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Sample records for volta lake ghana

  1. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Importance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum to transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 5 years of sampling for Bulinus rohlfsi in human-water contact sites of villages along the Volta Lake, Ghana, have confirmed that the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum, is the most important ecological factor for sustaining high levels of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium. Data available so far indicate that growth of this weed largely determines the size of the snail populations. Increasing density of Ceratophyllum correlates with increasing levels of cercarial transmission potential in the water contact sites and of S. haematobium infection in the village populations. PMID:6975187

  3. Stories from Lake Volta: the lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa

    2015-02-01

    Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268

  4. Techniques for estimating densities of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and its horizontal distribution in Volta Lake, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.; Vanderburg, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi is the intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis, which is highly endemic in the man-made Volta Lake. In 1971, a WHO/UNDP schistosomiasis project was established in the Pawmpawm branch and part of the Afram branch of Volta Lake. Malacological findings of the preliminary phase indicated that the snails were distributed in the littoral zone of the lake, and that this distribution was correlated with the presence of vegetation, especially Ceratophyllum. Transmission nearly always occurred in “water contact sites”, i.e., places where people come into contact with water. A snail-sampling technique with palm-leaf mats was developed and standardized after it had been shown in sensitivity trials to compare favourably with a modified version of the “man—time” sampling method, in which the number of snails collected per man-hour is recorded. It is recommended that both these methods should be used to conduct ecological studies of B. rohlfsi in water contact sites. PMID:1088354

  5. Epidemiology of human Schistosoma haematobium infection around Volta Lake, Ghana, 1973-75

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D.; Senker, K.; England, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    There was a dramatic rise in the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis around Volta Lake within a year of its full impoundment in 1968. Research was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in preparation for a control programme. The interplay of three factors—age, sex, and ethnic affiliation—largely defined the demographic patterns of the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Both of these increased in young children up to a peak at age 10-14 years, and then declined, the intensity of infection more rapidly than the prevalence. The prevalence and intensity of infection were both greater in males than females (above ages 15-24 years and 5-9 years, respectively), and differences between the two main ethnic groups were related to differences in their lake-related activities. Differences between the patterns of prevalence and intensity of infection are attributed to the greater sensitivity of the latter measurement in indicating changes in the level of transmission. Practical difficulties were encountered in obtaining a precise measurement of incidence, the most important being the considerable degree of population movement. A field cohort study showed a seasonality of transmission, greatest between January and April, during the period of high level of the lake and in the early part of the draw-down. Research on the intermediate snail host (Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi) and lakeside ecology established the focality of transmission at human water-contact sites serving the shore-line communities and, in conjunction with parasitological surveys, its seasonality: variations in ecology that accompanied the annual rise and fall of the lake led to high levels of transmission when the water level was high and lower levels during the draw-down. The geographical distribution of the infection was also affected by differences in ecology, specifically by variations in the distribution and abundance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum demersum. A non-seasonal decline in transmission observed in one locality during the period from 1973 to 1975 resulted from a local decrease in the amount of Ceratophyllum. PMID:6979420

  6. Preliminary schistosomiasis survey in the lower Volta River below Akosombo Dam, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wen, S T; Chu, K Y

    1984-04-01

    Snail surveys were carried out in Kpong Lake, in southern Ghana, and along the lower Volta River below the lake. Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were abundant in the Kpong Lake and B. truncatus and Biom . pfeifferi, especially the latter, were widespread below the lake. Urine surveys among primary school children at eight localities along the lower Volta showed Schistosoma haematobium prevalence rates of 38.8-96.2%. At Bator and Mepe , where records for an earlier survey were available for comparison, the present survey showed more than a doubling in prevalence rate in ten years: at Bator , from 27.1% in 1971-72 to 74.6% in 1981; at Mepe the corresponding figures were 36.4 and 88.0%. In Ghana infection with S. mansoni is less common than with S. haematobium and the known foci of S. mansoni transmission are few and widely scattered. In the present survey the disease is first reported along the lower Volta at Bator , Mepe , Adidome and Tefle , with prevalence rates ranging from 6.7% at Bator to 52.4% at Tefle . This survey has added an important focus of S. mansoni infection to those already known. PMID:6742926

  7. 154. Credit JE. Sections of Lake Nora penstock at Volta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Credit JE. Sections of Lake Nora penstock at Volta ready to go into the trench. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 237). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  8. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy

  9. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

  10. Ecological studies of Bulinus rohlfsi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1977-01-01

    In the present ecological study of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana, habitat observations and sampling of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi were conducted within a 60-km stretch of shoreline. Observations revealed that human water contact sites in each village undergo constant changes in shape and vegetation. Snail sampling surveys in water contact sites were carried out monthly (for 27 months) in 8 villages using newly designed palm-leaf traps, and in 8 additional villages (for 16 months) using a modification of Olivier & Sneidermann's man—time method. Results to date confirm the finding by Chu & Vanderburg that cercarial transmission in the lake takes place almost exclusively within water contact sites. Additional results indicate that even within individual water contact sites this transmission is focal, most infected snails being found very close to the shoreline. Transmission also varies significantly according to shape, vegetation, and geographical location of the water contact sites, and is distinctly seasonal in most villages. These findings lead us to conclude that control of cercarial transmission in the Volta Lake is both attainable and feasible with existing methods. PMID:304396

  11. Prediction of the distribution of Glossina tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Volta basin of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Kon, A; de la Rocque, S; De Deken, R; Geerts, S

    2005-02-01

    The classification of a Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite image helped demonstrate prevailing habitat types and land use intensity in the Volta basin of the Northern Region of Ghana. A geo-referenced data layer comprising the capture results of a cross-sectional survey of Glossina tachinoides Westwood was over-laid on a data layer of habitat types within 500 m of either bank of the Volta river and its tributaries. An evaluation of the relationship between habitat types and the capture results of G. tachinoides suggested a strong preference of G. tachinoides for woodland, followed by shrubland, grassland and flood plains. The findings were used to classify the suitability of habitat types for G. tachinoides as 'high', 'medium' and 'low' and a prediction map for the distribution of G. tachinoides in the entire river network was produced. The usefulness of this method in estimating the potential distribution of G. tachinoides in an area of increasing agricultural expansion is discussed. PMID:15705216

  12. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Cte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two countries concerning shared water resources can take place.

  13. Mercury accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) at the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2010-11-01

    The concentration of mercury in the tissues of the clam, Galatea paradoxa at in the Volta estuary, Ghana, were analysed over an 18-month period, from March 2008 to August 2009. The concentrations were well below the International Human Consumption Advisory Limit of THg (0.5 ?g/g wet weight). The concentrations in the tissues of the different clam size classes were between 6 and 18 times lower than the WHO Safety Reference Standard. Variation in the mean mercury concentration in the different clam size classes was not significant (p > 0.05) for clams from Aveglo but were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for clams from Ada, indicating a possible effect of size on accumulation. G. paradoxa is therefore suitable for human consumption based on the WHO Safety Reference Standards. PMID:20972534

  14. Wetland river flow interaction in a sedimentary formation of the white Volta basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Diekkruger, B.; Van De Giesen, N.; Barry, B.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater resources in the floodplain wetlands of the White Volta River basin of Ghana is a major source of water for irrigation activities of communities living around and baseflow to sustain the flow of the river. Hydrology of the floodplain wetlands in the basin are complex, characterized by temporally variable storage volumes with erratic contribution to streamflow. For the continual usage of groundwater resources in the floodplains there is a need to study the form of interaction between the main river and floodplain wetlands. The study, adopted the PM-WIN (MODFLOW) model for simulating the interaction between the wetland and stream. Additionally, the lower boundary discharge output from the HYDRUS-1D model is the estimated recharge. This input quantifies the temporal and spatial variations in sub-surfaces discharges in the floodplain wetland. The simulation of the sub-surface hydraulic head of the wetland indicates a systematic variation relative to the White Volta River response to changes in the rainfall pattern. The interaction conditions vary from season to season with March, April, and May showing the least leakage (estimated values of 0.03mm/day, 0.06mm/day, and 0.15 mm/day, respectively) from the river into the floodplain wetland. Notably, the interaction between the wetland and the river as simulated is bidirectional. With most of the flow coming out from the river into the floodplain wetland, this condition persists in the months of August and September.

  15. Groundwater level monitoring and recharge estimation in the White Volta River basin of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuobie, Emmanuel; Diekkrueger, Bernd; Agyekum, William; Agodzo, Sampson

    2012-08-01

    Recharge quantification is an important pre-requisite for effectively managing groundwater resources as recharge estimates are needed to determine sustainable yields of groundwater aquifers for rational and sustainable exploitation of the resource. In this study, the water table fluctuation method has been applied in the White Volta River basin of Ghana (approx. 46,000 km2) to estimate seasonal fluctuations in groundwater levels in the basin and subsequently to estimate recharge to the groundwater for the 2006 and 2007 water years. Results show high seasonal and spatial variability in the water level, with a range of 1240-5000 mm in 2006, and 1600-6800 mm in 2007. Seasonal rainfall was found to be the main source of recharge to the aquifers in the basin as water level rise occurred only in the rainfall season. Recharge to groundwater in the White Volta basin was estimated to vary between 2.5% and 16.5% of the mean annual rainfall, with a mean recharge of 7-8%.

  16. Gametogenic development and spawning of the freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta River Estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Wilson, J G

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778), a major species for artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana. Condition indices and histological observation of the gonads revealed that G. paradoxa has a single spawning event between July and October. Gametogenesis started in December progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning began until November when individuals were spent. Condition and gonadal indices showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stages. PMID:25141603

  17. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has been done assessing the impact of hydropower schemes on aquatic mammals especially in Africa. HIPStrA is the first attempt at developing a computer-based habitat model for a large aquatic megaherbivore. The need for energy for development, the availability of large rivers and a rich biodiversity base in Africa makes a case for careful and ecological smart exploitation. The overarching aim of the study is the sustainable development of hydroelectric power through the use of methodologies and tools to rigorously assess changes in instream conditions that impact aquatic mammals.

  18. Coupled surface water and groundwater modeling over the White Volta Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittinger, S. T.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alfa, B.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable livelihood in the semiarid White Volta Basin in Northern Ghana is dependent on the availability and sustainable development and management of water resources for agricultural activities. Currently, almost all agricultural activities are rain-fed and thus depend on the frequency, spatial, and temporal distribution of rainfall. Recent erratic patterns in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in the basinlargely consistent with the effects of a warming climatehave led to dwindling fortunes in the rain-fed agricultural enterprise. On the other hand, surface water bodies in the forms of rivers and streams are ephemeral and therefore do not serve the immediate irrigation needs of the populations especially in the dry seasons. The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources to support local irrigation schemes in the basin has been suggested as a possible buffer against the effects of dwindling rainfall on agriculture in the basin and has the potential of raising the standard of living of the communities dwelling there. Conjunctive surface water/groundwater use involves the balanced application of both groundwater and surface water resources for maximal socio-economic benefit whilst ensuring ecological integrity. However, a detailed assessment of the potentials of the aquifers for commercial development has been constrained by the limited or no understanding of the surface water-groundwater interactions in the basin within the context of climate change/evolving patterns of climate variability and human activities. Here, we present preliminary results from simulations of coupled surface water and groundwater availability and flow over the Volta Basin using an integrated hydrological model.

  19. Factors associated with induced abortion at selected hospitals in the Volta Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Klutsey, Ellen Eyi; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion rates remained persistently high in the Volta Region of Ghana in the 5 years from 2006 to 2011. Some hospitals, both rural and urban, report induced abortion-related complications as one of the top ten conditions in hospital admissions. This study explored demographic and other factors associated with induced abortion, and also assessed awareness of abortion-related complications among women of reproductive age in the Volta Region. Methods A quantitative, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study was performed. The Volta Region was stratified into two health administration zones, ie, north and south. For each zone, hospitals were stratified into government and private hospitals. Employing simple random sampling, one private and three government hospitals were selected from each zone. This study is therefore based on eight hospitals, ie, six government hospitals and two private hospitals. Results Marital status, employment status, number of total pregnancies, and knowledge about contraception were found to be associated with induced abortion. Multiple logistic regression showed a 4% reduction in the odds of induced abortion in married women compared with women who were single (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.070.22). Unemployed women of reproductive age were found to be 0.35 times less likely to seek induced abortion compared with their employed counterparts (OR 0.35, CI 0.190.65). It was also observed that women with their second pregnancies were 3.8 times more likely to seek induced abortion and women with more than two pregnancies were 6.6 times more likely to do so (OR 3.81, CI 1.947.49 and OR 6.58, CI 2.5816.79, respectively). Women with no knowledge of contraceptive methods were 4.6 times likely to seek induced abortion (OR 4.64, CI 1.3915.4). Compared with women who had not had induced abortion, women with a high number of pregnancies and no contraceptive knowledge were more likely to have induced abortion. Conclusion It was found that lack of knowledge about contraceptives and being single or employed were associated with increased likelihood of induced abortion. It was also found that women with a higher number of pregnancies have a greater odds of induced abortion. No association was found between induced abortion and maternal age, education, contraceptive use, or religion. PMID:25187740

  20. [An attempt to explain fertility differentials in Upper Volta and in Ghana].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, S P; Pool, I

    1975-01-01

    This study examines fertility differentials in Western Africa, notably in Upper Volta and in Ghana. The relationship between social and cultural transformation and fertility rate is usually seen as a matter of cause and effect. Direct variables caused by social transformation would be education, migration, and urbanization. This is not necessarily so, at least according to the Davis-Blake paradigm, which says that there are intermediate variables which intervene between fertility rate and the social system. For West Africa such variables are of 3 distinct types: 1) those which upset the normal flow of the family, such as separation due to migration, divorce, and marriage age; 2) those which influence conception itself, such as birth control, lactation and sexual abstinence; and, 3) cultural factors, such as poligamy and monogamy, type of conjugal union, and postpartum sexual abstinence. The central point of this study is that direct variables, i.e. migration, education and urbanization, do not directly influence fertility, but they influence the so-called intermediate variables, which, in turn, cause a change in fertility patterns. It must be remembered that birth control is still practically unknown in Western Africa. PMID:12262426

  1. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  2. An evaluation of the genesis and suitability of groundwater for irrigation in the Volta Region, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Nti, Emmanuel

    2009-05-01

    Stable isotope data and concentrations of the major cations and anions of groundwater from the northern part of the Volta Region, Ghana, were used to determine the source of recharge and the suitability of groundwater in the area for irrigation. This study finds that the delta deuterium (?D) and delta Oxygen-18 (?18O) data from the area fall along the global meteoric water line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ?D and ?18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity-low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity-low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity-low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1,956 ?S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ?S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage.

  3. Trials of ecological and chemical measures for the control of Schistosoma haematobium transmission in a Volta Lake village

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is highly prevalent along the shores of the Volta Lake in Ghana, where transmission occurs focally in manwater contact sites. The intermediate host, Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi, prefers to harbour in Ceratophyllum, a common aquatic weed in the lake. Removal of this weed reduced the density of both infected and uninfected snails, but not sufficiently to interrupt transmission. Niclosamide was applied at 1, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/l in combination with weed removal at five water contact sites in December, January, and February, respectively. Plastic sheets were used to isolate treated sites from the main body of the lake. Snail surveys were carried out at short intervals to assess the effectiveness of these intervention measures. Niclosamide at 0.5 mg/l applied after weed removal was effective in killing the snails. The overall results indicate that snail control along the entire lake shore is impossible but that focal control of cercarial transmission at water contact sites is attainable and shows promise. PMID:307458

  4. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods - The Volta region, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1956 ??S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ??S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage. ?? 2009 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH.

  5. Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kweku, Margaret; Webster, Jayne; Taylor, Ian; Burns, Susan; Dedzo, McDamien

    2007-01-01

    Background Coverage of vulnerable groups with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Ghana, as in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa is currently low. A voucher scheme was introduced in Volta Region as a possible sustainable delivery system for increasing this coverage through scale-up to other regions. Successful scale-up of public health interventions depends upon optimal delivery processes but operational research for delivery processes in large-scale implementation has been inadequate. Methods A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC). Results During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions. Conclusion Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making so that the delivery model with the best probability of success within a given context is implemented. Rigorous monitoring has an important role to play in the successful scaling-up of delivery of effective public health interventions. PMID:17274810

  6. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2)=0.6067) and total length (R(2)=0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

  7. Geophysical evidence for a major palaeochannel within the Obosum Group of the Volta Basin, Northern Region, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessell, Mark; Boamah, Kwame; Duodu, John Agyei; Ley-Cooper, Yusen

    2015-12-01

    We have identified a 230 km long palaeochannel cutting through the sediments of the Obosum Group within the Volta Basin, Ghana. The channel is visible in regional airborne magnetic data as a pair of parallel magnetic anomalies which we interpret to be lateral terrace placer deposits of magnetite or maghemite and show both meandering and braided geometries. The palaeochannel is also visible in the airborne radiometric data for part of its length, as well as in airborne electromagnetic data, where it is marked by a zone of low conductivity. The meanders have a wavelength of around 20 km and together with the 2 km spacing between magnetic anomalies, suggest a major palaeo-river system, of as yet unknown age, although based on published detrital zircon ages for the host sediments and geomorphological arguments it is probably between 509 68 and 45 Ma, and is comparable in size to the modern-day Niger River. Given the known occurrences of alluvial gold and diamonds in Ghana, and the general prospectivity of meandering and braided rivers systems, we believe the region has exploration potential for a range of economically valuable minerals, and could also potentially host a shallow aquifer.

  8. Relationship between gonad maturation and heavy metal accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867?g/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p=0.0146, r(2)=0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59?g/g and 79 to 484?g/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p=0.0554, r(2)=0.0554) and Fe (p=0.1040, r(2)=0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059?g/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p=0.0861, r(2)=0.1730). PMID:21947544

  9. Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

  10. Length-weight relationship of the freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Amisah, S; Otchere, F A

    2013-02-15

    The length-weight relationship of the threatened freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana was studied over a two-year period, from March 2008 to February 2010, to aid in the development of stock assessment models for the sustainable management of the remaining clam stock. Data reported in this study were collected at monthly intervals and covered varying depths of the Estuary ranging from 0.5 to about 10 m. Overall, a total of 5276 clams with shell lengths ranging from 3.40 to 89.24 mm and total weight from 0.10 to 154.00 g were sampled during the study period. The length-weight relationships were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for all the months and the b-values ranged from 2.023 (January 2010) to 3.874 (June 2009). The calculated b-values indicated that clams exhibited different growth patterns at different periods but overall, the pooled samples of 5276 individuals exhibited an isometric growth pattern (b = 3.003). The observed monthly growth patterns exhibited by G. paradoxa appeared to be largely influenced by the reproductive cycle of the organism. During the periods leading to spawning, the clams generally exhibited positive allometric growth patterns (weight increasing faster than length) which appeared to be strongly linked to the build-up of proteins and carbohydrates in their tissues. Successive negative allometric growth patterns (length increasing faster relative to weight) were, however, observed from March to June 2008 and from December 2009 to February 2010, which are possibly indicative of the loss in tissue weight that occurs as a direct result of the spawning process. It will thus be suitable to institute a close season to coincide with the spawning period of the clams to avoid the harvesting of clams during the spawning period which will enhance future recruitment of the clam stock. PMID:24171267

  11. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.

  12. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment.

    PubMed

    Quarcoopome, Theodore; Amevenku, Francis; Ofori-Danson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. PMID:22208085

  13. A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the White Volta river basin of Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Desquesnes, M; Dia, M L; Losson, B; De Deken, R; Speybroeck, N; Geerts, S

    2005-03-31

    A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the incidence of bovine trypanosomosis. Two groups of sentinel cattle under different systems of management, classified as "fully-sedentary" and "partially-sedentary" (depending on the type of management) were followed over a 1-year period starting from March 2003 onwards. Cattle were screened at intervals of 3 months using the buffy coat technique (BCT). Buffy coat specimen from animals that were positive for the BCT and those that were negative, but with a packed cell volume (PCV) of less than 21% were further tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma from all animals were tested for antibody using the indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Trypanosomosis challenge was determined in tandem with the epidemiological survey with watering sites of sentinel cattle being the foci of interest. The parasitological prevalence at the start of the survey was higher in the fully-sedentary group (9%) than in the partially-sedentary group (3%). In subsequent visits, however, the parasitological incidence was consistently higher in the partially-sedentary group than in the fully-sedentary group. The mean seroprevalence (ELISA) of both groups increased from 3% in March to 54% in December. Statistical analysis of the serological results using a random effect logistic regression, showed a significant difference in incidence of bovine trypanosomosis between the two groups. There was also a significant effect of time. The influence of cattle herding on host-vector-parasite interface and its consequence on the incidence of trypanosomosis are discussed. PMID:15740857

  14. Assessing the groundwater fortunes of aquifers in the White Volta Basin, Ghana: An application of numerical groundwater flow modeling and isotopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteng, F. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Effective development and informed management of groundwater resources represent a critical opportunity for improved rural water supply in Ghana and enhanced livelihoods particularly in the northern part of the White Volta Basin, a region already prone to a myriad of water-related infirmities. If adequately developed, the resource will form a sufficient buffer against the effects of climate change/variability and foster food security and sustainable livelihoods among the largely peasant communities in the region. This research presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological conditions and recharge regimes of the aquifers in the Northern parts of the White Volta Basin, Ghana. Results of estimates of groundwater recharge through the conventional isotopic and mass balance techniques are presented. Details of the groundwater flow pattern and preliminary delineation of local and regional groundwater recharge areas are presented from initial simulations of the hydrogeological system with a robust groundwater flow simulation code, MODFLOW, in the Groundwater Modeling System, GMS, version 7.1. The stream flow and evapotranspiration components of the program were activated to incorporate surface flow processes, so that the resulting model represents the conditions of the entire hydrological system. The results of this study form a platform for detailed numerical assessment of the conditions of the aquifers in the area under transient conditions of fluctuating rainfall patterns in the face of climate change/variability.

  15. Integrated water research in the GLOWA Volta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Berger, T.; Iskandarani, M.; Kunstmann, H.; Park, S.; Vlek, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West African savanna. The river feeds Lake Volta, that provides over 95% of the electricity in Ghana and has the largest surface of any man-made lake in the world. The rural population (per capita income US600/year) increasingly turns to small scale irrigation development to improve the returns on their agricultural activities and reduce dependence on the highly variable rainfall. The irrigation development stands in direct competition with the hydropower generation that drives development in the more urbanized South. The GLOWA Volta Projects seeks to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of water resources in the basin under changing global and regional conditions. The DSS is built upon a scientific analysis of all factors that affect water supply and demand. To understand all aspects of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin one needs to take physical (atmosphere, land, water) as well as social aspects (population, economic development, institutions) into account. The major scientific challenge of the GLOWA Volta Project is the integrated analysis of the bio- physical and socio-economic factors that affect the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin. The presentation introduces the GLOWA Volta Project, focusing on activities that integrate different disciplines. Specifically, we present three sets of activities: (1) the coupling between meteorology and hydrology, (2) development of a Common Sampling Frame for the collection of socio-economic and bio-physical data, and (3) a water use optimization model that incorporates economy, hydrology, and institutional analysis. Finally, we look at recent initiatives in the basin that link science, stakeholders, and policy makers.

  16. CYP1A andother biomarker responses to effluents from a textile mill in the Volta River (Ghana) using caged tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) andsediment-exposed mudfish (Clarias anguillaris).

