

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

191

Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana: Mapping Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

The overall objective of our research project is to understand the spatial inequality in health in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We also utilize GIS technology to measure the association of adverse health and mortality outcomes with neighborhood ecology. We approached this in variety of ways, including multivariate analysis of imagery classification and census data. A key element in the research has been to obtain in-person interviews from 3,200 female respondents in the city, and then relate health data obtained from the women to the ecology of the neighborhoods in which they live. Detailed maps are a requirement for these field-based activities. However, commercially available street maps of Accra tend to be highly generalized and not very useful for the kind of health and social science research being undertaken by this project, The purpose of this paper is to describe street maps that were created for the project’s office in downtown Accra and used to locate households of respondents. They incorporate satellite imagery with other geographic layers to provide the most important visual interpretation of the linkage between imagery and neighborhoods. Ultimately, through a detailed analysis of spatial disparities in health in Accra, Ghana, we aim to provide a model for the interpretation of urban health inequalities in cities of urbanizing and often poor countries. PMID:23505395

VERUTES, GREGORY M.; FIOCCO, MAGDALENA BENZA; WEEKS, JOHN R.; COULTER, LLOYD L.

2013-01-01

192

Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-06-01

193

Modification of a biosand filter in the northern region of Ghana  

E-print Network

Four local plastic design (LPD) BSFs were constructed in Northern Region, Ghana, to test and evaluate an experimental modification of the LPD BSF for treatment of highly turbid water. Modifications of the LPD BSFs were ...

Kikkawa, Izumi

2008-01-01

194

Water quality and business aspects of sachet-vended water in Tamale, Ghana  

E-print Network

Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The tests included the membrane filtration (MF) test using ...

Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene)

2007-01-01

195

Evaluation of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) alternatives in Ghana  

E-print Network

Ghana's water quality and sanitation condition are very poor. Pure Home Water (PHW), a local non-profit organization has been successfully improving the supply of safe drinking water in the northern region by producing and ...

Wong, TengKe

2014-01-01

196

Cross-sectional epidemiological study on water and sanitation practices in the northern region of Ghana  

E-print Network

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain baseline data on drinking water and sanitation practices in the Northern Region of Ghana. This study was performed in conjunction with Pure Home Water (PHW) ...

Peletz, Rachel Louise

2006-01-01

197

A case for public sanitation with on-site treatment in Ghana  

E-print Network

According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), 14% of the population in Ghana use improved sanitation facilities and 59% use shared facilities. The objective of this thesis is to offer a situational analysis ...

David, LaKisha T. (LaKisha Tawanda)

2014-01-01

198

Monitoring and evaluation of a ceramic water filter and hand-washing intervention in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

Through a Rotary Club contract, PHW will sell Kosim filters and install Tippy-Tap hand-washing stations in 1250 households in Northern Ghana. This thesis presents the following project monitoring and evaluation components: ...

Lu, Connie C

2012-01-01

199

Design of fuel efficient brick kiln for ceramic water filter firing in Ghana  

E-print Network

Ceramic water filters are currently produced in Ghana in order to provide a household solution to contaminated water. These filters, locally branded with the name Kosim filter by originating from Potters for Peace-Nicaragua, ...

Adjorlolo, Eric (Eric James Kofi)

2007-01-01

200

Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

2000-01-01

201

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF GHANA'S WOOD EXPORT SECTOR Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the  

E-print Network

to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). I sincerely appreciate the opportunity given, Mrs. Adeline Ofori and Mr. Emmanuel Mensah of USAID-Ghana for their encouragement throughout my

202

Pilot study of horizontal roughing filtration in northern Ghana as pretreatment for highly turbid dugout water  

E-print Network

In Northern Region Ghana (NRG), highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams called dugouts. These dams serve as many communities' main source of drinking and domestic water despite ...

Losleben, Tamar

2008-01-01

203

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

204

"Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam, Class, and Politics on the Eve of Ghana's Independence  

E-print Network

"Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam, Class, and Politics on the Eve of Ghana's Independence:16:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;"Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam

Subramanian, Venkat

205

Factors influencing attendance to immunization sessions for children in a rural district of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving immunization coverage is vital to promoting child health and reducing childhood diseases and deaths. In spite of being actively promoted as a major public health intervention for national development since the late 1970s, immunization coverage in Ghana remains low. We investigated factors that influence attendance to immunization sessions in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem District of Ghana. The major factors hindering attendance

William K Bosu; Doris Ahelegbe; Emmanuel Edum-Fotwe; Kobina A Bainson; Paa Kobina Turkson

1997-01-01

206

The role of the Ghana coast in the annual cycle of migratory terns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. & Nuoh, A. A. 2000. The role of the Ghana coast in the annual cycle of migratory terns. Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 183.Data are presented on counts of migratory terns on the Ghana coast over a ten-year period, 1986–1996. Fourteen species of terns were recorded during the period. Influx of terns begins in late August, peaking in

Y. Ntiamoa-Baidu; A. A. Nuoh

2000-01-01

207

Food security and climate change in drought-sensitive savanna zones of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desertification, climate variability and food security are closely linked through drought, land cover changes, and climate\\u000a and biological feedbacks. In Ghana, only few studies have documented these linkages. To establish this link the study provides\\u000a historical and predicted climatic changes for two drought sensitive agro-ecological zones in Ghana and further determines\\u000a how these changes have influenced crop production within the

Frederick A. Armah; Justice O. Odoi; Genesis T. Yengoh; Samuel Obiri; David O. Yawson; Ernest K. A. Afrifa

2011-01-01

208

Great Lakes RESTORATION  

E-print Network

, lengthen periods of lake stratification, and elevate the risk of hypoxia and algal blooms. RestoringGreat Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation

209

Great Lakes RESTORATION  

E-print Network

Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI

210

Great Lakes RESTORATION  

E-print Network

Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made their restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration

211

Progressivity of health care financing and incidence of service benefits in Ghana.  

PubMed

The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme was introduced in Ghana in 2004 as a pro-poor financing strategy aimed at removing financial barriers to health care and protecting all citizens from catastrophic health expenditures, which currently arise due to user fees and other direct payments. A comprehensive assessment of the financing and benefit incidence of health services in Ghana was undertaken. These analyses drew on secondary data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey (2005/2006) and from an additional household survey which collected data in 2008 in six districts covering the three main ecological zones of Ghana. Findings show that Ghana's health care financing system is progressive, driven largely by the progressivity of taxes. The national health insurance levy (which is part of VAT) is mildly progressive while NHI contributions by the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of total benefits from both public and private health services is pro-rich. However, public sector district-level hospital inpatient care is pro-poor and benefits of primary-level health care services are relatively evenly distributed. For Ghana to attain an equitable health system and fully achieve universal coverage, it must ensure that the poor, most of whom are not currently covered by the NHI, are financially protected, and it must address the many access barriers to health care. PMID:22388496

Akazili, James; Garshong, Bertha; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Di

2012-03-01

212

Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. PMID:23847431

Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

2013-01-01

213

Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

1998-01-01

214

International Lake Environment Committee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Lake Environment Committee (ILEC) works to advance international cooperation for sustainable management of the world's lakes and reservoirs through the collection and provision of environmental data, the promotion of scientific research, and the promotion of interchange with government agencies and research institutes. The World Lake Database is particularly interesting and gives the user the ability to navigate to lakes around the world providing facts about each lake.

2008-11-18

215

Wound Care in Buruli Ulcer Disease in Ghana and Benin  

PubMed Central

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002

Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

2014-01-01

216

Utilisation by sheep of herbage under tree crops in Ghana.  

PubMed

A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb, Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage. Centrosema pubescens was preferred to Pueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence. The mean daily digestible dry matter intake of yearling rams (g/kg W0.75) was 34, 31 and 39 for animals on Brachiaria lata/Pueraria phaseoloides, Pueraria phaseoloides and Centrosema pubescens/Aystasia gangetica stands respectively. Intake was not correlated with crude protein levels of the herbage. The mean carrying capacity of the associations was found to be between 11 and 18 sheep/ha/annum. PMID:625790

Asiedu, F H; Oppong, E N; Opoku, A A

1978-02-01

217

Males' preference for circumcised women in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation (FGM) still remains one of the challenges facing women in many countries around the world. Efforts to eradicate the practice are on going but the results are still modest due to, among other things, ingrained cultural traditions that expose women to serious health consequences. In Africa where FGM is practiced in more than 28 countries, males have been found to perpetuate the practice. Using baseline data on FGM collected in 1998 by the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana, we examined factors that influence males' choice of marrying circumcised women. Results from regression analysis show that the illiterate and those who have been to primary school are more likely to prefer circumcised women than those with secondary and higher education. In addition, ethnicity and religion are also significant factors that influence males' preference to marry circumcised women. A number of policy implications are discussed. PMID:17217116

Sakeah, Evelyn; Beke, Andy; Doctor, Henry V; Hodgson, Abraham V

2006-08-01

218

Wound care in Buruli ulcer disease in Ghana and Benin.  

PubMed

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002

Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

2014-08-01

219

Light trap collections of ovipositing Simulium squamosum in Ghana.  

PubMed

At a site near Boti waterfalls in southern Ghana a total of 14 644 female and two male Simulium squamosum were caught in four nights in Monks Wood light traps. The highest catch, of 6520 females, was obtained in a single night with an ultraviolet light tube that had a one-second flash rate. About 12% of the females caught were gravid and dissections of non-gravids showed that they had oviposited very recently. The traps were clearly catching females before or soon after oviposition. The same traps caught none or very few blackflies when placed in two other localities near Akosombo. Trap location appeared very important in sampling ovipositing females of S. squamosum. PMID:534449

Service, M W

1979-10-01

220

The development of community water supplies in Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

Ferguson, W. R. W.

1962-01-01

221

The politics of tuberculosis and HIV service integration in Ghana.  

PubMed

The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. PMID:25042543

Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

2014-09-01

222

Migration, sexual networks, and HIV in Agbogbloshie, Ghana  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298

Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

2014-01-01

223

Lake Trout Movements in Northwestern Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the distance that lake troutSalvelinus namaycushmoved in northwestern Lake Michigan and examined (1) the directional preference and (2) the effect of population density on movement. Lake trout were captured in spring and fall 1983-1996, tagged with Floy anchor tags, and recaptured during subsequent agency sampling and by commercial fishers and anglers during 1983-1997. Angler recaptures were used to

Patrick J. Schmalz; Michael J. Hansen; Mark E. Holey; Patrick C. McKee; Michael L. Toneys

2002-01-01

224

Optical and thermoluminescence dating of Middle Stone Age and Kintampo bearing sediments at Birimi, a multi-component archaeological site in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first luminescence ages for the archeological and geological sediments forming the substrate of the Birimi archaeological site in the Northern Region of Ghana. The site's significance rests on the fact that it contains a rich collection of artifact assemblages representative of three distinct cultures, and that, on the basis of artifact typology, the earliest assemblage is diagnostic of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) . In situ occurrences of MSA artifacts are found at over 1 m below today's surface. They are overlain by a ceramic-rich complex of a sedentary or semi-sendentary Later Stone Age culture known as the Kintampo. The western half of the site is dominated by the industrial remains of Iron Age smelting activity. Elemental, mineralogical, and sedimentological analysis of the cultural and sub-cultural sedimentary horizons at the site revealed at least three distinct lithostratigraphic units. The quartz sediments are derived from the sandstone of the Gambaga escarpment, mass wasted and accreted fluvially at a rate of 3.2 cm/ka, forming a wide terrace at Birimi. Silts and finer fractions derive from windblown dust, likely from White Volta River and granitic sources to the north. Soil forming processes and wide fluctuations in moisture have progressively reduced the sediments at depth to the resistant quartz and kaolinite, with rich iron oxide coatings, and created two ironstone horizons composed of goethite-cemented quartz nodules. Multiple aliquot green-light stimulated optical ages for 125-150 ?m quartz grains yielded ages of 23.6±2.9 and 40.8±11.8 ka for the MSA-bearing sediments, and 58.4±15.3 ka for the base of the terrace. Radiocarbon ages on charcoal from Kintampo-bearing units are 3.36-3.83 ka cal BP, and are supported by thermoluminescence (TL) ages on pottery sherds and burnt house daub fragments of this cultural complex. A 0.4 ka age on sediment from the site's surface confirms that the quartz zeroes well when exposed to natural light. Sediments bearing the Kintampo artifacts, however, yielded ages of 7.8-16.9 ka. These ages were obtained on sediments from large pits, some over 50 cm deep, and they deviate only slightly from the ages expected for naturally aggraded sediments at these depths. We conclude, therefore, that extensive digging of pits by the Kintampo dwellers was followed by rapid refilling, and that the bulk mobilization of the matrix did not permit the sedimentary quartz grains to experience any appreciable zeroing at that time.

