These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Stroke volume and cardiac output hypoxemic hypoxia produced by intravenous infusion of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Hypoxia produced by intravenous infusion of gaseous carbon dioxide was associated in conscious rabbits with decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume. At the same time the arterial blood pressure, oxygen uptake and blood pH decreased, whereas carbon dioxide pressure and lactate level in the arterial blood increased. Pulmonary ventilation increased too, due to the rise in the respiratory frequency and tidal volume. The fall in cardiac output and stroke volume explains a great fall of oxygen uptake in response to decrease of oxygen pressure in the blood. PMID:6787834

Lyszczarz, J; Boruta, E

1980-01-01

2

Partial molar volume reduction of solvent for solute crystallization using carbon dioxide as antisolvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas antisolvent crystallization (GASC) process using dense carbon dioxide (CO2) as antisolvent is particularly useful for purification and micronization of thermo-labile bioactive solid substances. Conventionally, the GASC process is characterized by the relative total volume expansion or the relative molar volume expansion of the solution. A new criterion is proposed in this work in terms of the relative partial

Mamata Mukhopadhyay

2003-01-01

3

Density and volume of water and triglyceride mixtures in contact with carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density and volume of vegetable oils and water in contact with carbon dioxide and nitrogen have been measured with a magnetic suspension balance coupled with a high pressure view cell. Pressure and temperature were varied from atmospheric pressure to about 30 MPa and from room temperature to 80C, respectively. The density of water, corn oil and palm oil increases

A. Tegetmeier; D. Dittmar; A. Fredenhagen; R. Eggers

2000-01-01

4

A METHOD FOR DETERMINING TOTAL CARBON DIOXIDE IN NANOLITRE VOLUMES OF LIQUID  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. A microdiffusion method is described by which total carbon dioxide can be determined in 2 nl samples of liquid. The standard deviation for 0-30 mM\\/1 HCOj~ is approximately 1 mM\\/1. 2. The volume of sample can be reduced to o-8 nl, but the S.D. then rises to i-6 mM\\/1. With volumes of 0-4 nl, the S.D. is 2-7

COLIN LITTLE

5

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None;)

2007-06-19

6

Carbon dioxide power cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved direct fired power system generating and employing a combustion gas which includes carbon dioxide or a working fluid including a combustion chamber for burning a mixture which includes oxygen, carbonaceous fuel and recycled carbon dioxide working fluid at a first pressure of above 1100 PSI thereby providing a combustion gas which includes carbon dioxide and water at substantially

Osgerby

1985-01-01

7

Geological storage of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is the main compound identified as affecting the stability of the Earth's climate. A significant reduction in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a key mechanism for mitigating against climate change. Geological storage of CO 2, or the injection and stabilization of large volumes of CO 2 in the subsurface in saline aquifers, existing

S. J. Baines; RICHARD H. WORDEN

2004-01-01

8

The carbon dioxide cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

2005-01-01

9

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

10

Carbon Dioxide for pH Control  

SciTech Connect

Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

Wagonner, R.C.

2001-08-16

11

Carbon Dioxide Removal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment using sprigs of Elodea, learners will observe a natural process that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from Earth's atmosphere. This process is a part of the carbon cycle and results in temperature suitable for life. Note: this experiment requires that learners make observations an hour or the next day after they set up the materials.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

12

Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon dioxide that could meet the 1000-day SMAC of 0.5%, which would apply to long-duration voyages to Mars.

James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

2009-01-01

13

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure, the famous Keeling Curve, shows the history of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as directly measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. This curve is an essential piece of evidence that shows the increased greenhouse gases that cause recent increases in global temperatures.

Rohde, Robert A.; (from published NOAA data)

14

Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

Bent, Henry A.

1987-01-01

15

Carbon Dioxide Laser Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is a versatile tool that has applications in ablative lasing and caters to the needs of routine dermatological practice as well as the aesthetic, cosmetic and rejuvenation segments. This article details the basics of the laser physics as applicable to the CO2 laser and offers guidelines for use in many of the above indications. PMID:20808594

Krupa Shankar, DS; Chakravarthi, M; Shilpakar, Rachana

2009-01-01

16

8, 73157337, 2008 Carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide distributions over Europe C. Gurk et al. Title Page Abstract distributions of carbon dioxide over Europe C. Gurk1 , H. Fischer1 , P. Hoor1 , M.G. Lawrence1 , J. Lelieveld1 Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7315 #12;ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

i Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CARBON DIOXIDE ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID, Afzal Siddiqui, and Judy Lai. 2011. The Carbon Dioxide Abatement Potential of California's Mid/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Transportation The Carbon Dioxide

18

Modeling Carbon Dioxide Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will explore levels of Carbon Dioxide ( C02) in the atmosphere over time. There is concern that levels of C02 are rising; and finding a good mathematical model for CO2 levels is an important part of determining if this is attributable to human technology. Students draw a scatter plot, choose two points to create a linear model for the data, then use the model to make predictions.

2009-01-01

19

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12

20

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

21

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air are two advanced technologies for carbon sequestration that aim at maintaining access to the vast fossil energy resources for centuries to come. While it is straightforward to dispose of carbon dioxide in limited amounts and for a limited time, permanent disposal of trillions of tons of carbon poses serious challenges. The formation of solid mineral carbonates from readily available minerals would provide safe and permanent storage. Capture of carbon dioxide from air makes it possible to sequester carbon dioxide emissions from sources other than power plants. This is important considering that even the relatively minor reductions suggested by the Kyoto Accord would have required the US to eliminate carbon dioxide emissions comparable to those of the entire 1990 coal fired power plant fleet. Capture of carbon dioxide from the air, would make it possible to close the carbon cycle in the transportation sector without phasing out liquid hydrocarbon fuels. It eliminates the need for long distance transport of carbon dioxide and allows the continued use of the existing energy infrastructure. Mineral sequestration at remote sites combined with on site carbon dioxide capture from air, would allow for long term stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. I will outline the current state of the technology and point to advances required before these approaches are ready for large-scale implementation.

Lackner, K. S.

2002-05-01

22

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals

W. J. J. Huijgen; R. N. J. Comans

2007-01-01

23

Carbon dioxide and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth's climate is getting warmer because of a buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that will continue well into the next century, according to a report released October 20 by the National Research Council (NRC), the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences. As the result of a 2-year study commissioned by Congress, the NRC's Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee predicts a global temperature rise of as much as 4.5C by the year 2100, enough to shift weather patterns, raise sea levels, and eliminate agriculture in some parts of the world. What's more, the trend seems inevitable even drastic changes in our energy use would not prevent the warmup, according to the committee's findings.CO2, the major contributor to a thermal greenhouse effect that traps re-radiated heat in the atmosphere, has risen from a concentration of 315 parts per million (ppm) to 340 ppm in one generation, largely as a result of the use of fossil fuels. Sometime in the third quarter of the next century, the report predicts, the concentration will probably be double the current level. The result will be a global warming of surface air of between 1.5 and 4.5C, with temperature rises relatively greater at the poles.

24

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry of Agriculture; 237 p. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry--Guidelines for professional and volunteer

Standiford, Richard B.

25

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air

K. S. Lackner

2002-01-01

26

Coral reefs and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

Buddemeier, R.W. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1996-03-01

27

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

28

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

29

Titrimetric Determination of Carbon Dioxide in a Heterogeneous Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional exercise in quantitative analysis is the titration of mixtures of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate. Often, consumer products are studied. A procedure to analyze the total volume of carbon dioxide bubbles in the candy \\

Craig M. Davis; Matthew C. Mauck

2003-01-01

30

Carbon Dioxide Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of the south polar residual cap at full MOC resolution, 1.5 m (5 ft) per pixel. During each of the three summers since the start of the MGS mapping mission in March 1999, the scarps that form mesas and pits in the 'Swiss cheese'-like south polar terrain have retreated an average of about 3 meters (1 yard). The material is frozen carbon dioxide; another 3 meters or so of each scarp is expected to be removed during the next summer, in late 2005. This image is located near 86.0oS, 350.8oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

2004-01-01

31

High flow biphasic positive airway pressure by helmet effects on pressurization, tidal volume, carbon dioxide accumulation and noise exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionNon-invasive ventilation (NIV) with a helmet device is often associated with poor patient-ventilator synchrony and impaired\\u000a carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, which might lead to failure. A possible solution is to use a high free flow system in combination with a time-cycled\\u000a pressure valve placed into the expiratory circuit (HF-BiPAP). This system would be independent from triggering while providing\\u000a a high

Onnen Moerer; Peter Herrmann; Jos Hinz; Paolo Severgnini; Edoardo Calderini; Michael Quintel; Paolo Pelosi

2009-01-01

32

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-print Network

of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel carbon emissions over this periodCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

33

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbonation Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases with higher heat capacities than those of O2 and N2 cause greenhouse effects. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas associated with global climate change. At the present time, coal is responsible for 3040% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. There was a higher correlation between the amount of carbon dioxide emission and percentage of carbon

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

34

Carbon dioxide hydrate and floods on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground ice on Mars probably consists largely of carbon dioxide hydrate. This hydrate dissociates upon release of pressure at temperatures between 0 and 10 C. The heat capacity of the ground would be sufficient to produce up to 4% (by volume) of water at a rate equal to that at which it can be drained away. Catastrophic dissociation of carbon dioxide hydrate during some past epoch when the near-surface temperature was in this range would have produced chaotic terrain and flood channels.

Milton, D. J.

1974-01-01

35

Carbon Dioxide and Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrates the affect of increased dissolved carbon dioxide on water pH using a cheap, non-toxic acid/base indicator. Students bubble breath through a straw into red cabbage juice and note the color change.

Lewis, Chris

36

Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than

Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

2010-01-01

37

Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than

James Jadrich; Crystal Bruxvoort

2010-01-01

38

Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon dioxide was first described in the 17th century by Jan Baptist van Helmont, a Belgium chemist. The chemical CO2 is released into the atmosphere when carbon-containing fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal are burned in air. It is also produced by various microorganisms in fermentation and is breathed out by animals. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates. Every year the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. CO2 build-up in the atmosphere is caused by deforestation, therefore reducing the number of trees available to absorb CO2. Excess CO2 in the environment causes Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. It is also toxic to humans since inhalation of large amounts of CO2 can cause suffocation. Some beverages, such as beer and sparkling wine contain carbon dioxide as a result of fermentation.

2002-08-15

39

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

40

Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL), the Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference is planned September 25-30 in Broomfield, Colo. At this website, scientists involved in various aspects of the global carbon cycle, especially the current increases of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are encouraged to attend. Users can read the preliminary announcement and can learn about the themes of the conference. Researchers can learn about abstract submissions and accommodations. The Brief Conference History link offers a nice synopsis of the accomplishments of past conferences.

41

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

42

Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

43

Carbon dioxide enhances fragility of ice crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice caps and glaciers cover 7% of the Earth, greater than the land area of Europe and North America combined, and play an important role in global climate. The small-scale failure mechanisms of ice fracture, however, remain largely elusive. In particular, little understanding exists about how the presence and concentration of carbon dioxide molecules, a significant component in the atmosphere, affects the propensity of ice to fracture. Here we use atomic simulations with the first-principles based ReaxFF force field capable of describing the details of chemical reactions at the tip of a crack, applied to investigate the effects of the presence of carbon dioxide molecules on ice fracture. Our result shows that increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide molecules significantly decrease the fracture toughness of the ice crystal, making it more fragile. Using enhanced molecular sampling with metadynamics we reconstruct the free energy landscape in varied chemical microenvironments and find that carbon dioxide molecules affect the bonds between water molecules at the crack tip and decrease their strength by altering the dissociation energy of hydrogen bonds. In the context of glacier dynamics our findings may provide a novel viewpoint that could aid in understanding the breakdown and melting of glaciers, suggesting that the chemical composition of the atmosphere can be critical to mediate the large-scale motion of large volumes of ice.

Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

2012-11-01

44

Enthalpies of dissociation of clathrate hydrates of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, (carbon dioxide + nitrogen), and (carbon dioxide + nitrogen + tetrahydrofuran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calorimetric technique is described for measuring the enthalpy of dissociation liberated from solid hydrates. In this study, the enthalpies of dissociation were determined at T= 273.65 K andp= 0.1 MPa for simple and mixed hydrates of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, (carbon dioxide + nitrogen), and (carbon dioxide + nitrogen + tetrahydrofuran) using an isothermal microcalorimeter. The addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF)

B.-J. Ryu

2001-01-01

45

Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

Sun, J.; Burns, S. P.; Delany, A. C.; Oncley, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D. E.; Monson, R.

2004-01-01

46

Nongovernmental valorization of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas effect. Most attempts to manage the flow of CO2 or carbon into our environment involve reducing net emissions or sequestering the gas into long-lived sinks. Using CO2 as a chemical feedstock has a long history, but using it on scales that might impact the net emissions of CO2

Gene Petersen; Donn Viviani; Kim Magrini-Bair; Stephen Kelley; Luc Moens; Phil Shepherd; Dan DuBois

2005-01-01

47

2, 18491865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in  

E-print Network

BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern Poland L. Chmura et al. Title Page Abstract is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 1849 #12;BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern urban environment with numerous local sources of carbon dioxide. Despite of relative proximity of those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

Santos, Juan

49

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

Santos, Juan

50

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve,  

E-print Network

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve, shown to the left, shows the variation in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958-1974. It is based on continuous measurements taken of rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working

51

21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS Reg. No....

2014-04-01

52

Determination of the Effective Volume of an Automated Chamber System for Studying the Effect of Soil Wetting and Drying Cycles on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Soil Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of terrestrial greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is essential for estimating and managing the effects of the human carbon footprint. This poster presentation describes a method of determining the effective volume of an automated non-steady state chamber system in order to simultaneously measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes at the soil surface. Our method used a Picarro G2301-f Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer coupled to our automated chamber system (developed by the UBC Biometeorology and Soil Physics Group) to allow for continuous, half-hourly measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. The high precision of the spectrometer allowed for a relatively short 4-minute closure time of the chamber, which was sufficient for flux calculations of both CO2 and CH4. Following the closure of the 65-L chamber, ambient air was drawn into the chamber and then through the spectrometer at a flow rate of approximately 0.25 L min-1. A calibration gas (20% by volume CO2 or 0.10% by volume CH4) was injected into the chamber at a flow rate of 15 mL min-1. The chamber was fixed to an aluminum base during calibration injections, which were performed separately for CO2 and CH4. Rates of increase in chamber headspace GHG concentrations were found to be linear. The effective volume of the chamber, an essential parameter in flux calculation, was found to exceed the geometric volume of the chamber by about 8% for CO2 and 1% for CH4. Results indicated that our non-steady state system can be used to accurately measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes simultaneously and provides a novel way to approach both field and laboratory-based GHG flux assessment. Additionally, the use of the system to determine the effects of soil wetting events on CO2 and CH4 emissions will be described.