    PubMed

    Gadagbui, B K; Goksryr, A

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The ecotoxicological effects of a textile mill effluent were investigated by caging tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Volta River, Ghana, andby exposing mudfish (Clarias anguillaris) to sediment collected from the same river. Tilapia were caged for 3 weeks at three locations (0.6, 4, and8 km) downstream from the effluent outlet. Mudfish were exposed in the laboratory for 2 weeks to sediment collected from the vicinity of the effluent outlet and8 km downstream. Upstream reference locations 2 km (tilapia) and10.2 km (mudfish) were included. Liver cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monooxygenase activity (measured as activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD, andCYP1A protein level) andtwo conjugation enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT) andglutathione Stransferase (GST), were analysed. A distance-related decrease in EROD activity andCYP1A protein level was observed. EROD activity was 21-fold higher in tilapia caged at the site nearest the effluent outlet and25-fold higher in mudfish exposed to sediment collected from the vicinity of the outlet, compared with the respective reference values. UDP-GT andGST levels increased significantly by 70 and27%, respectively, in tilapia while the respective levels in mudfish were 73 and28%, compared with reference values. The results clearly indicate that the textile mill effluent contains some highly potent inducers of biotransformation enzymes. This first assessment of the biological effects of organic pollutants in the Volta River demonstrates the utility of the CYP1A system as a valuable early warning biomarker of industrial effluents andalso as a biomarker to detect exposure of aquatic resources to environmental chemical contamination in tropical waters. PMID:23888992

  17. Physical and isotopic characteristics in peri-urban landscapes: a case study at the lower Volta River Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.; Sarfo, M. A.; Salifu, M.; Aidoo, F.; Fuseini, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the application of selected multivariate techniques: display methods (principal component analysis) and unsupervised pattern recognition (cluster analysis) in an attempt to discriminate sources of variation of water quality. PCA has allowed the identification of a reduced number of latent factors with a hydrochemical meaning: natural and anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural activities) factors, which also agrees with the R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Q-mode HCA also corroborates the results of the correlation analysis in relation to sampling sites established on hydrochemical parameters, indicating that there are no spatial and temporal characteristics among the sampling sites in the study area. The suitability of river water for irrigation use was assessed in the study area. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity data on a semilog axis suggests that river water provides good irrigation quality in the area. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, 100 % of the river water samples fall in C1-S1 (low salinity-low sodium type) group, which provides good irrigation quality to river water from this area. Also, all the data points showed permeability index values in Class II category which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Recorded magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio showed that <50 % of the river water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes. Stable isotope data of water (?18O and ?2H) obtained revealed that stream waters joining the Volta River were depleted and possibly recharged by rain and waters from the Akwapim Mountains (located at the western part of the Volta River) than the isotopically heavy evaporated waters found within the Lower Volta River. These results would therefore be useful for water balance studies in the study area.

  18. Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Kofi Essumang, David; Eghan, Moses J; Reichert, Barbara; van de Giesen, Nick; Vlek, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system. PMID:20229387

  19. The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William B.; Bacon, Michael; Hastings, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Analogy with better-known craters suggests that Bosumtwi has a central uplift rising to 200 m beneath the lake floor. An aeromagnetic anomaly of amplitude 50 nanotesla (nT) over the northern half of the lake is interpreted as due to a layer of magnetized fallback breccia beneath the lake sediments. The normal polarity of the breccia shows that the crater was formed during the normal Jaramillo event of 0.97 to 0.85 m.y. ago, which agrees with the magnetic stratigraphy of the related Ivory Coast microtektites. A regional gravity survey indicates a negative Bouguer anomaly over the crater. There is some geochemical evidence that the meteorite was an iron, and its mass and energy are suggested as about 108tons and 3 1019joules or 7.3 103megatons.

  20. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions. PMID:26404337

  1. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity. PMID:21180920

  2. Ghana.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Ghana focuses on the following: geography; the people; history (postindependence politics and politics in the 1970s and the 1980s); government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Ghana. For the 1970-84 period, the average annual growth rate was 2.6%. The infant mortality rate was 86/1000 in 1980-82 and life expectancy 55 years. Ghana is situated on West Africa's Gulf of Guinea only a few degrees north of the Equator. Most people live on the coast in the northern areas near the Ivory Coast, and in the principal cities of Accra and Kumasi. Ethnically, Ghana is divided into small groups speaking more than 50 languages and dialects. Among the most important linguistic groups are the Akans, the Guans, the Ga- and Ewe-speaking peoples of the south and southeast; and the Moshi-Dagomba-speaking tribes. In December 1981, Flight Lt. Rawlings and a small group of soldiers launched a successful coup against President Linmann. Rawlings and his colleagues suspended the 1979 constitution, dismissed the President and his cabinet, disolved the Parliament, and proscribed existing political parties. They established the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC). In December 1982, the PNDC announced a plan to decentralize government from Accra to the 10 regions, the districts, and local communities, but the PNDC still maintains overall control by appointing regional and district secretaries. Ghana has a diverse and valuable resouce base. The country is primarily agricultural. Ghana's industrial base is relatively advanced, compared to that of other African countries. The US and Ghana have enjoyed good relations throughout most of Ghana's independence. PMID:12233541

  3. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  4. Basic Design, a Needed Foundation for Designing a Successful Garment: A Case Study of Dressmakers in the Ho Municipality, Volta Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbetodeme, Selom; Amankwa, Joana; Dzegblor, Noble Komla

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the design process in every art form, there are certain guidelines that all professional designers should use. These are known as elements and principles of design. This study is a survey carried out to assess the knowledge of dressmakers about basic design in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. Sixty dressmakers were randomly sampled for…

  5. Reservoir impact assessment in sub-Saharan Africa: The Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemhuis, C.; Jung, G.; Kasei, R.; Liebe, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the Volta River Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. The Volta basin drains an area of approx. 400 000 km of the subhumid to semiarid West-African savannah zone and is shared by six riparian countries. The region is characterized by erratic rainfall patterns, and domestic and agricultural water users in the upper regions of the Basin complete with hydropower generation in the south for increasingly scarce water resources. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small, medium and large reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the coupled climate-hydrological model (MM5/WaSiM) serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN). MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. Furthermore it is possible to up set up climate scenario time series scenarios for an assessment of the consequences of extreme climate conditions. Within a case study analysis the impact of small and medium scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin has been evaluated under different climatic conditions. For the evaluation of the impact of large reservoir development in particular the impact of Bui dam, which is under construction on the Black Volta River in Ghana, on the water level of Lake Volta has been simulated with the VB-WAS model. The VB-WAS model allows a quantified impact assessment of small, medium and large scale reservoir development within the Volta basin and can be used as an objective communication basis for water management issues.

  6. Mixing of Schistosoma haematobium strains in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.; Kpo, H. K.; Klumpp, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    In Ghana, Schistosoma haematobium exists as two strains, one transmitted by Bulinus rohlfsi and the other by B. globosus. In Anyaboni, a resettlement town, where the field station of the UNDP/WHO Schistosomiasis Research and Control Project is located, the residents contract the ”rohlfsi” strain of the parasite from the Volta Lake and the ”globosus” strain from a stream near the town. The present studies indicate that there is mixing of the two parasite strains on a community and an individual basis. In Anyaboni, the parasite developed well in both B. rohlfsi and B. globosus. In another village 25 km from Accra, where B. globosus was the only vector, the parasite developed well in B. globosus but was refractory in B. rohlfsi. In a village near the Volta Lake where B. rohlfsi was the sole vector, the parasite developed well in B. rohlfsi but was refractory in B. globosus. However, complete separation of the two strains is uncommon in Ghana because extensive mixing has already occurred owing to migration of people and snails. PMID:310361

  7. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Elliot Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011) and post-impoundment (2012) periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35 microm mesh size and 0.25m2 mouth surface area) from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100 m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%), Chlorophyceae (43%), Cyanophyceae (48.6%) and Euglenophyceae (0.8%) were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%), Chlorophyceae (26.1%) and Cyanophyceae (71.7%) were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/M3) to August (106 cells/m3) in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1237 cels/m3) to August (4 cells/m3). The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean phytoplankton abundance than the wet season during the 22 months of sampling period. The biotic indices of Shannon-Wiener (HI) were homogenously distributed in the four hydrological seasons of the two years. The phytoplankton groups, Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae and total phytoplankton differed significantly (p<0.05) between the pre- and post-impoundment periods. The total phytoplankton was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in the upstream station than the downstream station indicating the impact of the impoundment on the downstream ecology. Hence, river management strategies should be implemented by hydro-biologist to lessen the impact of the dam on the downstream ecology. PMID:26299112

  8. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemhuis, C.; Jung, G.; Kasei, R.; Liebe, J.

    2009-08-01

    In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH) serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN). MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  9. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both input and output) as the driving force, and facilitate peoples access to land and water.

  10. Predicting the downstream impact of ensembles of small reservoirs with special reference to the Volta Basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.

    2005-12-01

    After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta Basin in West Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the basin, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere in the developing world. The methods are mainly based on relatively objective observations as provided by satellites. As such, these tool provide a good basis for transboundary impact assessment and conflict avoidance.

  11. The Varved Sediments of Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana and Implications for a new Chronology of West African Hydrologic Change During the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, C. W.; Overpeck, J. T.; Beck, J. W.; Arko, J.; Sharp, W. E.

    2002-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi is a small (8-km diameter), deep (78-m) crater lake in the lowland forest of southern Ghana (West Africa) that offers tremendous potential for high-resolution environmental reconstruction. Lying in the path of the seasonal Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) monsoonal precipitation procession, as well as the dry Harmattan winds of the Sahel in winter, this lake is uniquely located to provide potential proxy records of these dominate climatic phenomena effecting West Africa's hydrologic cycle. The lake exhibits excellent sediment preservation, with finely laminated sediments through most of the ca. 24,000 years of core material recovered thus far. We present a detailed chronological analysis of the uppermost 1.1 meters of laminated sediment, obtained via a recently collected suite of freeze- and piston-cores. Utilizing digital images and petrographic thin-section transects of six freeze-cores and two piston cores, we identified 400 diagnostic marker laminations common among the cores, thus enabling cross correlation of the cores to a sub-centimeter scale. The marker laminations also serve as anchor points for counts of organic-rich fine-laminations that were hypothesized to be annual. Excellent agreement between our lamination counts and independent radiometric sediment age models (lead-210 and bomb radiocarbon) verify that these counted laminations are in fact annual (i.e. varves). Thus, we are able to present an annual chronology for the last 800 years of sedimentation (prior to 2000 AD) ~4%. Though anthroprogenic changes have probably effected the local environment within the last 100 years, as we interpret anomalous increases in %organic carbon, %inorganic carbon and %nitrogen to indicate, the varve appearance does not seem to change across the 1.1 m section analyzed. Pre-nuclear weapon testing radiocarbon values, derived from bulk organic carbon, were examined in relation to the varve and lead-210 age-models to assess radiocarbon age offset due to reservoir effects and the redeposition of old-carbon; the data suggest that anomalously old radiocarbon ages ranging from ~430 to 3000 years are possible. The size of the radiocarbon bias may vary with lake status, indicating the role of old-carbon redeposition from ancient lake sediments currently at shallow depths or above current lake level in the crater catchment. Our study shows that 1) varves have excellent potential for creating a high-resolution chronology for Lake Bosumtwi, and 2) caution must be taken in using radiocarbon results to date the sediments of Lake Bosumtwi

  12. Water and carbon fluxes from savanna ecosystems of the Volta River watershed, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Heiko; Ferguson, Paul R.; Dubois, Kristal; Hayford, Ebenezer Kofi; von Vordzogbe, Vincent; Veizer, Jn

    2008-03-01

    The fluxes of water and carbon from terrestrial ecosystems are coupled via the process of photosynthesis. Constraining the annual water cycle therefore allows first order estimates of annual photosynthetic carbon flux, providing that the components of evapotranspiration can be separated. In this study, an isotope mass-balance equation is utilized to constrain annual evaporation flux, which in turn, is used to determine the amount of water transferred to the atmosphere by plant transpiration. The Volta River watershed in West Africa is dominated by woodland and savanna ecosystems with a significant proportion of C 4 vegetation. Annually, the Volta watershed receives 380 km 3 of rainfall, 50% of which is returned to the atmosphere via transpiration. An annual photosynthetic carbon flux of 170 10 12 g C yr - 1 or 428 g C m - 2 was estimated to be associated with this water vapor flux. Independent estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration slightly exceeded the NPP estimate from this study, implying that the exchange of carbon between the Volta River watershed and the atmosphere was close to being in balance or that terrestrial ecosystems were a small annual source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. In addition to terrestrial carbon flux, the balance of photosynthesis and respiration in Volta Lake was also examined. The lake was found to evade carbon dioxide to the atmosphere although the magnitude of the flux was much smaller than that of the terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Impact of future climate change on streamflow in the White Volta river basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuobie, E.; Diekkrger, B.; Liebe, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied in the White Volta river basin, West Africa, to simulate the streamflow and to estimate the impact of future climate change on the streamflow. The White Volta river basin is one of the three major sub-basins of the Volta river basin, and drains an area of about 106,000 km2 mainly shared by the riparian countries, Burkina Faso and Ghana. The model was calibrated and validated using daily measured streamflow data from the stream gage at Nawuni, for the period 1980-2000. Impact of future climate change on streamflow was estimated by simulating streamflow of two time slices, the present (1990-2000) and future (2030-2039), using the calibrated SWAT model and stochastically generated daily climate series and comparing their mean annual values. The generated future climate series reflected monthly changes in precipitation and temperature forecasted by the meso-scale climate model MM5, which was downscaled from ECHAM4 scenario IS92a. The results show that SWAT is able to accurately reproduce the streamflow in the White Volta Basin. The coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency were found to be, respectively, higher than 0.8 and 0.7, for both the calibration and validation periods. Compared to the present, the future mean annual streamflow and the annual coefficient of variation of the streamflow in the basin are expected to increase by 33% and 52%, respectively, as a result of future climate change.

  14. Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.

  15. Alessandro Volta and the politics of pictures.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    An astute diplomat, Alessandro Volta secured the patronage of Napoleon Bonaparte to promote his rise to fame as an electrical expert. Reciprocally, politicians helped their own causes by presenting him as a national as well as a scientific figurehead. PMID:19879000

  16. Precipitation in the Black Volta Basin of Western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppong Kwakye, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation is a climate variable that influences the hydrology and water resources of an area. The Black Volta basin in West Africa is a "fast developing" catchment which recently has the Bui Dam in Ghana with an installed capacity of about 400MW of power. The basin covers an area of about 150,000 km2 and spans from 7N to 15N and 5 24`W to 1W. For any hydrological or climate model, one has to know the spatial and or temporal trend of this important variable (i.e Precipitation). Again, with the impact of climate changes on hydrology, a deeper understanding of the Precipitation in an area is extremely justified. In this study, the annual rainfall cycles, annual sums of rainfall as well as what influences precipitation in the Black Volta Basin are investigated. Precipitation time series for about 20 stations ranging from 1961 to 2005 was used. At the end, the spatial interpolation method called Kriging is used to regionalize rainfall in the catchment and maps of long-term monthly and annual rainfall mean was produced. The results depict the different climates in the catchment which ranges from a sub-humid climate in the south to a semi-arid climate in the north of the basin. There is also a bi-modal annual rainfall cycle at the south of the catchment and a uni-modal cycle towards the north of the basin. The precipitation has a decreasing gradient towards the north of the basin which is all in consonant with previous studies and results by other researchers. A correlation analysis was performed on what influences precipitation in the catchment and at the end, it was revealed that the distances of the rain gauges from the coast influences precipitation and not the elevations. This knowledge was used as the external drift during the Kriging. These revelations would be very helpful during the set-up, calibration and validation of both hydrological and climate models.

  17. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public. PMID:12289034

  18. Volta and Galvani: New Electricity from Old. Experiment No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…

  19. Late Quaternary sedimentological and climate changes at Lake Bosumtwi Ghana: new constraints from laminae analysis and radiocarbon age modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W., Jr.; King, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 1530 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 1619, 24 and 2931 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast. This is inconsistent with a simple southward shift in the mean position of the monsoon rainbelt, and requires changes in moisture convergence as a result of either a reduction in the moisture content of the tropical rainbelt, decreased convection, or both.

  20. Nutrition and carbon metabolism of Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, W B; Ankwanda, E; Wolfe, R S

    1982-01-01

    Methanococcus voltae is a heterotrophic, H2-oxidizing methanogenic bacterium. In complex medium, this bacterium has a doubling time of 1.2 h at its temperature optimum of 38 degrees C. In defined medium, optimal growth is obtained with 0.75 mM isoleucine, 0.75 mM leucine, 2.5 mM acetate, 5 mM NH4Cl, 84 mM MgSO4, 0.4 M NaCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 10 microM Fe2O3, and 0.2 microM NiCl2. In addition, pantothenate, sodium selenate, and cobalt stimulate growth. Optimal growth is obtained between pH 6.0 and 7.0 with either H2 or formate as the electron donor. The volatile fatty acids 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate can substitute for isoleucine and leucine, respectively. Cellular carbon is derived from acetate (31%), isoleucine (22%), leucine (25%), and carbon dioxide (23%). The amino acids and fatty acids are incorporated almost exclusively into protein. A comparison of the incorporation of U-14C-amino acids and 1-14C-fatty acids indicated that the fatty acids are degraded during incorporation into cell protein. The distribution of carbon from the amino acids suggests that acetyl coenzyme A is not a major intermediate in the degradation of these compounds. Thus, M. voltae may convert isoleucine and leucine to other amino acids by a unique mechanism. The lipid carbon is derived largely from acetate. Thus, the isoprenoid lipids are synthesized de novo from acetate rather than by degradation of leucine. The carbon in the nucleic acids is derived from carbon dioxide (45%), the C-1 of acetate (25%), the C-2 of acetate (22%), and isoleucine and leucine (7%). This labeling pattern is consistent with known biochemical pathways. PMID:6801012

  1. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  2. Groundwater resource sustainability in the Nabogo Basin of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Alexandra; Thomas, James M.; Pohll, Greg; McKay, W. Alan

    2007-10-01

    In order to address groundwater resource sustainability, a conceptual groundwater flow model is developed for a hydrographic basin of northern Ghana. A three-dimensional steady-state model is applied to the Nabogo Basin, a sub-catchment of the White Volta River Basin. Mean annual data are used for input parameters. Parameters include rates of precipitation, recharge, surface water discharge, and groundwater extraction (pumpage). The model indicates that current well pumpage rates are significantly less than annual groundwater recharge to the basin. Model results for several scenarios tested (i.e., increased population, access to potable water for all citizens, and/or decreased rainfall) indicate that extraction rates will still be less than groundwater input to the basin.

  3. Onchocerciasis and optic atrophy in the Savannah area of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Berghout, E

    1987-10-01

    The ocular findings in the male population of 3 villages from a hyperendemic area of onchocerciasis in North Ghana have been recorded. Vector control in the Volta River Basin has led to reduced microfilarial loads and improved tolerance of treatment with diethylcarbamazine-citrate (DEC-C). Prevalence of posterior eye lesions increased sharply above the age of 30 years in the survey population. In patients with palpable onchocercomas (nodules) serious pathology of the posterior segment of the eye was found twice as frequently as in onchocerciasis patients without nodules. In the village visited by the Mobile Eye Team since 1978 the prevalence of serious eye lesions was slightly lower than in the two villages never visited by the eye team. Desirability to give treatment to the younger population with low incidence of serious eye lesions is expressed. Attention is drawn to the increased danger of adverse reactions to treatment in the presence of posterior eye lesions. PMID:3451406

  4. Transduction-like gene transfer in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 x 10(-5) (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10(-3) (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.

  5. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    PubMed

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. PMID:12285641

  6. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.

  7. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS.

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, G; Baresi, L

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated. Images PMID:3034867

  8. Area Handbook for Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Irving; And Others

    The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

  9. SCANNING VOLTA POTENTIALS MEASUREMENTS OF METALS IN IRRADIATED AIR.

    SciTech Connect

    ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.; AND ENERGY SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT; JEFFCOATE, C.S.

    2000-10-22

    A method for direct dc measurement of the Volta potential is presented. High intensity synchrotron x-ray beams were used to locally irradiate the atmosphere adjacent to the metal surface and produce a conducting path between a sample and a reference probe. The direct measurements of potential in the ionized air could be made at probe heights of around 1 mm compared to less than 0.1 mm for the Kelvin probe. The measurements were similar to traditional Kelvin probe measurements, but had a poorer spatial resolution. In contrast to the Kelvin probe methods, the approach described allows observation of the current as a function of impressed voltage. Methods to improve the special resolution of the technique and applications to corrosion under coating will be presented.

  10. The Medical System in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Drislane, Frank W.; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana is a developing country in West Africa with a population of about 25 million. Medical illnesses in Ghana overlap with those in developed countries, but infection, trauma, and womens health problems are much more prominent. Medical practice in rural Africa faces extremely limited resources, a multiplicity of languages (hundreds in Ghana), and presentation of severe illnesses at later stages than seen elsewhere. Despite these limitations, Ghana has established a relatively successful national medical insurance system, and the quality of medical practice is high, at least where it is available. Ghana also has a well-established and sophisticated administrative structure for the supervision of medical education and accreditation, but it has proven very difficult to extend medical training to rural areas, where health care facilities are particularly short of personnel. Physicians are sorely needed in rural areas, but there are few because of the working conditions and financial limitations. Hospital wards and clinics are crowded; time per patient is limited. This article details some of the differences between medical practice in Ghana and that in wealthier countries and how it functions with very limited resources. It also introduces the medical education and training system in Ghana. The following article describes an attempt to establish and maintain a residency training program in General Medicine in a rural area of Ghana. PMID:25191147

  11. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  12. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the So Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of So Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the So Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); So Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.

  13. First isolation of a new species of Leishmania responsible for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana and classification in the Leishmania enriettii complex.

    PubMed

    Kwakye-Nuako, Godwin; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Duplessis, Christopher; Bates, Michelle D; Puplampu, Naiki; Mensah-Attipoe, Israel; Desewu, Kwame; Afegbe, Godwin; Asmah, Richard H; Jamjoom, Manal B; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Boakye, Daniel A; Bates, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    An active case detection approach with PCR diagnosis was used in the Ho District of the Volta Region, Ghana that identified individuals with active cutaneous leishmaniasis. Three isolates were successfully cultured and DNA sequences from these were analysed (ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1; ribosomal protein L23a intergenic spacer; RNA polymerase II large subunit), showing them to be Leishmania, identical to each other but different from all other known Leishmania spp. Phylogenetic analysis showed the parasites to be new members of the Leishmania enriettii complex, which is emerging as a possible new subgenus of Leishmania parasites containing human pathogens. PMID:26099650

  14. Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jrgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ?200 C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created on the fly by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

  15. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jrgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  16. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. PMID:25444887

  17. Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.R. ); Cobbinah, J.R. )

    1993-06-01

    The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.

  19. Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa based on the GLOWA Volta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in the Volta Basin, and represents the first comprehensive, publicly accessible data- and meta-database for the Volta Basin. The Geoportal can be used to search for data, for interactive mapping or the download of ready-made maps, and to publish and share new data and research results. Local institutions are actively involved in acquiring data for the Geoportal, and trained in its operation. For the contributing institutions, the ability to manage data access and use rights (publicly available, available to defined user groups, available upon request) is of great importance. It allows them to publish the existence of their data and facilitate access to it without sacrificing their ownership rights. The Geoportal can be accessed at http://131.220.109.6/Geoportal

  20. Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

    2010-12-01

    As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navys Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

  1. Identification of a vanadate-sensitive, membrane-bound ATPase in the archaebacterium methanococcus voltae

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, R.M.; Konisky, J.

    1987-09-01

    Membrane-bound ATPase activity was detected in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae. The ATPase was inhibited by vanadate, a characteristic inhibitor of E/sub 1/E/sub 2/ ATPases. The enzyme activity was also inhibited by diethylstilbestrol. However, it was insensitive to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, ouabain, and oligomycin. The enzyme displayed a high preference for ATP as substrate, was dependent on Mg/sup 2 +/, and had a pH optimum of approximately 7.5. The enzyme was completely solubilized with 2% Triton X-100. The enzyme was insensitive to oxygen and was stabilized by ATP. There was no homology with the Escherichia coli F/sub 0/F/sub 1/ ATPase at the level of DNA and protein. The membrane-bound M. voltae ATPase showed properties similar to those of E/sub 1/E/sub 2/ ATPases.