Quickert, Nicole A.; Godfrey-Smith, Dorothy I.; Casey, Joanna L.

2003-05-01

225

Household strategies in the face of resource scarcity in coastal Ghana: are they associated with development priorities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing regions, women and young girls spend several hours daily in the collection of natural resources. Still the link between these household resource strategies and stakeholder perceptions of development priorities remains unexplored. This project examines this association with survey data representative of the adult population from Ghana’s Coastal Region. Although natural resource scarcity and the sustainability of resource

Lori M. Hunter

2006-01-01

226

Financial costs and benefits of investing in domesticated “Sonkyi” (Allanblackia spp) in the forest region of Southern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of “Sonkyi” Allanblackia spp into cocoa farming systems has been initiated in Southern Ghana. Currently, it is a collection activity although its domestication is being championed by Unilever R&D Netherlands in collaboration with the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana. Feasibility studies suggest that the venture is viable for farmers if the financial support assurances by Uniliver would be

Irene Susana Egyir; George Tsey-Mensah Kwadzo

2010-01-01

227

Self-Reported Suicidal Behavior and Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Psychology Students in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes

Heidi Hjelmeland; Charity S. Akotia; Vicki Owens; Birthe L. Knizek; Hilmar Nordvik; Rose Schroeder; Eugene Kinyanda

2008-01-01

228

Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

229

Are the Schools We HAVE the Schools We NEED in Ghana? A Contribution to the Ongoing Debate on Ghana's Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…

Agbemabiese, Padmore E.

2010-01-01

230

WOMEN IN AGRO-PROCESSING IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF THE STATE OF WOMEN IN SMALL-SCALE FISH SMOKING IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of women in food production, processing and marketing has become more relevant as a way of fighting poverty and ensuring food security in Africa. This study was undertaken to assess the state of women in small-scale fish smoking in the Central Region of Ghana. The study involved 150 women fish processors. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to

Ernest L. Okorley; Moses M. Zinnah; Albert Obeng Mensah; Michelle Owens

231

Utah: Salt Lake City  

... Snow-Covered Peaks of the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains     View Larger Image ... Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow ...

2014-05-15

232

Lake Michigan Sand Waves  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Calm Lake Michigan morning while sampling dead and dying fish for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). This virus has recently emerged in the Great Lakes and caused severe epidemics in many fish species....

2009-12-11

233

Influence of the inter tropical discontinuity on Harmattan dust deposition in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Harmattan is a dry dust-laden continental wind, and in the boreal winter Harmattan dust plumes affects many West African countries, including Ghana. When the Harmattan is strongest the southern part of Ghana is affected by the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD). In this study, we investigate if the ITD functions as a barrier, preventing long transported Harmattan dust to settle south of, and below, it. This is done by analyzing a Harmattan dust outbreak, mapped using Earth observation (EO) data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, coupled with data from West African AERONET stations, and comparing these observations with wind data from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) program and the mineral suite of samples from seasonal dust deposits in north and south Ghana. In northern Ghana traces of minerals indicate a weak influence of particles from an arid environment, which is found consistent with the mapped dust plumes and NE wind directions. In southern Ghana the mineral composition show no sediments of an arid origin, the mapped dust plumes is less intense, and the surface wind directions and wind mass trajectories are more varying with lower wind speeds. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that dust deposited, or measured near ground, in the Harmattan period under the ITD, and south of it, does not contain material from the Chad Basin due to the local winds conditions.

Lyngsie, G.; Olsen, J. L.; Awadzi, T. W.; Fensholt, R.; Breuning-Madsen, H.

2013-09-01

234

Great Minds? Great Lakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

235

Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

Delfino, Joseph J.

1976-01-01

236

Lake Layers: Stratification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

Brothers, Chris; And Others

237

A Killer Lake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

Horvath, Thomas

2005-01-01

238

Great Lakes NATIONALOCEAN  

E-print Network

Great Lakes NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE CoastWatch is a nationwide NOAA program in which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) functions as the Great Lakes regional node. GLERL obtains, produces, and delivers environmental data and products

239

LAKE COLUSA SAN JOAQUIN  

E-print Network

#S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S STANISLAUS ¡¢ 1 0 1 "!9 6 Lake Tahoe HUMBOLDT TEHAMA MENDOCINO DEL NORTE SISKIYOU MODOC LASSEN BUTTE PLUMAS GLENN LAKE COLUSA SUTTER YUBA NEVADA SIERRA PLACER EL Marysville Nevada City Downieville Auburn Coloma Placerville Soda Springs Tahoe Vista South Lake Tahoe

240

Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899

Norwood, Carolette

2011-01-01

241

First Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana. PMID:24808747

Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi

2014-01-01

242

Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.  

PubMed

In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496

Adinkrah, Mensah

2012-02-01

243

Mono Lake Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mono Lake Web Site is the homepage of the Mono Lake Committee and offers helpful information regarding the unique hypersaline and alkaline environment. Visitors will find information about the Mono Lake Committee, natural and political histories of the area, related water policies, a photo gallery with image descriptions, and links to related sites- including a clearinghouse. Those interested in Mono Basin birds will find sightings, counts, bird walks, and other related information. An additional feature, Mono Lake Live, offers up-to-the-minute data on road conditions, satellite images, weather, lake level, bird sightings, snow pack, and earthquakes.

Reis, Greg; Committee, Mono L.

244

The adenylate kinase genes of M. voltae, M. thermolithotrophicus, M. jannaschii, and M. igneus define a new family of adenylate kinases.  

PubMed

The adenylate kinase genes (adkA) were cloned from four closely related methanogenic members of the Archaea: the mesophile Methanococcus voltae (Mv), the thermophile M. thermolithotrophicus (Mt) and the hyperthermophiles M. jannaschii (Mj) and M. igneus (Mi). All four genes encode a protein of 192 amino acids (aa), and the four enzymes were closely related, with 68-81% aa identity in pairwise comparisons. It is anticipated that the enzyme set will provide the basis for studies that can establish the structural basis for ADK thermal stability. Mj and Mi contained a gene homologous to M. vannielii sec Y upstream of adkA, while Mv and Mt contained an unidentified, yet conserved, upstream open reading frame (ORF). Mt, Mj and Mi, but not Mv, contained an unidentified, yet highly conserved, ORF directly downstream of adkA. Based on their size, predicted secondary structure and phylogenetic relation to bacterial and eukaryotic adenylate kinases (ADK), it was concluded that the archaeal adkA genes encoded a unique class of ADK, and suggested that Euryarchaeotal and Crenarchaeotal branches of the Archaea contain separate subclasses of the enzyme. PMID:9055821

Ferber, D M; Haney, P J; Berk, H; Lynn, D; Konisky, J

1997-02-01

245

Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.  

PubMed

We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

2011-12-01

246

Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

2010-01-01

247

Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862

2010-01-01

248

Lake Chad 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sweep of Lake Chad, February 2001: Located on the edge of the Sahara and bordering four countries--Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger--the immense area of this land locked lake has nearly disappeared in recent years. Persistent drought has caused the lake to drop from its former sixth place position in the list of worlds largest lakes; it is now one tenth its former size. The basin of the lake is not naturally deep, so the surface area of the lake tended to spread out, keeping the total depth to little more 23 feet (7 meters). In recent years, rainfall patterns have begun to change, and tributaries to Lake Chad have not been refilling the basin as rapidly as they used to. The lush, productive flora and fauna fed by the wetlands of the shallow lake have suffered as a result. This has led to significant changes for various communities of people that live in the vicinity of the lake. While for some the now exposed lake bed has enabled new land to be cultivated, much of the available fresh water that might have been used for irrigation is no longer dependable. As rainfall rates appear to be declining year after year, people living nearby develop even greater dependence on the lake, draining it even faster.

Thomson, Joycelyn; Snodgrass, Stuart; Coe, Michael

2001-02-26

249

COREGONID FISHES OF THE GREAT LAKES By WALTER KOELZ, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

_ Coregonus clupeaformis _ Lake Michigan _ Lake Huron _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ Lake Erie _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ artedi and artedi albus of Lake Ontario _ Leucichthys nipigon _ Genus Coregonus

250

Babylon by Tro-Tro: The Varieties of Rasta Identity and Practice in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.\\u0009Title:\\u0009Babylon by Tro-Tro: The Varieties of Rasta Identity and Practice in Ghana\\u000a2.\\u0009Author:\\u0009Jonathan Tanis (tanis@usc.edu; University of Southern California)\\u000a3.\\u0009Objective:\\u0009Intrigued by the lack of scholarship in Ghana on the highly visible and prominent Rasta culture, I sought to examine aspects of Rastafari identity and practice including the following:\\u000aa.\\u0009How the Rasta identity is

Jonathan Tanis

2010-01-01

251

Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana.  

PubMed

"When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana [the 1988-1989 Ghana Living Standards Survey], we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters)." PMID:12294784

Garg, A; Morduch, J

1998-01-01

252

HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 104 adults from the four sub-districts in Kumasi was conducted. Results Four stigma constructs, employment-based discrimination, screening and identification of HIV positive people, revelation of HIV status and social contact stigma were determined based on reliability measures from responses to the questionnaire. Regression analysis showed that participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to favor policies denying employment to PLWHA (p<0.05), but disapproved of revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Muslims were more likely than Christians to agree with identifying PLWHA (p<0.05) and more likely to advocate revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Males were more likely to favor revealing HIV status (p<0.05). Employed persons were more likely to have social contact with PLWHA (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions against HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi. PMID:18632302

Ulasi, Chijioke I; Preko, Peter O; Baidoo, Joseph A.; Bayard, Budry; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

2009-01-01

253

The composition and origin of Ghana medicine clays  

PubMed Central

The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043

van Dongen, Bart E.; Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy

2011-01-01

254

Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.  

PubMed

As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818

Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

2009-01-01

255

An exploratory survey of the applications of telemedicine in Ghana.  

PubMed

We examined the use of telemedicine at two major medical institutions in Ghana. Doctors and administrators were surveyed to assess their knowledge of computers and familiarity with telemedicine. The use of modern telecommunications and information technology products within the health service was also examined. Thirty questionnaires were distributed to staff at the two hospitals, one urban and one rural. Twenty were returned (a response rate of 67%). Although most of the respondents were computer literate, they were less familiar with telemedicine applications. Only a minority of the respondents were participating in an information-sharing network, transmitting information by fax or telephone, or had Internet access. Financial constraint appeared to be the major barrier to establishing information-sharing networks. Other constraints were technological and organizational. The respondents expressed an interest in using telemedicine, having access to health-care databases and specific telemedicine applications such as tele-education and videoconferencing. Staff in the urban hospital were more likely to be familiar with telemedicine and more likely to have access to information technology than those in the rural hospital. PMID:10912338

Darkwa, O

2000-01-01

256

Environmental and habitat management: the case of Ethiopia and Ghana.  