Webster, C.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.; Hawthorne, I.

2013-12-01

53

The Impact of Carbon Dioxide on Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between climatic change and carbon dioxide from the historical perspective; details the contributions of carbon-based fuels to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations; and using global circulation models, discusses the future impact of the heavy reliance of our society on carbon-based fuels on climatic change. (BT)

MacDonald, Gordon J.

1979-01-01

54

Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

2012-01-01

55

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonolysis of carbon dioxide dissolved in water was performed from a standpoint of reducing this material in atmosphere. During one hour of sonication, the amount of CO2 decreased to about half at 5C under CO2Ar atmosphere. The decreasing rate for CO2 followed the order Ar>He>H2>N2 and it was down with increasing temperature in the range of 545C. The most favorable

Hisashi Harada

1998-01-01

56

Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth

57

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1980 PROFICIENCY SURVEY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on authority granted by provisions of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7410, et seq.), the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC administers periodic surveys of analytical proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitroge...

58

Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

59

Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by Tetrahydrofuran, Cyclopentane)-vapour (V) equilibrium pressures for the ternary system composed of water, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and carbon and carbon dioxide. Keywords: Gas Hydrates, carbon dioxide capture, tetrahydrofuran, cyclopentane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Mechanisms of Neutralization of Bauxite Residue by Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bauxite residue red mud, an alkaline slurry from alumina refining, is produced in large volumes and disposed of in large surface impoundments. The objectives of this study were to measure the extent of neutralization of bauxite residue by carbon dioxide as a function of CO2 partial pressure and to determine the geochemical reactions responsible for carbon sequestration. Bauxite residue was

Sameer Khaitan; David A. Dzombak

2009-01-01

61

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-print Network

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

62

Carbon Cycle: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab investigates the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean's surface. It is based on the fact that carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean and provides the source of that plants and plankton living in the ocean rely on for photosynthesis. Students will discover that the amount of carbon dioxide the ocean can contain depends on the temperature of the water and its salinity (whether it is sea water or fresh water) and that cold water can hold more carbon dioxide in solution than warm water. They will observe that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid which makes the water acidic, and they will test for the acidity caused by the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide using Universal Indicator, which turns yellow when the solution is acidic. This activity tests whether sea water or fresh water absorbs more carbon dioxide.

63

Effect of Carbon Dioxide Variations on Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide cause temperature changes sufficiently large to influence the climate. If the atmospheric carbon dioxide doubles, the surface temperature rises 3.6C if it is cut in half, the surface temperature falls 3.8C. Some of the factors that can be explained by the carbon dioxide theory are: during a single glacial epoch, the climate

Gilbert N. Plass

1956-01-01

64

The influence of carbon dioxide on smoke formation and stability in methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of replacing nitrogen in combustion air by carbon dioxide in a laminar, atmospheric methane diffusion flame was investigated experimentally and by numerical modelling. Measurements included flame temperature, carbon monoxide concentrations and direct observation and photographic investigation of the flame shape and behaviour. The experimental results indicate a substantial reduction of scattered light intensity and flame volume. When a

Douglas Hainsworth; M. Pourkashanian; Andrew P. Richardson; Joanne L. Rupp; Alan Williams

1996-01-01

65

Carbon dioxide and intergenerational choice  

SciTech Connect

Depending on ethical beliefs, different decisions emerge for resolving the carbon dioxide (CO/sup 2/) issue. It is doubtful that an international consensus can be reached on a correct ethical criterion. Perhaps the best strategy would be to delay acceptance of either a particular set of beliefs or the existing scientific evidence and wait for more-accurate and conclusive research to emerge. If the scientific evidence is accepted as valid, and all future generations that will exist are evaluated equally, then the optimal current regulatory strategy is to restrict, as much as possible, current emissions of CO/sup 2/. 17 references, 2 figure, 1 table.

D'Arge, R.C.; Schulze, W.D.; Brookshire, D.S.

1982-05-01

66

Carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals - environmental barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the major environmental impacts associated with industrial-scale carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals, material resulting from a study undertaken by CSMA Consultants Ltd. in 1999. The chemical bonding of carbon dioxide, through reaction of two or more products to produce magnesium or calcium carbonate has been suggested as a means to mitigate CO2 from fossil fuel

H. Haywood; J. Eyre; H. Scholes

2001-01-01

67

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected...

2013-10-01

68

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2013-10-01

69

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2012-04-01

70

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

71

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2010-10-01

72

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...Diagnostic Devices 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...

2012-04-01

73

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

74

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2014-04-01

75

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.524-78...Procedures 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated:...

2014-07-01

76

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2014-04-01

77

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...Diagnostic Devices 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...

2013-04-01

78

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section...and Instructions 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

79

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2011-10-01

80

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2012-10-01

81

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2011-10-01

82

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2013-04-01

83

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2013-10-01

84

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2013-10-01

85

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

86

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2011-04-01

87

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section...and Instructions 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

88

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2012-10-01

89

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2012-04-01

90

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2012-10-01

91

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2011-04-01

92

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2013-04-01

93

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

94

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected...

2012-10-01

95

A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppmyr?1) prior to 1970 to more than 2ppmyr?1 in

David J. Hofmann; James H. Butler; Pieter P. Tans

2009-01-01

96

Residential carbon dioxide emissions in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of improving house envelope, heating system and appliance efficiencies, and fuel substitution on the atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide in the Canadian residential sector is studied based on simulation studies. The findings clearly indicate that improving appliance efficiency reduces the overall end-use energy consumption in the residential sector as well as the associated carbon dioxide emissions. However, the

V. Ismet Ugursal; Alan S. Fung

1998-01-01

97

Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

Marsh, Gerald E

2010-01-01

98

Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

Gerald E. Marsh

2010-02-02

99

A Method for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Air by Gas Chromatography Using an Emissive Helium Plasma Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of workers have used molecular sieves to separate carbon monoxide from air (1,2,3) and it has been shown that PORAPAK ? is suitable for the resolution of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide from air (3,4,5). However, the sensitive detection of such gases frequently presents problems without recourse to the use of large sample volumes.

R. M. Dagnall; D. J. Johnson; T. S. West

1973-01-01

100

Interactions of culture vessels, media volume, culture density, and carbon dioxide levels on lettuce and spearmint shoot growth in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of culture chamber capacity, medium volume and culture density on the growth yields of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) shoots were determined in an environment containing either 350 or 10,000??mol mol1 CO2 after 8 weeks of incubation. High positive correlations occurred between the culture vessel capacity and spearmint fresh\\u000a weight, leaf number, root number,

B. Tisserat; R. Silman

2000-01-01

101

Microfluidic studies of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, storage and recycling will greatly benefit from comprehensive studies of physical and chemical gas-liquid processes involving CO2. Over the past five years, microfluidics emerged as a valuable tool in CO2-related research, due to superior mass and heat transfer, reduced axial dispersion, well-defined gas-liquid interfacial areas and the ability to vary reagent concentrations in a high-throughput manner. This Minireview highlights recent progress in microfluidic studies of CO2-related processes, including dissolution of CO2 in physical solvents, CO2 reactions, the utilization of CO2 in materials science, and the use of supercritical CO2 as a "green" solvent. PMID:24961230

Abolhasani, Milad; Gnther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

2014-07-28

102

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

103

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

104

Photolytical Generation of Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide has been found by Cassini VIMS throughout the Saturnian system in locations such as Iapetus' equator where the temperature is too high for it to remain as free ice for more than a few hundred years. We suggest that the 4.26 micron absorption feature found on Iapetus and Hyperion (that has been attributed to complexed CO2) is the result of either UV photolysis or ion bombardment driving chemistry between the carbon rich layer and the water ice regolith. We conducted experiments to simulate the generation of CO2 by UV radiation under conditions similar to those on the surface of Iapetus. A simulated icy regolith was created in an argon atmosphere using flash-frozen, degassed water crushed into sub-millimeter sized particles. Isotopically labeled amorphous carbon (13C), which was ground into a fine dust, was mixed into the regolith allowing for extensive grain contact. This sample was placed in a vacuum chamber and cooled to temperatures as low at 60K. The sample was irradiated with UV light, and the products were measured using both a mass spectrometer to identify free molecules and an IR spectrometer for molecules that remained trapped on and in the simulated regolith. We report on the production and reaction rates of CO2 and CO, as well as the generation of free hydrogen and oxygen as detected by a SRS-100 mass spectrometer. We also identify residual products that either freeze on the surface or become entrained by or adsorbed onto the ice grains. We attempt to match the CO2 absorption feature found on Iapetus with that seen in our simulation, perhaps identifying a possible source of CO2 in the Saturnian system. Finally, we estimate the time required for these reactions to occur on Iapetus to see if UV photolysis would be effective.

Palmer, E. E.; Brown, R. H.

2008-12-01

105

Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than helium balloons. An investigation into the details of this phenomenon provides students with an excellent opportunity to apply the kinetic theory of gases and the ideal gas law, and it can also be exploited for a dramatic in-class demonstration of diffusion and the second law of thermodynamics.

Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

2010-09-01

106

Carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals - environmental barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the major environmental impacts associated with industrial-scale carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals, material resulting from a study undertaken by CSMA Consultants Ltd. in 1999. The chemical bonding of carbon dioxide, through reaction of two or more products to produce magnesium or calcium carbonate has been suggested as a means to mitigate CO2 from fossil fuel power plants. The study considered six potential methods for sequestering carbon dioxide, notionally captured from fossil fuel burning power stations, as stable mineral carbonates, i.e. magnesite and limestone (calcium carbonate) and as sodium bicarbonate. Four methods were eliminated in the initial screening and two were selected for further detailed consideration. Following this stage the overall environmental costs, including environmental impacts, energy and carbon dioxide balances, meant that all the current technologies amenable to reasoned consideration had to be discarded as currently environmentally unacceptable.

Haywood, H.; Eyre, J.; Scholes, H.

2001-11-01

107

Carbon dioxide emission scenarios: limitations of the fossil fuel resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are in large part the result of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Scenario analysis is commonly used to generate projections of future carbon dioxide emissions, the resulting atmospheric concentrations and climate impact. In most scenario modelling published to date, carbon dioxide emission scenarios are based on demand-side (socioeconomic and technology)

Christopher Vernon; Erica Thompson; Sarah Cornell

2011-01-01

108

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere 0084-6597/09/0530-0117$20.00 Key Words climate, warming, ocean chemistry, carbon cycle Abstract CO2

Scherer, Norbert F.

109

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01

110

Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage  

E-print Network

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

De Figueiredo, Mark A.

2007-01-01

111

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

112

Sequestering carbon dioxide in industrial polymers: Building materials for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the possibility of developing beneficial uses for carbon dioxide as a key component for a large-volume building product. Such a use may provide an alternative to storing the gas in oceanic sinks or clathrates as a way to slow the rate of global warming. The authors investigated the concept that carbon dioxide might be

P. M. Molton; D. A. Nelson

1993-01-01

113

Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide  

E-print Network

The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering that supercritical carbon...

Katsurao, Takumi

2012-06-07

114

Experimentally Determining the Molecular Weight of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molar mass of carbon dioxide was experimentally determined using a Mylar balloon. Mylar balloons are lightweight, have a fixed definite volume, and require minimal additional pressure for inflation. Using the Ideal Gas Equation, the number of moles of air in the balloon was calculated. The molar mass of air was calculated using the percentages of the individual gases. Having these two values, the mass of air in the balloon, also known as the buoyant force of air, was calculated. The balloon was filled with carbon dioxide and the observed mass of the carbon dioxide was added to the mass of the displaced air for the true mass of carbon dioxide. Having the number of moles the balloon holds and the mass of carbon dioxide, the molar mass of carbon dioxide was calculated.

Albers Jackson, Barbara; Crouse, David J.

1998-08-01

115

Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita  

E-print Network

65 Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita Kinda Somlanare Romuald Abstract dioxide emissions around the world, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide emissions growth, there is no convergence, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide growth. In developed countries, we find

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.  

PubMed

Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances in the science and engineering of materials are critical for these new energy technologies, and specific examples are given for all three examples. With sufficient advances, and institutional and political support, such scientific and technological innovations could help to regulate/stabilize the CO2 levels in the atmosphere and thereby extend the use of fossil-fuel-derived feedstocks. PMID:20566515

Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

2010-07-28

117

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM  

E-print Network

(for water: the SPC-, SPC/E-, and TIP4P-potential models; for carbon dioxide: the EPM2 potential model. The interactions between carbon dioxide and water were estimated from the pair potentials of the pure components of intermolecular pair potentials for various substances is documented. Especially water has been the subject

118

Carbon Dioxide- Where Does it All Go?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will use a diagram of carbon fluxes, which shows the sources that contribute to current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

119

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Matsumoto, Katsumi

120

Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

121

Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

Arrhenius, G.

1997-01-01

122

Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth.  

PubMed

Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure. PMID:11541253

Arrhenius, G

1997-02-01

123

Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and\\/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant, carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant, and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold

Norman H. Hagedorn

1991-01-01

124

Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and\\/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold

Norman H. Hagedorn

1993-01-01

125

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10

126

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30

127

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Global Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is one of the key variables of the Earth system the web of interactions between\\u000a the atmosphere, oceans, soils and living things that determines conditions at the Earth surface. Atmospheric CO2 plays several roles in this system. For example, it is the carbon source for nearly all terrestrial green plants, and the\\u000a source of carbonic

Andrew J. Watson; James C. Orr

128

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

129

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

PubMed Central

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

2014-01-01

130

Carbon dioxide opacity of the Venus' atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus' atmosphere consists of about 95% of carbon dioxide, which accounts for most of the absorption of the radiation emitted by its hot surface. The large densities and high temperatures of Venus' atmosphere make the absorption much more complex than for low density atmospheres such as Earth or Mars. Available experimental data are at present insufficient and theoretical models inadequate to describe complex absorption line shapes and collision-induced phenomena. Here we present a survey of all absorption and scattering processes which influence the transparency of Venus' atmosphere for what concerns carbon dioxide.

Snels, Marcel; Stefani, Stefania; Grassi, Davide; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Adriani, Alberto

2014-11-01

131

Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells  

E-print Network

H the activity of adenosine tri phosphatase was Increased by carbon dioxide. Also, the same investigators found that increasing the carbon dioxide concentration from 10 to 1*0 mM at constant pH stimulated the conversion of acetate into fatty acids four to six... and Cortisol were present to gether (I9li, 70 ) . Paradoxically, tryptophan and quinolinic acid increased the in vitro assayable activity of PEP-CK (259, 68). Upon extraction, the inhibition appears to dissociate from the enzyme, leaving it in a metal...