  2. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    PubMed Central

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  3. A photovoltaic power system in the remote African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Martz, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and a water pump was installed in the remote West African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta. Village characteristics as well as system design, hardware, installation and operation to date are described. The PV system cost is discussed. A baseline socio-economic study performed and a follow-up study is planned to determine the impact of the system on the villagers.

  4. Isolation and characterization of an archaebacterial viruslike particle from Methanococcus voltae A3

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.G.; Konisky, J. ); Whitman, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Small amounts of 23-kilobase covalently closed circular DNA molecule were isolated from unwashed cells of Methanococcus voltae A3. Further investigation indicated the presence of greater quantities of the circular DNA in the culture supernatant, complexed with protein in a manner rendering the DNA resistant to DNase. Electron-microscopic examination of supernatant material revealed the presence of particles which morphologically resemble virus. Phenol extraction of viruslike particle preparations resulted in the recovery of DNase-sensitive open-circular DNA molecules. As many as 30 viruslike particles per cell were recovered from some cultures. Hybridization data clearly indicated the presence of a chromosomally integrated copy of the viruslike particle DNA. Although M. voltae PS was not observed to produce viruslike particles, DNA homologous to the viruslike particle DNA was detected in its chromosome. A mutant of M. voltae A3 was isolated which produced no particles; its DNA was deleted for 80% of the integrated viruslike particle DNA. Despite any similarities to lysogenic bacteriophages of eubacteria, neither infectivity nor inducibility of the viruslike particles could by demonstrated.

  5. Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 10 6 m 3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 10 6 m 3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from those local rivers could have significant effects on the coast. There is the need, therefore, to ensure that catchment management plans and coastal management plans are integrated or interconnected.

  6. The Volta Grande do Xingu: reconstruction of past environments and forecasting of future scenarios of a unique Amazonian fluvial landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Hartmann, G. A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Parra, M.; Antinao, J. L.; Sousa, L. M.; Sabaj Pérez, M. H.; Oliveira, P. E.; Santos, R. A.; Savian, J. F.; Grohmann, C. H.; Medeiros, V. B.; McGlue, M. M.; Bicudo, D. C.; Faustino, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Xingu River is a large clearwater river in eastern Amazonia and its downstream sector, known as the Volta Grande do Xingu ("Xingu Great Bend"), is a unique fluvial landscape that plays an important role in the biodiversity, biogeochemistry and prehistoric and historic peopling of Amazonia. The sedimentary dynamics of the Xingu River in the Volta Grande and its downstream sector will be shifted in the next few years due to the construction of dams associated with the Belo Monte hydropower project. Impacts on river biodiversity and carbon cycling are anticipated, especially due to likely changes in sedimentation and riverbed characteristics. This research project aims to define the geological and climate factors responsible for the development of the Volta Grande landscape and to track its environmental changes during the Holocene, using the modern system as a reference. In this context, sediment cores, riverbed rock and sediment samples and greenhouse gas (GHG) samples were collected in the Volta Grande do Xingu and adjacent upstream and downstream sectors. The reconstruction of past conditions in the Volta Grande is necessary for forecasting future scenarios and defining biodiversity conservation strategies under the operation of Belo Monte dams. This paper describes the scientific questions of the project and the sampling surveys performed by an international team of Earth scientists and biologists during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. Preliminary results are presented and a future workshop is planned to integrate results, present data to the scientific community and discuss possibilities for deeper drilling in the Xingu ria to extend the sedimentary record of the Volta Grande do Xingu.

  7. Looking within the household: gender roles and responses to malaria in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Nyonator, Frank K

    2006-04-01

    Studies of factors affecting treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study supported district-level government workers in the Volta Region of Ghana in conducting a situational analysis of gender inequities in relation to the malaria burden and access to healthcare services for malaria in one community in their district. Qualitative and participatory methods, such as focus group discussions, in-depth individual interviews and ranking exercises, were used. The study found that women who lacked either short- or long-term economic support from male relatives, or disagreed with their husbands or family elders about appropriate treatment-seeking, faced difficulties in accessing health care for children with malaria. This illustrates the significant influence of women's access to resources and decision-making power on treatment-seeking behaviour for children with febrile illnesses, and the importance of approaching malaria management in the community or household from a gender perspective. PMID:16214194

  8. [Demographic profile of the Xavnte Indian population in Sangradouro-Volta Grande, Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Souza, L G; Santos, R V

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Xavnte population at the Sangradouro-Volta Grande Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997. The survey included annual censuses and vital statistics from 7 Xavnte villages. Permanent contact with Brazilian national society, established in the 1940s and 50s, caused a population drop due to epidemics and clashes. In 1995 there were 825 individuals in the community. The crude birth rate (57.7/1,000) and death rate (9.1/1,000) were higher than the national averages. The majority (56%) of the population is under 15 years of age (median: 13 years) and the infant mortality rate is high (87.1 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious sanitary conditions in the villages. Other results included the persistence of polygyny; low levels of migration; a dynamic of splits and formation of new villages; traditional housing patterns maintained in the old villages and abandoned in the new ones. The recent demographic recovery in the data from Sangradouro-Volta Grande is similar to that observed in the Pimentel Barbosa community. The study highlights the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data from indigenous populations. PMID:11283766

  9. Isolation of flagella from the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae by phase separation with Triton X-114.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmokoff, M L; Jarrell, K F; Koval, S F

    1988-01-01

    The flagella of Methanococcus voltae were isolated by using three procedures. Initially, cells were sheared to release the filaments, which were purified by differential centrifugation and banding in KBr gradients. Flagella were also prepared by solubilization of cells with 1% (vol/vol) Triton X-100 and purified as described above. Both of these techniques resulted in variable recovery and poor yield of flagellar filaments. Purification of intact flagella (filament, hook, and basal body) was achieved by using phase transition separation with Triton X-114. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified flagella revealed two major proteins, with molecular weights of 33,000 and 31,000. This result indicates the likely presence of two flagellins. The filament had a diameter of 13 nm. The basal structure consisted of a small knob, while a slight thickening of the filament immediately adjacent to this area was the only evidence of a hook region. Flagella from three other Methanococcus species were isolated by this technique and found to have the same ultrastructure as flagella from M. voltae. Isolation of flagella from three eubacteria and another methanogen (Methanospirillum hungatei [M. hungatii]) by the phase separation technique indicated that the detergent treatment did not affect the structure of basal bodies. Intact ring structures and well-differentiated hook regions were apparent in each of these flagellar preparations. Images PMID:3127380

  10. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  11. Analysis of drug resistance in the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae with respect to potential use in genetic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Possot, O.; Gernhardt, P.; Klein, A.; Sibold, L.

    1988-03-01

    The sensitivity of the methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae to 12 inhibitors was tested in liquid medium. Four compounds appeared to be inhibitors of growth. Their MICs were as follows: pseudomonic acid, 0.1 ..mu..g/ml (0.19 ..mu..M); puromycin, 2 ..mu..g/ml (3.6 ..mu..M); methionine sulfoximine, 30 ..mu..g/ml (170 ..mu..M); and fusidic acid, 100 ..mu..g/ml (170 ..mu..M). On solid medium, the MICs were similar and the frequency of spontaneous resistance was found to be 5 x 10/sup -5/ (methionine sulfoximine), 10/sup -7/ (pseudomonic acid), and <10/sup -7/ (puromycin and fusidic acid). Pseudomonic acid was found to inhibit isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase activity as measured by the in vitro aminoacylation of M. voltae tRAN with L-(U-/sup 14/C) isoleucine. Fusidic acid and puromycin were shown to inhibit poly(U)-dependent polyphenylalanine synthesis in S30 extracts. Acetylpuromycin was inhibitory at much higher concentrations both in vivo and in vitro for M. voltae. Thus, the pac gene of Streptomyces alboniger, which is responsible for acetylation of puromycin and which conferred resistance to puromycin when introduced in eubacterian and eucaryotes, is a potential selective marker in gene transfer experiments with M. voltae. The latter was recently shown to be transformable. The same would be true for the cat gene of Tn9, which enodes resistance to fusidic acid in eubacteria in addition to resistance to chloramphenicol.

  12. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 1849 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking water, with the lowest at 29.6% in the Volta region. The overall rate of access to improved sanitation was just 14.9%. The findings show significant regional differences, with the three Northern Regions having worse education, income, and sanitation levels, compared to Southern and Central Regions of the country. Conclusion Household characteristics and intra-household dynamics have been shown to influence health and health-seeking behaviors across a number of contexts and countries, and play a fundamental role in the well-being of older Ghanaians. SAGE Ghana is part of a multi-country study using standardized questionnaires and tested methodologies to provide household level data required to inform policy on the growing population of older adults in Ghana. With the good response rates and measures instituted to assure quality of data, this article demonstrates the high quality data and research methods of SAGE. PMID:23759325

  13. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, Rm; Gonzaga, Afn; Pinto, Kc; Poli, Fc; Bilce, Tm; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, Jx; Junqueira, Tg; Cesca, Lcc; Guimarães, Vy; Pinheiro, Rd

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  14. Coordinate positive regulation of genes encoding [NiFe] hydrogenases in Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Mller, S; Klein, A

    2001-08-01

    Two transcription units encoding selenium-free [NiFe] hydrogenases in Methanococcus voltae are transcribed only upon selenium deprivation. Their products replace or complement selenocysteine-containing isoenzymes. The transcription units are linked by a 453-bp intergenic region, and are subject to both positive and negative transcriptional regulation. The mechanism of positive regulation was studied in detail. Mutations in identical 11-bp putative activator recognition sites close to each promoter showed that each site is involved in the activation of both promoters. Sequence-specific DNA-affinity chromatography yielded a 55-kDa protein which specifically recognized the 11-bp sequence. We consider this protein to be a transcriptional activator for both transcription units. PMID:11523779

  15. Initial field studies in Upper Volta with dichlorvos residual fumigant as a malaria eradication technique*

    PubMed Central

    Quarterman, K. D.; Lotte, M.; Schoof, H. F.

    1963-01-01

    Laboratory and simulated field tests have shown that dichlorvos, a volatile insecticide, can be prepared in a solid formulation which releases the dichlorvos vapour over a period of several months at a relatively uniform rate high enough to kill adult anopheline mosquitos but low enough to have no effect on man and the higher animals. A field experiment is in progress in Wakara, Upper Volta, to evaluate the residual fumigant technique under practical field conditions. Chemical, biological, toxicological and epidemiological data obtained during the first nine months indicate that the method produced dichlorvos vapours in a concentration effective against mosquitos for 3 to 5 months per treatment, that the occupants of the treated dwellings showed no detectable effects from the insecticidal vapours, and that the malaria rates were reduced by 38%-55% among the population of the treated village as compared with a nearby untreated control village. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:14056276

  16. Growth and plating efficiency of methanococci on agar media. [Methanococcus maripaludis and M. voltae

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Whitman, W.B.; Fields, R.D.; Wolfe, R.S.

    1983-07-01

    Plating techniques for cultivation of methanogenic bacteria have been optimized for two members of the genus Methanococcus. Methanococcus maripaludis and Methanococcus voltae were cultivated on aerobically and anaerobically prepared agar media. Maintenance of O/sub 2/ levels below 5 mu l/liter within an anaerobic glove box was necessary during plating and incubation for 90% recovery of plated cells. Under an atmosphere of H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S (79:20:1), 2 to 3 days of incubation at 37 degrees C were sufficient for the formation of visible colonies. The viability of plated cells was significantly affected by the growth phase of the culture, H/sub 2/S concentration, and the volume of medium per plate. In addition, colony size of methanococci was affected by agar type, as well as by the concentrations of agar, H/sub 2/S, and bicarbonate. 12 references

  17. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of blindness prevention by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in Upper Volta*

    PubMed Central

    Prost, A.; Prescott, N.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in Upper Volta. The analysis uses a new approach to the measurement of health project effectiveness, by considering the number of healthy years of life added by the prevention of permanent disability and premature death attributable to onchocercal blindness. The approach emphasizes the central role of social value judgements in allocating health resourcesin particular the relative weights assigned to preventing disability and postponing death, present and future health benefits, and health gains among productive and non-productive individuals. The quantitative results yield the following cost-effectiveness estimates for blindness prevention through onchocerciasis control: US$20 per year of healthy life and per productive year of healthy life added, and US$150 per discounted year of healthy life and per discounted productive year of healthy life added. As an illustrative example, a comparison is made with estimates of the cost-effectiveness of measles immunization. PMID:6439428

  19. Monthly streamflow prediction in the Volta Basin of West Africa: A SISO NARMAX polynomial modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N.; Rogers, C.; Andah, W. E. I.; Friesen, J.

    Single-input-single-output (SISO) non-linear system identification techniques were employed to model monthly catchment runoff at selected gauging sites in the Volta Basin of West Africa. NARMAX (Non-linear Autoregressive Moving Average with eXogenous Input) polynomial models were fitted to basin monthly rainfall and gauging station runoff data for each of the selected sites and used to predict monthly runoff at the sites. An error reduction ratio (ERR) algorithm was used to order regressors for various combinations of input, output and noise lags (various model structures) and the significant regressors for each model selected by applying an Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to independent rainfall-runoff validation series. Model parameters were estimated from the Matlab REGRESS function (an orthogonal least squares method). In each case, the sub-model without noise terms was fitted first followed by a fitting of the noise model. The coefficient of determination ( R-squared), the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criterion (NSE) and the F statistic for the estimation (training) series were used to evaluate the significance of fit of each model to this series while model selection from the range of models fitted for each gauging site was done by examining the NSEs and the AICs of the validation series. Monthly runoff predictions from the selected models were very good, and the polynomial models appeared to have captured a good part of the rainfall-runoff non-linearity. The results indicate that the NARMAX modelling framework is suitable for monthly river runoff prediction in the Volta Basin. The several good models made available by the NARMAX modelling framework could be useful in the selection of model structures that also provide insights into the physical behaviour of the catchment rainfall-runoff system.

  20. National waste management infrastructure in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J

    1998-12-01

    Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643

  1. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  2. Atmospheric burden of organochlorine pesticides in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hogarh, J N; Seike, N; Kobara, Y; Ofosu-Budu, G K; Carboo, D; Masunaga, S

    2014-05-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are subject to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and have been banned or restricted globally. In Ghana, concerns of illicit applications of some OCPs have been raised in recent times. Applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS), the levels of OCPs in the atmosphere and their spatial resolution were investigated. It was the first nationwide coverage of OCPs monitoring in Ghana. ?DDTs and endusulfans constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in Ghana, at average concentrations of 15636 and 15328 pg m(-3), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration (0.20.01 pg m(-3)). From the chemical signatures of the various OCPs, we deduced that DDT, endosulfans and heptachlor were freshly applied at certain sites, which were all agricultural sites. The OCPs were spatially resolved as a function of the types of crops cultivated in different areas, legacy issues and recent applications. PMID:24210596

  3. Rights of the Child in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian

  4. Ghana and UAP: Obstacles and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHeer, Andrew N.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the situation of the publishing industry in Ghana, the Ghanaian economy and book availability, the need for a national focal point for publishing, censorship and copyright, interlibrary lending, publications exchanges, and actions at the national and international levels to promote the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) in

  5. Association of Childless Couples Of Ghana (ACCOG)

    PubMed Central

    Yaw Osei, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Childless Couples of Ghana (ACCOG) is a Ghanaian non-faith based Non-Governmental Organization. ACCOG provides a platform for childless couples to find options for accessible infertility care. It provides counselling and other support services to childless couples to enable them to cope with their situation.

  6. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are

  7. Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

    Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

  8. Lecturers' Views on Ghana's Undergraduate Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the views of 6 university lecturers on Ghana's undergraduate mathematics education. These views were expressed during a mathematics workshop sensitization program on the "contribution of undergraduate mathematics education to the Ghanaian economy." The data consisting of open-ended questions followed by…

  9. Formalising the Informal: Ghana's National Apprenticeship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an

  10. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  11. Hydroclimatology of the Volta River Basin in West Africa: Trends and variability from 1901 to 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Friesen, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    Long-term historical records of rainfall ( P), runoff ( Q) and other climatic factors were used to investigate hydrological variability and trends in the Volta River Basin over the period 1901-2002. Potential ( Ep) and actual evaporation ( E), rainfall variability index ( ?), Budykos aridity index ( IA), evaporation ratio ( CE) and runoff ratio ( CQ) were estimated from the available hydroclimatological records. Mann-Kendall trend analysis and non-parametric Sens slope estimates were performed on the respective time series variables to detect monotonic trend direction and magnitude of change over time. Rainfall variability index showed that 1968 was the wettest year ( ? = +1.75) while 1983 was the driest ( ? = -3.03), with the last three decades being drier than any other comparable period in the hydrological history of the Volta. An increase of 0.2 mm/yr 2 ( P < 0.05) was observed in Ep for the 1901-1969 sub-series while an increased of 1.8 mm/yr 2 ( P < 0.01) was recorded since 1970. Rainfall increased at the rate of 0.7 mm/yr 2 or 49 mm/yr between 1901 and 1969, whereas a decrease of 0.2 mm/yr 2 (6 mm/yr) was estimated for 1970-2002 sub-series. Runoff increased significantly at the rate of 0.8 mm/yr (23 mm/yr) since 1970. Runoff before dam construction was higher (87.5 mm/yr) and more varied (CV = 41.5%) than the post-dam period with value of 73.5 mm/yr (CV = 23.9%). A 10% relative decrease in P resulted in a 16% decrease in Q between 1936 and 1998. Since 1970, all the months showed increasing runoff trends with significant slopes ( P < 0.05) in 9 out of the 12 months. Possible causes, such as climate change and land cover change, on the detected changes in hydroclimatology are briefly discussed.

  12. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. Methods In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. Results In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%. Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals. Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%). From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. Conclusions It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the least efficient hospitals to correct widespread inefficiency. This would include reconsidering the number of hospitals and their distribution, improving efficiency and reducing duplication by closing or scaling down hospitals with efficiency scores below a certain threshold. For private hospitals with inefficiency related to large size, there is a need to break down such hospitals into manageable sizes. PMID:24708886

  13. Distribution, levels, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Essumang, David Kofi

    2010-01-01

    The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID). The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 microg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 microg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 microg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 microg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 microg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 microg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, and benzo(j,k)fluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime. PMID:20526527

  14. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area. PMID:21550616

  15. Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Duah, S.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Burt, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ∼2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

  16. Prospects for the control of onchocerciasis in Africa with special reference to the Volta River basin.

    PubMed

    Waddy, B B

    1969-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is found in association with all the main river systems of northern tropical Africa, and there are endemic foci south of the Equator. Heavy and prolonged infection may cause blindness and intense pruritus. The vectors, Simulium damnosum and S. neavei, are also intolerable pests when they swarm. The disease and its vector together cause serious economic loss and are a main cause of the depopulation of river valleys in the savanna lands.The basin of the River Volta, in which the worst endemic area in the world is situated, is considered to be the most favourable area for a study of the problems involved in the large-scale control of onchocerciasis carried by S. damnosum. Mass treatment or prophylaxis are not practicable at present. The clinical condition progresses for many years in the absence of fresh infection, and drugs capable of mass application are needed. However, the first aim is to attack the larval stages of the vector with insecticides. DDT is ideal for this purpose in large, steadily flowing rivers, but a more suitable insecticide and formulation are needed for small, irregularly flowing streams.Research is needed into many aspects of the adult life of S. damnosum, including feeding and resting habits, dry season survival and flight range. One of the main practical problems is prevention of reinfestation of a treated river system. PMID:5307598

  17. The economics of blindness prevention in Upper Volta under the Onchocerciasis Control Program.

    PubMed

    Prescott, N; Prost, A; Le Berre, R

    1984-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the economics of blindness prevention under the Onchocerciasis Control Program in Upper Volta. It differs from previous economic analyses of onchocerciasis control in three important respects. First, it uses empirical data as the basis of an estimate of the epidemiological effectiveness of the intervention. Second, it focuses on the prevention of permanent disability and premature death due to onchocercal blindness as the major health improvement attributable to onchocerciasis control. Third, it emphasizes cost-effectiveness rather than cost-benefit analysis. This limitation is imposed by the difficulty of undertaking a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of onchocerciasis control. In particular, the extent to which control of partial visual impairment and infection without ocular involvement would increase the effective supply of labor, and also the extent to which control would increase the effective supply of land by inducing new settlement in the river valleys, have not been clearly established. The cost-effectiveness approach is limited because it foregoes the opportunity provided by cost-benefit analysis to compare the relative desirability of investing in onchocerciasis control with alternative investments in other sectors. However, it does permit useful judgments to be made about the relative efficiency of allocating scarce resources to onchocerciasis control compared to other possible investments within the health sector. For this purpose, an illustrative comparison is made with estimates of the cost-effectiveness of measles immunization. PMID:6098020

  18. Report on a preliminary survey by the WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team in Upper Volta

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    The WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team made a survey in Upper Volta during May and June 1960. Data available indicate that S. haematobium is widely scattered throughout the country and that about 50% of the population, or more than 1.5 million people, are infected at some time during their lives. The examination of faeces is not a common practice, and it is therefore impossible to estimate the prevalence of S. mansoni and the intestinal helminths. The available evidence indicates, however, that S. mansoni is more prevalent in the country than is generally suspected. The distribution of the known snail habitats and the bilharziasis foci indicate that most of the major watersheds are infested, but that transmission sites may be rather sharply defined. It will be necessary to take this and various seasonal factors into consideration in planning a bilharziasis control programme. An analysis of the various public health problems in the country indicated that a programme of bilharziasis control would not be of practical value unless it was combined with a general attack on filth- and vector-borne diseases, and that it was essential to consider such a programme in conneixon with plans for the development of water and soil resources. PMID:20604120

  19. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

  20. Responses to donor proliferation in Ghanas health sector: a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate how donors and government agencies responded to a proliferation of donors providing aid to Ghanas health sector between 1995 and 2012. Methods We interviewed 39 key informants from donor agencies, central government and nongovernmental organizations in Accra. These respondents were purposively selected to provide local and international views from the three types of institutions. Data collected from the respondents were compared with relevant documentary materials e.g. reports and media articles collected during interviews and through online research. Findings Ghanas response to donor proliferation included creation of a sector-wide approach, a shift to sector budget support, the institutionalization of a Health Sector Working Group and anticipation of donor withdrawal following the countrys change from low-income to lower-middle income status. Key themes included the importance of leadership and political support, the internalization of norms for harmonization, alignment and ownership, tension between the different methods used to improve aid effectiveness, and a shift to a unidirectional accountability paradigm for health-sector performance. Conclusion In 19952012, the countrys central government and donors responded to donor proliferation in health-sector aid by promoting harmonization and alignment. This response was motivated by Ghanas need for foreign aid, constraints on the capacity of governmental human resources and inefficiencies created by donor proliferation. Although this decreased the governments transaction costs, it also increased the donors coordination costs and reduced the governments negotiation options. Harmonization and alignment measures may have prompted donors to return to stand-alone projects to increase accountability and identification with beneficial impacts of projects. PMID:25558103

  1. Schistosomiasis in north-western Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, G. R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of 8 274 people in the Ghana-2101 project area showed that 12% were passing ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the urine, the infection rate rising to a peak of 34% in males 15-19 years of age. S. mansoni, despite the wide distribution of its potential intermediate host, was not encountered in 1 698 boys examined for it. Urinary schistosomiasis in northern Ghana is focal in character and is usually contracted in standing water during the dry season. A method of control was developed that depends on the identification of localities subject to relatively intense and prolonged transmission, followed by dry season mollusciciding of the water sources in each locality infested with the snail hosts. Two such control cycles were carried out in 30 localities. The results suggest that selective, dry season, focal control of schistosomiasis can be effective in reducing transmission. PMID:4549612