PubMed

This article examines the environment and habitat management experiences of Ethiopia and Ghana in the postindependence period (1960-2000). Based on extensive archival research, semistructured focused interviews of environment and habitat officers of the World Bank, the United Nations System and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and personal professional field experiences, the paper argues that the uncritical adoption of externally generated discourses, narratives, policy guidelines, and strategies of environmental and habitat management has structured thought and action in both countries. The experience of both countries in defining and responding to environmental and human settlement management is explored from a political ecology perspective. The analysis indicates that both countries have essentially adopted a technocratic, state-centered, and unsustainable management strategy framework based on population control, poverty reduction, sustainable development, and capacity-building. It also suggests that international organizations such as the World Bank, INCN, and the United Nations system have been important sources of thought and action in both countries. Conversely, regional international organizations such as the Economic Commission for Africa, the Organization of African Unity and the African Development Bank have largely served as conduits for the diffusion of global discourses, narratives, policies and strategies. The need for adopting management policies and strategies that are based on principles of multiple engagement, decentralization, incentives, public education, and participation is underscored. PMID:12592447

Kidane-Mariam, Tadesse

2003-03-01

257

Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options  

PubMed Central

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

2011-01-01

258

Reflections on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment outcomes in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Available evidence in Ghana shows the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) control activities efforts since the beginning of the 1900s. In spite of that, TB continues to be one of the common diseases in the country. In 1994, local and international policy windows opened for renewed strategies for the control of TB. This paper explores some of the approaches which have been in place since 1994 and their implications for treatment outcomes. Methods The study combines quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data consist of treatment outcome from 1997–2010 and the qualitative data are derived from in-depth interviews with some staff of the TB control programme. Poisson regression and inductive coding were applied to the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results Reported cure rates increased from 43.6% to 87.7% between 1997 and 2010. The data from the in-depth interviews (IDIs) suggested that improvements in diagnosis, community TB care, stigma reduction among community and health workers towards TB patients, the public-private partnership, and the enablers’ package contributed to the improved better treatment outcomes, particularly from 2008. Conclusions Lessons learnt include the achievement of objectives with varying strategies and stakeholder interventions. Further studies would be needed to quantify the contributions of the various interventions to help determine those that are cost effective as well as efficient and effective for TB control. PMID:23971675

2013-01-01

259

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

2002-01-01

260

Lake Mead, NV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

1982-01-01

261

Locally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana. Education Research Paper. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The needs of grassroots farmers in Uganda and Ghana for locally developed print materials were examined through a postal survey of nearly 200 organizations and examinations of 75 autonomous farmer groups and 95 organizations sharing agricultural information in both countries. Both printed agricultural information relevant to grassroots farmers and…

Carter, Isabel

262

Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…

Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

2013-01-01

263

Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…

Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

2008-01-01

264

The role of materiality in apprenticeships: the case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and material culture, it focuses on the material aspects of

Thomas Jaarsma; Harro Maat; Paul Richards; Arjen Wals

2011-01-01

265

The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the herpetofauna of four forests, designated as Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas in the Western Region, Ghana. We recorded a total of 47 amphibian species, among them the first country records for the genera Acanthixalus and Phlyctimantis, as well as new taxa within the genera Arthroleptis and Astylosternus. The species Acanthixalus sonjae was so far only known from Ivory

MARK-OLIVER R ÖDEL; ALEX C; ADAM D. LEACHÉ; RAUL E. DIAZ; MATTHEW K. FUJITA; RAFFAEL ERNST

266

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

267

Mobility, education and livelihood trajectories for young people in rural Ghana: a gender perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the gendered implications of Africa's transport gap (the lack of cheap, regular and reliable transport) for young people in rural Ghana, with particular reference to the linkages between restricted mobility, household work demands, access to education and livelihood potential. Our aim is to show how mobility constraints, especially as these interact with household labour demands, restrict young

Gina Porter; Kate Hampshire; Albert Abane; Augustine Tanle; Kobina Esia-Donkoh; Regina Obilie Amoako-Sakyi; Samuel Agblorti; Samuel Asiedu Owusu

2011-01-01

268

Widening Access to Tertiary Education for Women in Ghana through Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education--age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana

Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

2007-01-01

269

An Evaluative Study of a Distance Teacher Education Program in a University in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study used an adaptation of Provus' discrepancy evaluation model to evaluate a distance teacher education program in the University of Cape Coast, the premier teacher education institution in Ghana. The study involved comparing performance data of the program as perceived by students and faculty/administrators to standards prepared from the…

Sampong, Kwasi Addo

2009-01-01

270

From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…

Skinner, Kate

2010-01-01

271

Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana  

E-print Network

Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana. This study examines the three primary actions taken since that time and examines their influence-added wood product exports. The Woodworking Sector Development Project did not influence exports of processed

272

Your Heart Is Never Free: Women in Wales and Ghana Talking about Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we document women’s own constructions of their psychosocial health and the way they trace the problems they experience to the social and material conditions of their lives. We report on two qualitative studies: one in which 35 women in South Wales were interviewed about their main health concerns and a similar study in Ghana, West Africa which

VIVIENNE WALTERS; JOYCE YAA AVOTRI; NICKIE CHARLES

1999-01-01

273

The role of taboos in conservation of sacred groves in Ghana's Tallensi-Nabdam district  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of Ghana's forest cover has been lost to deforestation. Although the Tallensi-Nabdam district has suffered deforestation, portions of the biosphere called sacred groves have survived. The purpose of this study was to explore the particular reasons why the groves have thrived by articulating precise sacred grove taboos, many of which are gender specific. Our enquiry led to

Rita Yembilah Barre; Miriam Grant; Dianne Draper

2009-01-01

274

Structural relations of the sex trade and its link to trafficking: The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex trade in Ghana is perceived as women's business. The legal definition of prostitution in the Ghanaian criminal code of 1960 limits sex work and stipulates prostitution as females' activity. Hence, punishment for it is meted out only to females who offer their bodies for sale but not the males who demand the offers or participate in any other

Nancy Ansah

2006-01-01

275

Negotiating Broadcasting PolicyCivil Society and Civic Discourse in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the nature of civil society and civic discourse in Ghana as they are reflected in the process by which broadcasting policy in that country is currently being negotiated. It is grounded in the notions that civil society is constituted by and in communication and that vital civil society and public discourse are essential aspects of a truly

Carla W. Heath

1999-01-01

276

Who sleeps under bednets in Ghana? A doer\\/non-doer analysis of malaria prevention behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria prevention programmes should be based in part on knowledge of why some individuals use bednets while others do not. This paper identifies factors and characteristics of women that affect bednet use among their children less than five years of age in Ghana. METHODS: Data come from the baseline component of an evaluation of Freedom from Hunger's malaria curriculum.

Natalie De La Cruz; Benjamin Crookston; Kirk Dearden; Bobbi Gray; Natasha Ivins; Stephen Alder; Robb Davis

2006-01-01

277

A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

2013-01-01

278

An examination of pharmaceutical supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapies in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the pharmaceutical supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study employed an inductive approach in examining the dynamics of the pharmaceutical supply chain. The study also used analytical hierarchical process in identifying factors that are detrimental to the ACT supply chain. Findings – The study

David Asamoah; Patience Abor; Martin Opare

2011-01-01

279

Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying

Dale Whittington; Donald T. Lauria; Albert M. Wright; Kyeongae Choe; Jeffrey A. Hughes; Venkateswarlu Swarna

1993-01-01

280

Influence of urban wastewater on stream water quality and agriculture in and around Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some findings from an ongoing International Water Management Institute research project in Ghana on urban wastewater use in agriculture. The paper focuses on the influence of urban wastewater on stream water quality and peri urban agriculture in Kumasi, and aims to develop strategies to reduce environmental pollution and risks from agricultural use of wastewater. It drew on

Bernard Keraita; Pay Drechsel; Philip Amoah

2003-01-01

281

The effect of capital structure on profitability: an empirical analysis of listed firms in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability of listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) during a five-year period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Regression analysis is used in the estimation of functions relating the return on equity (ROE) with measures of capital structure. Findings – The results reveal a significantly positive relation between the

Joshua Abor

2005-01-01

282

Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…

Thomas, Paul

2012-01-01

283

Peer Relations, Violence and School Attendance: Analyses of Bullying in Senior High Schools in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on bullying among students and explores the ways it affects the attendance of senior high school students in Ghana. It explores whether having emotional problems, in addition to being bullied, incrementally affects the relationship between bullying and school attendance and the mitigating influence of peer friendships on these relationships. The results show gender differences in which absenteeism

Mairead Dunne; Ricardo Sabates; Cynthia Bosumtwi-Sam; Andrew Owusu

2012-01-01

284

Whose Voices Are Being Heard? Mechanisms for Community Participation in Education in Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of community participation in School "for" Life, a complementary education programme operating in northern Ghana. The researchers investigated three components of community participation: the nature of the mechanisms used to engage community members as participants in the education process; the actors who…

Mfum-Mensah, Obed; Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia

2014-01-01

285

A ‘Kimberley protest’: Diamond mining, export sanctions, and poverty in Akwatia, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporary suspension of diamond exports in Ghana in 2006 and 2007 is arguably the most significant move to address mounting criticisms of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), an international initiative aimed at stemming the flow of rough diamonds used to finance wars. The ban, which took effect in November 2006, was much praised, particularly in civil society circles,

Gavin Hilson; Martin J. Clifford

2010-01-01

286

Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact  

E-print Network

Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have grown research on the environmental and human development consequences of diamond mining in the country. Unlike

Vermont, University of

287

Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

Velez, Olivia

2011-01-01

288

Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

289

Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

2014-01-01

290

Challenges in building the capacity of human resource development in decentralized local governments : Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and try to understand the human side of public sector reform (PSR) in local government in Ghana in the context of the challenges facing human resource capacity building and development policies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adopting an exploratory case study design, the paper triangulates both secondary and primary sources of data. Primary

K. B. Antwi; F. Analoui

2008-01-01

291

Reforming public sector : Facing the challenges of effective human resource development policy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore and understand the public sector reform (PSR) as it affects local governments in Ghana within the context of challenges facing human resource capacity building and development policies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adopting an exploratory case study design, the research triangulated both secondary and primary sources of data. Primary data generated from self-completing questionnaire and interview

K. B. Antwi; F. Analoui

2008-01-01

292

Sex, grades and power in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have naturalised a sexual contract in which some male academics consider

Louise Morley

2011-01-01

293

Challenges to MDG achievement in low income countries : lessons from Ghana and Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the policy lessons from applications of the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS) model to two low income countries: Ghana and Honduras. Results show that costs of MDGs achievement could reach 10-13 percent of GDP by 2015, although, given the observed low productivity in the provision of social services, significant savings may be realized by improving efficiency. Sources

Denis Medvedev; Maurizio Bussolo

2007-01-01

294

Savannah Woodland Degradation Assessments in Ghana: integrating ecological indicators with local perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the measurement of land degradation within savannah woodlands, in a complex semi- arid environment, in the Upper East Region of Ghana. In a region where inhabitants depend upon natural resources for their livelihoods, degradation of such resources is a serious threat to the sustainability of a subsistence lifestyle. A central problem for academics, researchers and decision

Reyna C. O'Higgins

295

Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…

Agbenyega, Joseph

2008-01-01

296

Language Policy and Instructional Practice Dichotomy: The Case of Primary Schools in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Clear grounding in a location gives us the confidence to engage with knowledge from other locations as we deconstruct and reconstruct them with our purposes" (Canagarajah, 2005, p. 15). This quote serves the basis of what this paper presents on language policy and pedagogical practices in Ghana. Language plays an important role in pedagogy, it is…

Davis, Ernest; Agbenyega, Joseph S.

2012-01-01

297

Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

298

Environment, wealth, inequality and the burden of disease in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2005-01-01

299

Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…

Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

2013-01-01

300

Capsid control for organic cocoa in Ghana : results of participatory learning and action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, compared to Ivory Coast and Malaysia, two other major producing countries, yields are extremely low. The causes of low yields are many. They inc!ude low producer price offered until recently by the government costs of labour, poor tree husbandry practices, and pest and diseases. The recent increase in producer price

G. K. Ayenor

2006-01-01

301

"Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

Hilson, Gavin

2010-01-01

302

GENDER SOCIALIZATION OF PRE-TEEN YOUTHS IN GHANA: ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES FOR EXTENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural and Extension education in Ghana relies heavily on traditional visit and transfer methods to impact new knowledge to farmers. Much effort and resources are thus expended to extend agricultural information to the farmer at his farm. Not much is done at the family level to identify social problems that can hinder the farm family from achieving their maximum potential.