Kyner, David Smith

1969-01-01

132

Master index for the carbon dioxide research state-of-the-art report series  

SciTech Connect

Four State of the Art (SOA) reports, ''Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle,'' ''Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation,'' ''Detecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and ''Projecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and two companion reports, ''Characterization of Information Requirements for Studies of CO/sub 2/ Effects: Water Resources, Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests and Human Health'' and ''Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Sea Level: Effect of a CO/sub 2/-Induced Climatic Change,'' were published by the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Division. Considerable information on atmospheric carbon dioxide and its possible effects on world climate is summarized in these six volumes. Each volume has its own index, but to make the information that is distributed throughout the six volumes more accessible and usable, comprehensive citation and subject indexes have been compiled. The subject indexes of the individual volumes have been edited to provide a uniformity from volume to volume and also to draw distinctions not needed in the separate volumes' indexes. Also, the comprehensive subject index has been formatted in a matrix arrangement to graphically show the distribution of subject treatment from volume to volume. Other aids include cross references between the scientific and common names of the animals and plants referred to, a glossary of special terms used, tables of data and conversion factors related to the data, and explanations of the acronyms and initialisms used in the texts of the six volumes. The executive summaries of the six volumes are collected and reproduced to allow the readers interested in the contents of one volume to rapidly gain information on the contents of the other volumes.

Farrell, M P [ed.

1987-03-01

133

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

134

Reduction of Atmospheric Radiocarbon Concentration by Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide and the Mean Life of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the combustion of fossil fuels over the period 1860 to 1954 has produced an amount of carbon dioxide, containing no radiocarbon, that is equal to approximately 13% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The addition of this 'old' carbon dioxide to the atmosphere has observably disturbed the steady-state distribution of carbon-14 in nature. In

G. J. Fergusson

1958-01-01

135

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions at metal electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of carbon stored in the form of atmospheric carbon dioxide, CO in the hydrosphere and carbonates in the terrestrial environment substantially exceed those of fossil fuels. In spite of this the industrial use of carbon dioxide as a source of chemical carbon is presently limited to preparation of urea and certain carboxylic acids as well as organic carbonates

J. Augustynski; B. Jermann; P. Kedzierzawski

1996-01-01

136

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1993-01-01

137

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1991-01-01

138

Gas diffusion cell removes carbon dioxide from occupied airtight enclosures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, lightweight permeable cell package separates and removes carbon dioxide from respiratory gas mixtures. The cell is regenerative while chemically inert in the presence of carbon dioxide so that only adsorption takes place.

1964-01-01

139

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

Knox, James C.

2000-01-01

140

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide-Based Industrial Laundry Machine  

E-print Network

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide- Based Industrial Laundry Machine Industrial cleaning and disinfection machine must be demonstrated with independent verification commercial supercritical-carbon dioxide textile cleaning machine to document and validate: Real

141

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2014-07-01

142

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2. Depending on the source, 39 or 72 percent more CO2 would be produced per unit of energy if synthetic fuels were used instead of petroleum. The use of synthetic fuels derivved from biomass would make no net addition to atmospheric CO2 provided no fossil fuels are used in biomass production and/or conversion. Assuming that synthetic liquid fuels would gradually replace petroleum and that they would supply all of the worldwide liquid fuel demand by the year 2060, we calculated that the atmospheric CO2 concentration would increase from the current 335 parts per million on a volume basis (ppmv) to 778 ppmv in 2060. However, even if the liquid fuel demand were met by petroleum alone, the CO2 level would be 715 ppmv in that year. Furthermore, we estimated that as a result of these increases in the CO2 level, the globally averaged earth's surface temperature in the year 2060 will have risen by 2.6 K with the use of synthetic liquids and 2.2 K without their use.

Sapre, Alex R.; Hummel, John R.; Reck, Ruth A.

1982-05-01

143

Carbon dioxide dynamics in an artificial ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental artificial ecosystem was established as a tool to understand the behavior of closed ecosystem and to develop the technology for a future bioregenerative life support system for lunar or planetary exploration. Total effective volume of the system is 0.7 m3 . It consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a photo-bioreactor which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella), respectively. For uniform and sustained observations, lettuce and silkworms was cultivated using sequential cultivation method, and microalgae using continuous culture. Four researchers took turns breathing the system air through a tube for brief periods every few hours. A mathematic model, simulating the carbon dioxide dynamics was developed. The main biological parameters concerning photosynthesis of lettuce and microalgae, respiration of silkworms and human were validated by the experimental data. The model described the respiratory relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic compartments. A control strategy was proposed as a tool for the atmosphere management of the artificial ecosystem.

Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

144

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

145

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

2013-01-01

146

The Swedish carbon dioxide tax: effects on biofuel use and carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish carbon dioxide tax was introduced in 1991, by adjusting the existing energy taxation to consider the carbon load of fuels. The tax was initially set at a general level of US $13311The exchange rate used in this paper is US $1=7.5 SEK (Swedish krona) per ton carbon (tc). It was differentiated in 1993, with the result that industry

Folke Bohlin

1998-01-01

147

Carbon Dioxide Production at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will consider the "Carbon Footprint" of a family of four in a given context, as well as the US and global averages, and compare that with their own to answer a series of questions. They will use an online Carbon Footprint calculator to determine their own per-capita carbon production. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

148

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

149

DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

150

Recent Events: a Perspective on Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will compare the carbon dioxide produced as a result of two 2010 events: the eruption of the Eyjafjalla Volcano and the burning of oil on the ocean surface to address the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

151

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.Depending on the source, 39 or 72 percent more CO2 would be produced per unit of energy if synthetic fuels were

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01

152

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2. Depending on the source, 39 or 72 percent more CO2 would be produced per unit of energy if synthetic fuels

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01

153

Enriched oil recovery using carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cell protein plant is operated to produce high density cell growth and a substantially pure stream of generally high pressure carbon dioxide for further use, for example, in enhanced oil recovery operations. The plant employs an air separator producing substantially pure streams of oxygen and nitrogen. The oxygen stream is used to enrich a carrier fluid and used

Hitzman

1981-01-01

154

Carbon Dioxide Separation Using Thermally Optimized Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to develop polymeric-metallic membranes for carbon dioxide separations that operate under a broad range of industrially relevant conditions not accessible with present membrane units. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of polymer membranes as an effective, economic and flexible tool for many commercial gas separations including air separation, the

J. S. Young; B. S. Jorgensen; B. F. Espinoza; M. W. Weimer; G. D. Jarvinen; A. Greenberg; V. Khare; C. J. Orme; A. K. Wertsching; E. S. Peterson; S. D. Hopkins; J. Acquaviva

2002-01-01

155

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from Mauna Loa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scripps Institute of Oceanography has released these data consisting of monthly carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa 1958-1999. Measurements were made using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. The data are available as graphs or tables. The text includes a brief overview of the methods and a reference list.

156

World Electricity Consumption and Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a table of global electricity consumption to answer a series of questions and consider the production of carbon dioxide associated with that consumption. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

157

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01

158

Carbon dioxide hydrationand dehydration kinetics in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate constants for the hydration and dehydration reactions of carbon dioxide with water and with hydroxyl ion were measured in seawater by a pH-stat method at salinities (X lO:l) from 3.4 to 37.06 at 25C and from 5\\

Kenneth S. Johnson

1982-01-01

159

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the

Halil Berberoglu

2008-01-01

160

Carbon dioxide on the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses arguments of geochemical mass balance to arrive at an estimate of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the terrestrial atmosphere very early in earth history. It appears that this partial pressure could have been as large as 10 bars. This large estimate depends on two key considerations. First, volatiles were driven out of the interior of

J. C. G. Walker

1985-01-01

161

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating

K. S. Lackner; D. P. Butt; R. Jensen; H. Ziock

1998-01-01

162

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

163

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

164

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

165

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

166

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

David W. Holladay; Gary L. Haag

1979-01-01

167

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention comprises a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

D. W. Holladay; G. L. Haag

1979-01-01

168

Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis by high concentrations of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of carbon dioxide inhibit the greening of etiolated plants. In the presence of 20% oxygen, concentrations of carbon dioxide of 10% and above inhibited the production of chlorophyll in etiolated leaves of barley, wheat, and dwarf French bean. On return to air, recovery from this inhibition took place rapidly. High concentrations of carbon dioxide were also inhibitory when

B. T. Steer; D. A. Walker

1964-01-01

169

ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and  

E-print Network

ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http 37831-6335 FTP: cdiac.esd.ornl.gov #12;ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

170

Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in  

E-print Network

Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

Rochelle, Gary T.

171

High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide S�ren H�jgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. H (ASR) #12;Electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam CO2 + H2O H2 + CO + 3/2 O2 Interesting because of electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide Picture taken from J. R. Rostrup, Steam Reforming and Catalysts

172

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

173

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 CREDIT CanWe Bury GLOBAL WARMING? Pumping carbon dioxide his lungs were carbon dioxide. Each time you draw breath today, 380 mole- cules per million are carbon dioxide. That portion climbs about two mole- cules every year. No one knows the exact consequenc- es

O'Donnell, Tom

174

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.124-78...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated:...

2014-07-01

175

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section...Equipment, etc. 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

176

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

177

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions Susan Solomona,1 , Gian in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely

Fischlin, Andreas

178

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for...

2014-10-01

179

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89.322 Section...Equipment Provisions 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on...

2014-07-01

180

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section...Equipment, etc. 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

181

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91.320 Section...Equipment Provisions 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1)...

2014-07-01

182

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

183

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

184

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90.320 Section...Equipment Provisions 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1)...

2014-07-01

185

Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

Holmes, R. F. (inventor)

1973-01-01

186

Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage  

E-print Network

Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

Huppert, Herbert

187

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0[sup 2] uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0[sup 2] from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0[sup 2] fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

Peng, Tsung-Hung (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Takahashi, Taro (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

1993-01-01

188

The characteristics of time series of carbon dioxide and the relationship between air temperature and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of the carbon dioxide concentration is the problem that is important for the global warming. Carbon dioxide concentration is gradually increasing for the rapid production activity in agriculture and industry from the latter half in the eighteenth century, in which industrial revolution began in the United Kingdom. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration seems to be mainly caused

M. Hasebe; Y. Suzuki

2003-01-01

189

Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

Pratte, John

190

Carbon dioxide transport in crustal magmatic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile chemistry of juvenile volcanic glasses has suggested that shallow-stored crustal magmas often suffer the open-system addition of a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid from below, probably from a mantle-derived basaltic source ("carbon dioxide fluxing"). However, the actual mechanism of such a fluid transport is poorly understood. To constrain the volatile transport mechanism, we formulated this phenomenon as a reactive transport process and clarified the fundamental characteristics of chemical exchange in the system. The model assumes that a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid is introduced into a water-rich rhyolitic magma column from below and ascends at a constant velocity whilst a volatile exchange takes place between the fluid and melt. Two types of exchange modes were examined. One is the equilibrium mode where the volatile exchange is instantaneously achieved at all column depths. The second is the diffusive mode where the volatile exchange is rate limited by diffusion. In the equilibrium mode, the extent of re-equilibration of the entire column is controlled solely by the mass ratio of the integrated fluid to the melt. In the diffusive mode, the extent of re-equilibration is controlled by the Damkhler number, a dimensionless parameter representing the ratio of the advection time to the diffusion time. When the Damkhler number for carbon dioxide exceeds 10, the diffusive exchange becomes indistinguishable from the equilibrium exchange. Both exchange modes produce a negative correlation between the concentrations of carbon dioxide and water in the melt, which cannot be explained by conventional degassing models without significant crystallisation. The fluid emitted from the column as a volcanic gas changes its composition from carbon dioxide rich to water rich, and the emission rate decreases monotonically during fluxing. The simulation enables us to constrain the mechanism of fluid transport. For the melt inclusion data from the Bishop Tuff (Wallace et al., 1999; Anderson et al., 2000), fluid velocity in this magma was estimated to be 10 - 6 -10 - 7 m/s. The corresponding mechanism of fluid transport may include permeable flow with a permeability of ~ 10 - 15 m 2 or a buoyant ascent of individual bubbles with a radius of 4-7 mm.

Yoshimura, Shumpei; Nakamura, Michihiko

2011-07-01

191

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system analysis and comparison among the technologies was made based on ESM, technology readiness level and reliability. Those technologies with potential were recommended for development.

Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

2011-01-01

192

Carbon Dioxide: Production and Sequestration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will refer to a satellite image to calculate the rate of carbon sequestration in the areas of bare land and forested lawn shown to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

193

Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases.  

PubMed

Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min(-1)m(-2) and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Because the ammonia release reduction ratio was lower than the manure dilution ratio, dilution could increase the total ammonia emissions from swine manure, especially in lagoons with large liquid surface areas. Carbon dioxide release of 87.3 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Manure dry matter was an important factor for carbon dioxide release from manure. No differences were observed between the treatments (P>0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area. PMID:20850169

Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Sutton, Alan L; Kelly, Dan T; Patterson, John A; Kim, Sun-Tae

2010-11-01

194

Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices  

E-print Network

Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

Kaiser, Ralf I.

195

Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

Wu, Jianzhong

196

Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The global temperature rose by 0.2/sup 0/C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4/sup 0/C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

Hansen, J.; Johnson, D.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Lee, P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.

1981-08-28

197

Heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important classes of heterogeneous catalytic reactions involving CO2 are examined: the incorporation of CO2 in the C-C, C-H, and C-N bonds with formation of carbonyl- and carboxyl-containing compounds and oxidation of other compounds by CO2. Reactions of the second class are more promising from the standpoint of the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical raw material and from the standpoint of the solution of the ecological problems involving its utilisation from the gaseous waste discharged into the atmosphere. The reactions involving the oxidation of C1-C7 hydrocarbons and C1-C2 alcohols by carbon dioxide, which have been investigated by the authors of this review, are examined in detail. Catalysts based on manganese oxides are most effective in these reactions. The bibliography includes 231 references.

Krylov, Oleg V.; Mamedov, A. Kh

1995-09-01

198

The direct carbon dioxide effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its direct effects on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the direct

Jonathan Adams

199

Carbon dioxide separation from hydrogen and nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2-selective membranes that obtain high CO2 permeabilities accompanied with high CO2\\/H2 and CO2\\/N2 separation factors at industrial temperatures and pressures are applicable to fuel cell operations and flue gas purification. This paper describes the separation of carbon dioxide from a mixed gas stream of hydrogen and nitrogen by a chitosan membrane containing 40wt% sodium arginate. Continuous membrane separations were done

Louei A. El-Azzami; Eric A. Grulke

2009-01-01

200

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However,\\u000a its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We\\u000a performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

201

Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change,\\u000a since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing

Klaus Keller; David McInerney; David F. Bradford

2008-01-01

202

Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator: Math model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steady state computer simulation model of an Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC) has been developed. The mathematical model combines EDC heat and mass balance equations with empirical correlations derived from experimental data to describe EDC performance as a function of the operating parameters involved. The model is capable of accurately predicting performance over EDC operating ranges. Model simulation results agree with the experimental data obtained over the prediction range.

Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Carlson, J. N.