  2. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  3. Tertiary Education Policy in Ghana. An Assessment: 1988-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, Alison

    This study was one of several activities conducted at the end of a 5-year World Bank/Government of Ghana project, the Tertiary Education Project (TEP). This project was designed to assist the government of Ghana with the restructuring and quality enhancement of its tertiary education sector. Although the government had prepared an ambitious reform

  4. Rethinking Christian Religious Education in Ghana: History, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai-Mununkum, Richardson

    2014-01-01

    This scholarly essay employs an African philosophical and symbolic construct--Sank?fa--to examine religious education in Ghana. Sank?fa implores the need to examine the past in order to understand the present and to plan for the future. In line with this frame, I recount the history of religious education in Ghana, examine the present challenges,

  5. Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana. Technical Paper No. 91. SD Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Leherr, Kay

    As increasing numbers of children in developing nations survive to school age, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers are increasingly focusing on the health and well-being of school-age children and on the possibility of using the infrastructure of the school system to deliver health and nutrition interventions. This research, conducted in

  6. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country. PMID:26812848

  7. Cloning, expression and purification of DNA-binding protein Mvo10b from Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jinsong; Yao, Hongwei; Feng, Yingang; Wang, Jinfeng

    2009-04-01

    Mvo10b from the mesophilic archaeon Methanococcus voltae is a member of the Sac10b family which may play an important role in the organization and accessibility of genetic information in Archaea. Since Mvo10b is a DNA-binding protein as the other member in the Sac10b family, to obtain a recombinant Mvo10b requires an efficient and inexpensive expression and purification system for producing the protein free of nucleic acid contamination. Previously, the hyperthermophilic archaeal Ssh10b of the Sac10b family was successfully purified. However, the protocol adopted to purify Ssh10b is not appropriate for purifying the mesophilic Mvo10b. This study describes the successful expression and purification of the recombinant Mvo10b. The expression of recombinant Mvo10b was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the target protein was expressed in the soluble form. The protein was purified by polyethyleneimine (PEI) precipitation followed by nickel ion metal affinity chromatography. The purity of Mvo10b was checked to insure being free of nucleic acid contamination. The final protein yield is about 30mg/l of LB culture. The ensemble of NMR and far-UV CD data shows that the purified Mvo10b has abundant regular secondary structures and is correctly folded, which may have similar 3D structure as its hyperthermophilic counterpart [P62A]Ssh10b. The developed protocol has potential application in the production of the other thermophilic and mesophilic proteins in the Sac10b family. PMID:19041399

  8. Long-Term Water Balance of the Volta River Basin in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Taylor, J.; Steenhuis, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Volta River drains approximately 400,000 km2 of the semi-arid to sub-humid savanna of West Africa. Average rainfall is about 1000 mm per year. The interannual variation is relatively low with a coefficient of variation of 0.07. Most rainfall returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration and only 9% becomes available as river runoff. The interannual variation of river flow is much higher than that of rainfall and has a coefficient of variation of 0.57. In this presentation, the coupling between interannual variation in rainfall and runoff is examined. To a large extent, the high variability in river flow can be explained with the relatively small differences in rainfall between years; the watershed strongly amplifies the atmospheric input. The amplifying effect is, however, not constant over space and time. Over all, the basin received less rain than before in the past two decades. Some parts of the basin did indeed produce less runoff but other parts actually produced more runoff, most likely due to changes in landuse. No clear increase or decrease in the interannual variability could be found for different parts of the basin. To examine the interannual variability of water resources availability under future climates, the applicability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) was examined for West Africa. Comparison of historical and GCM rainfall data showed large discrepancies. Different approaches exist to adjust GCM rainfall with the aid of historical rainfall data but for West Africa some problems remained. This presentation concludes with a focus on differences in mid-term (2-10 years) persistence in annual river flow as produced by historical and GCM data.

  9. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  10. Lake Powell

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title: Lake Powell View Larger Image ... format (14.42 mb) This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on ...

  11. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7 minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  12. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  13. Oil and gas possibilities onshore and offshore Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, G.O.

    1984-09-01

    Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.

  14. Hydrological evaluation of satellite-based rainfall estimates over the Volta and Baro-Akobo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Rojas, Rodrigo; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; De Roo, Ad

    2013-08-01

    How useful are satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE) as forcing data for hydrological applications? Which SRFE should be favoured for hydrological modelling? What could researchers do to increase the performance of SRFE-driven hydrological simulations? To address these three research questions, four SRFE (CMORPH, RFE 2.0, TRMM-3B42 and PERSIANN) and one re-analysis product (ERA-Interim) are evaluated within a hydrological application for the time period 2003-2008, over two river basins (Volta and Baro-Akobo) which hold distinct physiographic, climatologic and hydrologic conditions. The focus was on the assessment of: (a) the individual and combined effect of SRFE-specific calibration and bias correction on the hydrological performance, (b) the level of complexity required regarding bias correction and interpolation to achieve a good hydrological performance, and (c) the hydrological performance of SRFE during high- and low-flow conditions. Results show that (1) the hydrological performance is always higher if the model is calibrated to the respective SRFE rather than to interpolated ground observations; (2) for SRFE that are afflicted with bias, a bias-correction step prior to SRFE-specific calibration is essential, while for SRFE with good intrinsic data quality applying only a SRFE-specific model calibration is sufficient; (3) the more sophisticated bias-correction method used in this work (histogram equalization) results generally in a superior hydrological performance, while a more sophisticated spatial interpolation method (Kriging with External Drift) seems to be of added value only over mountainous regions; (4) the bias correction is not over-proportionally important over mountainous catchments, as it solely depends on where the SRFE show high biases (e.g. for PERSIANN and CMORPH over lowland areas); and (5) the hydrological performance during high-flow conditions is superior thus promoting the use of SRFE for applications focusing on the high-end flow spectrum. These results complement a preliminary ground truthing phase and provide insight on the usefulness of SRFE for hydrological modelling and under which conditions they can be used with a given level of reliability.

  15. Hydrological Evaluation of Satellite-Based Precipitation Products over the Volta and Baro-Akobo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Zambrano, Mauricio; Rojas, Rodrigo; De Roo, Ad

    2013-04-01

    How useful are satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE) as forcing data for hydrological applications? Which SRFE should be favoured for hydrological modelling? What could researchers do to increase the performance of SRFE-driven hydrological simulations? To address these three research questions, four SRFE (CMORPH, RFE 2.0, TRMM-3B42 and PERSIANN) and one reanalysis product (ERA-Interim) are evaluated within a hydrological application for the time period 2003-2008, over two river basins (Volta and Baro-Akobo) which hold distinct physiographic, climatologic and hydrologic conditions. The focus was on the assessment of: a) the individual and combined effect of SRFE-specific calibration and bias-correction on the hydrological performance, b) the level of complexity required regarding bias-correction and interpolation to achieve a good hydrological performance, and c) the hydrological performance of SRFE during high- and low-flow conditions. Results show that 1) the hydrological performance is always higher if the model is calibrated to the respective SRFE rather than to interpolated ground observations; 2) for SRFE that are afflicted with bias, a bias-correction step prior to SRFE-specific calibration is essential, while for SRFE with good intrinsic data quality applying a SRFE-specific model calibration is sufficient; 3) the more sophisticated bias-correction method used in this work (histogram equalization) results generally in a superior hydrological performance, while a more sophisticated interpolation method (Kriging with External Drift) seems to be of added value only over mountainous regions; 4) the bias-correction is not over-proportionally important over mountainous catchments, as it solely depends on where the SRFE show high biases (e.g. for PERSIANN and CMORPH over lowland areas); and 5) the hydrological performance during high-flow conditions is superior thus promoting the use of SRFE for applications focusing on the high-end flow spectrum. These results complement a preliminary "ground truthing" phase and provide insight on the usefulness of SRFE for hydrological modelling and under which conditions they can be used with a given level of reliability.

  16. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  17. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    PubMed

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  18. Ghana--medical care amid economic problems.

    PubMed

    Bacon, L

    1980-07-01

    Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages were the main problem with drugs being the greatest worry. Food for the wards was another problem, both in otaining and in affording it. All other necessities were equally difficult to find. Most members of the health team found their personal and family problems overwhelming, and there was a high rate of absenteeism. Planning the future of Legon Hospital became an impossible task. Medical care in a arapidly deteriorating economic situation poses its own problems, problems in many ways different from those found in countries that are equally poor but more stable. PMID:7441643

  19. Correlates of stunting among children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the childs height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 3647 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR?=?1.7 at p?Ghana. PMID:24884653

  20. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced. PMID:21708026

  1. The changing face of women in physics in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah

    2013-03-01

    Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.

  2. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  3. Effective programmes for improving nutrition in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agble, R

    1997-12-01

    This brief article identifies some lessons learned from effective programs for improving nutrition in Ghana. The Ghana nutrition program was initiated in the mid-1980s with the introduction of corn milling machines in over 50 communities. The milling machines were donated by UNICEF. The milling machines were used for the production of an improved cereal and a legume-based weaning food (Weanimix). The program included training and nutrition education. After the program was underway, an income generation component was added. The income from the sale of milled cereal was used to support other community-based activities. The number of mothers using the new weaning food increased. Maternal knowledge of basic nutrition improved in project communities compared to non-project communities. The program contributed to greater household food security and improved nutritional status of children. One important lesson learned was that, in order for community interest to remain high, there must be quality operation and few breakdowns of the milling machines. It is also important for agencies and nongovernmental groups to collaborate and define roles carefully. This program was successful in remote rural communities. Existing women's groups managed the project and maintained a simple record system to monitor progress. An appropriate amount of supervision is necessary to prevent laxness in the community from too little supervision or lack of initiative from too much supervision. The program staff was undecided regarding the use of incentives. PMID:12293189

  4. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and ?-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the most abundant and the concentrations of sums of DDTs were in tens of pg m-3. This suggests that the main source of DDTs was possibly due to past agricultural and public health usage. The soil concentrations of DDTs at the various sites were however negligible (approx. 1 ngg-1). The highest levels of HCHs were recorded in November and December 2008. HCB and PeCB concentrations in air were low and uniform and soil levels of HCB and PeCB were negligible. Only traces of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were detected from both sites. PCBs were found at levels typical for the urban sites and the levels at the Kwabenya site were slightly lower than those measured at the East Legon site. Levels of PCBs at the rural/agricultural site (Lake Bosumtwi) were relatively lower than those measured at the urban sites. The levels of PAHs in ambient air were quite high at all sites with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Benzo(a)pyrene (a known carcinogen) levels in ambient air were however very low. The highest levels of PAHs were detected in January 2008, February 2008 and July/August 2008 at Kwabenya, East Legon, and Lake Bosumtwi, respectively. PCDD/F levels were also quite high, maximal I-TEQ was the third highest in the African region (after Egypt and Senegal). Keywords: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Background Concentrations; Ghana; PUF-disk sampler

  5. Women in science in Ghana: The Ghana science clinics for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Anderson, Christina Oduma; Ababio, Baaba Andam; Asenso, Yaa Akomah; Nyarko, Savanna

    2015-12-01

    The Ghana Science Clinics for Girls, started in 1987, gave rise to a paradigm shift in the inclusion of girls in science education. One generation later, we review the impact. Our study indicates that progress has been made in the effort to mainstream women into science studies and careers, mainly as a result of the changes that took place through this intervention strategy. The retention rate for girls in science from primary to university has risen considerably and performance is higher.

  6. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Desquesnes, M; Dia, M L; Losson, B; De Deken, R; Geerts, S

    2004-06-10

    The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity and environmental change was suspected to be higher in the Savelugu District. A cross-sectional entomological survey conducted along the White Volta river and its tributaries confirmed the presence of only Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides. The challenge index as measured by the product of tsetse density and tsetse infection rate was much higher in the West Mamprusi (19.6) than in the Savelugu district (4.7). A total of 1013 cattle (508 in Savelugu and 505 in West Mamprusi) were bled from a random selection of 16 villages in the Savelugu District and 13 villages in the West Mamprusi District. Blood samples were examined for trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique (BCT). Blood samples that were positive in the BCT or negative in the BCT but with packed cell volume (PCV) values below 21 were further tested with a polymerase chain reaction for trypanosomal DNA. Plasma samples of all cattle were serologically tested with an indirect ELISA for trypanosomal antibodies. The parasitological and serological prevalence of bovine trypanosomoses was significantly higher in West Mamprusi (16 and 53%, respectively) than in Savelugu District (8 and 24%, respectively). An evaluation of animal health at the village herd level, using PCV as an index of anaemia, provided various epidemiological scenarios prevalent in the entire study area. PMID:15158552

  7. Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.

    PubMed

    Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

    1994-04-01

    A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme. PMID:8199113

  8. LAKE FORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

  9. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...

  10. Asia Lakes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... cranes, the Relic gull and the Great Bustard. The dominant fish in the lakes is the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus), although the ... associated with the Central Asian rift system, and the water level of these saline lakes shows dramatic variation. Islands are exposed ...

  11. Mutants in flaI and flaJ of the archaeon Methanococcus voltae are deficient in flagellum assembly.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nikhil A; Mueller, Steffen; Klein, Albrecht; Jarrell, Ken F

    2002-11-01

    The fla gene locus of Methanococcus voltae encodes the major structural components of the flagellum as well as other flagellar-related proteins. The flaHIJ genes have been found in all flagellated archaea, suggesting a central role in flagella biogenesis. FlaI shares similarity with the type II and type IV secretion NTPases (such as PilB, VirB11 and TadA), and FlaJ exhibits similarity to putative bacterial integral membrane proteins involved in type IV pilus biogenesis such as TadB. In this study, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blotting data revealed that flaHIJ are co-transcribed with the upstream structural flagellin genes, thus demonstrating the expression of the entire fla gene cluster in vivo. Non-polar mutants in flaI and flaJ of M. voltae were isolated using insertional inactivation via a novel mutagenic vector. These mutants were non-motile and non-flagellated by microscopy, demonstrating the involvement of FlaI and FlaJ in flagella biogenesis. Interestingly, all the mutants maintained the ability to produce and localize flagellins to the cytoplasmic membrane. Amino-terminal sequencing of flagellins produced by the flaJ mutant strain revealed that the flagellins did not have their cognate leader peptides, thus indicating that preflagellin processing had occurred in vivo. This result was confirmed using an in vitro processing assay. The fla- phenotype and protein secretion characteristics of the flaI and flaJ mutants therefore implicate these respective genes in archaeal flagellin secretion and assembly. These findings further support a model describing the archaeal flagellum as a novel prokaryotic motility structure. PMID:12410843

  12. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  13. ELECTRONIC HEALTH IN GHANA: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  14. Pyramid Lake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pyramid Lake, Nevada, not only holds deep cultural connections for the Paiute Tribe and tribal member Dan Mosely (pictured), but also supports a tribal economy centered on fishing and recreational activities. ...

  15. Determinants of unprotected casual heterosexual sex in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Tuoyire, Derek A; Darteh, Eugene K M

    2014-05-01

    Casual heterosexual sex remains a significant contributor to HIV transmissions in Ghana. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to assess the socio-demographic, economic and spatial factors influencing unprotected casual heterosexual sex among men and women. The results of the binary logistic regression models revealed that women aged 35-44 had significantly higher odds of engaging in unprotected casual heterosexual sex than those aged 15-24, unlike the men. There were significantly lower odds of unprotected casual heterosexual sex for women and men with exposure to print media compared with those without exposure. Compared with men residing in the Western Region, unprotected casual heterosexual sex was significantly less likely among those in the Upper East Region. There is the need for behavioural change campaigns in Ghana that take into consideration the multiplicity of factors that determine unprotected casual heterosexual sex. PMID:23931547

  16. Science reporting in Accra, Ghana: sources, barriers and motivational factors.

    PubMed

    Appiah, Bernard; Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N; Russell, Leon H

    2015-01-01

    In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents' demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p=.017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters' coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana. PMID:25193967

  17. Quality of health care, survival and health outcomes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Lavy, V; Strauss, J; Thomas, D; de Vreyer, P

    1996-06-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of quality and accessibility of health services and other public infrastructure on the health of children in Ghana. We focus on child survival, child height and weight using data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The results suggest an important role for public health policy in eliminating the rural-urban disparities in health status and particularly in improving the health status of rural children and reducing their mortality rates. Increased availability of birth services and other related child programs, as well as Improved water and sanitation infrastructure would have an immediate payoff. PMID:10159445

  18. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  20. Identification of amino acids in the leader peptide of Methanococcus voltae preflagellin that are important in posttranslational processing.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N A; Chao, E D; Jarrell, K F

    2001-04-01

    Archaeal flagellins are made initially as preproteins with short, positively charged leader peptides. Analysis of all available archaeal preflagellin sequences indicates that the -1 position is always held by a glycine while the -2 and -3 positions are almost always held by charged amino acids. To evaluate the importance of these and other amino acids in the leader peptides of archaeal flagellins for processing by a peptidase, Methanococcus voltae mutant FlaB2 preflagellin genes were generated by PCR and the proteins tested in a methanogen preflagellin peptidase assay that detects the removal of the leader peptide from preflagellin. When the -1 position was changed from glycine to other amino acids tested, no cleavage was observed by the peptidase, with the exception of a change to alanine at which poor, partial processing was observed. Amino acid substitutions at the -2 lysine position resulted in a complete loss of processing by the peptidase, while changes at the -3 lysine resulted in partial processing. A mutant preflagellin with a leader peptide shortened from 12 amino acids to 6 amino acids was not processed. When the invariant glycine residue present at position +3 was changed to a valine, no processing of this mutant preflagellin was observed. The identification of critical amino acids in FlaB2 required for proper processing suggests that a specific preflagellin peptidase may cleave archaeal flagellins by recognition of a conserved sequence of amino acids. PMID:11382222

  1. Entomological aspects of the first five years of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J F; Davies, J B; Le Berre, R

    1979-09-01

    The history and structure of the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin are described. An outline of the vector control operations is given, and the techniques and organisation of the entomological evaluation network are described in detail. During the course of the evaluation and related studies undertaken between November 1974 and October 1978 almost 1.2 million S. damnosum females have been taken in over 52,000 man days of catching, and 674,000 flies were dissected. An assessment based on this effort using Annual Biting Rates and Annual Transmission Potentials shows that the transmission of O. volvulus has been reduced to below a defined maximum permissible level over most of the central part of the Programme Area. The difficulties encountered in the remainder, and at certain problem sites are outlined and relevant data given. The benefits to be expected from extending the area further southwards and the possibilities of later reductions in control activity are discussed. PMID:543001

  2. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  3. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghanas health insurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. Methodology This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Results Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. Conclusions This paper has examined the policy environment and the political leverages in retrospect at arriving at Ghanas health insurance policy and design. New perspectives have been brought to the dynamics of the interactions of the 3 streams of problem, policy and politics. It provides lessons which suggest that in understanding the policy process, it is important that actors engage with the content as well as the context to understand viewpoints that may be expressed by interest groups. This will empower policy proponents to achieve easier results and limit the frustrations associated with the policy process. There are no straight and determined pathways for achieving outcomes so appreciating the evidence and basis for design, negotiation process and building coalitions along the way are skills to be mastered. PMID:22992292

  4. Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

  5. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  6. U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Caryl

    2006-01-01

    This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of

  7. The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

  8. Revisiting Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries

  9. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to

  10. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and

  11. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature

  12. Two novel arenaviruses detected in pygmy mice, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212

  13. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack

  14. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

  16. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  17. Analysis of fatal road traffic crashes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ackaah, Williams; Adonteng, David O

    2011-03-01

    The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005-2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed that pedestrians accounted for 42% of all road traffic fatalities and nearly one-third (33%) of these crashes occurred during the early night-time hours. Children alone constituted almost one-third of all pedestrian fatalities. The occupants of goods vehicles accounted for 12% of all road traffic fatalities although goods vehicles constitute just about 9% of the total motor vehicle population in Ghana. Pedestrians, especially children bear a disproportionately high share of road traffic fatalities in Ghana. The risk of being killed as a pedestrian in traffic is exacerbated during night time. Excessive vehicular speeds, inappropriate use of goods vehicles for passenger transport, excessive loading and inadequate trauma care are the key contributory risk factors to the high number of road traffic fatalities. Concerted efforts spanning education, engineering, enforcement and trauma care are needed to stem the rise in fatal crashes in Ghana. PMID:20496189

  18. Deaf Sociality and the Deaf Lutheran Church in Adamorobe, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of "deaf sociality" in Adamorobe, a village in Ghana, where the relatively high prevalence of hereditary deafness has led to dense social and spatial connections. Deaf people are part of their hearing environment particularly through family networks, and produce deaf sociality through many…

  19. Deaf Sociality and the Deaf Lutheran Church in Adamorobe, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of "deaf sociality" in Adamorobe, a village in Ghana, where the relatively high prevalence of hereditary deafness has led to dense social and spatial connections. Deaf people are part of their hearing environment particularly through family networks, and produce deaf sociality through many

  20. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  1. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on

  2. An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of

  3. Malaria imported from Ghana by returning gold miners, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiaonong; Yu, Hongjie; Yang, Weizhong

    2015-05-01

    During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805

  4. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

  5. Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Musah; Preston, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)

  6. Gender, Lineage, and Fertility-Related Outcomes in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F.

    2005-01-01

    A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision

  7. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  8. Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexander Kyei; Aboagye, Samuel Kwadwo

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices…

  9. The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against

  10. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  11. Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors

  12. Secondary Education in Ghana: Private Enterprise and Social Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibby, John; Peil, Margaret

    1974-01-01

    Evidence from Ghana is presented to show the possibility of downward mobility of elite children through lack of success in a selective educational system and the ability of children from lower status homes to use this system to overcome their initial disadvantages. (Author)

  13. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time

  14. Iceberg Lake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On Iceberg Lake in Glacier National Park, ice from the glacier is breaking up and melting at a rapid rate.  Cold, glacier fed waters provide crucial habitat for native aquatic species such as trout, and as the ice is disappearing, so are the ideal habitats to sustain native ecosystems.  ...