John K. Boateng; Akosua Adomako-Ampofo; Connie C. Flanagan; Leslie Gallay; Jemima Yakah; Texas A

303

Social and behavioral determinants of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at investigating the social and behavioral predictors of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Ghana. Street commercial sex workers were interviewed in Accra, Kumasi and Techiman. Whereas respondents had attained certain accurate knowledge about HIV transmission routes, misconceptions were still commonly reported. The level of condom education was very low (14%), however consistent

Ahmed Adu-Oppong

2005-01-01

304

Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

305

Facilities and resources for diabetes care at regional health facilities in southern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1995, each of the five provincial hospitals in southern Ghana was visited and facilities and resources for diabetes care assessed. In addition, health facilities and standards of care questionnaires were completed. Only Korle Bu Teaching Hospital run a diabetes clinic and had diabetologists. Only two facilities had an eye specialist or trained dietician. None of the

Albert G. B Amoah; Samuel K Owusu; J. Terry Saunders; Wei Li Fang; Henrietta A Asare; Joice G Pastors; Cindi Sanborn; Eugene J Barrett; Moses K. A Woode; Kwame Osei

1998-01-01

306

Do Not Go Cheaply into That Good Night: Death-Ritual Consumption in Asante, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory on identity negotiations posits that a person's identity-construction project ceases upon death. We tested this proposition using death-ritual consumption experiences of consumers in Asante, Ghana, West Africa. We found that bereaved Asante consumers engage in conspicuous ritual consumption in pursuit of newer social identities for their deceased and themselves and that funerals involve a reciprocal and continuing relationship between

Samuel K. Bonsu; Russell W. Belk

2003-01-01

307

Epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on the epidemiology of malaria is essential for designing and interpreting results of clinical trials of drugs, vaccines and other interventions. As a background to the establishment of a site for anti-malarial drugs and vaccine trials, the epidemiology of malaria in a rural site in central Ghana was investigated. METHODS: Active surveillance of clinical malaria was carried out

Seth Owusu-Agyei; Kwaku Poku Asante; Martin Adjuik; George Adjei; Elizabeth Awini; Mohammed Adams; Sam Newton; David Dosoo; Dominic Dery; Akua Agyeman-Budu; John Gyapong; Brian Greenwood; Daniel Chandramohan

2009-01-01

308

SOCIOECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF BURULI ULCER IN GHANA: A THREE-YEAR REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines some of the socioeconomic cost of treating 102 cases of Buruli ulcer between 1994 and 1996 at the St. Martin's Catholic Hospital in Agroyesum in the Amansie West district of the Ashanti region of Ghana. Seventy percent of the cases were children (up to 15 years of age). There was no sex difference in the distribution of

KINGSLEY ASIEDU; SAMUEL ETUAFUL

1998-01-01

309

The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

2011-01-01

310

The epidemiology of genitourinary fistulae in Kumasi, Ghana, 1977–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the clinical epidemiology of genitourinary fistulae as seen at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. A retrospective study was carried out from the hospital records and operative reports of all patients with genitourinary fistulae seen at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between January 1977 and December 1992. Patient age, parity, type of

K. A. Danso; J. O. Martey; L. L. Wall; T. E. Elkins

1996-01-01

311

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

312

Boron Levels in Soils Cropped to Coffee and their Relationships to some Soil Properties in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of

A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe

313

Grandfathers, Google, and Dreams: Medical Pluralism, Globalization, and New Healing Encounters in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across contemporary Africa, pluralistic medical fields are becoming increasingly complex, giving rise to newly emerging constellations of healing practices and a vast array of therapeutic possibilities. We present portraits of four ‘traditional’ healers in southern Ghana who selectively adapt, adopt and modify elements of biomedical, ‘local’ and ‘exotic’ healing practices in eclectic and creative ways, positioning themselves strategically in a

Kate R. Hampshire; Samuel Asiedu Owusu

2012-01-01

314

Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

2012-01-01

315

Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse Web site is part of the US Geological Survey's Lake Tahoe Initiative. The agency's goal for the site is to facilitate the coordination of research, monitoring, and environmental-management activities in the Lake Tahoe Basin and to ensure the widest possible access to data and information resulting from such activities. Products available include Digital Elevation Models, Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles, Digital Line Graphs, Digital Raster Graphics, maps and soil information of the area, and much more. The downloads include clear descriptions and examples for those unsure of the particular data types, making their use a snap for researchers, professionals, or anyone interested in the Lake Tahoe region. [JAB

Hoong, Connie

316

Grays Lake Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at the marsh ecosystem of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake ecosystem, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.

317

A Killer Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs showing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity measurements for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to solve the problem.

Horvath, Thomas

2005-10-01

318

A Killer Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake located in Cameroon, Africa, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people and countless livestock and other animals in the area. This case, intended for use in a limnology or an aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts related to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret graphs containing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity data for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of limnological data to understand what happened.

Horvath, Thomas

2005-01-01

319

Great Lakes Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

2011-03-01

320

Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. Methods This work was based on the World Health Organization’s multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Results Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR?=?1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR?=?1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR?=?1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR?=?1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher in the 70+ years age group, in women, among urban residents and in those with at least secondary education. Quitting tobacco use also increased with increasing income levels. Conclusions Tobacco use among older adults in Ghana was associated with older men living in rural locations, chronic ill-health and reduced life satisfaction. A high proportion of older adults have stopped using tobacco, demonstrating the possibilities for effective public health interventions. Health risk reduction strategies through targeted anti-smoking health campaigns, improvement in access to health and social protection (such as health insurance) will reduce health risks among older persons who use tobacco. PMID:24138966

2013-01-01

321

Myths and misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Methods Data was drawn from male (N?=?4,546) and female (N?=?4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r?=?0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r?=?0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Results Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR?=?0.31, CI?=?0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR?=?0.41, CI?=?0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR?=?0.23, CI?=?0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. Conclusion That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB. PMID:24028419

2013-01-01

322

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358

Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

2012-01-01

323

Understanding the continuum of maternal morbidity in Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the levels of maternal morbidity from no complications to near miss and describe factors associated with different levels of morbidity. We conducted an observational study of all women delivering at a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana between October 2010 and March 2011. We examined the factors associated with the continuum of maternal outcomes in terms of severity using multinomial logistic regression. Data were extracted from women's maternal care files with the main outcome measures of no complications, non-life threatening complications, potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC), and near miss as defined by World Health Organization. Our study includes 1,586 women with no complications, 1,205 women with non-life threatening complications, 516 women with PLTC, and 94 near-miss cases. All of the factors associated with PLTC and near-miss cases were similar. None of the socio-demographic variables remained significant in the multivariate analysis comparing different levels of severe morbidity with no complications. Women with no complications shared similar characteristics with women who experienced non-life threatening complications. As compared to women who had no complications, women who had severe morbidity were significantly more likely to have had no antenatal care. Our results underline the concept that morbidity is a continuum and indicate that if the underlying causes of poor maternal health outcomes are addressed, it is likely that changes such as better access to antenatal care will improve health outcomes across the continuum of morbidity. However, by only monitoring near-miss cases and mortality, we underestimate the impact on women who will live with non-life threatening, yet serious maternal morbidities. PMID:24347090

Tunçalp, Ozge; Hindin, Michelle J; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Adanu, Richard M

2014-09-01

324

Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

2013-07-01

325

Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

Amponsah, Paulina

2014-05-01

326

Optimizing performance of ceramic pot filters in Northern Ghana and modeling flow through paraboloid-shaped filters/  

E-print Network

This work aimed to inform the design of ceramic pot filters to be manufactured by the organization Pure Home Water (PHW) in Northern Ghana, and to model the flow through an innovative paraboloid-shaped ceramic pot filter. ...

Miller, Travis Reed

2010-01-01

327

Investigation of I-WASH's community-led total sanitation and alternative decentralized sanitation models in rural Ghana  

E-print Network

2.5 billion people worldwide do not have access to improved sanitation and Sub-Saharan Africa is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target. As of 2010, Ghana has achieved 14% national improved sanitation coverage and ...

Questad, Adam (Adam David)

2012-01-01

328

Health and water quality monitoring of Pure Home Water's ceramic filter dissemination in the northern region of Ghana  

E-print Network

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a social enterprise that promotes and disseminates household drinking water technologies in the Northern Region of Ghana. Currently their main product is a pot-shaped Potters for Peace-type ceramic ...

Johnson, Sophie M. (Sophie Marie)

2007-01-01

329

Crater Lake revealed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

2003-01-01

330

Richness, Abundance, and Complementarity of Fruit-feeding Butterfly Species in Relict Sacred Forests and Forest Reserves of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacred forest groves in Ghana are centuries old protected areas that were once part of continuous forest cover but now mostly\\u000a exist as relict forest patches embedded in an agropastoral landscape. We conducted a year-long survey of the fruit-feeding\\u000a butterfly fauna of four sacred groves and two forest reserves in the moist semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to characterize\\u000a resident

J. L. Bossart; E. Opuni-Frimpong; S. Kuudaar; E. Nkrumah

2006-01-01

331

Richness, abundance, and complementarity of fruit-feeding butterfly species in relict sacred forests and forest reserves of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacred forest groves in Ghana are centuries old protected areas that were once part of continuous forest cover but now mostly exist as relict forest patches embedded in an agropastoral landscape. We conducted a year-long survey of the fruit-feeding butterfly fauna of four sacred groves and two forest reserves in the moist semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to characterize resident

J. L. BOSSART; E. Opuni-Frimpong; S. Kuudaar; E. Nkrumah

332

The Great Lakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

Seasons, 1987

1987-01-01

333

Great Lakes: Great Gardening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

334

Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

Reid, Ron

335

The lakes of Titan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

Stofan, E. R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K. L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2007-01-01

336

The lakes of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70° north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface `liquid methane' table.

Stofan, E. R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K. L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2007-01-01

337

Evaporation From Lake Superior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

2009-05-01

338

Lessons from a Lake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

Goethals, Susan

1997-01-01

339

Antarctic subglacial lake discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic subglacial lakes were long time supposed to be relatively closed and stable environments with long residence times and slow circulations. This view has recently been challenged with evidence of active subglacial lake discharge underneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Satellite altimetry observations witnessed rapid changes in surface elevation across subglacial lakes over periods ranging from several months to more than a year, which were interpreted as subglacial lake discharge and subsequent lake filling, and which seem to be a common and widespread feature. Such discharges are comparable to jökulhlaups and can be modeled that way using the Nye-Röthlisberger theory. Considering the ice at the base of the ice sheet at pressure melting point, subglacial conduits are sustainable over periods of more than a year and over distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Coupling of an ice sheet model to a subglacial lake system demonstrated that small changes in surface slope are sufficient to start and sustain episodic subglacial drainage events on decadal time scales. Therefore, lake discharge may well be a common feature of the subglacial hydrological system, influencing the behavior of large ice sheets, especially when subglacial lakes are perched at or near the onset of large outlet glaciers and ice streams. While most of the observed discharge events are relatively small (101-102 m3 s-1), evidence for larger subglacial discharges is found in ice free areas bordering Antarctica, and witnessing subglacial floods of more than 106 m3 s-1 that occurred during the middle Miocene.

Pattyn, Frank

340

Lake Wobegon Dice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

2012-01-01

341

Lake Effect Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

342

Venezuela: Lake Maracaibo  

article title:  Oil Slicks on Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela     View Larger Image Several oil slicks occurred on Lake Maracaibo in northwestern Venezuela between ... wave facets divert reflected rays into many directions. An oil film dampens the presence of small wind-driven "capillary" waves, resulting ...

2013-04-18

343

Great Lakes: chemical monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses a symposium sponsored by the 10th Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS) that addressed various aspects of the theme ''Chemistry of the Great Lakes''. The symposium attempted to gather together environmental information produced by chemists, and included: watershed studies, involving investigation of the sources, transport, and fate of sterols in the Menomonee River;

Joseph J. Delfino

1976-01-01

344

Mirror Lake Spring 2008  

E-print Network

. This was the first recorded bloom on Mirror Lake. Prompted partially by the algal bloom of 2007, the fall semester a cyanobacterial bloom took place at Mirror Lake, causing local authorities (though not the New Hampshire exceeds the 10 µg/l value necessary for cyanobacterial blooms (Table 1.1), and a high concentration

New Hampshire, University of

345

Acidification of Adirondack lakes  

SciTech Connect

The acidification of lakes in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York was estimated directly by comparing data from historic (1929-1934) and modern (1975-1985) regional surveys of lake chemistry. The authors performed new analyses concerning the quality of the data, rejecting all historic pH data and many modern alkalinity values. When the historic data were corrected for a bias between titration procedures, they found a median loss of 50 ..mu..equiv/L alkalinity in 274 lakes with paired data. Eighty percent of the lakes showed a decline in alkalinity. The observed acidification was greatest in the lakes at high elevation and was of the same magnitude as the current precipitation acidity in the region.