1973-01-01

203

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Daro R. Gmez; Michael Tyacke

204

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

2005-01-01

205

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

1981-03-01

206

Carbon dioxide sensitivity of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.  

PubMed

Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks of zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, including the framework ZIF-8 commercially sold as Basolite Z1200, exhibit surprising sensitivity to carbon dioxide under mild conditions. The frameworks chemically react with CO2 in the presence of moisture or liquid water to form carbonates. This effect, which has been previously not reported in metal-organic framework chemistry, provides an explanation for conflicting reports on ZIF-8 stability to water and is of outstanding significance for evaluating the potential applications of metal-organic frameworks, especially for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24889776

Mottillo, Cristina; Fri?i?, Tomislav

2014-07-14

207

Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a safe and permanent method of CO2 disposal based on combining CO2 chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. Substantial heat is liberated in the overall chemical reaction so that cost will be determined by the simplicity and speed of the reaction rather than the cost of energy. Preliminary investigations have been conducted on two

Klaus S. Lackner; Christopher H. Wendt; Darryl P. Butt; Edward L. Joyce; David H. Sharp

1995-01-01

208

Carbon dioxide solubility and carbon isotope fractionation in basaltic melt  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide solubility and isotope fractionation data for a MORB composition at 1,200-1,400C and 5-20 kbar have been obtained using piston-cylinder apparatus and stepped-heating mass spectrometry. Carbon dioxide solubility in basalt melt at 5, 10 and 20 kbar is 0.15-0.17%, 0.45-0.51%, and 1.49%, respectively. Values for {Delta}Co{sub 2}(vap) - CO 2/3{sup {minus}} (basalt melt), obtained from the difference between the isotopic compositions for coexisting vapor and melt, vary from 1.8% to 2.2%. A review of measured and estimated values for carbon isotope fractionation between CO{sub 2} vapor and carbon dissolved in basic melts shows variation from 1.8% to 4.6%. Results of this study and other considerations favor relatively small equilibrium CO{sub 2} vapor melt fractionation factors around 2%.

Mattey, D.P. (Univ. of London, Egham Hill (United Kingdom) Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia))

1991-11-01

209

A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

Not Available

1993-07-01

210

A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. Specific conclusions are as follows: (1) To implement CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration on a national scale will decrease power plant net efficiencies and significantly increase the cost of electricity. To make responsible societal decisions, accurate and consistent economic and environmental analysis of all alternatives for atmospheric CO{sub 2} mitigation are required. (2) Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive and energy intensive, exists today. (3) The most promising approach to more economical CO{sub 2} capture is to develop power plant systems that facilitate efficient CO{sub 2} capture. (4) While CO{sub 2} disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is feasible today, the ability to dispose of large quantities Of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain because of both technical and institutional issues. Disposal into the deep ocean or confined aquifers offers the potential for large quantity disposal, but there are technical, safety, liability, and environmental issues to resolve. Therefore, the highest priority research should focus on establishing the feasibility of large scale disposal options.

Not Available

1993-07-01

211

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

PubMed Central

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the dust bowl era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.41.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.61.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ?1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-01

212

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-02-10

213

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-07-01

214

Carbon dioxide sensor. [partial pressure measurement using monochromators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical techniques for measuring CO2 were evaluated and rated for use with the advanced extravehicular mobility unit. An infrared absorption concept using a dual-wavelength monochromator was selected for investigation. A breadboard carbon dioxide sensor (CDS) was assembled and tested. The CDS performance showed the capability of measuring CO2 over the range of 0 to 4.0 kPa (0 to 30 mmHg) P sub (CO2). The volume and weight of a flight configured CDS should be acceptable. It is recommended that development continue to complete the design of a flight prototype.

1975-01-01

215

Carbon Dioxide Separation Using Thermally Optimized Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project is to develop polymeric-metallic membranes for carbon dioxide separations that operate under a broad range of industrially relevant conditions not accessible with present membrane units. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of polymer membranes as an effective, economic and flexible tool for many commercial gas separations including air separation, the recovery of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane mixtures, and the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. In each of these applications, high fluxes and excellent selectivities have relied on glassy polymer membranes which separate gases based on both size and solubility differences. To date, however, this technology has focused on optimizing materials for near ambient conditions. The development of polymeric materials that achieve the important combination of high selectivity, high permeability, and mechanical stability at temperatures significantly above 25oC and pressures above 10 bar, respectively, has been largely ignored. Consequently, there is a compelling rationale for the exploration of a new realm of polymer membrane separations. Indeed, the development of high temperature polymeric-metallic composite membranes for carbon dioxide separation at temperatures of 100-450 oC and pressures of 10-150 bar would provide a pivotal contribution with both economic and environmental benefits. Progress to date includes the first ever fabrication of a polymeric-metallic membrane that is selective from room temperature to 370oC. This achievement represents the highest demonstrated operating temperature at which a polymeric based membrane has successfully functioned. Additionally, we have generated the first polybenzamidizole silicate molecular composites. Finally, we have developed a technique that has enabled the first-ever simultaneous measurements of gas permeation and membrane compaction at elevated temperatures. This technique provides a unique approach to the optimization of long-term membrane performance under challenging operating conditions.

Young, J. S.; Jorgensen, B. S.; Espinoza, B. F.; Weimer, M. W.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Greenberg, A.; Khare, V.; Orme, C. J.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.; Hopkins, S. D.; Acquaviva, J.

2002-05-01

216

Robust carbon dioxide reduction on molybdenum disulphide edges.  

PubMed

Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has been recognized as an efficient way to convert carbon dioxide to energy-rich products. Noble metals (for example, gold and silver) have been demonstrated to reduce carbon dioxide at moderate rates and low overpotentials. Nevertheless, the development of inexpensive systems with an efficient carbon dioxide reduction capability remains a challenge. Here we identify molybdenum disulphide as a promising cost-effective substitute for noble metal catalysts. We uncover that molybdenum disulphide shows superior carbon dioxide reduction performance compared with the noble metals with a high current density and low overpotential (54?mV) in an ionic liquid. Scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis and first principle modelling reveal that the molybdenum-terminated edges of molybdenum disulphide are mainly responsible for its catalytic performance due to their metallic character and a high d-electron density. This is further experimentally supported by the carbon dioxide reduction performance of vertically aligned molybdenum disulphide. PMID:25073814

Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Rosen, Brian A; Baskin, Artem; Repnin, Nikita; Pisasale, Davide; Phillips, Patrick; Zhu, Wei; Haasch, Richard; Klie, Robert F; Krl, Petr; Abiade, Jeremiah; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

2014-01-01

217

Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

2013-12-01

218

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

219

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-print Network

interaction with infrared · Basic model and some results #12;#12;#12;Earth's emitted spectrum Ozone Carbon #12;Fine structure of carbon dioxide absorption spectrum near 15 micron wavelength #12Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline

Olver, Peter

220

Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic Acids by Cerium(IV) under Aerobic are oxidized to carbon dioxide. Hence, the determination of the stoichiometry between produced CO2 and reduced The study of oxidation of relatively low molecular weight carbonic acids by metal ions has been an active

Steinbock, Oliver

221

Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixing of carbon in the form of high sulfur coal with sulfuric acid reduces the temperature of sulfuric acid decomposition from 830.degree. C. to between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. The low temperature sulfuric acid decomposition is particularly useful in thermal chemical cycles for splitting water to produce hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a commercially desirable byproduct. Lowering of the temperature for the sulfuric acid decomposition or oxygen release step simplifies equipment requirements, lowers thermal energy input and reduces corrosion problems presented by sulfuric acid at conventional cracking temperatures. Use of high sulfur coal as the source of carbon for the sulfuric acid decomposition provides an environmentally safe and energy efficient utilization of this normally polluting fuel.

Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); England, Christopher (Inventor)

1984-01-01

222

Optical Sensors for Carbon Dioxide and Their Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few analytes in the world as significant as carbon dioxide, the basic chemical feedstock of life. Through green\\u000a plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is converted to the fuel and food necessary for the continued existence of most known\\u000a forms of life. In addition carbon dioxide is an indicator of the existence of life and a measure of health via

Andrew Mills

223

Carbon dioxide resistance of fiberglass oil field pipe  

SciTech Connect

Unlined aromatic amine-cured epoxy fiberglass piping systems have been successfully used to handle oil field services requiring resistance to carbon dioxide. Fiberglass pipe made from vinyl ester and premium isophthalic polyester resins have also been proposed for use in this type of service. This paper presents test data comparing the carbon dioxide resistance of fiberglass pipe made from these three resins. Test data for fiberglass pipe exposed to carbon dioxide containing 5% hydrogen sulfide are also presented.

Oswald, K.J.

1988-08-01

224

Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other  

PubMed Central

Summary Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity. PMID:25246947

Peach, Jocelyn

2014-01-01

225

A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.  

PubMed

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PMID:9933159

Carlson, R W

1999-02-01

226

Toward solar fuels: photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The past several decades have seen a significant rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels resulting from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A solar energy based technology to recycle carbon dioxide into readily transportable hydrocarbon fuel (i.e., a solar fuel) would help reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and partly fulfill energy demands within the present hydrocarbon based fuel infrastructure. We review the present status of carbon dioxide conversion techniques, with particular attention to a recently developed photocatalytic process to convert carbon dioxide and water vapor into hydrocarbon fuels using sunlight. PMID:20141175

Roy, Somnath C; Varghese, Oomman K; Paulose, Maggie; Grimes, Craig A

2010-03-23

227

Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating

Sebastian Teir; Sanni Eloneva; Ron Zevenhoven

2005-01-01

228

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

229

A photoelectrochemical approach to splitting carbon dioxide for a manned mission to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoelectrochemical system for splitting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is discussed. The Martian atmosphere consists of 95% carbon dioxide. Splitting carbon dioxide would provide both oxygen to support life and carbon monoxide, which can be used as a substitute for hydrogen fuel. The photoelectrochemical system involves a cathodic compartment where reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide

Brian K Breedlove; Gregory M Ferrence; John Washington; Clifford P Kubiak

2001-01-01

230

Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

Appenzeller, T.

1993-02-12

231

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

Trabalka, J R [ed.

1985-12-01

232

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine  

E-print Network

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall dioxide from synthesis gas in ammonia plants and hydrogenrcarbon Z .monoxide plants Wammes et al., 1994

Rochelle, Gary T.

233

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01

234

Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

Not Available

1983-11-01

235

Modeling flow of mineralized carbon dioxide slurry  

SciTech Connect

Direct mineral carbonation was investigated at Albany Research Center (US DOE) as a means to sequester carbon dioxide into stable mineral matrices. Although previous work focused on treating Mg-containing minerals in conventional autoclaves, recent work has been done using pipeline-reactor technology for the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) reaction of the minerals in aqueous/CO2 media. Sequestration of CO2 using above-ground reactors may be uneconomical, but the technology may also be applicable in geological sequestration of CO2. Progress is described in using a prototype HTHP flow-loop reactor to model flow in the dynamic three-phase system to help determine the pumping-energy requirements to optimize reactivity.

Penner, Larry R.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Saha, K.K. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., Computational Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Arizona State University)

2005-04-01

236

Process for the selective extraction treatment of gaseous hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for the selective extraction treatment of a gaseous hydrocarbon mixture containing 5 to 3000 ppm (parts per million) by volume of hydrogen sulfide and 0.3 to 3% carbon dioxide, in order to obtain a purified gas containing less than 4 ppm by volume hydrogen sulfide and less than 2% carbon dioxide. The gaseous hydrocarbon mixture is submitted to a series of counter-current washings by contact with a tertiary amine aqueous solution in an absorption zone from which is drawn a liquid effluent enriched in hydrogen sulfide.

Blanc, C.; Elgue, J.; Galy, H.

1983-10-04

237

The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse: Is It Effective?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to compare the thermal properties of carbon dioxide with those of air, and can be extended to compare water vapor as well. Students discover that the gas which absorbs the most heat (infrared radiation) is the most effective greenhouse gas because in the atmosphere it would absorb more infrared coming from the surface of the Earth. This activity could be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory activity depending on the availability of equipment. Either a data logger is used to record the changing temperature of air and of carbon dioxide in plastic bottles as they are heated using electric lamps, and then allowed to cool, or if a data logger is not available, then thermometers can be used instead and monitored by students. The site contains teacher notes and instructions with a list of materials and a photograph showing the setup. It also has an introduction for the students and questions for them to answer along with a glossary.

238

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of carbon balance of boreal ecosystems in the southern taiga of European Russia have been conducted using eddy covariance technique starting from 1998 to the present. The method allows to continuously collect net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes of water and heat between forest and atmosphere with high time resolution. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric meteorological parameters are carried out. The studies have been conducted in the Tver Region, Russia (Central Forest Biosphere Nature Reserve, 56N, 33E) using a 29 m high tower in low-productive wet spruce forest (P. Sphagnum forest, WSF), a 44 m high tower in high- productive complex spruce forest (CSF) and under the surface of ombrotrophic bog. Eddy flux measurements during limited time intervals are supplemented by measurements of soil, leaves and trunks respiration. Observations of decomposition speed of organic material and the rating NPP are conducted as well. In general, the measurements period has captured a wide range of changes of climatic conditions. Years with extreme dry and damp vegetative seasons and years with close to average climatic conditions for this region fall into the period of observations. The results of our measurements show that unmanaged uneven-aged spruce forests can be both source and sink of carbon to the atmosphere depending on the type of forest and weather conditions. Soil respiration as a result of decomposition of the abundant dead surface- and underground biomass determines the sign and absolute mean of the carbon balance. The overall annual balance of carbon of the studied forest ecosystems differs from zero. The cumulative total of the NEE fluxes for the period of April to October depends first of all on spring temperature and precipitation with temperature being within the range of 5-10C and on the duration of this period. For the period of active vegetation, when air temperature is higher than 10C - the NEE flux depends on humidity. We found significant seasonal and interannual variability of carbon dioxide fluxes for the ombrotrophic bog. The sign and the mean of carbon dioxide fluxes between the surface of the bog and the atmosphere depend on humidity conditions during the green season. When the water balance is negative the ombotrophic bog becomes a source of carbon for the atmosphere.

Kurbatova, J.; Varlagin, A.; Vygodskaya, N.

2007-12-01

239

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2...Diagnostic Devices 868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2... (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure...

2010-04-01

240

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY: Environmental...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 )...

2011-09-09

241

46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part...

2014-10-01

242

Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water  

E-print Network

Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2

Firoozabadi, Abbas

243

Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration and separation  

E-print Network

Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration ions resulting from dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxid e to weakly disrupt isotachophoretic the hydration and carbamation reaction of dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide, respectively. The width

Santiago, Juan G.

244

49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

...2014-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section...175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when shipped...