  15. Premarital relationships and livelihoods in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankomah, A

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews with a sample of 400 single women aged 18-25 years from the Fante ethnic group in Cape Coast, Ghana, in 1991, and on focus groups. This case study illustrates the importance of economic and living arrangement support expected from partners in premarital relationships. Support may be for living and maintenance ('chopmoney', provisions, household items, and rent); for financial security (provision of capital); and for clothing and hairdressing. Women did not always require economic support in premarital relationships. Women expect boyfriends to provide 'chopmoney' (money for food and general upkeep) and contribute some money for the rent. Only 36% of sexually active women expected their boyfriends to supply food provisions. Premarital sexual relationships are used to obtain start-up capital. The author refers to evidence that senior government officials engaged in sexual transactions with clients before loans and credit facilities were offered. 87% of sexually experienced women expected their partners to pay for at least part of clothing expenses. The study revealed that there was considerable disparity between women's expectations and actual receipt of economic support. 56% desired, but only 36% received, 'chopmoney' in full. 40% expected their partners to pay for household furnishings in full, while only 10% did so. 55% expected capital, but only 15% received it. The three most frequently received benefits in full were hair dressing, shoes, and dresses. Men provided most non-negotiable items as a means of "boosting their egos." Many young women rely on the support of men in order to improve their status. Ghanaian men control financial resources and economic power. Mothers of adolescent daughters encourage premarital sexual behavior. Prostitution is considered different from sexual exchange relationships. It is argued that gender inequalities and domestic abuse are perpetuated through sexual exchange relationships. PMID:12347714

  16. Condoms too costly for Ghana's youth.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The Red Cross in Ghana has launched a new project to use peer volunteers aged 14-25 years for educating trade apprentices in and around the capital city. The project has funding from the World Health Organization. The aim is to open conversation about taboo subjects, such as HIV infections and reproductive health. A male and female peer educator hold workshops for about 10 apprentices each week for four weeks. Educators use real-life drama role plays to teach women how to say no to unsafe sex and to expand knowledge of HIV infections and other sexually transmitted diseases. An attempt is made to assess the teenaged apprentices knowledge of AIDS. The risk game is used to test existing knowledge. Peer educators give each participant a card, which is marked either high, low, or no risk. Apprentices are asked to match cards with a series of statements, such as sharing food or sleeping with someone who had HIV infection. Findings from a pre-test reveal that over 50% of the apprentices did not consider themselves at risk of contracting the virus. One outcome of discussion was that appendices found that condoms were too costly. Some apprentices earned only about 12 cents per day, but condoms sold for 9 cents for 3 condoms. Role play scenarios involve boyfriends or associates requesting unprotected sex. In one such role play, it was discovered that girls were exchanging sex for money or gifts without considering it prostitution. At the final meeting the story is told of a girl who contracts HIV. A repeat customer eventually invites her to a party, where she is given alcohol to drink. The customer forces her to have unprotected sex. Years later at the birth of her first child within marriage, it is discovered that the baby was infected with HIV. Discussion follows about what went wrong and about transmission and risk. PMID:12291110

  17. Molecular epidemiological studies on animal trypanosomiases in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background African trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted between mammalian hosts by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or T. brucei gambiense, while African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is caused mainly by T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae,T. evansi and T. brucei brucei. Trypanosomiasis is of public health importance in humans and is also the major constraint for livestock productivity in sub-Saharan African countries. Scanty information exists about the trypanosomiasis status in Ghana especially regarding molecular epidemiology. Therefore, this study intended to apply molecular tools to identify and characterize trypanosomes in Ghana. Methods A total of 219 tsetse flies, 248 pigs and 146 cattle blood samples were collected from Adidome and Koforidua regions in Ghana in 2010. Initial PCR assays were conducted using the internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) primers, which can detect most of the pathogenic trypanosome species and T. vivax-specific cathepsin L-like gene primers. In addition, species- or subgroup-specific PCRs were performed for T. b. rhodesiense, T. b. gambiense, T. evansi and three subgroups of T. congolense. Results The overall prevalence of trypanosomes were 17.4% (38/219), 57.5% (84/146) and 28.6% (71/248) in tsetse flies, cattle and pigs, respectively. T. congolense subgroup-specific PCR revealed that T. congolense Savannah (52.6%) and T. congolense Forest (66.0%) were the endemic subgroups in Ghana with 18.6% being mixed infections. T. evansi was detected in a single tsetse fly. Human infective trypanosomes were not detected in the tested samples. Conclusion Our results showed that there is a high prevalence of parasites in both tsetse flies and livestock in the study areas in Ghana. This enhances the need to strengthen control policies and institute measures that help prevent the spread of the parasites. PMID:23025330

  18. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications. PMID:26771120

  19. Laboratory-based nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Opintan, Japheth A; Newman, Mercy J; Arhin, Reuben E; Donkor, Eric S; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Mills-Pappoe, William

    2015-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A key target in this intervention is surveillance for local and national action. Data on AMR in Ghana are limited, and monitoring of AMR is nonexistent. We sought to generate baseline data on AMR, and to assess the readiness of Ghana in laboratory-based surveillance. Biomedical scientists in laboratories across Ghana with capacity to perform bacteriological culture were selected and trained. In-house standard operating protocols were used to perform microbiological investigations on clinical specimens. Additional microbiological tests and data analyses were performed at a centralized laboratory. Surveillance data were stored and analyzed using WHONET program files. A total of 24 laboratories participated in the training, and 1,598 data sets were included in the final analysis. A majority of the bacterial species were isolated from outpatients (963 isolates; 60.3%). Urine (617 isolates; 38.6%) was the most common clinical specimen cultured, compared to blood (100 isolates; 6.3%). Ten of 18 laboratories performed blood culture. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli (27.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (14.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), Streptococcus spp. (2.3%), and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (0.6%). Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, and over 80% of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing. Minimum inhibitory concentration levels at 50% and at 90% for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and amikacin on selected multidrug-resistant bacteria species ranged between 2 µg/mL and >256 µg/mL. A range of clinical bacterial isolates were resistant to important commonly used antimicrobials in the country, necessitating an effective surveillance to continuously monitor AMR in Ghana. With local and international support, Ghana can participate in global AMR surveillance. PMID:26604806

  20. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

  1. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The limnology program provides information on key environmental factors that influence the food chain and fish of the Great Lakes. The annual monitoring of the Great Lakes began in 1983 for Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie; in 1986 in Lake Ontario; and in 1992 for Lake Superior. T...

  2. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

  3. Community awareness of stroke in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community awareness of stroke, especially the risk factors and warning signs is important in the control of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about community awareness of stroke though the brunt of stroke is currently borne in this region. The aim of the study was to evaluate stroke awareness in Accra (capital city of Ghana) particularly, the risk factors and warning signs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving systematic sampling of 63 households in each of the 11 sub metropolitan areas of Accra. A structured questionnaire was used to collect stroke awareness data from respondents randomly sampled in the selected households. Logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the main outcome variables including recognition of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs and the organ affected by stroke. Results Only 40% (n = 277) of the 693 respondents correctly identified the brain as the organ affected in stroke. Similarly, less than half of the respondents could recognize any of the established stroke risk factors as well as any of the established stroke warning signs. Over 70% (n > 485) of the respondents either believed that stroke is a preventable disease, or lifestyle alterations can be made to reduce the risk of stroke, or stroke requires emergency treatment. In multivariate analysis, predictors of stroke awareness were: age <50 years (OR = 0.56, CI = 0.35-0.92, p = 0.021), presence of a stroke risk factor (OR = 2.37, CI = 1.52-3.71, p < 0.001) and Christian Religion (OR = 14.86, CI = 1.37-161.01, p = 0.03). Conclusion Though stroke is perceived as a serious and preventable disease in Accra, community awareness of the risk factors and warning signs is sub-optimal. This indicates that community-based education programs to increase public awareness of stroke could contribute to decreasing the risk of stroke and to increasing the speed of hospital presentation after stroke onset. PMID:24559414

  4. Scientific equity: experiments in laboratory education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove

    2013-12-01

    During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa. PMID:24783491

  5. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  6. Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While

  7. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to…

  8. What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Christopher

    This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

  9. Determinants of Psychological Help-Seeking Intentions of University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Non-utilization of mental health resources is a well-documented problem among adolescents and young adults. However, little is known about the psychological help-seeking intentions of young adults in Ghana. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of psychological help-seeking intentions among university students in Accra, Ghana

  10. The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2009-01-01

    This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period

  11. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to

  12. Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

  13. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

  14. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one

  15. Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,

  16. What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Christopher

    This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper

  17. The Northeast Ghana Savannah Project--A Case Study in Project Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, W. Gerald; Johnson, Jack D.

    This report examines a project design for land degradation problems in the northern and upper regions of Ghana. The project was jointly sponsored by the Ghana Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Agency for International Development. The council is responsible for coordinating the activities of 10 independent research institutes.

  18. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to

  19. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  20. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  1. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  2. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  3. Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2013-12-01

    Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

  4. Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghanas National Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghanas National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

  5. Perception of university students in Ghana about emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Frank; Awini, Elizabeth; Clerk, Christine

    2002-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) refers to methods that women can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, method failure, or incorrect use. There is growing worldwide acceptance and promotion of EC as a measure to reduce the level of unwanted pregnancies and, hence, unsafe abortions. The potential effect of EC in this regard could be most evident in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, the Ministry of Health has since 1996 included EC in its reproductive health service policy and standards. The Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana is the only agency involved in the promotion of EC in the country. Very little is known about societal perception of EC. We undertook a study to assess knowledge and attitude toward EC among a sample of students at the University of Ghana. We used a two-page, self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study among students chosen by random sampling. The aspects of EC assessed included level of knowledge, extent of use, common traditional methods of emergency contraception, as well as socially and culturally acceptable ways to promote EC in Ghana. We also assessed how the availability of EC could influence the use of condoms among male respondents. Less than half (43.2%) of the 194 respondents (88 males and 106 females) had heard of modern emergency contraceptive methods. Postinor-2, a dedicated emergency contraceptive product, which was already on the Ghanaian market, was known to 1.5% of respondents. Only 11.3% of respondents indicated correctly the recommended time within which emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are to be taken after unprotected sex. Taking concentrated sugar solutions, having an enema, and douching were commonly used traditional methods of EC. More than half (55.0%) of the male respondents indicated that they would either "certainly" or "probably" reduce how often they used condoms once they knew that EC was available. Almost all (97.4%) the respondents wanted to learn more about EC. The indications from this study are that the promotion of EC in Ghana is desired and must be encouraged. The fact that EC does not offer protection against sexually transmitted infections should always be emphasized. PMID:12169377

  6. Rediscovery of lake balls in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.; Owens, Randall W.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time in 70 years, the occurrence of a 'lake ball' in Lake Michigan is here reported in the literature. According to a published system of classification, the object we collected in 1978 was a 'false' lake ball. Dissection revealed that it was colonized by 5 chironomid larvae and 162 oligochaetes. The species and numerical proportions of the oligochaetes indicated that it was formed in or near the mouth of a eutrophic tributary rather than in the open waters of Lake Michigan where it was found. Because of their mobility, false lake balls may be ecologically important, serving as natural vehicles for the dispersal of invertebrates.

  7. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  8. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  9. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  10. The hydrochemical framework of surface water basins in southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark

    2009-04-01

    Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.

  11. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  12. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding the selenium-free [NiFe]-hydrogenases in the archaeon Methanococcus voltae involves positive and negative control elements.

    PubMed Central

    Noll, I; Mller, S; Klein, A

    1999-01-01

    Methanococcus voltae harbors genetic information for two pairs of homologous [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Two of the enzymes contain selenocysteine, while the other two gene groups encode apparent isoenzymes that carry cysteinyl residues in the homologous positions. The genes coding for the selenium-free enzymes, frc and vhc, are expressed only under selenium limitation. They are transcribed out of a common intergenic region. A series of deletions made in the intergenic region localized a common negative regulatory element for the vhc and frc promoters as well as two activator elements that are specific for each of the two transcription units. Repeated sequences, partially overlapping the frc promoter, were also detected. Mutations in these repeated heptanucleotide sequences led to a weak induction of a reporter gene under the control of the frc promoters in the presence of selenium. This result suggests that the heptamer repeats contribute to the negative regulation of the frc transcription unit. PMID:10430564

  14. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria. PMID:22676841

  15. An advanced practice international health initiative: the Ghana Health Mission.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A; McKenry, L

    2001-07-01

    Nursing faculty members are responsible for meeting service, teaching, scholarship, and developing international relations requirements for tenure and promotion in most universities. The profession of nursing requires that nursing faculty, especially nurse practitioner faculty, maintain clinical excellence and prepare culturally competent graduates. The question remains, how can we do it all? A unique, advanced practice, international health initiative in Ghana West Africa was developed to help provide health promotion to a community in need. It has evolved into a project that has facilitated the achievement of those aforementioned requirements of university faculty. PMID:11458320

  16. Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

  17. Balancing nurturance, cost and time: complementary feeding in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a picture of the general patterns of complementary feeding behaviours in urban Ghana. A focused ethnographic study protocol for assessing complementary feeding developed for the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition was used to collect data from caregivers of children 6-24 months of age. We examined the multiple factors that influence the selection of foods for infants and young children in this urban setting, and found that economic factors, health beliefs and other nurturing-related values, access to food and issues of convenience all play important roles. We conclude that the interactions of nurturance, cost and time are vectors that affect feeding decisions. PMID:21929636

  18. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities. PMID:25562343

  19. [Human activities, hydro-agricultural management and urinary schistosomiasis. Methodological approach and results (a preliminary study in Upper-Volta)].

    PubMed

    Le Bras, M; Faucher, P; Giap, G; Meric, D; Commenges, D; Villenave, D; Camara, S; Gatheron, C; Appriou, M

    1982-01-01

    In the schistosomiasis endemic sub-sahelian region, a study of the prevalence of the disease was carried out on three different areas: the highest was around a small river, the lowest in the hydro-agricultural management region, mean prevalence was noted around a natural lake. Human activities have been classified with regards to the areas of transmission. Activity is closely linked to prevalence. For the populations, symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis (Rudzenga) constitute a real disease, traditional healers are the masters of earth (Tengsoba), water has hardly any importance in transmission. PMID:7201891

  20. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. Lithological and structural characteristics of the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Interpretation of acoustic televiewer images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunze, Sabine; Wonik, Thomas

    An impact event always creates a cloud of ejecta generated through excavation of the target. Subsequent in-filling of the void by crater-fill deposits provides a record of post-impact processes. Full-core digital photographic scans of core segments from borehole LB-07 in the Bosumtwi impact crater provide a complete record of the in-fill process. The shape, orientation, and size of clasts within the impact breccia were measured using a best-fit ellipsoid approach. Clast size and variance, together with clast orientation data, suggest the impact breccias at Bosumtwi can be divided into a simple two-fold subdivision that loosely agrees with the lithological zonation of a lower monomict breccia overlain by a polymict breccia. The lower unit is characterized by a uniform and finer-grained clast size together with a uniform flat-lying clast orientation. The boundary between the two zones is defined by a sharp increase in clast size. The upper zone shows an average increase in clast size with decreasing depth, but full grain size spectrum together with increased grain size deviation suggest that this is a result of mixing between two populations with different grain size distribution. The main population of clasts shows an incremental decrease of clast size with decreasing depth. The upper zone also contains weakly defined shallowly dipping clast fabrics, which may be suggestive of horizontal transport or deposition onto an inclined surface.

  2. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.

  3. Lake-Effect Snowfall over Lake Michigan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braham, Roscoe R., Jr.; Dungey, Maureen J.

    1995-05-01

    Aircraft measurements of snow particle size spectra from 36 flights on 26 snowy days are used to estimate snow precipitation rates over Lake Michigan. Results show that average rates during 14 wind-parallel-type lake-effect storms increased from the upwind shore to about midlake and then were essentially uniform (1.5 2 mm day1, liquid water equivalent) to the downwind shore. Snow from midlake bands and shoreline bands maximized over the lake. The position of the maximum during these types of lake-effect storms depends on meteorological conditions. In any given case it may be near either shore or anywhere between them. This study combines 12 cases of midlake and shoreline bands. The resulting cross-lake snow profile shows a broad maximum reaching over 4 mm day1 near midlake. The single sample maximum snow precipitation rate encountered in this study was 77.7 mm day1. The average cross-lake profile from combining 26 cases of lake-effect storms shows that snowfall into the lake is considerably greater than one would expect from a linear interpolation between values measured along either shore.An attempt is made to estimate the average increase in snow over lake Michigan resulting from combined lake-effect and large-scale cyclonic storms. The result is interesting but not considered very reliable because it depends upon the relative frequencies of different types of lake-effect storms as well as overtake snow rates from large-scale cyclonic storms; neither is well known.

  4. Lake Michigan Sand Waves

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Calm Lake Michigan morning while sampling dead and dying fish for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). This virus has recently emerged in the Great Lakes and caused severe epidemics in many fish species....

  5. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  6. Cladophora Along Lake Michigan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large patches of Cladophora, a green algae, lining the shore of Lake Michigan. Accumulation of Cladophora in shoreline waters is believed to be linked to avian botulism outbreaks, which have recently increased in the Great Lakes. ...

  7. Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    2000-01-01

    Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)

  8. Review: Abortion care in Ghana: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords Ghana and abortion and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  9. Further observations on Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus rohlfsi (Clessin) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Fergus S.

    1962-01-01

    Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes. PMID:20604118

  10. The first private sector health insurance company in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huff-Rousselle, M; Akuamoah-Boateng, J

    1998-01-01

    This article analyses the development of Ghana's first private sector health insurance company, the Nationwide Medical Insurance Company. Taking both policy and practical considerations into account (stakeholders' perspectives, economic viability, equity and efficiency), it is structured around key questions which help to define the position and roles of stakeholders--the insurance agency itself, contributors, beneficiaries, and providers--and how they relate to one another and the insurance scheme. These relationships will to a large extent determine Nationwide's long-term success or failure. By creating a unique alliance between physician providers and private sector companies, Nationwide has used employers' interest in cost containment and physicians' interest in expanding their client base as an entre into the virgin territory of health insurance, and created a hybrid variety of private sector insurance with some of the attributes of a health maintenance organization or managed care. The case study is unusual in that, while public sector programs are often open to academic scrutiny, researchers have rarely had access to detailed data on the establishment of a single private sector insurance company in a developing country. Given that Ghana is planning to launch a national health insurance plan, the article concludes by considering what the experience of this private sector initiative might have to offer public sector planners. PMID:10185507

  11. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  12. Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-06-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

  13. Spatial and demographic patterns of Cholera in Ashanti region - Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholera has claimed many lives throughout history and it continues to be a global threat, especially in countries in Africa. The disease is listed as one of three internationally quarantinable diseases by the World Health organization, along with plague and yellow fever. Between 1999 and 2005, Africa alone accounted for about 90% of over 1 million reported cholera cases worldwide. In Ghana, there have been over 27000 reported cases since 1999. In one of the affected regions in Ghana, Ashanti region, massive outbreaks and high incidences of cholera have predominated in urban and overcrowded communities. Results A GIS based spatial analysis and statistical analysis, carried out to determine clustering of cholera, showed that high cholera rates are clustered around Kumasi Metropolis (the central part of the region), with Moran's Index = 0.271 and P < 0.001. Furthermore, A Mantel-Haenszel Chi square for trend analysis reflected a direct spatial relationship between cholera and urbanization (?2 = 2995.5, P < 0.0001), overcrowding (?2 = 1757.2, P < 0.0001), and an inverse relationship between cholera and order of neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis (?2 = 831.38, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The results suggest that high urbanization, high overcrowding, and neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis are the most important predictors of cholera in Ashanti region. PMID:18700026

  14. Negotiating safer sex among married women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence across sub-Saharan Africa shows married women face heightened risks of contracting HIV compared to the never-married. Vulnerability of married women to HIV infection is linked to a number of factors including their inability to negotiate safer sex, inter alia, asking their husbands to use condoms or refusing sexual intercourse even in high risk situations. This study examined what influences married women's ability to say they can ask their sexual partners to use condoms or refuse sexual intercourse. Demographic and Health Survey data from 2,950 married women were analyzed using complementary log-log models. Married women in Ghana were more likely to say they can ask their husbands to use condoms when they know condoms can protect against HIV transmission and had been tested for their HIV serostatus. Also, women who know sexual abstinence can protect against HIV transmission were more likely to say they can refuse sex. Wealthier and highly educated women were more likely to say they can refuse to have sex with their husbands or ask them to use condoms, compared to poorer and less educated women. It is recommended that policy makers promote specific knowledge related to HIV prevention (condom use, HIV testing), while improving the social and economic circumstances of married women in Ghana. PMID:22552707

  15. Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana: Mapping Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    VERUTES, GREGORY M.; FIOCCO, MAGDALENA BENZA; WEEKS, JOHN R.; COULTER, LLOYD L.

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of our research project is to understand the spatial inequality in health in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We also utilize GIS technology to measure the association of adverse health and mortality outcomes with neighborhood ecology. We approached this in variety of ways, including multivariate analysis of imagery classification and census data. A key element in the research has been to obtain in-person interviews from 3,200 female respondents in the city, and then relate health data obtained from the women to the ecology of the neighborhoods in which they live. Detailed maps are a requirement for these field-based activities. However, commercially available street maps of Accra tend to be highly generalized and not very useful for the kind of health and social science research being undertaken by this project, The purpose of this paper is to describe street maps that were created for the projects office in downtown Accra and used to locate households of respondents. They incorporate satellite imagery with other geographic layers to provide the most important visual interpretation of the linkage between imagery and neighborhoods. Ultimately, through a detailed analysis of spatial disparities in health in Accra, Ghana, we aim to provide a model for the interpretation of urban health inequalities in cities of urbanizing and often poor countries. PMID:23505395

  16. Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae) from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pei?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

    2014-01-01

    New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Ghana are presented. One new subgenus, Vietsclio n. subgen., is erected to accommodate Monatractides uniscutatus (K. Viets, 1925), characterized by the presence of swimming setae on leg II-IV. Seven new species are described: Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) erato n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) euterpe n. sp., M. (M.) melpomene n. sp., M. (M.) polyhymnia n. sp., M. (M.) thalia n. sp., M. (M.) terpsichore n. sp., M. (M.) urania n. sp. Torrenticola calliope is established as the new name for previously reported populations of T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956 from Ethiopia. The first description of the female is given for Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914) and M. (Vietsclio) uniscutatus K. Viets 1925. The subgenus Allotorrenticola Cook, 1967, previously known only from Asia, is reported for the first time from the Afrotropical region. Additionally, first records for Ghana are given for Torrenticola anomallela Cook, 1966, T. bomiensis Cook, 1966, T. fasciata (K. Viets, 1916), T. motasi Cook, 1966, T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956, Pseudotorrenticola mitchelli Cook, 1966, Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914), M. (M.) convexiscutata (K. Viets, 1958), M. (M.) koenikei (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) stigeophora (Cook, 1966), M. (M.) ventriosus (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) microstoma Koenike, 1898-species complex, and M. uniscutatus (K. Viets 1925). PMID:24943805

  17. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  18. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  19. Household dietary practices and family nutritional status in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying household dietary practices, quality of diets and family nutritional status of rural Ghana. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessments and anthropometry was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 10 in Windows. Means and standard deviations were generated for continuous variables and frequency distribution for categorical variables. Most women consumed meals three times a day but only a few (12.5%) cooked all three meals at home. Breakfast and lunch were the two main meals purchased from food vendors. The most frequently consumed food items on daily basis were the starchy staples, maize, fish, pepper, onion, tomato and palm fruits. The nutritional qualities of diets were poor in terms of calcium and the B-vitamins. A significant proportion of the women were nutritionally at risk of being either underweight (12%), overweight (17%) or obese (5%). For adequate nutrition in this population, nutrition education intervention programs aimed at improving nutrient intake through improved diet diversity and increased use of local foods rich in calcium and the B-vitamins needs to be undertaken. There is also the need to intensify education on excessive weight gain and its attendant health problems in the area. PMID:20126363

  20. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  1. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  2. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students

  3. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  4. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.

  5. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     ... Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent ...

  6. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  7. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows the Lake Nyos pipe ...

  8. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. A small CO2 cloud from Lake Monoun k...

  9. Progressivity of health care financing and incidence of service benefits in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akazili, James; Garshong, Bertha; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Di

    2012-03-01

    The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme was introduced in Ghana in 2004 as a pro-poor financing strategy aimed at removing financial barriers to health care and protecting all citizens from catastrophic health expenditures, which currently arise due to user fees and other direct payments. A comprehensive assessment of the financing and benefit incidence of health services in Ghana was undertaken. These analyses drew on secondary data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey (2005/2006) and from an additional household survey which collected data in 2008 in six districts covering the three main ecological zones of Ghana. Findings show that Ghana's health care financing system is progressive, driven largely by the progressivity of taxes. The national health insurance levy (which is part of VAT) is mildly progressive while NHI contributions by the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of total benefits from both public and private health services is pro-rich. However, public sector district-level hospital inpatient care is pro-poor and benefits of primary-level health care services are relatively evenly distributed. For Ghana to attain an equitable health system and fully achieve universal coverage, it must ensure that the poor, most of whom are not currently covered by the NHI, are financially protected, and it must address the many access barriers to health care. PMID:22388496

  10. Sociodemographic Determinants of Malaria among Under-Five Children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel Harrenson; Cobblah, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana. PMID:25580349

  11. Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. PMID:23847431

  12. Disappearing Arctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Sheng, Y; MacDonald, G M; Hinzman, L D

    2005-06-01

    Historical archived satellite images were compared with contemporary satellite data to track ongoing changes in more than 10,000 large lakes in rapidly warming Siberia. A widespread decline in lake abundance and area has occurred since 1973, despite slight precipitation increases to the region. The spatial pattern of lake disappearance suggests (i) that thaw and "breaching" of permafrost is driving the observed losses, by enabling rapid lake draining into the subsurface; and (ii) a conceptual model in which high-latitude warming of permafrost triggers an initial but transitory phase of lake and wetland expansion, followed by their widespread disappearance. PMID:15933192

  13. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by undersize (less than 17 inches) lake trout.