Asbury, C.E.; Vertucci, F.A.; Mattson, M.D.; Likens, G.E.

1989-03-01

346

Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

2003-01-01

347

10Be content in clasts from fallout suevitic breccia in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Clues to preimpact target distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocks from drill cores LB-07A (crater fill) and LB-08A (central uplift) into the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, were analyzed for the presence of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which target rocks of various depths were mixed during the formation of the crater-filling breccia, and also to detect meteoric water infiltration within the impactite layer. 10Be abundances above background were found in two (out of 24) samples from the LB-07A core, and in none of five samples from the LB-08A core. After excluding other possible explanations for an elevated 10Be signal, we conclude that it is most probably due to a preimpact origin of those clasts from target rocks close to the surface. Our results suggest that in-crater breccias were well mixed during the impact cratering process. In addition, the lack of a 10Be signal within the rocks located very close to the lake sediment-impactite boundary suggests that infiltration of meteoric water below the postimpact crater floor was limited. This may suggest that the infiltration of the meteoric water within the crater takes place not through the aerial pore-space, but rather through a localized system of fractures.

Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian

2014-03-01

348

Lake Trout Mortality and Abundance in Southern Lake Huron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the main basin of Lake Huron collapsed in the 1940s because of predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus and commercial fishing. Efforts to rehabilitate lake trout have emphasized reduction of mortality and the stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout to reestablish populations. We fit a statistical catch-at-age model for lake trout in the southern

Shawn P. Sitar; James R. Bence; James E. Johnson; Mark P. Ebener; William W. Taylor

1999-01-01

349

MBI LAKE ARROWHEAD RESEARCH CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

27TH MBI LAKE ARROWHEAD RESEARCH CONFERENCE & ANNUAL RETREAT OCTOBER 14-16, 2005 UCLA LAKE ARROWHEAD CONFERENCE CENTER LAKE ARROWHEAD, CA #12;27TH MBI LAKE ARROWHEAD RESEARCH CONFERENCE OCTOBER 14) Tim54p mediates the assembly of the AAA protease Yme1p 9:15-9:25 Qi Wang (Lee lab, MBIDP grad

Koehler, Carla

350

Introduction to the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of The Great Lakes Information Network, The Education And Curriculum Homesite (TEACH) "focuses on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond." The Introduction to the Great Lakes pages contain an overview of the watershed, including maps, photographs, and descriptions; other sections take a more detailed look at the five individual lakes. Additional links for further information are also provided -- such as Great Lake geography, history and culture, pollution, and more -- giving kids or anyone interested a well-designed introduction to the lakes.

2000-01-01

351

Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota  

PubMed Central

Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

352

Whiting in Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

353

LAKE RESTORATION BY DILUTION: MOSES LAKE, WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....

354

Cascade Locks Wahtum LakeWahtum Lake  

E-print Network

Scenic Area Boundary Perennial Stream Intermittent Stream Waterbodies Cities & Towns Highway Railroad. and Northwest Power and Conservation Council. Waterfall and Cliffs -- Mt. Hood National Forest Waterfall -- BJO Agriculture, Pasture and Mixed Environs Urban and Mixed Environs Open water - Lakes, Rivers, Streams Perennial

355

Lake Mead, NV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead. In this harsh desert environment, color infrared photography readily penetrates haze, detects and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

1973-01-01

356

Bathymetry of Crater Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bathymetry survey of Crater Lake by scientists from the USGS, University of New Hampshire's Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, and the National Park Service, began on July 28, 2000. This site houses the first images gained from the high-resolution multi-beam technology survey. Various digital data such as digital raster graphics and digital line graphs may be viewed as .jpeg and .gif images or downloaded as .zip files. Besides the bathymetric data, the site features information on the geology, ecology, and history of Crater Lake, and beautiful .gif images of the lake and surrounding areas.

2000-01-01

357

SIGNIFICANCE OF REGIONAL LAKE QUALITY PATTERNS TO MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION OF SPECIFIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding regional lake quality patterns is important to lake management and restoration. t puts specific lake conditions into perspective, provides basis for establishing lake quality goals, assists identification of lakes most likely to benefit from protection and restorati...

358

Adirondack lake system acidity: Differences between headwater and nonheadwater lakes  

SciTech Connect

Surface water acidification may be caused or influenced by natural watershed processes and by anthropogenic activities. One portion of the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program focused on lake acidity as related to natural and anthropogenic watershed attributes in the Adirondack region of New York. The objectives were to (1) build a series of data sets for complex watershed systems that would complement those developed for headwater lakes and (2) analyze empirical relationships between lake pH and watershed attributes for complex watershed systems, to determine if different processes operate in headwater and nonheadwater watersheds. Sixty-six watershed systems (258 lakes) were studied, using chemistry data available for one-half of these lakes. Results show that headwater lakes had a slightly lower average pH (0.26 units) than nonheadwater lakes. Physical and chemical soil attributes were related to differences in lake acidity between headwater and nonheadwater lakes.

Hunsaker, C.T.; Olson, R.J.; Carpenter, D.E.

1987-01-01

359

Predictors of clients' satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services in periurban ghana.  

PubMed

The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers) in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs > 10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana. PMID:21647393

Turkson, Paa Kobina

2011-01-01

360

Does where you live influence what you know? Community effects on health knowledge in Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual's education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person's health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18603464

Andrzejewski, Catherine S; Reed, Holly E; White, Michael J

2009-03-01

361

Exploring contraceptive knowledge and use among women experiencing induced abortion in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.  

PubMed

Using a qualitative research methodology, twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with women with induced abortion experiences at Korle Bu and Tema Hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Results suggest that these women tended not to have knowledge of contraceptive methods prior to the abortion, while others were informed but failed to use for a variety of reasons ranging from rumours of side effects to personal negative experiences with modem contraceptive methods. A few women also stated contraceptive failure as a reason for their unintended pregnancies that were later aborted. Peer and reproductive health education must be reinforced in communities in the Greater Accra Region to curb adolescents engaging in early sex and should challenge the existing rumours associated with contraception in Ghana. In addition, family planning services in terms of appropriate methods with no side effects must be made available to women in the reproductive ages. PMID:21987936

Biney, Adriana A E

2011-03-01

362

Assessment of radiofrequency radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana.  

PubMed

A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m(-2) and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m(-2) for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. PMID:22262818

Deatanyah, P; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Asiedu, G O; Adjei, D N; Dwapanyin, G O; Amoatey, E A

2012-08-01

363

The effect of social health insurance on prenatal care: the case of Ghana.  

PubMed

Many developing countries have introduced social health insurance programs to help address two of the United Nations' millennium development goals-reducing infant mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. By making modern health care more accessible and affordable, policymakers hope that more women will seek prenatal care and thereby improve health outcomes. This paper studies how Ghana's social health insurance program affects prenatal care use and out-of-pocket expenditures, using the two-part model to model prenatal care expenditures. We test whether Ghana's social health insurance improved prenatal care use, reduced out-of-pocket expenditures, and increased the number of prenatal care visits. District-level differences in the timing of implementation provide exogenous variation in access to health insurance, and therefore strong identification. Those with access to social health insurance have a higher probability of receiving care, a higher number of prenatal care visits, and lower out-of-pocket expenditures conditional on spending on care. PMID:25143181

Abrokwah, Stephen O; Moser, Christine M; Norton, Edward C

2014-12-01

364

Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana.  

PubMed

Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers. PMID:21486833

Darko, E O; Kpeglo, D O; Akaho, E H K; Schandorf, C; Adu, P A S; Faanu, A; Abankwah, E; Lawluvi, H; Awudu, A R

2012-02-01

365

Prevalence of congenital eye anomalies in a paediatric clinic in Ghana.  

PubMed

There is little information about the epidemiology of congenital eye anomalies in Ghana. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 485 admissions to the paediatric eye centre of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2004-2009) and 263 were diagnosed with at least one anomaly. Visual acuity was quantitatively assessed in 209 patients and 130 had some visual impairment; 49 with bilateral and 64 with unilateral blindness. The most frequent congenital anomaly overall was cataract (n = 44). In infants, cataract was the most frequent finding (28/121). Toddlers most frequently presented with retinoblastoma (10/65). Glaucoma was the most frequent anomaly in preschool (9/39) and school (10/38) children. We conclude that avoidable causes of childhood blindness caused most congenital eye anomalies. Intensification of community-based health promotion and preventive eye care, early detection and provision of adequate resources for effective therapy could reverse these trends. PMID:24995765

Ilechie, A A; Essuman, V A; Enyionam, S

2014-01-01

366

Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

Weeks, John R.; Fink, Gunther

2013-01-01

367

A statistical model for spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in the Amansie West district, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buruli ulcer (BU), a skin ulceration caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is the second most widespread mycobacterium infection in Ghana. Its infection pathway is possibly related to the potable and agricultural water supply. This study aims to identify environmental factors that influence infection in a part of Ghana. It examines the significance of contaminated surface drainage channels and groundwater using conditional autoregressive (CAR) statistical modelling. This type of modelling implies that the spatial pattern of BU incidence in one community depends on the influence of the environment in neighbouring communities. Covariates were included to assess the spatial relationship between environmental risk factors and BU incidence in the study area. The study reveals an association between (a) the mean As content of soil and spatial distribution of BU and (b) the distance to sites of gold mining and spatial distribution of BU. We conclude that both arsenic in the natural environment and gold mining influence BU infection.

Duker, Alfred A.; Stein, Alfred; Hale, Martin

2006-06-01

368

Beal Lake Habitat Restoration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Beal Lake Restoration Project (the project) is located on Havasu National Wildlife Refuge in Needles, California, within the historic floodplain of the lower Colorado River. When completed, it will include over 200 acres of cottonwood, willow and mesq...

2005-01-01

369

LAKE NUTRIENT MODELING STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the effects of morphological conditions, turbidity and watershed land use / land cover patterns on nutrient levels in Central Plains lakes and reservoirs. The study involves intensive field monitoring for the calibration and verification of basin and watershed models...

370

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION USER HANDBOOK Updated: 07Mar2013 For the most Events . . . 15 Volunteer Ac vi es . . . 15 Recrea on . . . . . 16 Safety, and the logis cal support necessary for a wide variety of research and teaching programs. MLBS

Acton, Scott

371

Humoral and cell-mediated immunity in malnourished children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationship between immunological variables and the different types and severity of malnutrition in Ghanaian children.Design: Case-control study.Setting: The study was done at Princess Marie Louise Hospital, Accra, Ghana.Subjects: One hundred and seventy children, aged 8–36 months, were recruited at the clinical ward and public health service section of the hospital: 61 normal children, 49 moderately malnourished

T Rikimaru; K Taniguchi; JE Yartey; DO Kennedy; FK Nkrumah

1998-01-01

372

Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst. PMID:23945073

2013-01-01

373

Household Segmentation in Food Insecurity and Soil Improving Practices in Ghana  

E-print Network

, the main livelihood in Greater Accra is agriculture. Approximately 70 percent of the population in this region depends on agriculture and agriculture related activities (Ghana Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (GMoLGRD) 2006). Primary... sources of livelihood are crop farming, livestock, fisheries, and distribution of farm produce (GMoLGRD 2006). Six districts comprise the Greater Accra region (Figure 5). Total land area in this region is 324,000 km2 Agricultural production...