2014-10-01

245

Hydrodynamic Controls on Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Inland Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive research has been undertaken on carbon dioxide efflux from lakes, estuaries and oceans, but much less attention has been given to rivers and streams, especially lower order streams. River systems are often over-saturated with carbon dioxide and so tend to act as sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It has been thought that rivers act as pipes carrying this terrestrial carbon to the oceans. However, recent studies have shown that a significant amount of the carbon is reprocessed within the system in a series of transformations and losses. Fluvial evasion of carbon dioxide is now recognised to be a significant component of carbon cycles, however the factors controlling carbon dioxide efflux and its magnitude remain poorly understood and quantified. This research aims to quantify, and better understand the controls on, freshwater carbon dioxide evasion. Data are presented here from field measurements that commenced in Sept 2013 in two contrasting Scottish rivers: the River Kelvin which has a large (335 km.sq) part-urban catchment with predominantly non-peat soils and Drumtee Water, a small (9.6 km.sq) rural catchment of peat soils and agricultural land. Using a floating chamber with the headspace connected to an infrared gas analyser to measure changes in carbon dioxide concentration, efflux rates from 0.22 - 47.4 ?mol CO2/m.sq/sec were measured, these close to the middle of the range of previously reported values. At one site on the River Kelvin in May 2013 an influx of -0.61 - -3.53 ?mol CO2/m.sq/sec was recorded. Whereas previous research finds carbon dioxide efflux to increase with decreasing river size and a more organic-rich soil catchment, here the controls on carbon dioxide evasion are similar across the contrasting catchments. Carbon dioxide evasion shows seasonality, with maximum fluxes in the summer months being up to twice as high as the winter maxima. Linear regression demonstrates that evasion increases with increased flow velocity, water surface disturbance indicated by Froude number, and turbulent mixing indicated by Reynolds number. Similar relationships with season, flow velocity and turbulence have been reported previously, but there is little known about the mechanisms involved. When comparing spot carbon dioxide efflux measurements to river stage time series data, carbon dioxide efflux is more sensitive to an increase in stage at more turbulent measurement points. Further investigation of the mechanisms will be obtained by measurement of DIC concentration and isotopic composition to assess the controls of carbon source versus degassing, and the analysis of the interactions between hydraulic and seasonal controls and carbon dioxide fluxes extended.

Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Newton, J.; Quemin, S.

2013-12-01

246

CARBON DIOXIDE STANDARD EMISSIVITY BY MIXED GRAY-GASES MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional fossil fuels are of carbon-hydrogen composition. A number of alternative fuels, e.g., coal, lignite, are carbon-based fuels. The high temperature combustion of such fuels would generate carbon dioxide, and if hydrogen is present, water vapor. The knowledge of the emissivities of carbon dioxide and water vapor is very important in burner design and thermal efficiency calculations. The present work

IHAB H. FARAG; T. A. ALLAM

1982-01-01

247

Saving energy and optimizing air quality using carbon dioxide (CO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand control ventilation (DCV) using carbon dioxide offers a unique opportunity for building designers and owners to resolve an age-old paradox: how to reduce energy costs while optimizing air quality. Recent innovations in gas sensor designs have considerably improved the long-term performance and cost of carbon dioxide sensing, making it one of the fastest growing segments of the HVAC control

Schell

1998-01-01

248

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Pelc, Magdalena

2009-01-01

249

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431  

E-print Network

gas and phasing in the use of renewable energy resources (e.g., solar energy, wind, and biomassCarbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431 Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New The prospect of a worsening climatic situation due to global warming is a subject of widespread public concern

250

Method and apparatus for producing food grade carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed of producing food grade carbon dioxide from an impure carbon dioxide source stream containing contaminants which may include light and heavy hydrocarbons (at least C to C) and light sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well as heavier sulfur constituents in the nature of mercaptans (RSH) and\\/or organic mono and disulfides (RSR

J. E. Nobles; L. K. Swenson

1984-01-01

251

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section...Products From Puerto Rico 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram...

2010-04-01

252

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 ...From the Virgin Islands 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram...

2010-04-01

253

Recovery of carbon dioxide from fuel cell exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid fuel cell power plant system operable to produce carbon dioxide as a by-product is described comprising: (a) fuel cell stack means having anode means, cathode means, and fuel cell cooling means, the cooling means using a water coolant; (b) means for delivering a hydrogen-rich fuel gas which contains carbon dioxide to the anode means for consumption of hydrogen

H. C. Healy; M. Kolodney; A. H. Levy; P. Trocciola

1988-01-01

254

Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In

Sun Yanpeng; Nie Yong; Wu Angshan; Ji Dengxiang; Yu Fengwen; Ji Jianbing

2012-01-01

255

Options for the collection and disposal of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

If society should ever decide that unacceptable changes in climate are imminent because of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels, it may be necessary to collect and dispose of carbon dioxide. At present it appears that such disposal would consume a large fraction of the energy derived from the fossil fuel. To

C. F. Jr. Baes; S. E. Beall; D. W. Lee; G. Marland

1980-01-01

256

Response of the oceans to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which the oceans take up excess atmospheric carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels is an important factor in determining the rate of increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and the maximum value it will reach. In this review are considered the relevant physical and chemical features of the ocean, the observational evidence of

Baes; C. F. Jr

1981-01-01

257

Measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration above the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the composition of the atmosphere can have a destabilizing effect on the climate. One change is related to an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide as a result of the combustion of organic fuels. The most effective procedures for monitoring the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are discussed, taking into account suitable analytic methods and the most appropriate

A. I. Voskresenskii; N. E. Kamenogradskii; V. P. Ustinov

1984-01-01

258

Isothermal and isobaric desorption of carbon dioxide by purge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption and desorption constitute the two most basic steps in all pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes for gas separation. The desorption steps are the primary energy-consuming steps in the PSA process. They also dictate the overall separation efficiency. Isothermal and isobaric desorption of carbon dioxide was experimentally evaluated by purging adsorbent columns saturated with pure carbon dioxide with pure hydrogen,

Shivaji Sircar; Timothy C. Golden

1995-01-01

259

Performance of air filters cleaned by supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique based on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) for cleaning HEPA filters was developed. Glass fiber filters and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes loaded with dioctylphthalate (DOP) droplets were cleaned with supercritical carbon dioxide under various conditions. The cleaning performance was evaluated by the weight recovery of the filter media and the recoveries of their collection efficiencies and

Takao Ito; Yoshio Otani; Hiroshi Inomata

2004-01-01

260

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household

Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2008-01-01

261

The greenness of cities: Carbon dioxide emissions and urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household

Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2010-01-01

262

Criteria for Intermediate Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Geological Formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas (GHG) making the largest contribution to atmospheric emissions from human activities is carbon dioxide (CO 2) and released dominantly by burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Increased emissions of GHG, causes global warming thus steps should be taken that aim in the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide capture

Semere Solomon

263

Uptake of carbon dioxide from flue gas by microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology under development seeks to provide affordable, and efficient methods for reducing carbon dioxide and other emissions from coal-fired electricity generation based on biological assimilation. Photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae, when grown in large outdoor ponds could use carbon dioxide from flue gas directly injected into the culture. This process requires land, water, sunlight and other nutrients. Currently, commercial

Lewis M. Brown

1996-01-01

264

Process Based Belowground Carbon Dioxide Modeling in a Desert Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a study to integrate and assess biological and physical processes that govern belowground carbon dioxide levels at a semi-arid grassland near Canyonlands National Park. Carbon dioxide concentrations were measured every 30 minutes at 5 and 15 cm depth within the rooting zones of the two dominant grass species, Stipa hymenoides and Hilaria jamesii, as well as the interspace

J. M. Zobitz; D. R. Bowling

2003-01-01

265

Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments  

E-print Network

Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

266

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Where Carbon Dioxide Come From?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video discusses where carbon dioxide, the gas that is mainly responsible for warming up our planet and changing the climate, comes from. It discusses how the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide comes directly from the burning of fossil fuels and indirectly from the human need for energy.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.

267

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31

268

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Capacity of the Mt Simon Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique has been developed to better predict the quantity of carbon dioxide that can be sequestered in a formation through solubility or free phase trapping. The technique is being improved to incorporate the potential for carbonate mineral precipitation. The current study evaluates the extent to which the Mt. Simon formation can serve as a trapping reservoir. The Mt. Simon formation was selected for this study because it meets many of the criteria required for sequestration. To determine the capacity of the Mt. Simon formation to trap carbon dioxide as a soluble component, an experiment was conducted in natural Mt. Simon formation brine. The experiment was conducted at 55 degrees Celsius and pressures from 50 to 350 bars, conditions that fall within the range expected for the entire formation. The data collected compare well to existing models that only account for carbon dioxide solubility. Thus, the solubility model can be reliably used to predict dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations for the range of temperatures and pressures expected to be encountered. The capacity of the Mt. Simon formation to sequester dissolved carbon dioxide was calculated using results of the solubility model, estimation of the density of carbon dioxide saturated brine, estimation of the formation porosity, and geographic information system data on the extent of the formation. Results indicate that the Mt. Simon formation can sequester as much as 26 Gt of dissolved carbon dioxide or 255 Gt of free phase carbon dioxide depending on the efficiency of the system. The current estimated annual production of carbon dioxide from power plant emissions of IL, IA and MI is 0.24 Gt. This indicates that the basin could accept the annual emissions of these power plants for approximately 100 years or more if current carbon dioxide production does not increase.

Allen, D. E.; Dilmore, B.; Hedges, S.; Soong, Y.

2008-12-01

269

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOEpatents

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04

270

Reconstriction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic carbon-13 dioxide from air occluded in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO) dioxide (CO) mixing ratio and isotopic carbon-13 dioxide δ¹³CO was measured in the air extracted form ice cores from Greenland (GISP 2, Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) and from Antarctica (Vostok). The goals are to determine the phasing between temperature and atmospheric CO changes during periods of different climatic conditions and to gain insight into the mechanisms

Wahlen

1994-01-01

271

Combining power plant water needs and carbon dioxide storage using saline formations: Implications for carbon dioxide and water management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research involving management of carbon dioxide has increased markedly over the last decade as it relates to concerns over climate change. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations is one of many proposed methods to manage, and likely reduce, CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Saline formations represent a vast storage resource, and the

Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas A. Dewers; Andrea McNemar; David J. Borns

2011-01-01

272

Dissociation-excitation reactions of argon metastables with carbon dioxide.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study showing that a metastable argon-carbon dioxide reaction results in dissociation of carbon dioxide and electronic excitation of one of the products, carbon monoxide or oxygen. A flow system using a 2450-MHz discharge was used to produce metastable argon atoms. Metastable argon in the afterglow was confirmed by adding nitrogen to the afterglow. Without addition of carbon dioxide no argon line emission, or any other emission, is observed from the reaction zone. Absence of argon line emission produced by recombination indicates the absence of charged species.

Starr, W. L.

1971-01-01

273

Miniaturized remission sensor for carbon dioxide detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, optical sensors for detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been explored for variety of applications in chemistry, industry, and medicine. This paper deals with the development of a planar optical remission sensor employing a dye immobilized in a polymer layer designed for gaseous CO2 detection. The principle of CO2 detection was based on colour changes of Tetraethylammonium Cresol red immobilized in a special composed polymer layer that was irradiated by LED diodes. Absorption properties of the dye were changed due to its chemical reaction with CO2 and corresponding colour changes were detected by PIN diodes. These changes were analyzed by using a PC-controlled board connected by USB. The sensitivity, response time, and the detection limit of the remission sensor were characterized.

Martan, T.; Will, M.

2010-02-01

274

Calcium Oxide Matrices and Carbon Dioxide Sensors  

PubMed Central

Homogeneous matrices of calcium oxide (CaO) were prepared by mixing this material with polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as malleable inert support in order to obtain processable composites. Preliminary tests were carried out to assess the best concentration of CaO in the composite, individuated in the CaO/PEG weight ratio of 1/4. Experimental data highlighted that the composite was able to selectively detect carbon dioxide (CO2) via a nanogravimetric method by performing the experiments inside an atmosphere-controlled chamber filled with CO2. Furthermore, the composite material showed a linear absorption of CO2 as a function of the gas concentration inside the atmosphere-controlled chamber, thus paving the way for the possible use of these matrices for applications in the field of sensor devices for long-term evaluation of accumulated environmental CO2. PMID:22778620

Terencio, Tercio Bezerra Correia; Bavastrello, Valter; Nicolini, Claudio

2012-01-01

275

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-14

276

Pulsed-discharge carbon dioxide lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to attempt a general introduction to pulsed carbon dioxide lasers of the kind used or proposed for laser radar applications. Laser physics is an excellent example of a cross-disciplinary topic, and the molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and plasma kinetics of the devices are explored. The concept of stimulated emission and population inversions is introduced, leading on to the molecular spectroscopy of the CO2 molecule. This is followed by a consideration of electron-impact pumping, and the pertinent energy transfer and relaxation processes which go on. Since the devices are plasma pumped, it is necessary to introduce a complex subject, but this is restricted to appropriate physics of glow discharges. Examples of representative devices are shown. The implications of the foregoing to plasma chemistry and gas life are discussed.

Willetts, David V.

1990-01-01

277

The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans are faced with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually into the atmosphere. A possible way to mitigate the effects is to store CO2 in large porous reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks involved in this geological sequestration. We review current research efforts looking at the propagation of CO2 within the subsurface, the possible rates of leakage, the mechanisms that act to stably trap CO2, and the geomechanical response of the crust to large-scale CO2 injection. We conclude with an outline for future research.

Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

2014-01-01

278

Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program  

SciTech Connect

Information about the past and present concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and variations in climate can be obtained from measurements of stable isotopes in tree rings; specifically carbon-13, oxygen-18 and deuterium. The analysis of these stable isotopes in tree rings is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. This proceedings volume contains most of the papers presented at the meeting. The first paper gives an overview of the status of carbon-13 research. Papers relating to carbon-13 are in section I and grouped separately from the contributions on carbon-14. Although the meeting was primarily concerned with stable isotopes, all carbon isotopic analysis may be helpful in understanding the carbon-13 record in tree rings. The papers on hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies are in sections II and III respectively. The remaining sections contain papers that consider more than one isotope at a time, general topics related to isotopes, atmospheric changes and tree growth, and methods of isotopic analysis.

Jacoby, G. (ed.)

1980-12-01

279

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-01-01

280

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-01-01

281

Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: kome64@yo.rim.or.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-11-15

282

Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?  

E-print Network

Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

Cardoso, Silvana S S

2014-01-01

283

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01

284

Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Diox-ide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were per-formed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic sim-ulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey; Curley, Suzanne

285

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

286

UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING RISKS POSED BY BRINES CONTAINING DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Geologic disposal of supercritical carbon dioxide in saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields will cause large volumes of brine to become saturated with dissolved CO2 at concentrations of 50 g/l or more. As CO2 dissolves in brine, the brine de...