  14. Paleomagnetic and Mineral-Magnetic Results From the Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. W.; Heil, C. W.; Peck, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi is an impact crater lake located at 6.5N and 1.5W in Ghana. The Bosumtwi impact event and the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field generated by the event have an age of 1.07 Myr. The lake contains an approximately 300m sedimentary section that provides a nearly continuous stratigraphy of this interval. In addition, the majority of the section is annually laminated. Advantages of magnetic studies of Lake Bosumtwi sediments include: (1) duplicate drill holes; (2) high sedimentation rates; (3) laminations allow assessmet of core disturbance; and (4) sediments record polarity transitions, excusions, and possibly paleointensity at a low-latitude site; and (5) Milankovitch and sub- Milankovitch scale paleoclimate variations. Challenges include: (1) low-latitude site location makes it difficult to recognize excursions and polarity transitions; (2) anoxia that produces annual laminations also causes some reductive diagenesis; and (3) some intervals are weakly magnetic and have noisy data. Overall, with respect to its magnetic record, Lake Bosumtwi is neither a "silk purse," nor a "sows ear." We will detail our efforts to maximize the former and minimize the latter.

  15. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  16. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  17. Optical and thermoluminescence dating of Middle Stone Age and Kintampo bearing sediments at Birimi, a multi-component archaeological site in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quickert, Nicole A.; Godfrey-Smith, Dorothy I.; Casey, Joanna L.

    2003-05-01

    We report the first luminescence ages for the archeological and geological sediments forming the substrate of the Birimi archaeological site in the Northern Region of Ghana. The site's significance rests on the fact that it contains a rich collection of artifact assemblages representative of three distinct cultures, and that, on the basis of artifact typology, the earliest assemblage is diagnostic of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) . In situ occurrences of MSA artifacts are found at over 1 m below today's surface. They are overlain by a ceramic-rich complex of a sedentary or semi-sendentary Later Stone Age culture known as the Kintampo. The western half of the site is dominated by the industrial remains of Iron Age smelting activity. Elemental, mineralogical, and sedimentological analysis of the cultural and sub-cultural sedimentary horizons at the site revealed at least three distinct lithostratigraphic units. The quartz sediments are derived from the sandstone of the Gambaga escarpment, mass wasted and accreted fluvially at a rate of 3.2 cm/ka, forming a wide terrace at Birimi. Silts and finer fractions derive from windblown dust, likely from White Volta River and granitic sources to the north. Soil forming processes and wide fluctuations in moisture have progressively reduced the sediments at depth to the resistant quartz and kaolinite, with rich iron oxide coatings, and created two ironstone horizons composed of goethite-cemented quartz nodules. Multiple aliquot green-light stimulated optical ages for 125-150 ?m quartz grains yielded ages of 23.62.9 and 40.811.8 ka for the MSA-bearing sediments, and 58.415.3 ka for the base of the terrace. Radiocarbon ages on charcoal from Kintampo-bearing units are 3.36-3.83 ka cal BP, and are supported by thermoluminescence (TL) ages on pottery sherds and burnt house daub fragments of this cultural complex. A 0.4 ka age on sediment from the site's surface confirms that the quartz zeroes well when exposed to natural light. Sediments bearing the Kintampo artifacts, however, yielded ages of 7.8-16.9 ka. These ages were obtained on sediments from large pits, some over 50 cm deep, and they deviate only slightly from the ages expected for naturally aggraded sediments at these depths. We conclude, therefore, that extensive digging of pits by the Kintampo dwellers was followed by rapid refilling, and that the bulk mobilization of the matrix did not permit the sedimentary quartz grains to experience any appreciable zeroing at that time.

  18. The indirect effects of subsidised healthcare in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Ansah, Evelyn K

    2015-11-01

    Social networks provide a channel through which health policies and programmes can affect those with close social ties to the intended beneficiaries. We provide experimental evidence on the indirect effects of heavily subsidised healthcare. By exploiting data on 2151 households from a randomised study conducted in a rural district of Ghana in 2005, we estimate the extent to which social networks, defined by religion, influence the uptake of primary care services. We find that people socially connected to households with subsidised care are less likely to use primary care services despite the fact that the direct effect of the intervention is positive. We extend the empirical analysis to consider the implications of these changes in behaviour for welfare but find no evidence of indirect effects on child health and healthcare spending. In the context of this study, the findings highlight the potential for healthcare subsidies to have unintended consequences. PMID:26409167

  19. Wound Care in Buruli Ulcer Disease in Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002

  20. Groundwater resources of the Birim basin in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asomaning, G.

    1992-11-01

    An attempt to assess ground water resources of a medium size (4775 km 2) drainage basin located on the Crystalline Complex in southern Ghana is presented. Mean annual rainfall 1578 mm, total river discharge 1,886,588 064 m 3 a -1, surface runoff 1,320,611,645 m 3 a -1, base flow 565,976,419 m 3 a -1, were determined from 13 meteorological and 1 river gauging stations located within the basin. From these data, the total runoff coefficient was 36%, surface runoff coefficient was 25% and the base flow coefficient was 11%. Then, Permanent Water Reserve, Qt = 5,333.20 106 m 3 and Recoverable Water Reserve, 2,133.28 10 6 m 3 a -1 for the aquifer of the basement complex aquifer of the basin were calculated from 42 boreholes.

  1. Development of an emergency nursing training curriculum in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: (a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model, (b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and (c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161

  2. Light trap collections of ovipositing Simulium squamosum in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Service, M W

    1979-10-01

    At a site near Boti waterfalls in southern Ghana a total of 14 644 female and two male Simulium squamosum were caught in four nights in Monks Wood light traps. The highest catch, of 6520 females, was obtained in a single night with an ultraviolet light tube that had a one-second flash rate. About 12% of the females caught were gravid and dissections of non-gravids showed that they had oviposited very recently. The traps were clearly catching females before or soon after oviposition. The same traps caught none or very few blackflies when placed in two other localities near Akosombo. Trap location appeared very important in sampling ovipositing females of S. squamosum. PMID:534449

  3. Malaria prophylaxis in long-term expatriate mineworkers in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fegan, D; Glennon, J

    1993-08-01

    The role of malaria chemoprophylaxis for long-term expatriates has not been re-evaluated since the emergence of widespread multidrug resistance. A survey of 106 expatriates working in a mine in Ghana (holoendemic for malaria) was conducted to determine the compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis. Overall 64 per cent took regular chemoprophylaxis. Of the long-term expatriates (5 or more years in areas with holoendemic malaria), 48.4 per cent either took malaria prophylaxis very irregularly or not at all. The main reasons for failing to comply were fear of long-term side effects and conflicting advice on prophylaxis. This reluctance to take long-term chemoprophylaxis highlights the need to re-emphasise the importance of anti-mosquito measures, prompt treatment of fevers, and perhaps consider abandoning chemoprophylaxis in those expatriate workers with ready access to hospital care. PMID:8400208

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMERGENCY NURSING TRAINING CURRICULUM IN GHANA

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161

  5. Tropheryma whipplei in children with diarrhoea in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Vinnemeier, C D; Klupp, E M; Krumkamp, R; Rolling, T; Fischer, N; Owusu-Dabo, E; Addo, M M; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Ksmaier, J; Aepfelbacher, M; Cramer, J P; May, J; Tannich, E

    2016-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei has been hypothesized to be able to cause diarrhoea, but data from young children are scarce. In this hospital-based case-control study 534 stool samples of children aged between 2 months and 15 years from rural Ghana were analysed for the presence of T.whipplei. Overall stool prevalence of T.whipplei was high (27.5%). Although there was no difference in T.whipplei carriage overall between cases and controls, cases aged between 0 and 12 months carried T.whipplei in their stool twice as often as controls without diarrhoea. The results from this study may support the hypothesis that T.whipplei can cause diarrhoea in first-time infection. PMID:26456475

  6. The development of community water supplies in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, W. R. W.

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  7. Quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli from Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is under-documented and commensal Escherichia coli can be used as indicator organisms to study the resistance in the community. We sought to determine the prevalence of resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials with particular focus on the quinolones, which have recently been introduced in parts of Africa, including Ghana. Results Forty (13.7%) of 293 E. coli isolates evaluated were nalidixic acid-resistant. Thirteen (52%) of 2006 and 2007 isolates and 10 (66.7%) of 2008 isolates were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. All but one of the quinolone-resistant isolates were resistant to three or more other antimicrobial classes. Sequencing the quinolone-resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC, which encode quinolone targets, revealed that 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli harboured a substitution at position 83 of the gyrA gene product and 20 of these isolates had other gyrA and/or parC substitutions. Horizontally-acquired quinolone-resistance genes qnrB1, qnrB2, qnrS1 or qepA were detected in 12 of the isolates. In spite of considerable overall diversity among E. coli from Ghana, as evaluated by multilocus sequence typing, 15 quinolone-resistant E. coli belonged to sequence type complex 10. Five of these isolates carried qnrS1 alleles. Conclusions Quinolone-resistant E. coli are commonly present in the faecal flora of Accra residents. The isolates have evolved resistance through multiple mechanisms and belong to very few lineages, suggesting clonal expansion. Containment strategies to limit the spread of quinolone-resistant E. coli need to be deployed to conserve quinolone effectiveness and promote alternatives to their use. PMID:21352598

  8. Government policy and infant health: options for Ghana.

    PubMed

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A

    1989-01-01

    Ghana holds an infant mortality rate (IMR) greater than 60/1000 live births, suggesting a country under poor economic and health care conditions. Despite the country's 1978 Ministry of Health Primary Health Care program, and governmental expenditures on health care in excess of 9% of total governmental expenditures overall, health conditions have grown worse. The author recommends corrective measure to implement. The IMR has halted its decline begun in the 1960s, and may once again be on the rise. The global recession of the early 1980s, followed by Ghana's 1983 economic recovery program have been cited as causing the turnabout in health progress. The recovery program's focus on productivity and efficiency has especially adversely affected society's vulnerable groups. While PAMSCAD, a government program designed to ease the social costs of structural adjustment, is mentioned as a general positive step, 3 interdependent and necessary interventions are provided. The 1st and most important intervention is the protection of family income through alternative employment and the protection of special groups. Village-level organization should also exist for development, agricultural extension, cooperatives, and marketing ventures. Finally, improvements at the health service level should include special training of technical and management personnel along with adoption of an essential-drug policy. Where user fees are charged, attention should be made to provide quality services while ensuring that accrued fees return to the health sector for the benefit of needy populations. At the broader policy level, policymakers must understand that efforts to reduce child mortality and improve child health will be for naught in the absence of efforts to protect against family-level deprivation. Attention to this concern should be taken where structural adjustment is required in other countries. PMID:2603202

  9. The politics of tuberculosis and HIV service integration in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2014-09-01

    The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. PMID:25042543

  10. Migration, sexual networks, and HIV in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298

  11. Informing evidence-based policies for ageing and health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Byles, Julie; Aquah, Charles; Amofah, George; Biritwum, Richard; Panisset, Ulysses; Goodwin, James; Beard, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Ghanas population is ageing. In 2011, the Government of Ghana requested technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to help revise national policies on ageing and health. Approach We applied WHOs knowledge translation framework on ageing and health to assist evidence based policy-making in Ghana. First, we defined priority problems and health system responses by performing a country assessment of epidemiologic data, policy review, site visits and interviews of key informants. Second, we gathered evidence on effective health systems interventions in low- middle- and high-income countries. Third, key stakeholders were engaged in a policy dialogue. Fourth, policy briefs were developed and presented to the Ghana Health Services. Local setting Ghana has a well-structured health system that can adapt to meet the health care needs of older people. Relevant changes Six problems were selected as priorities, however after the policy dialogue, only five were agreed as priorities by the stakeholders. The key stakeholders drafted evidence-based policy recommendations that were used to develop policy briefs. The briefs were presented to the Ghana Health Service in 2014. Lessons learnt The framework can be used to build local capacity on evidence-informed policy-making. However, knowledge translation tools need further development to be used in low-income countries and in the field of ageing. The terms and language of the tools need to be adapted to local contexts. Evidence for health system interventions on ageing populations is very limited, particularly for low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25558107

  12. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  13. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  15. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,

  16. Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98: Issues of Equity and Efficiency. Working Paper No. 2579.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao

    This paper analyzes efficiency and equity issues in public expenditures on education and health in Ghana during the 1990s. Data were drawn from reports of the ministries of education and health and from household surveys conducted 1988-98. In the late 1990s, Ghana's public expenditures on education decreased. Basic education enrollment was

  17. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  18. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  19. The impact of Ghanas R3M programme on the provision of safe abortions and postabortion care

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Ahiadeke, Clement; Bankole, Akinrinola; Blades, Nakeisha

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, in response to the high maternal mortality, driven largely by unsafe abortions, the government of Ghana, in partnership with other organizations, launched the reducing maternal mortality and morbidity (R3M) programme in seven districts in Greater Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, to improve comprehensive abortion care services. This article examines whether this intervention made a difference to the provision of safe abortion services and postabortion care (PAC). We also examine the role played by provider attitudes and knowledge of the abortion law, on providers with clinical training in service provision. Primary data on health care providers in Ghana, collected using a quasi-experimental design, were analysed using propensity score weighting. Apart from the treatment group, the sample included two controls: (1) Districts in Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, not exposed to the treatment; and (2) Districts from distant Brong Ahafo, also not exposed to the treatment. The findings show that providers in the treatment group are nearly 16 times as likely to provide safe abortions compared with their peers in Brong Ahafo, and ?2.5 times as likely compared with providers in the other control group. R3M providers were also different from their peers in providing PAC. Associations between provider attitudes and knowledge of the law on both outcomes were either non-significant or inconsistent including for providers with clinical knowledge of abortion provision. Provider confidence however is strongly associated with service provision. We conclude that the R3M programme is helping safe abortion provision, with the differences being greater with control groups that are geographically distant, perhaps owing to lower contamination from movement of providers between facilities. Increasing provider confidence is key to improving both safe abortion provision and PAC. PMID:25261230

  20. Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundi Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrcia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacpde, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundi Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

  1. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mourio, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunar (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.99.3% males and 88.96.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.623.9 and 145.236.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.236.7) than males (76.623.9). Fish weighing 300-800g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P<0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P<0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

  2. Are the Schools We HAVE the Schools We NEED in Ghana? A Contribution to the Ongoing Debate on Ghana's Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Padmore E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand

  3. Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify

  4. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These Great Lakes Literacy Principles represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  5. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  6. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  7. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title: Snow-Covered Peaks of the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains ... backdrops for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the western edge of the ...

  9. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  10. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology

  11. Lake Darling Comparison

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The photo on the left was taken on April 18, 1997 by a USGS Personnel, of the new gates at Lake Darling. The photo to the right was taken on June 13, 2011 by Nathan A. Stroh (USGS), of Lake Darling....

  12. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  13. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  14. Great Lakes Beach Health

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  15. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  16. Lake Effect Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. The lakes of Titan.

    PubMed

    Stofan, E R; Elachi, C; Lunine, J I; Lorenz, R D; Stiles, B; Mitchell, K L; Ostro, S; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Zebker, H; Wall, S; Janssen, M; Kirk, R; Lopes, R; Paganelli, F; Radebaugh, J; Wye, L; Anderson, Y; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W T K; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Paillou, P; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Vetrella, S; West, R

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70 degrees north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. PMID:17203056

  18. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater

  19. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human

  20. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has primary responsibility within the U.S. for conducting surveillance monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes. This monitoring is intended to fulfill provis...

  1. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. The gas burst in 1986 from the 200-m...

  2. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows a pipe top and raft...

  3. Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: insights from members, administrators and health care providers.

    PubMed

    Barimah, Kofi Bobi; Mensah, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    The Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was established as part of a poverty reduction strategy to make health care more affordable to Ghanaians. It is envisaged that it will eventually replace the existing cash-and-carry system. This paper examines the views of NHIS administrators, members/enrollees, and health care providers on how the Scheme operates in practice. It is part of a larger evaluation project on Ghana's NHIS, sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Development Network as part of a two-year global research. We rely primarily on qualitative data from focus group discussion in the Brong Ahafo and the Upper East regions respectively. Our findings suggest that the NHIS has improved access to affordable health care services and prescription drugs to many people in Ghana. However, there are concerns about fraud and corruption that must be addressed if the Scheme is to be financially viable. PMID:23974406

  4. Who Cares? Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Esia-Donkoh, Kobina; Darteh, Eugene K M; Blemano, Harriet; Asare, Hagar

    2015-06-01

    Issues of abortion are critical in Ghana largely due to its consequences on sexual and reproductive health. The negative perception society attaches to it makes it difficult for young females to access services and share their experiences. This paper examines the pre and post abortion experiences of young females; a subject scarcely researched in the country. Twenty-one clients of Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) clinic at Cape Coast were interviewed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the study revealed that fear of societal stigma, shame, and rejection by partners, as well as self-imposed stigma constituted some of the pre and post abortion experiences the respondents. Other experiences reported were bleeding, severe abdominal pain and psychological pain. The Ghana Health Services (GHS) and other service providers should partner the PPAG clinic to integrate psychosocial treatment in its abortion services while intensifying behaviour change communication and community-based stigma-reduction education in the Metropolis. PMID:26506657

  5. Prevalence of smoking in secondary schools in the Greater Accra region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amonoo-Lartson, R; Pappoe, M E

    1992-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is fast becoming a public health problem in Ghana and the youth are at a greater risk of becoming victims of it. A survey of nine secondary (high) schools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana showed that 31.1% of students have smoked before and that 10.3% smoke cigarettes regularly. A significant number of those who had ever smoked (32.6%) came from high socio-economic homes as exemplified by the level of education of the father. Advertising appears to be a factor as to why students start to smoke. Most students (59.4%) appear to know smoking is injurious to health. There is need to motivate secondary school students about not smoking. There is also need to legislate in Ghana to prevent the sale of tobacco products to young people and prohibit smoking in schools and in public places. PMID:1641687

  6. Can Teleneuropsychology Help Meet the Neuropsychological Needs of Western Africans? The Case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In Ghana, the services of psychologists, particularly clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists, remain largely inaccessible to a large proportion of those in need. Emphasis has been placed on "physical wellness" even among patients with cognitive and behavioral problems needing psychological attention. The small number of clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists, the deplorable nature of road networks and transport systems, geopolitical factors, and a reliance on the face-to-face method in providing neuropsychological services have further complicated the accessibility problem. One way of expanding and making neuropsychological services available and accessible is through the use of information communication technology to provide these services, and this is often termed teleneuropsychology. Drawing on relevant literature, this article discusses how computerized neurocognitive assessment and videoconferencing could help in rendering clinical neuropsychological services to patients, particularly those in rural, underserved, and disadvantaged areas in Ghana. The article further proposes recommendations on how teleneuropsychology could be made achievable and sustainable in Ghana. PMID:25719559

  7. Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2012-02-01

    In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496

  8. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  9. Acidification of Adirondack lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Asbury, C.E.; Vertucci, F.A.; Mattson, M.D.; Likens, G.E.

    1989-03-01

    The acidification of lakes in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York was estimated directly by comparing data from historic (1929-1934) and modern (1975-1985) regional surveys of lake chemistry. The authors performed new analyses concerning the quality of the data, rejecting all historic pH data and many modern alkalinity values. When the historic data were corrected for a bias between titration procedures, they found a median loss of 50 ..mu..equiv/L alkalinity in 274 lakes with paired data. Eighty percent of the lakes showed a decline in alkalinity. The observed acidification was greatest in the lakes at high elevation and was of the same magnitude as the current precipitation acidity in the region.

  10. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  11. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 μm. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. among Children in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Eibach, Daniel; Krumkamp, Ralf; Al-Emran, Hassan M.; Sarpong, Nimako; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jrgen

    2015-01-01

    Background The relevance of Cryptosporidium infections for the burden of childhood diarrhoea in endemic settings has been shown in recent years. This study describes Cryptosporidium subtypes among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in rural Ghana to analyse subtype-specific demographic, geographical, seasonal and clinical differences in order to inform appropriate control measures in endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 2232 children below 14 years of age presenting with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the rural Ashanti region of Ghana between May 2007 and September 2008. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR and isolates were classified into subtypes based on sequence differences in the gp60 gene. Subtype specific frequencies for age, sex, location and season have been determined and associations with disease symptoms have been analysed within a case-control study. Cryptosporidium infections were diagnosed in 116 of 2232 (5.2%) stool samples. Subtyping of 88 isolates revealed IIcA5G3 (n = 26, 29.6%), IbA13G3 (n = 17, 19.3%) and IaA21R3 (n = 12, 13.6%) as the three most frequent subtypes of the two species C. hominis and C. parvum, known to be transmitted anthroponotically. Infections peak at early rainy season with 67.9% and 50.0% of infections during the months April, May and June for 2007 and 2008 respectively. C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.25.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.56.1). Conclusions/Significance Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by seasonal anthroponotic transmission of strains typically found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection. Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections. PMID:25749411

  13. Incidence and Characteristics of Bacteremia among Children in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maja Verena; Sarpong, Nimako; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Loag, Wibke; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Marks, Florian; Huenger, Frank; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jrgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data. Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior. Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n?=?238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n?=?129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n?=?32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n?=?22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n?=?17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.952.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.129.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.18.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.56.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.84.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered. PMID:22970162

  14. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, prepregnancy BMI and socioeconomic status in Northern Ghana. Methods The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, periurban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (3742 weeks). Mothers height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions. Results The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37%) but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%). Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18444) heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682 (-276) lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87405) and 595g (95% CI 375815) respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 (-44) lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 0.68 kg. Conclusion Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight gain ranges. PMID:26281013

  15. Healthy Firms: Constraints to Growth among Private Health Sector Facilities in Ghana and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas E.; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P.; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business and health facility. PMID:22383944

  16. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862

  17. Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  18. SOMARC teams with private distribution firm to implement CSM program in Ghana.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    SOMARC, together with a private manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceutical products (Danafco, Limited), is launching a new contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program designed to make low cost, modern contraceptive products widely available in Ghana's cities. Danafco will directly implement the CSM program. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the government of Ghana will provide support to the program. James R. Kirland, USAID Population Officer, will assume overall responsibility for coordination and monitoring of CSM program activities. By a special amendment to the Pharmacy and Drug Act of 1961, the Ghanaian government has enabled the CSM program to conduct a demonstration project. Under the project, chemical sellers and retailers who successfully complete a special training session will be entitled to dispense oral contraceptives (OCs) without prescription. With the successful completion of this project, it is hoped that the Ghanaian government will further amend the Pharmacy Act to make contraceptives available nationwide on a nonprescription basis. Initially, the Ghana CSM program will market 3 products: a standard dosage OC; a foaming vaginal tablet; and an uncolored condom. Market research is now underway to determine product names for the OCs and vaginal tablets. The condom will be marketed under the name Panther. The project plans to conduct a retail audit to define current prices in the Ghanaian contraceptive market. Danafco will subcontract with Lintas Ghana Limited to provide advertising, package design, and promotion for the Ghana CSM program. Overall campaign efforts will focus on generating a positive climate for the program among influentials in government, religion, education, and health as well as consumers. The advertising campaign will include radio, television, print, and outdoor media. SOMARC, in collaboration with the USAID/Accra mission, hopes to establish an appropriate climate prior to the advertising launch by promoting a conference on the role of family planning in the national reconstruction of Ghana. In subsequent years, product extension may be considered. PMID:12280423

  19. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118

  20. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH) 26 0019 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH34 9568 million (331 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH3 353 707 814 (38 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH320. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (<05 % of GDP). We conclude that Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition. PMID:26242904

  1. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  2. Assesssing herbal medical practitioners in professional qualifying examination in Ghana, a model.