Nata, Jifar T

2013-08-09

374

Detailed structural analysis of the rim of a large, complex impact crater: Bosumtwi Crater, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1 Ma Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana is an 11-km-diameter, presumably complex, well-preserved impact structure that is associated with the Ivory Coast tektite strewnfield. Detailed structural geologic studies along a complete traverse through the northwestern rim section indicated four zones characterized by distinct deformation styles from just outside of the crater rim to near the crater floor. Zone 1 is

Wolf U. Reimold; Dion Brandt; Christian Koeberl

1998-01-01

375

Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of interventions on health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Both Ghana and Cameroon require a comprehensive and integrative approach to chronic disease intervention that combines structural, community and individual strategies. We outline research and practice gaps and best practice models within and outside Africa that can instruct the development of future interventions. PMID:20403170

2010-01-01

376

Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and

R. K. Amankwah; C. Anim-Sackey

2003-01-01

377

LCA of the timber sector in Ghana: preliminary life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Most life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approaches in life cycle assessment (LCA) are developed for western countries. Their\\u000a LCIA approaches and characterization methodologies for different impact categories may not be necessarily relevant to African\\u000a environmental conditions and particularly not for the timber sector in Ghana. This study reviews the relevance of existing\\u000a impact categories and LCIA approaches, and uses the

John Frank Eshun; José Potting; Rik Leemans

2011-01-01

378

The stigma of mental illness in Southern Ghana: attitudes of the urban population and patients’ views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Stigma is a frequent accompaniment of mental illness leading to a number of detrimental consequences. Most research into the\\u000a stigma connected to mental illness was conducted in the developed world. So far, few data exist on countries in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa and no data have been published on population attitudes towards mental illness in Ghana. Even less is known about the

Antonia Barke; Seth Nyarko; Dorothee Klecha

379

Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: Evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and\\u000a time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male\\u000a bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana,\\u000a we

Ashish Garg; Jonathan Morduch

1998-01-01

380

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu

Andrew A Adjei; Yao Tettey; John T Aviyase; Clement Adu-Gyamfi; Samuel Obed; Julius AA Mingle; Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi; Theophilus K Adiku

2009-01-01

381

A Random, Roadside Breathalyzer Survey of Alcohol Impaired Driving in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain the prevalence and pattern of alcohol impaired driving in an African nation, we conducted a random, roadside, breathalyzer survey of drivers in Ghana. A total of 149 (21%) of 722 drivers tested had a detectable blood alcohol concentration (BAC). In addition, 7.3% of drivers had a BAC ? 80 mg\\/dl. The prevalence of impaired driving (BAC ? 80) was higher among private drivers

CHARLES MOCK; GODFRIED ASIAMAH; JUSTICE AMEGASHIE

2001-01-01

382

ASSESSING WATER-RELATED RISK FACTORS FOR BURULI ULCER: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess water-related risk factors of Buruli ulcer, a case-control study of 102 patients (51 cases and 51 controls) was undertaken by matching age group, sex, and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination history in Ghana. The factors used here for matching have previously been implicated as factors of Buruli ulcer, an emerging infectious disease. This is the first study to delineate

HIROTSUGU AIGA; TAKAYUKI AMANO; SANDY CAIRNCROSS; JOSEPH A. DOMAKO; OFOSU-KWABI NANAS; SUSAN COLEMAN

2004-01-01

383

The incidence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among patients in Kumasi, Ghana.  

PubMed

The incidence of urogenital chlamydia infections among selected patients in Kumasi, Ghana was evaluated using an immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody technique. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified in 4 of 110 patients presenting for prenatal care, 2 of 55 female patients with infertility and 6 of 15 males with acute urethritis. The findings demonstrate that C. trachomatis is a frequently identified pathogen among male patients presenting with symptoms of acute urethritis; however, the incidence of chlamydia infections among asymptomatic patients is relatively low. PMID:2904902

Drescher, C; Elkins, T E; Adkeo, O; Akins-Bekoe, P; Agbemadzo, T; Foster, R L; Martey, J O

1988-12-01

384

Does irrigated urban agriculture influence the transmission of malaria in the city of Kumasi, Ghana?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the possible impact of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria transmission in cities, we studied entomological parameters, self-reported malaria episodes, and household-level data in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. A comparison was made between city locations without irrigated agriculture, city locations with irrigated urban vegetable production, and peri-urban (PU) locations with rain-fed agriculture. In the rainy as well as

Yaw Asare Afrane; Eveline Klinkenberg; Pay Drechsel; Kofi Owusu-Daaku; Rolf Garms; Thomas Kruppa

2004-01-01

385

Lake Superior Rift basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins of late Precambrian age have been identified beneath Lake Superior using seismic reflection profiles leased by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., from Grant Norpac, Inc. [McGinnis et al., 1989]. These data, along with 650 km of Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program for Crustal Evolution (GLIMPCE) profiles [Behrendt et al., 1988], are being used to develop an understanding of failed rift processes, from initial plate separation, through basin evolution, to final quiescence.

McGinnis, L. D.

386

Lake Baikal Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the deepest and most ancient lakes in the world, Lake Baikal is situated in the south of Eastern Siberia. Its age and complicated evolutionary history make it home to a wide variety of plants and animals. This site describes ecological problems, climatic conditions, geology, and cultural aspects of the region, and includes detailed maps and photographs. Portions of the site are translated into French and German.

387

Dragon Lake, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

388

Dropping Out of School in Southern Ghana: The Push-Out and Pull-Out Factors. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 55  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing school dropout has been one of the most controversial elements of policy since the introduction of free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana. However, research that utilises qualitative biographical detail surrounding irregular attendance and the critical events in the process that lead to dropout in Ghana is limited. I…

Ananga, Eric

2011-01-01

389

The Past, Present, and Future of Decentralisation in Africa: A Comparative Case Study of Local Government Development Trajectories of Ghana and Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies evolutionary theory of path dependency to explain the past, present, and future trajectories of decentralisation and local government (LG) institutional development in Ghana and Uganda. The article argues that in the pursuit of local governance, Uganda followed a sequence of political, administrative, and fiscal decentralisation whereas Ghana pursued an administrative, political, and fiscal decentralization. As a result,

Nicholas Awortwi

2010-01-01

390

Ghana and Mali. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.4. World History and Geography: Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance of…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

391

Promoting Socio-Economic Development: How Mobile Telephony Is an Agent for Creating High-Paying Jobs in Ghana from the Service Providers' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploration study examined solely, mobile telephony (which is an important aspect of ICTs) and how it promotes the creation of high-paying jobs that positively impact socio-economic development in Ghana from the service providers. perspective. This academic study focusing solely on Ghana mobile telephony service providers is the first of its…

Boateng, Ofori

2011-01-01

392

Ghana's regional development in economics, education and natural resources, with a case study on customers' preferences for household water treatment & safe storage products  

E-print Network

Ghana is one of the few countries that was re-classified from low-income country to low-middle income country in 2011 by the World Bank (World Bank, 2011a). At the same time, Ghana is still in the process of achieving the ...

Qiu, Weini

2012-01-01

393

Infertility and childlessness: a qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021

2013-01-01

394

Evaluation of facilitative supervision visits in primary health care service delivery in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana’s health delivery services, facilitative supervisory visit (FSV) as a system of management is new. This paper presents the standard evaluation results of FSV, which formed an integral part of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) initiative. Methods The study was conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The Project developed guidelines and tools for FSV for four different health system levels – regional, district, sub-district and community levels. Electronic data from all four levels representing quarterly results were compiled into their annual equivalents, and summarized graphically for comparison. Results The data show that all the nine districts embraced the FSV concept even though they differed markedly with regard to the degree of adherence to some set benchmarks. Three DHMTs (Wa Municipal, Lawra and Jirapa) were graded as good while the remaining six DHMTs were adjudged as fair in relation to management of supplies, transport and equipment, information, meeting, and technical support. Conclusions The data further suggest that there is much to gain both individually and institutionally from FSVs. Generally, FSVs are crucial to the delivery of primary health care services in especially rural areas. PMID:24063365

2013-01-01

395

Persisting Social Participation Restrictions among Former Buruli Ulcer Patients in Ghana and Benin  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer may induce severe disabilities impacting on a person's well-being and quality of life. Information about long-term disabilities and participation restrictions is scanty. The objective of this study was to gain insight into participation restrictions among former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. Methods In this cross-sectional study, former Buruli ulcer patients were interviewed using the Participation Scale, the Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score to measure functional limitations, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure perceived stigma. Healthy community controls were also interviewed using the Participation Scale. Trained native interviewers conducted the interviews. Former Buruli ulcer patients were eligible for inclusion if they had been treated between 2005 and 2011, had ended treatment at least 3 months before the interview, and were at least 15 years of age. Results In total, 143 former Buruli ulcer patients and 106 community controls from Ghana and Benin were included in the study. Participation restrictions were experienced by 67 former patients (median score, 30, IQR; 23;43) while 76 participated in social life without problems (median score 5, IQR; 2;9). Most restrictions encountered related to employment. Linear regression showed being female, perceived stigma, functional limitations, and larger lesions (category II) as predictors of more participation restrictions. Conclusion Persisting participation restrictions were experienced by former BU patients in Ghana and Benin. Most important predictors of participation restrictions were being female, perceived stigma, functional limitations and larger lesions. PMID:25392915

de Zeeuw, Janine; Omansen, Till F.; Douwstra, Marlies; Barogui, Yves T.; Agossadou, Chantal; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Phillips, Richard O.; Johnson, Christian; Abass, K. Mohammed; Saunderson, Paul; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stientstra, Ymkje

2014-01-01

396

Education reform for the expansion of mother-tongue education in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts, including the intermittent of mother tongue in early childhood schooling to facilitate English language and literacy instruction, prospects for a bold move towards multilingual education have emerged from a coalescence of forces inside and outside of Ghanaian education policy circles. This article discusses how the inertia of a dated language policy and a historic disregard for Ghana's multilingual landscape by the country's own policy makers are being overcome, at least partially, by progressive powers of change, albeit not without challenge. It undertakes an analysis of how a policy environment that supports bilingual education was created in order to implement a comprehensive and innovative multilingual programme, the National Literacy Acceleration Program (NALAP), which was rolled out across the nation's schools in early 2010. Having been involved in the process of designing NALAP, the authors describe the development of standards of learning and materials, as well as innovative aspects of a constructivist teacher education approach. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research, including combining a change process for key stakeholders and randomised language and literacy assessment with social marketing research in a unified approach.

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-10-01

397

Migrant fertility in Ghana: selection versus adaptation and disruption as causal mechanisms.  

PubMed

The aim of the study presented in this paper is to disentangle the roles of three mechanisms -- selection, adaptation, and disruption -- in influencing migrant fertility in Ghana. Using data from the 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we fit Poisson and sequential logit regression models to discern the effects of the above mechanisms on cumulative fertility and annual probabilities of birth. Characteristics of migrants from four types of migration stream are examined and compared with those of non-migrants at origin and destination. We find substantial support for the selection hypothesis among both rural-urban and urban-rural migrants. Disruption is evident only in the fertility timing of second and higher-order births in Ghana. Our finding that migrants bear children at about the same rates as the natives at destination implies that the growth rate of cities will slow down quickly and that the rural population will continue to have high fertility. Thus to achieve a reduction in the national fertility level, family planning activities need to be directed towards rural areas. PMID:16754251

Chattopadhyay, Arpita; White, Michael J; Debpuur, Cornelius

2006-07-01

398

Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

2013-01-01

399

Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana  

PubMed Central

One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-01-01

400

The Lakes of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Radar flyby of Saturn's moon Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16) provides compelling evidence for the presence of liquid lakes on the surface of Titan. The radar images polewards of 70°N show over 75 circular to irregular radar dark patches from 3 km to over 170 km across, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. Some patches are uniformly dark in appearance, with no measureable echo, while others vary in brightness. We interpret these as lakes based on their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels, location in topographic depressions and multiple shorelines. Lakes appear in a number of apparent states, including fully drained, partially dry and liquid-filled. These northern hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface `liquid methane' table.

Lunine, J.; Stofan, E.; Elachi, C.; Lorenz, R.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K. L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Franceschetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensely, S.; Johnson, W. T.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.; Orosei, R.