287

Experimentally Determining the Molecular Weight of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molar mass of carbon dioxide was experimentally determined using a Mylar balloon. Mylar balloons are lightweight, have a fixed definite volume, and require minimal additional pressure for inflation. Using the Ideal Gas Equation, the number of moles of air in the balloon was calculated. The molar mass of air was calculated using the percentages of the individual gases. Having

Barbara Albers Jackson; David J. Crouse

1998-01-01

288

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-07-01

289

Can the carbon dioxide problem be resolved  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/). This may cause a long-term warming of the atmosphere. Solutions to the CO/sub 2/ problem are particularly difficult because adverse effects will be felt by future generations, but remedial action and sacrifices must be made by present generations. Decisions regarding the problem which affect both the immediate and long-range future must be made deliberately or by default in perhaps only 15 to 20 years, before we are reasonably confident of our knowledge of the problem and before we know whether atmospheric warming will, in fact, occur. Empirical and evaluative data do not seem compelling to decision makers. First, remedial actions require present generations to conserve fossil fuels for the benefit of posterity, and there is no consensus that an ethical obligation to posterity exists. Second, actions must be based upon uncertain projections of future energy use and uncertain scientific knowledge of the carbon cycle and the environment. Third, economic and social factors may preclude resolution of the problem. Fourth, speculation from moral psychology suggests that mankind may be psychologically incapable of caring enough for posterity to make serious sacrifices. Therefore, public policy regarding sacrifice by present generations for the benefit of posterity is not likely to be forthcoming from policy makers or suported by the public. 120 references.

Lemons, J.

1984-01-01

290

Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records  

E-print Network

of carbon dioxide by the burning of fossil fuels ( 6 billion tons of carbon per year). Possible shiftsModel-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial

Jain, Atul K.

291

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Engineered sorbents composed of sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were tested in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor system and found to be capable of essentially complete removal of carbon dioxide at 60 C in a short residence time. Upon breakthrough the sorbents can be thermally regenerated to recover essentially all of the absorbed carbon dioxide. An optimized supported sorbent tested in a pilot-scale entrained bed absorber retained its reactivity in multicycle tests and experienced no attrition. Removal of >90% of carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas was achieved in an entrained bed reactor.

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-04-01

292

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

293

Design of Nonionic Surfactants for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacially active block copolymer amphiphiles have been synthesized and their self-assembly into micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide (CO_2) has been demonstrated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). These materials establish the design criteria for molecularly engineered surfactants that can stabilize and disperse otherwise insoluble matter into a CO_2 continuous phase. Polystyrene-b-poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate) copolymers self-assembled into polydisperse core-shell-type micelles as a result of the disparate solubility characteristics of the different block segments in CO_2. These nonionic surfactants for CO_2 were shown by SANS to be capable of emulsifying up to 20 percent by weight of a CO_2-insoluble hydrocarbon into CO_2. This result demonstrates the efficacy of surfactant-modified CO_2 in reducing the large volumes of organic and halogenated solvent waste streams released into our environment by solvent-intensive manufacturing and process industries.

McClain, J. B.; Betts, D. E.; Canelas, D. A.; Samulski, E. T.; Desimone, J. M.; Londono, J. D.; Cochran, H. D.; Wignall, G. D.; Chillura-Martino, D.; Triolo, R.

1996-12-01

294

Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2004-01-01

295

Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-03-01

296

Carbon dioxide euthanasia in rats: oxygen supplementation minimizes signs of agitation and asphyxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper records the effects of carbon dioxide when used for euthanasia, on behaviour, electrical brain activity and heart rate in rats. Four different methods were used. Animals were placed in a box (a) that was completely filled with carbon dioxide; (b) into which carbon dioxide was streamed at a high flow rate; leiinto which carbon dioxide was streamed

A. M. L. Coenen; W. H. I. M. Drinkenburgl; R. Hoenderken; E. L. J. M. van Luijtelaar

1995-01-01

297

2008 Nature Publishing Group Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked  

E-print Network

atmosphere reaching back over 200 Myr, by using a new method based on the strong dependency of carbon-isotope concentrations from a combination of carbon-isotope analyses of non-vascular plant (bryophyte) fossils© 2008 Nature Publishing Group LETTERS Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early

Cai, Long

298

Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab of Renewable Resources Engineering] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab of Renewable Resources Engineering

1998-11-01

299

Titrimetric Determination of Carbon Dioxide in a Heterogeneous Sample ("Pop Rocks")  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional exercise in quantitative analysis is the titration of mixtures of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate. Often, consumer products are studied. A procedure to analyze the total volume of carbon dioxide bubbles in the candy "Pop Rocks" is presented. The popularity of the sample and the simplicity of the procedure make this exercise suitable for a wide variety of students: from non-science majors to chemistry majors in a quantitative analysis course.

Davis, Craig M.; Mauck, Matthew C.

2003-05-01

300

Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

Mak, Xiao Yin

301

Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems  

E-print Network

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

2007-01-01

302

Mechanism of oxidative carbon dioxide production during Renilla reniformis bioluminescence.  

PubMed

The oxidation of luciferin catalyzed by sea pansy luciferase results in the emission of light. Molecular oxygen is required and carbon dioxide is produced. When the reaction occurs in the presence of H(2) (18)O, both of the oxygens of the carbon dioxide are labeled. One of the oxygens arises from the nonenzymic exchange of the ketone group of the substrate; the other oxygen is incorporated during the enzymic oxidation of the luciferin. When the reaction is carried out in the presence of (18)O(2), neither of the oxygens of the carbon dioxide is labeled. Thus the source of oxygen in the carbon dioxide is water. A mechanism for the oxidative reaction is proposed. PMID:4397765

DeLuca, M; Dempsey, M E; Hori, K; Wampler, J E; Cormier, M J

1971-07-01

303

Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

2014-01-01

304

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01

305

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

306

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a figure from the 2007 IPCC Assessment Report 4 on atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide over the last 10,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels).

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change)

307

Role of Carbon Dioxide in Inert Gas Narcosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of carbon dioxide and oxygen in high pressure narcosis was studied by exposing animals to hyperbaric conditions while maintaining them normoxic and normocapnic. Chickens were the experimental animals. Heated, humidified gas entered the lung via a...

H. S. Weiss

1977-01-01

308

The oxygen and carbon dioxide balance in the earth's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle is described in detail, and steps which are sensitive to perturbation or instability are identified. About half of the carbon dioxide consumption each year in photosynthesis occurs in the oceans. Phytoplankton, which are the primary producers, have been shown to assimilate insecticides and herbicides. The impact of such materials on phytoplankton photosynthesis, both direct and as the indirect result of detrimental effects higher up in the food chain, cannot be assessed. Net oxygen production is very small in comparison with the total production and occurs almost exclusively in a few ocean areas with anoxic bottom conditions and in peat-forming marshes which are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances. The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is increasing at a relatively rapid rate as the result of fossil fuel combustion. Increases in photosynthesis as the result of the hothouse effect may in turn reduce the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, leading to global cooling.

Johnson, F. S.

1975-01-01

309

CO2 Compressor Requirements for Integration of Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal and Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the analysis on integration requirements, CO2 compressor in particular, for integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) as a part of the Node 3 project previously conducted at JSC/NASA. A system analysis on the volume and operation pressure range of the CO2 accumulator was conducted. The hardware and operational configurations of the CO2 compressor were developed. The performance and interface requirements of the compressor were specified. An existing Four-Bed Molecular Sieve CO2 removal computer model was modified into a CDRA model and used in analyzing the requirements of the CDRA CO2 compressor. This CDRA model was also used in analyzing CDRA operation parameters that dictate CO2 pump sizing. Strategy for the pump activation was also analyzed.

Jeng, Frank F.; Lewis, John F.; Graf, John; LaFuse, Sharon; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

310

Permanent storage of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions continue to increase rapidly despite efforts aimed at curbing the release of such gases. One potentially long-term solution for offsetting these emissions is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide. In principle, fluid or gaseous carbon dioxide can be injected into the Earth's crust and locked up as carbonate minerals through chemical reactions with calcium and magnesium

Peter B. Kelemen; Jrg M. Matter

2009-01-01

311

Endoscopic Carbon Dioxide Laser Photocoagulation Of Bleeding Canine Gastric Ulcers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first report which describes carbon dioxide laser photocoagulation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding via a flexible endoscope, using an infrared transmitting siver nalide fiber. Various laser parameters were checked to determine the optimal conditions for hemostasis. Both the acute effects of laser irradiation on tissue and the chronic effects on healing process were examined. Preliminary results indicate that carbon dioxide laser beam can successfully photocoagulate moderately bleeding ulcers.

Gal, Dov; Ron, Nimrod; Orgad, Uri; Katzir, Abraham

1987-04-01

312

Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Diox-ide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed

Daniel J. Barta; Amy Button; Jeffrey Sweterlitsch; Suzanne Curley

2010-01-01

313

Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0) and nitrous oxide (NO) in both the surface ocean

1998-01-01

314

Carbon dioxide in the ocean surface: The homogeneous buffer factor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in surface seawater depends at least partially on the homogeneous buffer factor, which is a mathematical function of the chemical equilibrium conditions among the various dissolved inorganic species. Because these equilibria are well known, the homogeneous buffer factor is well known. Natural spatial variations depend very systematically on sea surface temperatures, and do not contribute significantly to uncertainties in the present or future carbon dioxide budget. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Sundquist, E. T.; Plummer, L. N.; Wigley, T. M. L.

1979-01-01

315

Seawater pH and Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

In 2005, the Royal Society published a report titled "Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide". The report's principal conclusion-that average ocean pH could decrease by 0.5 units by 2100-is demonstrated here to be consistent with a linear extrapolation of very limited data. It is also shown that current understanding of ocean mixing, and of the relationship between pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, cannot justify such an extrapolation.

Gerald E. Marsh

2008-10-20

316

Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert

2014-01-01

317

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

318

Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

2005-01-01

319

Low-temperature data for carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

We investigate the empirical data for the vapor pressure (154$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$196 K) and heat capacity (15.52$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$189.78 K) of the solid carbon dioxide. The approach is both theoretical and numerical, using a computer algebra system (CAS). From the latter point of view, we have adopted a cubic piecewise polynomial representation for the heat capacity and reached an excellent agreement between the available empirical data and the evaluated one. Furthermore, we have obtained values for the vapor pressure and heat of sublimation at temperatures below 195 right down to 0 K. The key prerequisites are the: 1) Determination of the heat of sublimation of 26250 J$\\cdot$mol\\textsuperscript{-1} at vanishing temperature and 2) Elaboration of a `linearized' vapor pressure equation that includes all the relevant properties of the gaseous and solid phases. It is shown that: 1) The empirical vapor pressure equation derived by Giauque & Egan remains valid below the assumed lower limit of 154 K (similar argument ...

Azreg-Anou, Mustapha

2014-01-01

320

Renewable and metal-free carbon nanofibre catalysts for carbon dioxide reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of an efficient catalyst system for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into energy-rich products is a major research topic. Here we report the catalytic ability of polyacrylonitrile-based heteroatomic carbon nanofibres for carbon dioxide reduction into carbon monoxide, via a metal-free, renewable and cost-effective route. The carbon nanofibre catalyst exhibits negligible overpotential (0.17?V) for carbon dioxide reduction and more than an order of magnitude higher current density compared with the silver catalyst under similar experimental conditions. The carbon dioxide reduction ability of carbon nanofibres is attributed to the reduced carbons rather than to electronegative nitrogen atoms. The superior performance is credited to the nanofibrillar structure and high binding energy of key intermediates to the carbon nanofibre surfaces. The finding may lead to a new generation of metal-free and non-precious catalysts with much greater efficiency than the existing noble metal catalysts.

Kumar, Bijandra; Asadi, Mohammad; Pisasale, Davide; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Rosen, Brian A.; Haasch, Richard; Abiade, Jeremiah; Yarin, Alexander L.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

2013-12-01

321

A 400 million year carbon isotope record of pedogenic carbonate: Implications for paleoatmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 400 record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has been estimated by applying a CO paleobarometer to a database of 758 analyses of paleosol (fossil soil) carbonates. This database is a compilation of new data and previously published values from the literature. Many new analyses of Mesozoic paleosols are reported, an era poorly represented in the literature. Results indicate that

D. D. Ekart; T. E. Cerling; I. P. Montanez; N. J. Tabor

1999-01-01

322

Calculation of hydrocarbon-in-place in gas and gas-condensate reservoirs - Carbon dioxide sequestration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2), requiring estimation of hydrocarbon-in-place volumes and formation volume factors for all the oil, gas, and gas-condensate reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins. The procedures to calculate in-place volumes for oil and gas reservoirs have already been presented by Verma and Bird (2005) to help with the USGS assessment of the undiscovered resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, but there is no straightforward procedure available for calculating in-place volumes for gas-condensate reservoirs for the carbon sequestration project. The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for calculating the hydrocarbon-in-place volume of a condensate reservoir to help estimate the hydrocarbon pore volume for potential CO2 sequestration.

Verma, Mahendra K.

2012-01-01

323

Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000()C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000()C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

Huang, Pei-Hsing; Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

2014-01-01

324

Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000C for 2?h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

2014-01-01

325

14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

Teskey, Robert O.

326

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37C-300C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

327

Carbon dioxide exchange in a peatland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements of carbon dioxide exchange were made in an open peatland in north central Minnesota during two growing seasons (1991 and 1992). The vegetation at the site was dominated by Sphagnum papillosum, Scheuchzeria palustris, and Chamaedaphne calyculata. The objective of the study was to examine the diurnal and seasonal variations in canopy photosynthesis (P) and develop information on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange. The two seasons provided contrasting microclimatic conditions: as compared with 1991, the 1992 season was significantly wetter and cooler. Canopy photosynthesis was sensitive to changes in light, temperature, and moisture stress (as indicated by water table depth and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit). Under moderate conditions (temperature 18-28C, vapor pressure deficit 0.7-1.5 kPa, and water table near the surface) during the peak growth period, midday (averaged between 1000-1400 hours) P values ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 mg m-2 s-1. Under high-temperature (30-34C) and moisture stress (water table 0.16-0.23 m below the surface and vapor pressure deficit 2.2-3.0 kPa) conditions, midday P was reduced to about 0.03-0.06 mg m-2 s-1. There was a high degree of consistency in the values of P under similar conditions in the two seasons. Seasonally integrated values of the daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange indicated that the study site was a source of atmospheric CO2, releasing about 71 g C m-2 over a 145-day period (May-October) in 1991. Over a similar period in 1992, however, this ecosystem was a sink for atmospheric CO2 with a net accumulation of about 32 g C m-2. These results are consistent with previous investigations on CO2 exchange in other northern wetland sites during wet and dry periods.

Shurpali, N. J.; Verma, S. B.; Kim, J.; Arkebauer, T. J.