    PubMed

    Adusi-Poku, Yaw; Okine, Laud K-N; Hlortsi-Akakpo, F K; Fleischer, Theophilus C; Mensah, M L K; Arhin, Peter; Agyemfra, George; Dabra, Togbega; Mensah, E N

    2010-01-01

    About 70% of Ghanaians depend on Alternative health practice for their primary health care needs. Hence, there is the need to streamline and regulate these practices. Graduates from the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (K.N.U.S.T), Kumasi-Ghana were assessed by the Professional Qualifying Examination Board of the Traditional Medicine Practice Council (TMPC), Ghana, after two years of internship training. A model of assessment took into consideration, the scope of the university training, internship and the primary health care needs of the society. PMID:21304617

  3. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis. PMID:3492300

  4. Evaluation of cycling patterns of dissolved oxygen in a tropical lake as an indicator of biodegradable organic pollution.

    PubMed

    Ansa-Asare, O D; Marr, I L; Cresser, M S

    1999-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen cycling patterns in a tropical lake (Weija Lake) were shown to be useful as a potential indicator of biodegradable organic pollution, by dosing with liquid malt to give an additional organic burden of 2.5 and 5.0 mg l-1 TOC, and monitoring the DO values continuously for 140 h. These loadings were added to water columns (in tubes) suspended from a raft in a lake in south-east Ghana. The addition of organic pollution burden to the lake water produced two main effects: the mean DO value was lowered, and the amplitude of the DO cycle decreased as organic loading increased from 2.5 to 5.0 mg l-1 TOC. There was also an indication of heterotrophic respiration associated with organic inputs for the 5.0 mg l-1 added TOC suggesting a P/R ratio of well below 1.0. Taking the results of a DO cycling computer model together with those from the lake raft experiments, it can be concluded that dissolved oxygen cycles can be a good indicator of biodegradable organic pollution load. PMID:10472131

  5. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  6. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  8. SANKOFA: a multisite collaboration on paediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Nancy R; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Lartey, Margaret; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Enimil, Anthony; Catlin, Ann Christine; Fernando, Sumudinie; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Paintsil, Elijah

    2015-06-01

    With the scale-up of effective antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, many HIV-infected children are now able to survive into adulthood. To achieve this potential, children must navigate normative developmental processes and challenges while living with an unusually complex, stigmatizing, potentially fatal chronic illness and meeting the demands of treatment.Yet many of these children, especially preadolescents, do not know they are HIV-infected. Despite compelling evidence supporting the merits of informing children of their HIV status, there has been little emphasis on equipping the child's caregiver with information and skills to promote disclosure, particularly, when the caregiver faces a variety of sociocultural barriers and is reluctant to do so. In this study, we present the background, process and methods for a first of its kind collaboration that is examining the efficacy of an intervention developed to facilitate the engagement of caregivers in the process of disclosure in a manner suitable to the sociocultural context and developmental age and needs of the child in Ghana. We also report preliminary data that supported the design of the intervention approach and currently available domains of the data system. Finally, we discuss challenges and implications for future research. PMID:26049537

  9. Utilization of maternal health services in Ejisu District, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Martey, J O; Djan, J O; Twum, S; Browne, E N; Opoku, S A

    1995-01-01

    A study on the utilization of maternal health services in Ejisu district of Ghana was carried out in January and February 1990. 1200 women aged between 15 and 49 were interviewed in 80 communities. The findings of the study indicated that over 50% of respondents married under 20 years, 70% of them attended antenatal clinic at least 4 times in their last pregnancy, over 80% had their last delivery in a health facility and over 80% knew about at least one modern method of family planning. Only 5.5% were currently using a modern family planning method. 90% of them were willing to stay in a maternity waiting home if advised to do so. Most would be prepared to stay for a month or 2. 20% of the respondents knew about local herbal preparations used for first aid in bleeding in pregnancy, although they would seek definitive treatment at a health facility. From the study, some women were not using the services. These would have to be reached through improving the quality of care in health facilities and increasing community awareness on maternal health in order to improve accessibility and utilization further. PMID:7626528

  10. Extreme value modelling of Ghana stock exchange index.

    PubMed

    Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Asare, Kwabena; Mettle, Felix Okoe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana stock exchange all-shares index (2000-2010) by applying the extreme value theory (EVT) to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before the EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model's goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the value at risk and expected shortfall risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model. PMID:26587364

  11. HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ulasi, Chijioke I; Preko, Peter O; Baidoo, Joseph A.; Bayard, Budry; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 104 adults from the four sub-districts in Kumasi was conducted. Results Four stigma constructs, employment-based discrimination, screening and identification of HIV positive people, revelation of HIV status and social contact stigma were determined based on reliability measures from responses to the questionnaire. Regression analysis showed that participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to favor policies denying employment to PLWHA (p<0.05), but disapproved of revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Muslims were more likely than Christians to agree with identifying PLWHA (p<0.05) and more likely to advocate revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Males were more likely to favor revealing HIV status (p<0.05). Employed persons were more likely to have social contact with PLWHA (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions against HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi. PMID:18632302

  12. Peer Influences on Sexual Activity among Adolescents in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health. Using two waves survey data from adolescents (n=1275) in two towns in southeastern Ghana, we examined age, gender, and community differences in peer group characteristics. We also examine prospective associations between peer group characteristics and self-reported sexual initiation, multiple partnerships, and lack of consistent condom use with most recent partner over a 20-month follow-up period. Gender differences in peer context variables were small. Affiliation with antisocial peers and perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of transition to first sex. Having more friends increased the odds of accruing multiple new sexual partners among younger respondents. Among males, perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of accruing multiple partners. No peer context variables were significantly associated with condom use with most recent partner. We discuss the implications of these findings for adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753056

  13. Lead exposure in urban and rural school children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankrah, N A; Nyarko, A K; Ofosuhene, M; Appiah-Opong, R; Akyeampon, Y A

    1998-01-01

    Human exposure to lead in non industrial urban areas is commonly ascribed to vehicular combustion of leaded gasoline. This belief is based on results of studies in societies with high vehicular density which show emission of lead fumes into the air by automobiles that use gasoline with high lead content. To assess this view, blood lead levels were evaluated in 11 to 15-year old school children in urban and rural communities of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Blood lead levels was significantly higher in all the urban children studied (mean +/-SD: 8.3+/- 12.7g/dl) than in their rural counterparts (4.0+/-7.2g/dl) (P<0.002). The trend was the same when only those who tested positive for blood lead were considered (24.1+/- 9.2g/dl, urban compared with 14.6+/- 5.8g/dl, rural). The prevalence of lead exposure was, however, not significantly different between the two groups (34.3. percent, urban and 27.1 per cent, rural). The presence of anaemia and/or increased urine total protein levels was unrelated to the blood lead levels in the children form both communities. Although a set goal to achieve lead free gasoline is desirable, the closeness of the prevalence rate of lead exposure obtained in the study indicate that factors other than leaded gasoline may be important determinant in exposure to lead in the Ghanaian community. PMID:17580999

  14. Ghana's army goes into combat readiness against HIV.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Ghana's professional army of 12,000 men were joined by the national police in launching a campaign of education about AIDS which promotes condom use. The campaign received some funding from USAID and AIDS Tech/Family Health International. 94% of the soldiers had 7 years of education and 95% were married. 47% had never used the condom, 37% used it only occasionally, and only 19% used it regularly. An AIDS Awareness Day was followed up by 3000 posters, 1800 bumper stickers, 1500 T-shirts, 300 press packs, 1000 keychains and a video. Comic books in the local pidgin English idiom also proved popular for promotion. In a social marketing scheme, condoms were made available in barracks, army shops, and canteens for a modest price. The sales of condoms rose from about 500 a month in 1991 to 6000-7000 by January 1992. The army AIDS policy spelled out that HIV positivity will be revealed to the infected soldier. HIV-positive soldIers will not be sent abroad, curtailing the chances of disease transmission. They are kept in active service as long as they are capable of meeting their duties. Nevertheless, this policy hinges on the outcome of the AIDS education campaign whose failure could result in a policy of dismissing HIV-infected soldiers. PMID:12317821

  15. The expression of perinatal depression in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Pamela; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asampong, Emmanuel; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, perinatal depression (PND) has been associated with poor infant health outcomes, including frequency of infant diarrheal episodes, preterm delivery and low birth weight, and discontinuation or problems breastfeeding. Yet little is known about the awareness or expression of PND depression in Ghana. A total of 12 in-depth key-informant interviews were conducted with women who had experienced PND within the previous two-and-a-half years. Three focus-group discussions were conducted with new mothers (n = 11), grandmothers (n = 8), and fathers (n = 9) for contextual and supporting information. ‘Thinking too much’ was the term most commonly used to describe PND. The women saw their distress as caused largely by poverty, lack of social support, and domestic problems. Women sought help through family and religious organizations, rather than through medical services. Problems producing breast milk or breastfeeding were nearly universal complaints and suggest significant effects on infant health in the study area. These results present evidence to support the increasing consensus that depression presents in similar and disabling ways across cultures and contexts. This formative qualitative data is required to tailor depression prevention or treatment interventions to this particular socio-cultural context. PMID:26539247

  16. Students Perceptions of Contraceptives in University of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kayi, Esinam Afi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives. Materials and methods Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments. Results Findings showed that students had little knowledge of contraceptives. The male and female condoms were the main contraceptive types reported out of the many modern and traditional methods of contraceptives. The main benefits of contraceptives were; ability to protect against STIs, abortions, unwanted pregnancy and psychological trauma. Whilst most respondents preferred future use of pills, side-effects of contraceptives were mostly reported for condoms than other contraceptive methods. Results showed that participants had bad attitudes towards unmarried contraceptive users. Conclusion Generally, our findings show that detailed knowledge about contraceptives is low. There is a little gap of information on contraception knowledge, timing, and contraceptive types among university diploma students. Reproductive and maternal services should be available and accessible for tertiary students. PMID:24971101

  17. The composition and origin of Ghana medicine clays

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Bart E.; Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043

  18. Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

    2009-01-01

    As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818

  19. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options

    PubMed Central

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  20. Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

  1. Controlling Sickle Cell Disease in Ghana--ethics and options.

    PubMed

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for "crimes" only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels--preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  2. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  3. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead. In this harsh desert environment, color infrared photography readily penetrates haze, detects and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  4. Using a spatio-temporal dynamic state-space model with the EM algorithm to patch gaps in daily riverflow series, with examples from the Volta Basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2005-04-01

    A spatio-temporal linear dynamic model has been developed for patching short gaps in daily river runoff series. The model was cast in a state-space form in which the state variable was estimated using the Kalman smoother (RTS smoother). The EM algorithm was used to concurrently estimate both parameter and missing runoff values. Application of the model to daily runoff series in the Volta Basin of West Africa showed that the model was capable of providing good estimates of missing runoff values at a gauging station from the remaining series at the station and at spatially correlated stations in the same sub-basin.

  5. GREAT LAKES PLANKTON PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton, which have short carbon turnover rates, are sensitive to water quality conditions and grazing by zooplankton, and thus respond rapidly to perturbations of the lake ecosystem. The determination of phytoplankton abundance and species composition is one method to tra...

  6. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption. PMID:25719892

  7. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d) the climatic water deficit will increase, especially at high elevations that will be most affected by the loss of snow, with likely consequences for existing vegetation and fire frequency. Hydrologically, Lake Tahoe is intermittently terminal; in a medical sense it is not yet terminal, but its conditionespecially its valued clarity and deep blue color--is serious.

  8. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  9. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  11. Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has

  12. Determinants of Psychological Help-Seeking Intentions of University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Non-utilization of mental health resources is a well-documented problem among adolescents and young adults. However, little is known about the psychological help-seeking intentions of young adults in Ghana. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of psychological help-seeking intentions among university students in Accra, Ghana…

  13. Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.

    PubMed

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2013-03-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  14. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  15. The Association Between Health Insurance Coverage and Skilled Birth Attendance in Ghana: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shane M; Singh, Kavita

    2016-03-01

    Objectives Skilled birth attendance (SBA) is a key health intervention used by roughly two-thirds of women in Ghana. The National Health Insurance Scheme provided by the Government of Ghana is widely expected to improve maternal health outcomes by removing financial barriers to health services. In this paper, we examine if indeed health insurance is able to improve SBA, a key maternal outcome. Methods We use data from the 2011 Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey implemented by the Ghana Statistical Services with support from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). We use a multivariate logistic model controlling for a number of enabling and predisposing factors and past experience with the health system to examine the effect of health insurance on skilled birth attendance. The sample is 2528 women. Results Our results show that women with health insurance are 47 % more likely to use SBA than women without health insurance. Results also underscore that women with repetitive contact with the health system (such as antenatal care) are more likely to have a skilled delivery (OR 3.00, p value 0.000). We also find that higher parity, rural and poor women are much less likely to use SBA. Conclusions Health insurance may indeed be a useful mechanism to improve coverage of SBA, though many barriers to delivery care still exist for women. Further work to understand the effect of health insurance on other maternal outcomes is also warranted. PMID:26525559

  16. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: The Evidence and the Issues. Country Analytic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame; Djangmah, Jerome; Oduro, Abena; Seidu, Alhassan; Hunt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of access to education in Ghana builds on the Ministry of Education Sector Performance Report and the World Bank sector studies. Though access has improved it remains uneven and has not grown as fast enough to reach universal levels of participation in primary school and JSS [Junior Secondary School] by 2015. More needs to be…

  17. Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

  18. Typology of School Dropout: The Dimensions and Dynamics of Dropout in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananga, Eric Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the dropout experience of children who dropped out of schools located in two rural communities in the Central Region of Ghana. The main research question sought to explore the meaning and types of drop out founded on the views of children who had dropped out of school. The study tracked 18 children aged 7-17 years. Snowball

  19. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering

  20. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time

  1. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…

  2. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education: Opinions of Students and Educators in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geugten, Jolien; Dijkstra, Marlies; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H. G.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators regarding the implementation of the

  3. No Evidence of Goulako and Herbert Virus Infections in Pigs, Cte d'Ivoire and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Meyer, Benjamin; Heidemann, Hanna; Metzger, Sonja; Annan, Augustina; Dei, Dickson; Leendertz, Fabian H; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2015-12-01

    A recent report suggested that 2 novel bunyaviruses discovered in insects in Cte d'Ivoire caused lethal disease in swine in South Korea. We conducted cell culture studies and tested serum from pigs exposed to mosquitoes in Cte d'Ivoire and Ghana and found no evidence for infection in pigs. PMID:26583956

  4. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  5. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to

  6. The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

  7. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…

  8. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  9. English-Only Language-in-Education Policy in Multilingual Classrooms in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    This paper, based on the findings of a qualitative study, discusses the influence of Ghana's recently introduced English-only language-in-education policy on pupils' classroom communicative practices and learning generally. It highlights how the use of English--an unfamiliar language--creates anxiety among students and stalls effective classroom

  10. Locally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana. Education Research Paper. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Isabel

    The needs of grassroots farmers in Uganda and Ghana for locally developed print materials were examined through a postal survey of nearly 200 organizations and examinations of 75 autonomous farmer groups and 95 organizations sharing agricultural information in both countries. Both printed agricultural information relevant to grassroots farmers and

  11. Critical Factors Underlying Students' Choice of Institution for Graduate Programmes: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi

    2015-01-01

    The growth in higher education industry has caused a tremendous increase in the number and type of colleges, polytechnics and universities offering similar academic programmes especially in business disciplines in Ghana. The resultant competition in the education industry makes it crucial for education managers to understand the latent factors

  12. Towards New Partnerships in Sector-Wide Approaches: Comparative Experiences from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene

    2002-01-01

    Partnership and sector-wide approaches have become common denominators for success in educational development. It is, however, far easier to agree on the rhetoric than to implement the underlying principles. The comparative analysis of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique highlights how far governments and agencies still have to go in order to

  13. 50 Years of Educational Progress and Challenge in Ghana. Research Monograph No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 Ghana celebrated 50 years of independence from British colonial rule. The golden jubilee offered an opportunity to take stock of how the country had progressed in expanding education and the challenges for the future. This paper offers a critique of the journey, highlighting the challenges and progress. What reforms in education has taught

  14. Teachers' ICT Usage in Second-Cycle Institutions in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buabeng-Andoh, Charles; Yidana, Issifu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' use of ICT and the factors that affect their ICT use in secondary schools in Ghana. A focus group interview was used to gather data from participants. Ten groups of six students each from urban, semi-urban and rural schools were chosen for the focus group interviews. The results of this study

  15. "The Older Women Are Men:" Navigating the Academic Terrain, Perspectives from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates how the intersection of gender, socio-cultural factors, and organizational culture impact professional experiences of women academics at a selected public university in Ghana. Given the glaring absence of women in academic positions across many African universities, particularly at academic ranks beyond the

  16. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…

  17. Teachers' Perception on Sustainability of Distance Education in Ghana: Evidence from Ashanti Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei-Owusu, Benedict; Awunyo-Vitor, Dadson

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the sustainability of distance education in the context of finance, management and availability of support services in Ashanti region of Ghana. Data for the study were obtained from five groups of respondents namely; centre coordinators, educational administrators, facilitators of distance education programme, potential and…

  18. Critical Factors in Selecting a Course Management System for Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    Course management systems (CMSs) currently drive educational delivery in most developed countries. Their absence in higher education in most developing countries creates a digital divide between first- and third-world students. Meeting the needs of higher education in Ghana therefore depends on identifying the factors that should inform the choice

  19. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or

  20. Motivation and Productivity in Academic Libraries: A Case Study of Balme Library, University of Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, Anaba

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of junior staff (i.e., clerical and service personnel) at the University of Ghana library that collected data on background, experience, salaries, recreational facilities, job satisfaction, attitudes of colleagues and supervisors, committees, staff meetings, discipline, appraisal methods, and communication. Suggestions

  1. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender

  2. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce

  3. Reaching Underserved Populations with Basic Education in Deprived Areas of Ghana: Emerging Good Practices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Achieving Education for All (EFA) in Ghana and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa remains an elusive goal. Extensive research in diverse countries has revealed that formalized systems that work on fixed timetables, a loaded curriculum, and trained teachers, are often not performing as well in rural environments in providing basic literacy, numeracy,

  4. Why Teachers Leave Teaching: The Case of Pretertiary Institutions in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agezo, Clement K.

    2010-01-01

    In Ghana, many professional teachers have been leaving teaching to seek employment in jobs that they think hold promise of better pay and prestige. This article critically examines the key factors that compel teachers to leave the teaching profession for other jobs. Thirty professionally trained teachers who had taught at pretertiary institutions

  5. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  6. Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Training Needs: The Case of Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became

  7. Educational Access and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana 1991-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2011-01-01

    Ghana has seen notable poverty reduction alongside improvements in school participation since 1991. This paper examines the role of education in determining welfare and poverty and its reciprocal, the role of welfare and other aspects of economic privilege in the determination of school attendance and progression. Two groups of models are

  8. Implementation of Innovations in Higher Education: The Case of Competency-Based Training in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that

  9. Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

    2010-01-01

    Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better

  10. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  11. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges

  12. Publishing for Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Ghana: Politics and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2015-01-01

    One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…

  13. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  14. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  15. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  16. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  17. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed

  18. Decolonising Knowledge Production: The Pedagogic Relevance of Gandhian Satyagraha to Schooling and Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adjei, Paul Banahene

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Views on Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nketsia, William; Saloviita, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Pre-service teacher training has been identified as one of the key factors in the promotion of inclusive education. In this study, 200 final-year pre-service teachers from three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed about their views and knowledge on inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN). The results showed that almost all

  20. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good

  1. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the

  2. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered

  3. Gender Differences in Participation in Elective Mathematics of Senior Secondary School Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah-Korang, Kwame; Gyan, Emmanuel; McCarthy, Paul; McCarthy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the body of knowledge that exists in the area of differences in participation in elective mathematics, between boys and girls in Secondary Schools in Ghana. A sample of 738 respondents from five Secondary Schools was purposively selected using purposive sampling technique. All the respondents were final year…

  4. Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

    A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

  5. Critical Factors in Selecting a Course Management System for Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    Course management systems (CMSs) currently drive educational delivery in most developed countries. Their absence in higher education in most developing countries creates a digital divide between first- and third-world students. Meeting the needs of higher education in Ghana therefore depends on identifying the factors that should inform the choice…

  6. Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which

  7. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes

  8. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  9. Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity Structures and Social Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.)

    PubMed Central

    Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Umretia, Bharti L.; Vaishnav, Pradip U.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process. Aim: To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana. Materials and Methods: Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water. Results: Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group. Conclusion: These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana. PMID:25364210

  11. Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Training Needs: The Case of Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became…

  12. Barriers to Teacher Motivation for Professional Practice in the Ghana Education Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in

  13. Radio Lectures in Ghana: An Innovation for the Twenty First Century Instructional Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    In the developing countries of the world, Nigeria and Ghana especially have consistently been battling with large enrollment of students into the institutions of higher learning. The attendant problem of the traditional instructional delivery system that poses a serious challenge to the 21st century educational development therefore needs…

  14. Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Basic Education in Ghana: Challenges and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Growing private-sector participation in basic education service delivery in many developing countries has led to calls for greater partnership arrangements with the public sector to improve access for poor and disadvantaged groups. In Ghana there is some interest in forging closer public-private partnerships to improve access for children who have

  15. Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…

  16. Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…

  17. The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and

  18. From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were

  19. Corporal Punishment in the Schools of Ghana: Does Inclusive Education Suffer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that compared the practice of corporal punishment in ten basic schools in the Greater Accra District in Ghana. Five of the ten schools were designated as inclusive project schools (IPS) and the other five as non-inclusive project schools (NIS). The primary purpose was to find out if the inclusive project schools were

  20. First Report of Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigeria is the only country in West Africa where soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has been officially reported (1). During a disease survey in Ghana in October 2006, soybean (Glycine max) leaves with rust symptoms (tan, angular lesions with erumpent sori exuding urediniospores) were ob...