2006-12-01

401

A Killer Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students are presented with data on a particular lake that they must synthesize in order to determine the cause of an event that occurred in 1986 in Cameroon, Africa. The case centers on Cameroon's Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake which released a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1700 people, livestock, and wildlife in the area. The case can be used in a limnology or an aquatic biology course and was intended to introduce and reinforce the concepts of thermal stratification and use students' curiosity about this event to get them to think about how layers of water develop. The case could also be extended to cover or review other concepts such as lake formation (in this case, volcanism as a lake-forming process) or gas solution (in this case, carbon dioxide solution). The case could also be used throughout a limnology course because it deals with many aspects of the subject: lake origins, thermal stratification, gases, water movements, and applied limnology (remediation of problems). Instructors can introduce the case early in a course and refer back to it when each new topic comes up. The case also allows students to synthesize different types of limnological data to solve a serious problem.

Horvath, Thomas

402

Exotic species in large lakes of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the large lakes of the world have been exposed to the introduction of exotic species. We have reviewed here the introduction of aquatic species in 18 large lakes on five continents (Laurentian Great Lakes, African Great Lakes, several Canadian lakes, Lake Titicaca, Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Gatun Lake, and Lake Biwa). We found that human activities, social preferences,

S. R Hall; E. L Mills

2000-01-01

403

Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

1995-01-01

404

Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative  

E-print Network

, phytoplankton densities were much lower and the distribution remained patchy (b) .......... 24 Fig. 5.1.5.3.4. Characterizations of the physicochemical environment for a one-year period that spanned the formation and termination of a P. parvum bloom... history, the physicochemical environment, and lake dimensions were more accurately depicted. 4.2 Accomplishments: We accomplished these objectives by: Interactions between P. parvum and plankton as it relates to bloom initiation, persistence...

Harris, B.L.; Roelke, Daniel; Grover, James; Brooks, Bryan

405

Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large, fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

2006-01-01

406

Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: a national level investigation of members' perceptions of service provision  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established into law in 2003 and implemented in 2005 as a ‘pro-poor’ method of health financing, has made great progress in enrolling members of the general population. While many studies have focused on predictors of enrolment this study offers a novel analysis of NHIS members’ perceptions of service provision at the national level. Methods Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey we analyzed the perceptions of service provision as indicated by members enrolled in the NHIS at the time of the survey (n?=?3468; m?=?1422; f?=?2046). Ordinal Logistic Regression was applied to examine the relationship between perceptions of service provision and theoretically relevant socioeconomic and demographic variables. Results Results demonstrate that wealth, gender and ethnicity all play a role in influencing members’ perceptions of NHIS service provision, distinctive from its influence on enrolment. Notably, although wealth predicted enrolment in other studies, our study found that compared to the poorest men and uneducated women, wealthy men and educated women were less likely to perceive their service provision as better/same (more likely to report it was worse). Wealth was not an important factor for women, suggesting that household gender dynamics supersede household wealth status in influencing perceptions. As well, when compared to Akan women, women from all other ethnic groups were about half as likely to perceive the service provision to be better/same. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest there is an important difference between originally enrolling in the NHIS because one believes it is potentially beneficial, and using the NHIS and perceiving it to be of benefit. We conclude that understanding the nature of this relationship is essential for Ghana’s NHIS to ensure its longevity and meet its pro-poor mandate. As national health insurance systems are a relatively new phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa little is known about their long term viability; understanding user perceptions of service provision is an important piece of that puzzle. PMID:23968385

2013-01-01

407

Cancer incidence in Ghana, 2012: evidence from a population-based cancer registry  

PubMed Central

Background Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. Methods This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 7.1.2.0. Results The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. Conclusion This first attempt at population-based cancer registration in Ghana indicates that such registries are feasible in resource limited settings as ours. Strengthening Public Health Surveillance and establishing more Population-based Cancer Registries will help improve data quality and national efforts at cancer prevention and control in Ghana. PMID:24884730

2014-01-01

408

Lake Investigation: Determining Lake Type and Health Using the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an on-line research activity in which students research different Minnesota lakes and determine their physical characteristics, chemical characteristics, and the overall health of the lake.

Webster, Seth

409

Lake Sarez, Tajikistan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

410

Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry,\\u000a catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production\\u000a (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass\\u000a (Chl), dissolved organic

Peter A. Staehr; Lars Baastrup-Spohr; Kaj Sand-Jensen; Colin Stedmon

411

New Bathymetry for Lake Erie and Lake Sinclair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online previews of posters and data of the lake floor topography of Lakes Erie and Sinclair are available from the National Geophysical Data Center. Here users can view full-color .jpeg images of the bathymetry, meter-scale lake floor topography, and partial samples of gridded and vector data.

412

Contaminant trends in lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) from the Upper Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminant body burdens in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Upper Great Lakes have been monitored since 1970 on Lake Michigan and since 1977 and 1978 on Lakes Superior and Huron by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Great Lakes National Program Office and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Analysis of the Lake Michigan data

David S. DeVault; Wayne A. Willford; Robert J. Hesselberg; David A. Nortrupt; Eric G. S. Rundberg; Alwan K. Alwan; Cecilia Bautista

1986-01-01

413

COLORADO SEMIDRAINAGE MOUNTAIN LAKES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinctive semidrainage lake type is common at midmountain elevations in Colorado. Such lakes arc similar in their small size, shallow depth, lack cf an outlet, high nitrate content, high organic content, and high water color. \\

Robert W. Pennak

1968-01-01

414

Lake Nyos Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the Lake Nyos gas disaster, which killed an estimated 1700 people in August 1986, presented a paper on the potential for disastrous failure of the Lake Nyos dam to the AGU Fall Meeting. Part of what they said was subsequently reported in New Scientist (December 10, 1987, p. 18). They have placed on record their view that the dam is only 400 years old and are reported to have stated that it is eroding away at the alarming rate of 1.5 m/yr. If their figures are correct, then surely the dam will fail within a decade or two at the most, and there is indeed cause for alarm and immediate action. However, teams from Cameroon, France, Italy, Japan , Switzerland, Britain, Nigeria, and Germany also visited Lake Nyos in the immediate aftermath of the gas disaster, and none of their reports have suggested that the dam is in itself an imminent threat.

Freeth, S. J.

415

Crater Lake Data Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to an extensive collection of resources on Oregon's Crater Lake, featuring sections on digital data, science, and general interest. The digital data section features links to a variety of imagery and datasets such as bathymetry, Digital Raster Graphics (DRG), Digital Line Graphs (DLG), Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of topography and other cartographic information; Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), orthoscopically corrected aerial photos in which ground features are displayed in their true positions; and a link to ArcView coverages of federal lands and counties in Oregon. The science section contains information on the formation and geologic history of the lake, lake ecology, physiographic information (lake depth, diameter, surface area, etc.), satellite imagery, and a glossary of volcano terminology and landform features pertinent to the lake. The general interest section contains an image gallery, information on cultural history, links to information on plants and wildlife, a location map and directions, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to external sites with additional information.

416

Estimating unmet need for contraception by district within Ghana: an application of small-area estimation techniques.  

PubMed

The importance of meeting the unmet need for contraception is nowhere more urgent than in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the fertility decline is stalling and total unmet need exceeds 30 per cent among married women. In Ghana, where fertility levels vary considerably, demographic information at sub-national level is essential for building effective family planning programmes. We used small-area estimation techniques, linking data from the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census, to derive district-level estimates of contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. The results show considerable variation between districts in contraceptive use and unmet need. The prevalence of contraceptive use varies from 4.1 to 41.7 per cent, while that of the use of modern methods varies from 4.0 to 34.8 per cent. The findings identify districts where family planning programmes need to be strengthened. PMID:22553978

Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Padmadas, Sabu S; Chandra, Hukum; Matthews, Zoe; Madise, Nyovani J

2012-07-01

417

Comparison of Bosumtwi Impact Crater (Ghana) and Crater Lake Volcanic Caldera (Oregon, USA): Implications for Biotic Recovery after Catastrophic Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact craters and volcanic collapse calderas involve catastrophic processes that cause destruction of plant and animal communities\\u000a in the surrounding areas, leading to new habitats that are initially barren. These events are followed by variable periods\\u000a of recovery of the biota. Impact craters and calderas are rather similar in form, structure and internal geometry. Furthermore,\\u000a they are commonly sites of

Michael R. Rampino; Christian Koeberl

418

Regional Lake quality patterns: Their relationship to lake conservation and management decisions  

SciTech Connect

Understanding regional lake quality patterns is important to lake restoration. It puts specific lake conditions into perspective, provides a basis for establishing lake quality goals, identifies lakes most likely to benefit from restoration and forms a framework for assessing restoration success. Two techniques used to characterize regional lake quality patterns are discussed. Combining the two approaches provides an effective means to describe lake regions management goals and restoration success. Case examples illustrate the significant of regional lake quality to specific lake restoration projects.

Peterson, S.A.; Hughes, R.M.; Larsen, D.P.; Paulsen, S.G.; Omernik, J.M.

1996-05-01

419

Living with the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The topics discussed include, grain size, langmuir circulation, longshore current, beach drift, river plumes, lake stratification, and waves. Lesson plans can be found on the following subjects: lake levels, sediments, stream flow, and water quality. Also included is a virtual flight along the Eastern Lake Michigan Shoreline which includes topo maps, 3D maps, and photos. A directory of related links is also available.

Videtich, Patricia

420

ADIRONDACK EXPERIMENTAL LAKE LIMING PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental lake liming program in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State—the largest and most comprehensive in the United States—will initially entail neutralizing two acidified Adirondack lakes now devoid of fish. One lake will be limed with CaCO3and maintained in a circumneutral condition. Brook trout will be stocked in the lake, and their survival and growth monitored. The second

Douglas L. Britt; James E. Fraser

1984-01-01

421

Chemical characteristics of Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records are presented of Na+, K+, Ca++, SiO2, pH, alkalinity, O2, and specific conductance at 106 stations in Lake Ontario. These data are compared for east-west and surface-subsurface variations. Water quality in Lake Ontario is similar to that in Lake Erie with the exception of dissolved oxygen. The open waters of Lake Ontario had no areas of serious oxygen depletions.

Allen, Herbert E.

1969-01-01

422

Exploring Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

While subglacial lakes have been suspected, and speculated about, for more than 50 years, recent analyses of historical and new data have shown that liquid water environments are common beneath the vast Antarctic Ice Sheet. Airborne radar surveys have now documented more than 145 subglacial lakes, the largest being Lake Vostok located 4 km beneath the vast East Antarctic Ice

J. C. Priscu; M. C. Kennicutt III; R. E. Bell; S. A. Bulat; J. C. Ellis-Evans; V. V. Lukin; J.-R. Petit; R. D. Powell; M. J. Siegert; I. Tabacco

2005-01-01

423

Living With the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The links provide materials on basic earth science concepts, a set of lesson plans on the lakes, and other Great Lakes topics. Concepts covered include Langmuir circulation, longshore current and beach drift, sediments, stream flow, seasonal stratification and water quality.

424

ADVANCING GREAT LAKES HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

ADVANCING GREAT LAKES HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE THROUGH TARGETED BINATIONAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH by Andrew d. Gronewold And Vincent Fortin ImprovIng HydrologIcal modelIng predIctIons In tHe great lakes wh for advancing the state of the art in Great Lakes regional climate, hydrological, and hydrodynamic modeling when

425

GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY  

E-print Network

#12;#12;GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FY 1985 December 1985 Eugene J and Atmospheric Research Environmental Research Laboratories Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 2300 .........................Contracts and Grants 48 Front Cover: Water levels on the Great Lakes have been in a high regimefor the past

426

AirMISR Rogers Lake  

AirMISR ROGERS LAKE 2001 Project Title:  AirMISR Discipline:  ... ER-2 Spatial Coverage:  Rogers Lake, California (34.75, 35.33)(-118.06, -117.51) Spatial ... Data Readme Files:  Readme Rogers Lake Read Software Files :  IDL Code ...

2014-04-25

427

The hydrology of Lake Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented to show that Lake Victoria is triply stratified the whole year round. The conclusions of FISH (1957) that a uninodal internal seiche operates in the lake is shown to be invalid, and the oscillations of isotherms at E.A.F.R.O. Open Lake Station observed over some years are explained by the day to day wind changes.

B. S. Newell

1960-01-01

428

Demography of lake trout in relation to population suppression in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park.  