1995-07-01

328

Oxygen Atom Recombination in Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding processes involving atomic oxygen is crucial for the study and modeling of composition, energy transfer, airglow, and transport dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Significant gaps and uncertainties exist in our understanding of the above processes, and often the relevant input from laboratory measurements is missing or outdated. We are conducting experiments to measure the rate coefficients for O + O + CO2 and O + O2 + CO2 recombination and investigate the O2 excited states produced following O-atom recombination. These laboratory measurements are key input for a quantitative understanding and reliable modeling of the atmospheres of the CO2 planets and their airglow. An ArF excimer laser with 193-nm pulsed output radiation is employed to partially photodissociate carbon dioxide. In an ambient-pressure (760 Torr) background of CO2, the O atoms produced recombine in a time scale of a few milliseconds. Detection of laser-induced fluorescence at 845 nm following two-photon excitation near 226 nm monitors the decay of the oxygen atom population. From the temporal evolution of the signal we can extract the rate coefficients for recombination of O + O and O + O2 in the presence of CO2. We also use fluorescence and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization techniques to detect the products of the O-atom recombination and subsequent relaxation in CO2. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation's (NSF) Planetary Astronomy Program. Rosanne Garcia's participation was funded by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program.

Jamieson, Corey; Garcia, R. M.; Pejakovic, D. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

2009-09-01

329

Interfacial tension measurements and modelling of (carbon dioxide + n-alkane) and (carbon dioxide + water) binary mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is often used as a process fluid for enhanced oil recovery. The storage of carbon dioxide in underground formations is a potential way of mitigating climate change during a transition period to more sustainable energy sources. Combining injection with subsequent trapping of the non-wetting supercritical carbon dioxide phase in the pores of a depleted reservoir is

Apostolos Georgiadis; Felix Llovell; Alexander Bismarck; Felipe J. Blas; Amparo Galindo; Geoffrey C. Maitland; J. P. Martin Trusler; George Jackson

2010-01-01

330

Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

2012-01-01

331

Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1) dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2) rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3) transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater efficiency and lower per capita consumption, and replacing fossil energy sources with sources such as wind, wave, and solar, respectively). "Low carbon" is of inherently less value to the chemical and plastics industries at least in terms of raw materials although a version of (2), the use of biomass, does apply, especially if we use carbon sources that are renewable on a human timescale. There is however, another renewable, natural source of carbon that is widely available and for which greater utilization would help restore material balance and the natural cycle for carbon in terms of resource and waste. CO(2), perhaps the most widely discussed and feared chemical in modern society, is as fundamental to our survival as water, and like water we need to better understand the human as well as natural production and consumption of CO(2) so that we can attempt to get these into a sustainable balance. Current utilization of this valuable resource by the chemical industry is only 90 megatonne per year, compared to the 26.3 gigatonne CO(2) generated annually by combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, as such significant opportunities exist for increased utilization of CO(2) generated from industrial processes. It is also essential that renewable energy is used if CO(2) is to be utilized as a C1 building block. PMID:20049768

Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

2010-03-22

332

Mar., 1955 GASIFICATIONOF CARBONRODSWITH CARBONDIOXIDE 241 GASIFICATION OF CARBON RODS WITH CARBON DIOXIDE1*2  

E-print Network

Mar., 1955 GASIFICATIONOF CARBONRODSWITH CARBONDIOXIDE 241 GASIFICATION OF CARBON RODS WITH CARBON commercial carbons and their gasification rates with carbon dioxide at a series of temperatures between 900. No general correlation between these properties and the carbon gasification rates was found. Introduction

333

Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterogeneity shell in providing a mechanism for diffusion in the supercritical carbon dioxide on an intermediate length scale. Finally, we discuss important implications for answering the intriguing question whether Venus may have had carbon dioxide oceans and urge for an experimental detection of this persistent local order heterogeneity.

Dima Bolmatov; D. Zav'yalov; M. Gao; M. Zhernenkov

2014-06-06

334

Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979  

SciTech Connect

Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to CO/sub 2/ and environmental control technology for CO/sub 2/ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded CO/sub 2/ monitoring network is providing increased coverage for interpretation of patterns of sources and sinks seasonal variability, and documentation of the global growth of CO/sub 2/. Modeling studies emphasized that knowledge of the transport and mixing of surface ocean waters is important in understanding deep oceanic circulation. Initial studies in the equatorial Pacific are helping quantify estimates of the amount of outgassing CO/sub 2/ from tropical waters. During fiscal year 1979, there was a substantial increase in appreciation of the role of the ocean in controlling not only atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations but also the climatic response to changes in concentration. Model simulations of the effect of doubled CO/sub 2/ concentration carried out with fixed ocean temperatures a situation that is possible during perhaps the next 20 years, showed relatively small summer heating over land areas. On the other hand, simulations in which the oceanic temperatures could come into instantaneous equilibrium with atmospheric conditions continued to show global temperature increases of 3 +- 1.5/sup 0/C, accentuated at high latitudes. To improve understanding of possible regional climate changes, there were increased efforts to reconstruct regional climatic patterns prevailing during past warm periods that might serve as analogs of future climatic conditions. Particular attention was directed to the climates of the United States and other countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean during the warm period 5000 to 7000 years ago.

Dahlman, R.C.; Gross, T.; Machta, L.; Elliott, W.; MacCracken, M.

1980-04-01

335

A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization  

E-print Network

NiFe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

Kung, Yan

336

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-10-01

337

Enhanced carbon dioxide uptake by the world's oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of phytoplankton over much of the ocean is limited by the availability of nitrogen in the upper sunlit region of the ocean. It is through photosynthesis that upper ocean carbon is exported to the deep ocean and replaced with carbon dioxide fluxed by physical processes from the atmosphere. The addition of nitrogen to the ocean surface waters has

Ian S. F. Jones

1996-01-01

338

Carbon dioxide separation from high temperature fuel cell power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature fuel cell technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are considered for their potential application to carbon dioxide emission control. Both technologies feature electrochemical oxidisation of natural gas reformed fuels, avoiding the mixture of air and fuel flows and dilution with nitrogen and oxygen of the oxidised products; a preliminary analysis shows how

Stefano Campanari

2002-01-01

339

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-print Network

15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

340

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions at metal electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The quantities of carbon stored in the form of atmospheric carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2} in the hydrosphere and carbonates in the terrestrial environment substantially exceed those of fossil fuels. In spite of this the industrial use of carbon dioxide as a source of chemical carbon is presently limited to preparation of urea and certain carboxylic acids as well as organic carbonates and polycarbonates. However, the situation is expected to change in the future, if effective catalytic systems allowing to activate carbon dioxide will become available. In this connection, the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2}, requiring only an additional input of water and electrical energy, appears as an attractive possibility. For more than 100 years formic acid and formates of alkali metals were considered as the only significant products of the electroreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions. The highest current efficiencies, exceeding 90 %, were obtained either with mercury or with amalgam electrodes. The only comprehensive study regarding kinetics of CO{sub 2} reduction in aqueous solution has been performed by Eyring et al. using a mercury cathode. This paper describes electrolysis studies.

Augustynski, J.; Jermann, B.; Kedzierzawski, P. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

1996-12-31

341

Assessing carbon dioxide emissions from energy use at a university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design\\/methodology\\/approach First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with consumption of a single unit was

William Riddell; Krishan Kumar Bhatia; Matthew Parisi; Jessica Foote; John Imperatore III

2009-01-01

342

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-01-01

343

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-01-01

344

Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20?mol% carbon dioxide (20-40?wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J.; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Tour, James M.

2014-06-01

345

Distribution of and changes in industrial carbon dioxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning of fossils fuels is believed to be the major source responsible for an observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now measured at many locations around the world. This paper revises earlier published data on the annual amounts of carbon released to the atmosphere during the period 1950--1978 and updates the record through 1980.

Ralph M. Rotty

1983-01-01

346

Regeneration of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a closed ecological system it is necessary to reclaim most of the oxygen required for breathing from respired carbon dioxide and the remainder from waste water. One of the advanced physicochemical systems being developed for generating oxygen in manned spacecraft is the solid electrolyte-electrolysis system. The solid electrolyte system consists of two basic units, an electrolyzer and a carbon monoxide disproportionator. The electrolyzer can reclaim oxygen from both carbon dioxide and water. Electrolyzer preparation and assembly are discussed together with questions of reactor design and electrolyzer performance data.

Weissbart, J.; Smart, W. H.; Wydeven, T.

1972-01-01

347

Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterog...

Bolmatov, Dima; Gao, M; Zhernenkov, M

2014-01-01

348

Oxygen isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the middle atmosphere.  

PubMed

The isotopic composition of long-lived trace molecules provides a window into atmospheric transport and chemistry. Carbon dioxide is a particularly powerful tracer, because its abundance remains >100 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in the mesosphere. Here, we successfully reproduce the isotopic composition of CO(2) in the middle atmosphere, which has not been previously reported. The mass-independent fractionation of oxygen in CO(2) can be satisfactorily explained by the exchange reaction with O((1)D). In the stratosphere, the major source of O((1)D) is O(3) photolysis. Higher in the mesosphere, we discover that the photolysis of (16)O(17)O and (16)O(18)O by solar Lyman-alpha radiation yields O((1)D) 10-100 times more enriched in (17)O and (18)O than that from ozone photodissociation at lower altitudes. This latter source of heavy O((1)D) has not been considered in atmospheric simulations, yet it may potentially affect the "anomalous" oxygen signature in tropospheric CO(2) that should reflect the gross carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. Additional laboratory and atmospheric measurements are therefore proposed to test our model and validate the use of CO(2) isotopic fractionation as a tracer of atmospheric chemical and dynamical processes. PMID:17190796

Liang, Mao-Chang; Blake, Geoffrey A; Lewis, Brenton R; Yung, Yuk L

2007-01-01

349

Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide - an energy resource perspective  

SciTech Connect

Most energy used to meet human needs is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal), which releases carbon to the atmosphere, primarily as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, is increasing, raising concerns that solar heat will be trapped and the average surficial temperature of the Earth will rise in response. Global warming studies predict that climate changes resulting from increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will adversely affect life on Earth. In the 200 years since the industrial revolution, the world's population has grown from about 800 million to over 6 billion people and the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere has risen from about 280 to about 360 parts per million by volume, a 30 percent increase. International concern about potential global climate change has spurred discussions about limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Robert C. Burruss; Sean T. Brennan

2003-03-15

350

Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

2011-03-01

351

Interference of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interference of small concentrations (less than 4 percent by volume) of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence was measured. The sample gas consisted primarily of nitrogen, with less than 100 parts per million concentration of nitric oxide, and with small concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor added. Results obtained under these conditions indicate that although oxygen does not measurably affect the analysis for nitric oxide, the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor causes the indicated nitric oxide concentration to be too low. An interference factor - defined as the percentage change in indicated nitric oxide concentration (relative to the true nitric oxide concentration) divided by the percent interfering gas present - was determined for carbon dioxide to be -0.60 + or - 0.04 and for water vapor to be -2.1 + or - 0.3.

Maahs, H. G.

1975-01-01

352

Carbon dioxide as a carbon source in organic transformation: carbon-carbon bond forming reactions by transition-metal catalysts.  

PubMed

Recent carbon-carbon bond forming reactions of carbon dioxide with alkenes, alkynes, dienes, aryl zinc compounds, aryl boronic esters, aryl halides, and arenes having acidic C-H bonds are reviewed in which transition-metal catalysts play an important role. PMID:22859266

Tsuji, Yasushi; Fujihara, Tetsuaki

2012-10-14

353

Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

Gerlach, Terrence

1990-01-01

354

Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common valuations. It is clear that, whilst aviation must remain one piece of the transport-jigsaw, environmentally a global regulator with teeth' is urgently required.

Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

2014-10-01

355

Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2013-11-14

356

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-04-01

357

Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms  

E-print Network

or storage of produced carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, applications based on fossil fuels cannot be improved for carbon dioxide neutral fuel, their efficiency for the above described industrial applications is to lowMaster/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms The accumulation of carbon

Rostock, Universität

358

Carbon Dioxide Measurement and Tracking We are combining our expertise in remote sensing, measurement,  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Measurement and Tracking We are combining our expertise in remote sensing, measurement, experimentation, and modeling to track and quantify CO2. 7 08 FACT SHEET Carbon Dioxide." Among the proposed solutions are carbon sequestration (storing carbon dioxide emissions in geologic

359

OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE­ BAITED VECTOR surveillance trap support was designed as a tripod of polyvinyl chloride pipes to suspend carbon dioxide, vector surveillance, hanging traps, carbon dioxide, mosquito trap Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is common

360

of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14  

E-print Network

of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

Zare, Richard N.

361

Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) and radioactive waste disposal\\u000a (RWD) share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes\\u000a and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste (RW). There is

Curtis M. Oldenburg; Jens T. Birkholzer

2011-01-01

362

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

Hale, S.J.

1991-12-31

363

Heavy oil recovery process using cyclic carbon dioxide steam stimulation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of recovering oil from a subterranean formation containing viscous quality oil that is penetrated by at least one well in fluid communication with a substantial portion of the formation. The method consists of two principal component operations. The first operation is characterized in the patent in detail and consists of injecting a mixture of carbon dioxide and steam into the formation through the well. The ratio of carbon dioxide to steam in this infused mixture must be from 200-300 SCF carbon dioxide per barrel of steam (cold water equivalent) to produce the desired effect. The last operation described in the detailing of the method of recovery is the recovering of fluids, including oil, from the formation through the well.

Pebdani, F.N.; Shu, W.R.

1986-01-21

364

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 14. Research needed to determine the present carbon balance of northern ecosystems and the potential effect of carbon-dioxide-induced climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the potential significance of northern ecosystems to the global carbon budget it is critical to estimate the current carbon balance of these ecosystems as precisely as possible, to improve estimates of the future carbon balance if world climates change, and to assess the range of certainty associated with these estimates. As a first step toward quantifying some of the

1982-01-01

365

Fate of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of carbon between the atmosphere and three major carbon reservoirs, namely, the oceans, shallow-water sediments, and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the global carbon budget for the last 20 years are reviewed and evaluated. Several versions of recent atmosphere-ocean

W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi; H. J. Simpson; T.-H. Peng

1979-01-01

366

Regulation of Carbonic Anhydrase Expression by Zinc, Cobalt, and Carbon Dioxide in the Marine Diatom  

E-print Network

Regulation of Carbonic Anhydrase Expression by Zinc, Cobalt, and Carbon Dioxide in the Marine of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We have examined the roles for Zn in a CA. Our data also support the conclusion that TWCA1 plays a central role in carbon

Morel, François M. M.