  1. Non-Kinship Address Terms in Akan: A Sociolinguistic Study of Language Use in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    Following the study of Gilman and Ford on address terms, an increasing number of studies have been conducted in several sociocultural settings. In line with this trend, the present study attempts to describe and explain address terms among the Akans of postcolonial Ghana. Using observation as the main research tool corroborated by interview and

  2. Mapping the Incidence of School Dropouts: A Case Study of Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey; Adu-Yeboah, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of school dropout in six communities in the Savelugu-Nanton District in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study focused on 89 children (64 boys and 25 girls) aged 7-16 years, who had dropped out of school. A snowballing sampling method was employed to recruit participants to the study. Two researchers interviewed the…

  3. Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically

  4. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to

  5. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  6. An Evaluative Study of a Distance Teacher Education Program in a University in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampong, Kwasi Addo

    2009-01-01

    The study used an adaptation of Provus' discrepancy evaluation model to evaluate a distance teacher education program in the University of Cape Coast, the premier teacher education institution in Ghana. The study involved comparing performance data of the program as perceived by students and faculty/administrators to standards prepared from the

  7. Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…

  8. Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of

  9. The Efficacies of Secretarial Profession by Ghana Education Service and Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Abdul-Kahar

    2015-01-01

    This project is carried out by employing an empirical method through questionnaire design and administration and tapped the perceptions and knowledge of the target elements of this study. The research frame was about Ghana Education Service office workers within the Accra Metropolis including higher education institutions. A qualitative data

  10. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…

  11. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy

  12. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…

  13. "The Older Women Are Men:" Navigating the Academic Terrain, Perspectives from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates how the intersection of gender, socio-cultural factors, and organizational culture impact professional experiences of women academics at a selected public university in Ghana. Given the glaring absence of women in academic positions across many African universities, particularly at academic ranks beyond the…

  14. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Cetron, M S; Chitsulo, L; Sullivan, J J; Pilcher, J; Wilson, M; Noh, J; Tsang, V C; Hightower, A W; Addiss, D G

    1996-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by trematodes. Humans are infected through skin contact with free-swimming cercariae which develop in freshwater snails. Schistosomiasis has been endemic to Malawi for several decades, but the open waters and shores of Lake Malawi have long been thought to be risk-free with regard to schistosomiasis transmission. However, in 1992, two US Peace Corps volunteers developed central nervous system schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium following recreational water exposure at Cape Maclear on Lake Malawi. In light of these infections, a cross-sectional survey of resident expatriates and visitors to Malawi was subsequently conducted during March-April 1993 to determine the transmission potential and risk for acquiring schistosomiasis in the lake. 305 US citizens and 650 non-US foreign nationals participated in the study. Serological evidence of current or past schistosome infection was identified in 303 subjects. Indeed, seroprevalence was 32% among expatriates whose freshwater exposure was limited to Lake Malawi; S. haematobium antibodies were found in 135 of 141 seropositive specimens. The risk of seropositivity increased with the number of freshwater exposures at Lake Malawi resorts. While many resort areas in the southwestern lake region posed a significant risk, Cape Maclear was the location most strongly associated with seropositivity. Schistosome-infected Bulinus globosus, the snail vector of S. haematobium in Malawi, were found at Cape Maclear and other locations along the lakeshore. PMID:8909380

  15. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  16. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g

  17. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, A A; Quik, J T K; Velzeboer, I

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination or application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities. PMID:25463711

  18. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo

    2015-07-01

    The Government of Ghana has established a National Digital Seismic Network Observatory in Ghana with the aim of monitoring events such as earthquakes, blasts from mining and quarrying, nuclear tests, etc. The Digital Observatory was commissioned on 19 December 2012, and was dedicated to Geosciences in Ghana. Previously Ghana did not have any operational, digital seismic network acquisition system with the capability of monitoring and analysing data for planning and research purposes. The Ghana Geological Survey has been monitoring seismic events with an analogue system which was not efficient and does not deliver real-time data. Hence, the importance of setting up the National Digital Seismic Network System which would enable the Geological Survey to constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, to some extent on real-time basis. The Network System is made up of six remote digital stations that transmit data via satellite to the central observatory. Sensors used are 3× Trillium Compact and 3× Trillium 120PA with Trident digitizers. The department has also acquired strong motion equipment: Titan accelerometers with Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics. Three of each of these instruments have been installed at the Akosombo and Kpong hydrodams, and also at the Weija water supply dam. These instruments are used to monitor dams. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values established from the analysed data from the accelerometers will be used to retrofit or carry out maintenance work of the dam structures to avoid collapse. Apart from these, the observatory also assesses and analyses seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) system operated by the US Geological Survey. The Ghana Geological Survey, through its Seismic Network Observatory makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of seismic-related disasters to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; and provides information to assist government institutions develop appropriate land and building policies. The Geological Survey Department, in collaboration with stakeholder agencies, periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

  19. Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. Methods This work was based on the World Health Organization’s multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Results Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher in the 70+ years age group, in women, among urban residents and in those with at least secondary education. Quitting tobacco use also increased with increasing income levels. Conclusions Tobacco use among older adults in Ghana was associated with older men living in rural locations, chronic ill-health and reduced life satisfaction. A high proportion of older adults have stopped using tobacco, demonstrating the possibilities for effective public health interventions. Health risk reduction strategies through targeted anti-smoking health campaigns, improvement in access to health and social protection (such as health insurance) will reduce health risks among older persons who use tobacco. PMID:24138966

  20. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.

  1. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high concentrations of Al are associated with shallow wells and ponds. There is a highly positive correlation (r = +1) between Fe and Al, suggesting that dissolution of weathered lateritic material (e.g., Fe oxides, gibbsite, etc.) is the common source for these elements. Manganese concentrations are generally within acceptable limits, except for 11 wells that have concentrations above the guideline limit of 0.1 mg/L. These anomalous concentrations may be associated with manganiferous deposits in the study area. A majority of the samples contain very low concentrations of the trace elements Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Se; however, the highest concentrations occur in areas where small-scale mining is practiced.

  2. Sexual dysfunction among married couples living in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexuality and its manifestation constitute some of the most complex of human behaviour and its disorders are encountered in community. Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in women than in men. While studies examining sexual dysfunction among males and females in Ghana exist, there are no studies relating sexual problems in males and females as dyadic units. This study therefore investigated the prevalence and type of sexual disorders among married couples. Method The study participants consisted of married couples between the ages of 19 and 66 living in the province of Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic information and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaires were administered to 200 couples who consented to take part in the study. All 28 questions of the GRISS are answered on a five-point (Likert type) scale from "always", through "usually', "sometimes", and "hardly ever", to "never". Responses are summed up to give a total raw score ranging from 28-140. The total score and subscale scores are transformed using a standard nine point scale, with high scores indicating greater problems. Scores of five or more are considered to indicate SD. The study was conducted between July and September 2010. Results Out of a total of 200 married couples, 179 completed their questionnaires resulting in a response rate of 89.5%. The mean age of the participating couples as well as the mean duration of marriage was 34.8 8.6 years and 7.8 7.6 years respectively. The husbands (37.1 8.6) were significantly older (p < 0.0001) than their corresponding wives (32.5 7.9). After adjusting for age, 13-18 years of marriage life poses about 10 times significant risk of developing SD compared to 1-6 years of married life among the wives (OR: 10.8; CI: 1.1 - 49.1; p = 0.04). The total scores (6.0) as well as the percentage above the cut-off (59.2) obtained by the husbands compared to the total score (6.2) and the percentage above cut-off (61.5) obtained by the wives, indicates the likely presence of sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of impotence and premature ejaculation were 60.9% and 65.4% respectively from this study and the prevalence of vaginismus and anorgasmia were 69.3% and 74.9% respectively. The highest prevalence of SD subscales among the men was dissatisfaction with sexual act followed by infrequency, whereas the highest among the women was infrequency followed by anorgasmia. Dissatisfaction with sexual intercourse among men correlated positively with anorgasmia and wife's non-sensuality and infrequency of sex. Conclusion The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in married couples is comparable to prevalence rates in the general male and female population and is further worsened by duration of marriage. This could impact significantly on a couple's self-esteem and overall quality of life. PMID:21366917

  3. Sulfur status and forms in some surface soils of Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaye, D.K.; Kang, B.T.

    1987-07-01

    The authors analyzed surface samples of 48 important soil series in the different ecological zones of Ghana for total S, inorganic sulfate-S, HI-reducible S, carbon-bonded S, organic C, total N, and total and organic P. Total S ranged from 44-281 ppm, organic S ranged from 37-268 ppm and sulfate-S content ranged from 3-22 ppm. Ester sulfate, calculated from HI-reducible S, ranged from 5-123 ppm, and carbon-bonded S ranged from 1-57 ppm. Total S was significantly correlated with organic C, with total N, and with organic P. The soils had average C:N, N:S, N:P, P:S, C:S, and C:N:P:S ratios of 10.7:1, 6.8:1, 11.4:1, 0.7:1, 65.7:1, and 102:10:1.0:1.5 respectively. Assessment of the data indicated that parent material, organic matter content, vegetative cover, and, to a lesser extent, pH had influenced the S status of the soils. Soils formed over Birrimian rocks and phyllite and basic rocks had higher S status than soils formed over acidic rocks, alluvium, and shales or sandstones and Tertiary sands. Forest soils had higher S status than savanna soils on account of their higher organic matter content. Incubation studies showed that, of the 48 soils, 18 resulted in net immobilization, and the rest yielded only small amounts of mineralized S (average, 2.2 ppm). Net mineralized S was weakly correlated with sulfate-S and pH, but not with total S, organic C, total N, or arylsulfatase activity. Generally, the soils showed relative low sulfate adsorption capacity (range 6-46).

  4. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of small reservoirs. The goal is to maintain water related ecosystem services and adequate downstream flows as we make use of small reservoirs to improve livelihood in the rural area.

  5. Community-based surveillance of maternal deaths in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adomako, Joseph; Asare, Gloria Q; Ofosu, Anthony; Iott, Bradley E; Anthony, Tiffany; Momoh, Andrea S; Warner, Elisa V; Idrovo, Judy P; Ward, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of community-based maternal mortality surveillance in rural Ghana, where most information on maternal deaths usually comes from retrospective surveys and hospital records. Methods In 2013, community-based surveillance volunteers used a modified reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS 4+2) to interview family members of women of reproductive age (13–49 years) who died in Bosomtwe district in the previous five years. The survey comprised four yes–no questions and two supplementary questions. Verbal autopsies were done if there was a positive answer to at least one yes–no question. A mortality review committee established the cause of death. Findings Survey results were available for 357 women of reproductive age who died in the district. A positive response to at least one yes–no question was recorded for respondents reporting on the deaths of 132 women. These women had either a maternal death or died within one year of termination of pregnancy. Review of 108 available verbal autopsies found that 64 women had a maternal or late maternal death and 36 died of causes unrelated to childbearing. The most common causes of death were haemorrhage (15) and abortion (14). The resulting maternal mortality ratio was 357 per 100 000 live births, compared with 128 per 100 000 live births derived from hospital records. Conclusion The community-based mortality survey was effective for ascertaining maternal deaths and identified many deaths not included in hospital records. National surveys could provide the information needed to end preventable maternal mortality by 2030. PMID:26908958

  6. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

  7. Source Tracking Mycobacterium ulcerans Infections in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Narh, Charles A.; Mosi, Lydia; Quaye, Charles; Dassi, Christelle; Konan, Daniele O.; Tay, Samuel C. K.; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) infection, Buruli ulcer (BU), with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM). Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains. PMID:25612300

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Frequent Opportunities for Exposure to Hepatitis C Virus in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Richard O.; Mora, Nallely; Xia, Guo-liang; Campo, David S.; Purdy, Michael A.; Dimitrova, Zoya E.; Owusu, Dorcas O.; Punkova, Lili T.; Skums, Pavel; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Vaughan, Gilberto; Roh, Hajung; Opare-Sem, Ohene K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is responsible for a large proportion of persons with liver disease, including cancer. The infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. West Africa was identified as a geographic origin of two HCV genotypes. However, little is known about the genetic composition of HCV populations in many countries of the region. Using conventional and next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified and genetically characterized 65 HCV strains circulating among HCV-positive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Phylogenetic analysis using consensus sequences derived from 3 genomic regions of the HCV genome, 5'-untranslated region, hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and NS5B gene, consistently classified the HCV variants (n = 65) into genotypes 1 (HCV-1, 15%) and genotype 2 (HCV-2, 85%). The Ghanaian and West African HCV-2 NS5B sequences were found completely intermixed in the phylogenetic tree, indicating a substantial genetic heterogeneity of HCV-2 in Ghana. Analysis of HVR1 sequences from intra-host HCV variants obtained by NGS showed that three donors were infected with >1 HCV strain, including infections with 2 genotypes. Two other donors share an HCV strain, indicating HCV transmission between them. The HCV-2 strain sampled from one donor was replaced with another HCV-2 strain after only 2 months of observation, indicating rapid strain switching. Bayesian analysis estimated that the HCV-2 strains in Ghana were expanding since the 16th century. The blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana, are infected with a very heterogeneous HCV population of HCV-1 and HCV-2, with HCV-2 being prevalent. The detection of three cases of co- or super-infections and transmission linkage between 2 cases suggests frequent opportunities for HCV exposure among the blood donors and is consistent with the reported high HCV prevalence. The conditions for effective HCV-2 transmission existed for ~ 3–4 centuries, indicating a long epidemic history of HCV-2 in Ghana. PMID:26683463

  9. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being. The study shows that broader characteristics in the population rather than parental migration per se are associated with decreased levels of well-being. PMID:25464874

  10. Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

  11. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

  12. Big lake records preserved in a little lake's sediment: An example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large, fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  14. Satellite view of Swim Lake and nearby lakes.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Satellite view of Swim Lake (upper right) and nearby lakes in Polk County, Florida, surrounded by citrus groves. Courtesy Florida State University, 2008; Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008....

  15. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2015-12-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  16. The Wandering Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  17. Lake Sarez, Tajikistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  18. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  19. Barriers to Accessing Emergency Medical Services in Accra, Ghana: Development of a Survey Instrument and Initial Application in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Rominski, Sarah D; Bogus, Joshua; Ginde, Adit A; Zakariah, Ahmed N; Boatemaah, Christiana A; Yancey, Arthur H; Akoriyea, Samuel Kaba; Campbell, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) systems provide professional prehospital emergency medical care and transportation to help improve outcomes from emergency conditions. Ghana’s national ambulance service has relatively low public utilization in comparison with the large burden of acute disease. Methods: A survey instrument was developed using Pechansky and Thomas’s model of access covering 5 dimensions of availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. The instrument was used in a cross-sectional survey in 2013 in Accra, Ghana; eligible participants were those 18 years and older who spoke English, French, or Twi. Although the analysis was mainly descriptive, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported intention to call for an ambulance in the case of a medical emergency. Results: 468 participants completed surveys, with a response rate of 78.4%. Few (4.5%) respondents had ever used an ambulance in prior emergency situations. A substantial proportion (43.8%) knew about the public access medical emergency telephone number, but of those only 37.1% knew it was a toll-free call. Most (54.7%) respondents believed EMTs offered high-quality care, but 78.0% believed taxis were faster than ambulances and 69.2% thought the number of ambulances in Accra insufficient. Many (23.4%) thought using ambulances to transport corpses would be appropriate. In two hypothetical emergency scenarios, respondents most commonly reported taxis as the preferred transportation (63.6% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 64.7% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle). About 1 in 5 respondents said they would call an ambulance in either scenario (20.7% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 23.3% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle) while 15.5% and 10.2%, respectively, would use any available vehicle. Those aged 18–35 years were more likely than older respondents to prefer an ambulance (odds ratio [OR], 2.27; confidence interval [CI], 1.47 to 3.68), as were those with prior ambulance experience (OR, 1.75; CI, 0.98 to 3.09) (compared with those with no prior experience) and those who believed ambulances were safer than taxis (OR, 2.17; CI, 1.1 to 4.2) (compared with those who did not hold such beliefs). Conclusions: Perceptions of public ambulance services in Accra, Ghana, are generally favorable, although use is low. Public health education to improve awareness of the toll-free medical emergency number and about appropriate use of ambulances while simultaneously improving the capacity of ambulance agencies to receive increased caseload could improve use of the EMS system. PMID:26681705

  20. Sensitivity of Lake-Enhanced Snowfall to Lake Ice Cover in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. M.; Posselt, D. J.; Steiner, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes exert a significant influence on the regional climate of northern United States and southern Canada, including enhancement of cold-season precipitation on and downwind of the leeward shores. Lake-enhanced snowfall occurs when air that is significantly colder than the lake's surface temperature travels over the lake. Enhanced surface sensible and latent heat fluxes relative to the surrounding land surface result in moistening and destabilization of the atmosphere and subsequent development of low-level convection. In the Great Lakes region, lake-enhanced snow occurs during late fall through early winter, with decreasing numbers of events in the late winter due to the formation of widespread lake ice. Lake ice reduces both sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface, thereby increasing atmospheric stability and reducing lake induced convection. The degree to which ice coverage may change in future climate scenarios is largely unknown, but it is clear that any change to the fraction and duration of lake ice coverage will have an effect on lake-atmosphere interaction and the development and intensity of lake-enhanced precipitation. This study uses the NCAR Weather, Research, and Forecasting (WRF) model to examine how changes in Great Lakes fractional ice coverage affect the presence, intensity, and quantity of lake-enhanced precipitation. Sensitivity studies are used to evaluate the evolution and change in intensity of lake-enhanced snowfall in the Great Lakes region for scenarios that include (1) lake ice cover obtained from analysis fields (control simulation), (2) ice-free lakes, and (3) 100% ice coverage. Distinct lake-effect snow bands were observed in both the control and ice-free simulations, with placement of these bands further to the south and propagating further inland in the ice-free case. Melted precipitation totals increased on the order of 10 mm for ice-free lakes along the southern edges of Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and the eastern coast of Lake Ontario, while complete ice coverage extinguished nearly all lake-effect snow bands.

  1. Geophysical Signature of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater from Pre-drilling Site Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banour, S.; Pohl, J.; Menyeh, A.; Milkereit, B.; Boadu, F.

    2006-12-01

    The Bosumtwi impact crater located near Kumasi, Ghana was formed by a meteorite impact about one million years ago and has a diameter of about 10.5 km. Geophysical investigations involving gravity and magnetic measurements were carried out at the Bosumtwi crater to determine the geophysical signature of the crater with the aim of understanding the impact process. Gravity data was acquired on land at 163 locations around the crater area, as well as on the shore of the lake. The separation between the gravity stations was 500 m for profiles which ran radially toward the lake, and 700 1000 m along roads and footpaths which ran parallel to the shore. In addition, marine gravity and magnetic surveys were carried out along 14 north-south and 15 east- west profiles on the lake with a line spacing of 800 m using a Garmin 235 Echo Sounder/GPS as a navigational tool. Results from gravity modelling showed that the gravity signature of the crater is characterized by a negative Bouguer anomaly with an amplitude roughly equal to 18 mgal. The results also indicated a central uplift at 250 m depth below the lake, thus confirming it as a complex impact crater. Magnetic modelling yielded a model for the causative body, which is located north of the central uplift. The model has a magnetic susceptibility of 0.03 SI and extends from 200 to 610 m depth below the lake surface. The causative body has been interpreted as magnetized bodies consisting of thin sheets of suevitic impact formations. These results serve as a contribution to the understanding of the impact process of this young crater.

  2. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin with the upstream side of the outlet structure visible at photo center, view to north-northwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Lake Nyos Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeth, S. J.

    Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the Lake Nyos gas disaster, which killed an estimated 1700 people in August 1986, presented a paper on the potential for disastrous failure of the Lake Nyos dam to the AGU Fall Meeting. Part of what they said was subsequently reported in New Scientist (December 10, 1987, p. 18). They have placed on record their view that the dam is only 400 years old and are reported to have stated that it is eroding away at the alarming rate of 1.5 m/yr. If their figures are correct, then surely the dam will fail within a decade or two at the most, and there is indeed cause for alarm and immediate action. However, teams from Cameroon, France, Italy, Japan , Switzerland, Britain, Nigeria, and Germany also visited Lake Nyos in the immediate aftermath of the gas disaster, and none of their reports have suggested that the dam is in itself an imminent threat.

  5. INDEX TO EVALUATE LAKE RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A lake evaluation index (LEI) is proposed to express the overall quality of lake water based on a mathematical combination of the commonly measured limnological variables total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll, Secchi depth, dissolved oxygen, and macrophyte coverage. Value...

  6. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  7. Lake restoration by dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Gorini, R.F.

    1992-04-01

    This paper is a summary overview of the $17 million Vancouver Lake Restoration Project, the largest project of its type ever undertaken through the Federal Clean Lakes Program. It was funded jointly by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the Port of Vancouver. Although the project was conceived in 1965, a nationwide program to help fund such projects did not exist until 1976. Then, final approval was not received until 1981, after many volumes of studies and reviews. Construction was completed in June 1983, after 30 months--6 months ahead of schedule and underbudget. A great deal of time, money, and energy was expended to demonstrate to Federal and state environmental agencies that dredging was a key tool in effecting this lake's restoration.

  8. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  9. AirMISR Rogers Lake

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    AirMISR ROGERS LAKE 2001 Project Title: AirMISR ... Platform: ER-2 Spatial Coverage: Rogers Lake, California (34.75, 35.33)(-118.06, -117.51) Spatial ... Order Data Readme Files: ReadmeRogersLake Read Software Files : IDLCode ...

  10. Myths and misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Methods Data was drawn from male (N = 4,546) and female (N = 4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r = 0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r = 0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Results Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR = 0.31, CI = 0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR = 0.41, CI = 0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR = 0.23, CI = 0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR = 0.25, CI = 0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. Conclusion That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB. PMID:24028419

  11. Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Bedu-Addo, George; von Gaertner, Christiane; Boy, Renate; Fricke, Katrin; Hannibal, Iris; Karakaya, Filiz; Schaller, Marieke; Ulmen, Ulrike; Acquah, Patrick A; Dietz, Ekkehart; Eggelte, Teunis A; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. Methods In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PD) were analysed. Results In peripheral blood, P. falciparum was observed in 19%, 34%, and 53% by microscopy, HRP2 test, and PCR, respectively. For placental samples, these figures were 35%, 41%, and 59%. Irrespective of diagnostic tool, P. falciparum infection increased the risk of anaemia. Positive peripheral blood results of microscopy and PCR were not associated with LBW or PD. In contrast, the HRP2 test performed well in identifying women at increased risk of poor pregnancy outcome, particularly in case of a negative peripheral blood film. Adjusting for age, parity, and antenatal visits, placental HRP2 was the only marker of infection associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.5 (95%CI, 1.02.2)) and, at borderline statistical significance, PD (aOR, 1.4 (1.02.1)) in addition to anaemia (aOR, 2.3 (1.73.2)). Likewise, HRP2 in peripheral blood of seemingly aparasitaemic women was associated with PD (aOR, 1.7 (1.02.7)) and anaemia (aOR, 2.1 (1.43.2)). Conclusion Peripheral blood film microscopy not only underestimates placental malaria. In this highly endemic setting, it also fails to identify malaria as a cause of foetal impairment. Sub-microscopic infections detected by a HRP2 test in seemingly aparasitaemic women increase the risks of anaemia and PD. These findings indicate that the burden of malaria in pregnancy may be even larger than thought and accentuate the need for effective anti-malarial interventions in pregnancy. PMID:17166266

  12. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.

  13. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  14. 77 FR 41686 - Safety Zone; Sheffield Lake Fireworks, Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sheffield Lake Fireworks, Lake Erie, Sheffield Lake, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  16. Quebec: Lake Manicouagan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... kilometers in diameter and is composed of impact-brecciated rock. Glaciation and other erosional processes have reduced the extent of the ... about 5 kilometers. The lake is bounded by erosion-resistant metamorphic and igneous rocks, and shock metamorphic effects are abundant in ...

  17. Geochemistry of Saline Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. F.; Deocampo, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Saline lakes are important environmental features, with significant geochemical impacts on ecology, water resources, and economic activity around the world. Ancient sediments within saline lake basins also offer important sedimentary archives of past climates and tectonics, because such deposits can record significant hydrologic variations.Saline lake geochemistry is the product of a complex system involving meteoric precipitation, weathering, groundwater, evaporation, precipitation-dissolution reactions, and biotic activity. Its study is therefore an inherently interdisciplinary effort, and substantial reviews of the subject have emphasized relevant aspects of the hydrology (Rosen, 1994), mineralogy ( Spencer, 2000), sedimentology ( Hardie et al., 1978; Smoot and Lowenstein, 1991), and evolutionary pathways taken by progressively evaporated waters ( Eugster and Hardie, 1978).The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geochemistry of saline lake basins throughout the world, from dilute inflow to evaporated brine. Following the general approach of Eugster and Hardie (1978), we will review the theoretical background of the evolution of closed basin waters, and then selected field examples that are representative of the major water types. In this work, we have assigned an increased importance to the effect of magnesium salts on brine evolution pathways, and have incorporated this into new models of brine evolution and evaporite precipitation. We follow Chapter 5.16 in referring to waters with total dissolved solids greater than 3.5104 mg L-1 as true "brines," and those with from 1 mg L-1 to 104 mg L-1 as "brackish."

  18. Lake and Stream Acidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in the percentage of lakes and streams in selected regions in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states that have been considered chronically acidic between 1987 and 2007. This information describes how the extent of acidification, a serious danger t...

  19. Lake Huron Coast

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  20. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…