E-print Network

??Introduced lake trout Salvelinus namaycush threaten to extirpate native Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park. Suppression of the lake… (more)

Syslo, John Michael.

2010-01-01

429

Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annual lake-volume model and a statistical water mass-balance model were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. Comparison of the models indicates upper exceedance levels of the water mass-balance model increase much more rapidly than those of the annual lake-volume model. For simulation year 5, the 99-percent exceedance is 1,417.6 feet above sea level for the annual lake-volume model and 1,423.2 feet above sea level for the water mass-balance model.

Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

1996-01-01

430

Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

1987-01-01

431

MERCURY CYCLING IN LAKE GORDON AND LAKE PEDDER, TASMANIA (AUSTRALIA). I: IN-LAKE PROCESSES  

E-print Network

MERCURY CYCLING IN LAKE GORDON AND LAKE PEDDER, TASMANIA (AUSTRALIA). I: IN-LAKE PROCESSES KARL C Fisheries Commission, Hobart, Tasmania (currently at Hydro Tasmania, Elizabeth St., Hobart, Tasmania) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a freshwater system comprising two connected reservoirs in southwest Tasmania were in

Canberra, University of

432

Institutional aspects of lake management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major barriers to successful lake management are institutional. However, in contrast to the technical and limnological dimensions of lake management, the institutional aspects of managing lakes have received little attention. The institutional factors that are important for successful lake management outcomes are: overlapping areal jurisdiction among governmental units, fragmented functional program responsibilities, ineffective coordination, limited authority, financial constraints, private sector roles, and inadequate public awareness and consensus. The range of typical institutional problems confronting lake management are well illustrated through experiences from the state of Wisconsin, USA. Because lake management programs with institutional shortcomings rarely realize their goals, it is critical to assimilate, evaluate, and apply our experience to date with the institutional arrangements necessary to effectively manage lake resources.

Born, Stephen M.; Rumery, Carolyn

1989-01-01

433

Great Minds? Great Lakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

434

The People's Lake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizen action to stop the disposal of taconite tailings into Lake Superior was unsuccessful when the courts settled in the favor of industry. Although citizen research revealed a form of asbestos, as well as other toxic chemicals in the discharged wastes, company representatives stated that there were no health hazards. (MA)

Carlson, Karen Townsend

1975-01-01

435

Hydrodynamics of Lake Lugano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrodynamic processes in the Lake of Lugano (Lago di Lugano) have been the object of three major measuring campaigns. The first during summer 1979 in the North Basin, the second in the autumn of 1984 in the South Basin and the last in 1989 again in the North Basin. It is expected that analysis of the collected data in

G. Salvadè; K. Stocker; J. Trösch; F. Zamboni

1992-01-01

436

CONTOURITES IN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Contour currents influence sedimentation in an area 15 km wide and 65 km long at the base of the slope off the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan. Seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) from this area show distinct wavy reflectors in a scoured trough at a d...

437

Lake classification in Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.

Garrison, V.; Bryant, N.

1981-01-01

438

Pictures of Mono Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site briefly introduces the history and ecology of Mono Lake. It is comprised of 27 professional photographs, each offering a visual insight into the community's unusual landscape. All images are accompanied with a brief description. Downloads and wallpaper are available with a paid membership.

Luong, Quang-Tuan; Terra Galleria Photography, QTL@terragalleria.com

439

The lakes of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for

E. R. Stofan; C. Elachi; J. I. Lunine; R. D. Lorenz; B. Stiles; K. L. Mitchell; S. Ostro; L. Soderblom; C. Wood; H. Zebker; S. Wall; M. Janssen; R. Kirk; R. Lopes; F. Paganelli; J. Radebaugh; L. Wye; Y. Anderson; M. Allison; R. Boehmer; P. Callahan; P. Encrenaz; E. Flamini; G. Francescetti; Y. Gim; S. Hensley; W. T. K. Johnson; K. Kelleher; D. Muhleman; P. Paillou; G. Picardi; F. Posa; L. Roth; R. Seu; S. Shaffer; S. Vetrella

2007-01-01

440

Mono Lake Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document details the history, geography, biology, and educational value of Mono Lake, California. The author describes the effects of the saline and alkaline environment on its inhabitants and reveals that the area also supports a large number of migratory birds. The document concludes with educational and recreational activities of the area.

Resources, Department O.; California, State O.

441

LAKE TAHOE VISIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Visibility monitoring and airborne particulate sampling in the Lake Tahoe Basin were used to document visual air quality levels and to assess the relative impacts of major contributing emission source categories. Visibility data were obtained by long path contrast and particle sc...

442

The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa-the case of Ghana  

PubMed Central

West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

2011-01-01

443

Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

444

Psychometric Properties of the Participation Scale among Former Buruli Ulcer Patients in Ghana and Benin  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer is a stigmatising disease treated with antibiotics and wound care, and sometimes surgical intervention is necessary. Permanent limitations in daily activities are a common long term consequence. It is unknown to what extent patients perceive problems in participation in social activities. The psychometric properties of the Participation Scale used in other disabling diseases, such as leprosy, was assessed for use in former Buruli ulcer patients. Methods Former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin, their relatives, and healthy community controls were interviewed using the Participation Scale, Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure stigma. The Participation Scale was tested for the following psychometric properties: discrimination, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, inter-item correlation, item-total correlation and construct validity. Results In total 386 participants (143 former Buruli ulcer patients with their relatives (137) and 106 community controls) were included in the study. The Participation Scale displayed good discrimination between former Buruli ulcer patients and healthy community controls. No floor and ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.88. In Ghana, mean inter-item correlation of 0.29 and item-total correlations ranging from 0.10 to 0.69 were found while in Benin, a mean inter-item correlation of 0.28 was reported with item-total correlations ranging from ?0.08 to 0.79. With respect to construct validity, 4 out of 6 hypotheses were not rejected, though correlations between various constructs differed between countries. Conclusion The results indicate the Participation Scale has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used for Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. Future studies can use this Participation Scale to evaluate the long term restrictions in participation in daily social activities of former BU patients. PMID:25393289

de Zeeuw, Janine; Douwstra, Marlies; Omansen, Till F.; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Johnson, Christian; Phillips, Richard O.; Alferink, Marike; Saunderson, Paul; Van der Werf, Tjip S.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Stienstra, Ymkje

2014-01-01

445

A Comparative Qualitative Study of Misconceptions Associated with Contraceptive Use in Southern and Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs) with married community members were carried out. Community health officers, community health volunteers, and health care managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. FGDs and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

Adongo, Philip B.; Tabong, Philip T.-N.; Azongo, Thomas B.; Phillips, James F.; Sheff, Mallory C.; Stone, Allison E.; Tapsoba, Placide

2014-01-01

446

Infant nutrition in the first seven days of life in rural northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Good nutrition is essential for increasing survival rates of infants. This study explored infant feeding practices in a resource-poor setting and assessed implications for future interventions focused on improving newborn health. Methods The study took place in the Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of northern Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women with newborn infants, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, and 16 community leaders. An additional 18 focus group discussions were conducted with household heads, compound heads and grandmothers. All interviews and discussions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results Community members are knowledgeable about the importance of breastfeeding, and most women with newborn infants do attempt to breastfeed. However, data suggest that traditional practices related to breastfeeding and infant nutrition continue, despite knowledge of clinical guidelines. Such traditional practices include feeding newborn infants water, gripe water, local herbs, or traditionally meaningful foods such as water mixed with the flour of guinea corn (yara’na). In this region in Ghana, there are significant cultural traditions associated with breastfeeding. For example, colostrum from first-time mothers is often tested for bitterness by putting ants in it – a process that leads to a delay in initiating breastfeeding. Our data also indicate that grandmothers – typically the mother-in-laws – wield enormous power in these communities, and their desires significantly influence breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and maintenance. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding is still common in rural Ghana despite demonstrating high knowledge of appropriate feeding practices. Future interventions that focus on grandmothers and religious leaders are likely to prove valuable in changing community attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to infant nutrition. PMID:22857600

2012-01-01

447

A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.  

PubMed

Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; ?(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. PMID:24316503

Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

2014-03-01

448

Evaluation of AFP surveillance indicators in polio-free Ghana, 2009-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care. PMID:24996415

2014-01-01

449

Women, religion, and maternal health care in Ghana, 1945-2000.  

PubMed

This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862

Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann

2014-01-01

450

Full genome sequence of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from Ghana.  

PubMed

The full genome of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from a sheep lung sample collected in Ghana, Western Africa, in 2010, has been sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus clustered within the lineage II clade while comparison of its full genome with those of other PPRV strains revealed the highest identity (96.6 %) at a nucleotide level with the PPRV strain Nigeria/76/1. This is the first full genome sequence generated for a PPRV lineage II isolated since 1976. PMID:25150987

Dundon, W G; Adombi, C; Waqas, A; Otsyina, H R; Arthur, C T; Silber, R; Loitsch, A; Diallo, A

2014-12-01

451

Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghana’s three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients’ age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing. PMID:25056139

2014-01-01

452

Application of geographical information system (GIS) technology in the control of Buruli ulcer in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention. Methods We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases. Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots. Results Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed. Conclusions There is clustering of BU in areas where the river was most contaminated. The identified hot spots for BU should be targeted for interventions by policy makers to ensure effective control of BU in Ghana. PMID:25027028

2014-01-01

453

33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a)...

2010-07-01

454

33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. 110.127 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona....

2011-07-01

455

33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a)...

2013-07-01

456

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics...Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each...

2010-01-01

457

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics...Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each...

2013-01-01

458

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics...Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each...

2011-01-01

459

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics...Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each...

2012-01-01

460

33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a)...

2012-07-01

461

33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a)...

2014-07-01

462

14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.  

... 2014-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics...Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each...

2014-01-01

463

33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. 110.127 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona....

2013-07-01

464

33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a)...

2010-07-01

465

33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a)...

2013-07-01

466

33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. 110.127 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona....

2012-07-01

467

33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a)...

2010-07-01

468

33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a)...

2013-07-01

469

33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a)...

2014-07-01

470

33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a)...

2014-07-01

471

33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a)...

2011-07-01

472

33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. 110.127 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona....

2010-07-01

473

33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a)...

2012-07-01

474

33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a)...

2011-07-01

475

Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.  

PubMed

Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

2013-03-01

476

Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes  

PubMed Central

Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

2013-01-01

477

Comparative environmental analyses of paddy fields in two lake catchment areas: Lake Taihu, China and Lake Biwa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication in Taihu Lake has become a serious environmental problem. In this paper, environmental conditions in paddy fields in Taihu Lake's catchment area were compared with those in Lake Biwa's catchment area, which revealed issues on social development at different stages and raised questions over restoration of Taihu Lake from an environmental sociology perspective. Keywords-lake; eutrophication; paddy field; non-point source;

Yang Ping; Zhu Wei; Tan Xiao

2011-01-01

478

Food Web Response to Invasive Species and Hypoxia in Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay Lake Huron, and Southeast Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

to nutrient loading and invasive species in Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay Lake Huron, and southeastern Lake MichiganFood Web Response to Invasive Species and Hypoxia in Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay Lake Huron or invasive species scenarios, and their consequences for harvest of native (Walleye, Yellow Perch) or non

479

Natural Reproduction by Stocked Lake Trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) and Hybrid (Backcross) Lake Trout in South Bay, Lake Huron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977, a study was begun in South Bay, Lake Huron, to assess the fitness of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake trout backcrossed to splake (S. namaycush X S. fontinalis) for rehabilitating the lake. Mature lake trout were fivefold more abundant than mature backcross from paired stockings. Wild progeny consisting of 321 fry and 67 age-0 to age-2 juveniles

David M. Anderson; John J. Collins

1995-01-01

480

Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10(-6) and 1.84 × 10(-7), respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments. PMID:24278631

Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

2013-03-01

481

Clear Lake Annotated Bibliography October 2, 2009  

E-print Network

Curiosity-Borax Lake Abstract: need abstract Notes: clear lake; pollution; html ONLINE -borax lake -sulphur1 Clear Lake Annotated Bibliography October 2, 2009 By Kristina L. Weber, Lisa C. Thompson. The main focus was on fish, particularly Clear Lake hitch, but there are also references on culture

Thompson, Lisa C.