367

Fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and the global carbon budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of carbon between the atmosphere and three major carbon reservoirs, namely, the oceans, shallow-water sediments, and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the global carbon budget for the last 20 years are reviewed and evaluated. Several versions of recent atmosphere-ocean

W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi; H. J. Simpson; T.-H. Peng

1979-01-01

368

Kinetic resolution of 4-phenyl-2-azetidinone in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipase-catalysed kinetic resolution of rac-4-phenyl-2-azetidinone was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Water (0.5mol equivalent) was used as nucleophilic donor. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied in a batch reactor (internal volume: 30mL). The optimum pressure and temperature of the ?-lactam ring-opening reaction proved to be 14MPa and 70C. Under optimum conditions, full conversion was achieved in

M. Utczs; E. Szkely; G. Tasndi; . Monek; L. Vida; E. Forr; F. Flp; B. Simndi

2011-01-01

369

Reconciling glacial cycle atmospheric radiocarbon and carbon dioxide signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms causing the glacial-interglacial range of ~90ppmv are still not fully understood. The deep Pacific is a potential isolated storage reservoir of respired carbon related to reduced ocean ventilation at this time. During the initial deglaciation (18-14kyr BP), atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by ~40ppmv. Corresponding records of atmospheric radiocarbon concentration display a massive decrease of 190, which also suggest the sudden release of a large store of carbon that has been isolated from the atmosphere for a significant period of time. In this study we have used an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, GENIE (Grid ENabled Integrated Earth) to investigate the influence of plausible physical changes in ocean circulation on deep Pacific storage of carbon, and the impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide and distribution of carbon isotopes. We perform transient simulations of the last glacial cycle (120kyr) to examine the sensitivity of Pacific carbon storage to prescribed ocean circulations and sea-ice cover, including freshwater hosing to simulate Heinrich events. In particular we present modelled changes in carbon dioxide and radiocarbon, which produce deglacial changes consistent with available palaeo-records in terms of time scale and magnitude.

Felton, Michelle; Singarayer, Joy

2010-05-01

370

Carbon dioxidenitrogen separation through adsorption on activated carbon in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from flue gases can be achieved using post-combustion capture technologies such as adsorption. In this paper, we report experimental data for the fixed-bed adsorption of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on activated carbon. The breakthrough curves were obtained at different temperatures 301306, 323, 373 and 423K using CO2\\/N2 mixtures. XPS and FTIR measurements

Tirzh L. P. Dantas; Francisco Murilo T. Luna; Ivanildo J. Silva Jr.; Diana C. S. de Azevedo; Carlos A. Grande; Alrio E. Rodrigues; Regina F. P. M. Moreira

2011-01-01

371

Classroom Demonstration: Combustion of Diamond to Carbon Dioxide Followed by Reduction to Graphite  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational demonstration shows the combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and then the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon. A melee diamond is the source of the carbon and the reaction is carried out in a closed flask. The demonstration helps students to realize that diamonds are made of carbon and that atoms do not change or vanish in

Miyauchi, Takuya; Kamata, Masahiro

2012-01-01

372

Adsorption of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Aerogels as Studied by SANS and Neutron Transmission Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the adsorption behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in porous Vycor glass and silica aerogels. Measurements were performed at T = 35C and 80C as a function of pressure up to P = 25 MPa. The neutron transmission data were used to monitor the ``excess'' adsorption of CO2 at different pressures. The adsorption of CO2 is significantly higher in aerogels than in activated carbons and silica gels. SANS data have revealed the existence of highly compressed adsorbed phase with the density close to the density corresponding to van der Waals volume of carbon dioxide. The results demonstrate the utility of SANS combined with transmission measurements to study the adsorption of supercritical fluids in porous materials.

Wignall, George; Melnichenko, Yuri; Cole, David; Frielinghaus, Henrich

2006-03-01

373

Electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For manned missions to Mars to become a reality, an efficient and reliable means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere will be required. Otherwise, the high cost of transporting the oxygen needed to sustain the astronauts will severely restrict the expedition to the martian surface. Recently, the use of electrochemical devices has been explored as a means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. In these devices, oxygen ions diffuse through solid oxide membranes, thus, separating oxygen from the other gases presented. This phenomenon has only recently been explored as a means of obtaining large quantities of oxygen from toxic atmospheres, although first observed by Walter nernst in 1899. Nernst observed that stabilized zirconia will conduct oxygen ions when an electrical potential is applied across metallic electrodes applied to the ceramic membrane. Diatomic oxygen molecules are dissociated at the positive electrode/electrolyte interface. The oxygen ions enter the ceramic body due to the ion density gradient which is produced by the electrical potential across the electrolytic membrane. Once the ions have diffused through the membrane, they reform diatomic oxygen molecules at the anode. The separation of oxygen from carbon dioxide is achieved by the combination of thermal and electrochemical processes. The thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide (at 1000 C) results in the production of carbon monoxide and oxygen by the reaction.

Hooker, M. W.; Rast, H. E.; Rogers, D. K.

1989-01-01

374

Methanol Droplet Extinction in Carbon-Dioxide-Enriched Environments in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusive extinction of methanol droplets with initial diameters between 1.25 mm and 1.72 mm, burning in a quiescent microgravity environment at one atmosphere pressure, was obtained experimentally for varying levels of ambient carbon-dioxide concentrations with a fixed oxygen concentration of 21% and a balance of nitrogen. These experiments serve as precursors to those which are beginning to be performed on the International Space Station and are motivated by the need to understand the effectiveness of carbon-dioxide as a fire suppressant in low-gravity environments. In these experiments, the flame standoff distance, droplet diameter, and flame radiation are measured as functions of time. The results show that the droplet extinction diameter depends on both the initial droplet diameter and the ambient concentration of carbon dioxide. Increasing the initial droplet diameter leads to an increased extinction diameter, while increasing the carbon-dioxide concentration leads to a slight decrease in the extinction diameter. These results are interpreted using a critical Damk hler number for extinction as predicted by an earlier theory, which is extended here to be applicable in the presence of effects of heat conduction along the droplet support fibers and of the volume occupied by the support beads

Hicks, Michael C.; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

2010-01-01

375

Eco-Materials Made From Industrial By-Products and Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eco-materials made from steel-making slag and carbon dioxide are introduced. Steel-making slag is one of industrial by-products and it has been wanted to be used in more beneficial way. Carbon dioxide is also wanted to be decreased the emission for green house effects. The materials made with steel-making slag by carbonation have very high strength and very high durability for hydration and abrasion. Mechanisms of carbonation reaction is discussed, in which the effects of water content, temperature, porosity of compacts, gas content and pressure, etc. are discussed. The compressive strength was obtained about 100 MPa at a porosity of 10 volume %these carbonated blocks have higher abrasion resistance than hydrated cement pastes. The most benefit in this process is no energy is required for the reaction except that of grinding, handling and/or transportation of materials. The exhaust gas from plant will be available for the source of carbon dioxide. Lastly, Marine block, matrix of glass fiber reinforced concrete, and artificial aggregate are introduced as application examples.

Goto, S.

2007-03-01

376

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Other Exemptions 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use are exempted from the requirements of 201.100(b) (2), (3),...

2010-04-01

377

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints  

E-print Network

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

de Weck, Olivier L.

378

Acute toxicity of high concentrations of carbon dioxide in rats.  

PubMed

Subterranean storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been proposed to diminish atmospheric increases of this greenhouse gas. To contribute to risk assessment of accidental release associated with handling, transport and storage, rats were exposed to high concentrations (targets 40, 43 and 50 volume %) of CO2. The oxygen concentrations dropped as a result, but were not supplemented. For each concentration, pairs of animals were exposed for different exposure durations to derive an exposure concentration-duration relation in which mortality is described as a function of C(n)t (probit relation). A very high "n" value for the probit function could be derived from the data obtained at 40% and 43% CO2, which indicates that for exposure durations longer than 30 min the LC50 decreases hardly with increasing exposure duration. Below 30 min the LC50 seemed to increase with decreasing exposure durations. The variability in the data of 43% and 50% CO2, however, did not allow to derive a meaningful value of "n". PMID:24713210

Muijser, H; van Triel, J J; Duistermaat, E; Bos, P M J

2014-07-01

379

Continual production of glycerol from carbon dioxide by Dunaliella tertiolecta.  

PubMed

Microalgae have high photosynthetic efficiencies and produce many valuable compounds from carbon dioxide. The Dunaliella genus accumulates glycerol, yet no commercial process currently exists for glycerol production from this microalga. Here it was found that in addition to intracellular accumulation, Dunaliella tertiolecta also releases glycerol into the external medium continuously, forming a large and stable carbon pool. The process is not affected by nutrient starvation or onset of cell death. Carbon dioxide was fixed at a constant rate, the bulk of it being channelled to extracellular glycerol (82%), resulting in enhanced photosynthetic carbon assimilation of 5 times that used for biomass production. The final extracellular glycerol concentration was 34 times the maximum concentration of intracellular glycerol; the latter declined further during cell death. Findings from this work will assist in the development of a bioconversion process to produce glycerol using D. tertiolecta without the need for cell harvest or disruption. PMID:23567730

Chow, Yvonne Y S; Goh, Serena J M; Su, Ziheng; Ng, Daphne H P; Lim, Chan Yuen; Lim, Natalie Y N; Lin, Huixin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Yuan Kun

2013-05-01

380

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-05-01

381

Somewhere beyond the sea? The oceanic - carbon dioxide - reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In correlation to climate change and CO2 emission different campaigns highlight the importance of forests and trees to regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earths' atmosphere. Seeing millions of square miles of rainforest cut down every day, this is truly a valid point. Nevertheless, we often tend to forget what scientists like Spokes try to raise awareness for: The oceans - and foremost deep sea sections - resemble the second biggest deposit of carbon dioxide. Here carbon is mainly found in form of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The carbonates are needed by corals and other sea organisms to maintain their skeletal structure and thereby to remain vital. To raise awareness for the protection of this fragile ecosystem in schools is part of our approach. Awareness is achieved best through understanding. Therefore, our approach is a hands-on activity that aims at showing students how the carbon dioxide absorption changes in relation to the water temperature - in times of global warming a truly sensitive topic. The students use standard syringes filled with water (25 ml) at different temperatures (i.e. 10C, 20C, 40C). Through a connector students inject carbon dioxide (25ml) into the different samples. After a fixed period of time, students can read of the remaining amount of carbon dioxide in relation to the given water temperature. Just as with every scientific project, students need to closely monitor their experiments and alter their setups (e.g. water temperature or acidity) according to their initial planning. A digital template (Excel-based) supports the analysis of students' experiments. Overview: What: hands-on, minds -on activity using standard syringes to exemplify carbon dioxide absorption in relation to the water temperature (Le Chatelier's principle) For whom: adjustable from German form 11-13 (age: 16-19 years) Time: depending on the prior knowledge 45-60 min. Sources (extract): Spokes, L.: Wie Ozeane CO2 aufnehmen. Environmental Sciences. University of East Anglia, Norwich 2007. Von Borstel, G. und Bhm, A.: Le Chatelier einmal anders, Gleichgewichtsverschiebungen am Kontext Sprudelwasser. Naturwissenschaft im Unterricht Chemie 6 (2006) H. 96, S. 34-37

Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

2014-05-01

382

Carbon dioxide capture using polyethylenimine-loaded mesoporous carbons.  

PubMed

A high efficiency sorbent for CO2 capture was developed by loading polyethylenimine (PEI) on mesoporous carbons which possessed well-developed mesoporous structures and large pore volume. The physicochemical properties of the sorbent were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques followed by testing for CO2 capture. Factors that affected the sorption capacity of the sorbent were studied. The sorbent exhibited extraordinary capture capacity with CO2 concentration ranging from 5% to 80%. The optimal PEI loading was determined to be 65 wt.% with a CO2 sorption capacity of 4.82 mmol-CO2/g-sorbent in 15% CO2/N2 at 75 degrees C, owing to low mass-transfer resistance and a high utilization ratio of the amine compound (63%). Moisture had a promoting effect on the sorption separation of CO2. In addition, the developed sorbent could be regenerated easily at 100 degrees C, and it exhibited excellent regenerability and stability. These results indicate that this PEI-loaded mesoporous carbon sorbent should have a good potential for CO2 capture in the future. PMID:23586307

Wang, Jitong; Chen, Huichao; Zhou, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiaojun; Qiao, Wenming; Long, Donghui; Ling, Licheng

2013-01-01

383

Carbon dioxide in clastic rocks and silicate hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of carbon dioxide in elastic rocks in sedimentary basins increases with depth. Organic matter, dissolved organic species, and dissolution of carbonate minerals have been suggested as sources of CO2, which increases in abundance with depth and temperature. Isotopic compositions of aqueous HCO-3, gaseous CO2 and calcite from conventional hydrocarbon wells and steam-assisted recovery of heavy oil suggest that

Ian Hutcheon; Hugh Abercrombie

1990-01-01

384

Photodissociation of carbon dioxide in the Mars upper atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation of the intensity of two of the emissions produced during the dissociative excitation of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere of Mars by solar ultraviolet radiation. The calculation tangential column emission rates of the atomic oxygen 2972-A line and the carbon monoxide Cameron bands produced by the photodissociative mechanism are found to be factors of 3 and 10, respectively, smaller than the emission rates observed by Mariner ultraviolet spectrometers.

Barth, C. A.

1974-01-01

385

Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next ten years, a number of studies on the carbonate system are planned as part of the JGOFS\\/WOCE programs. The carbon dioxide system will be studied by measuring at least two of the controlling parameters; pH, total alkalinity (TA), total inorganic CO2 (TCO2), and the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). The other parameters can be calculated using thermodynamic relations.

Frank J. Millero

1995-01-01

386

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-03-31

387

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (NaCO) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-01-01

388

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time

R. J. Andres; D. J. Fielding; G. Marland; T. A. Boden; N. Kumar; A. T. Kearney

1999-01-01

389

Thin film micro carbon dioxide sensor using MEMS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pt\\/Na+ ion conductive ceramic thin film\\/Pt\\/carbonate (Na2CO3:BaCO3=1:1.7mol) system CO2 micro gas sensor was fabricated and the sensing properties were investigated. The Na+ ion conductive thin film was prepared by RF magnetron sputtering method. The thin film micro carbon dioxide sensor was prepared by using silicon process combined with MEMS technology.A NASICON thin film (20002500) as main layer of the device

Yeung-Il Bang; Kap-Duk Song; Byung-Su Joo; Jeung-Soo Huh; Soon-Don Choi; Duk-Dong Lee

2004-01-01

390

High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of ~5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

2014-05-01

391

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 14. Research needed to determine the present carbon balance of northern ecosystems and the potential effect of carbon-dioxide-induced climate change  

SciTech Connect

Given the potential significance of northern ecosystems to the global carbon budget it is critical to estimate the current carbon balance of these ecosystems as precisely as possible, to improve estimates of the future carbon balance if world climates change, and to assess the range of certainty associated with these estimates. As a first step toward quantifying some of the potential changes, a workshop with tundra and taiga ecologists and soil scientists was held in San Diego in March 1980. The first part of this report summarizes the conclusions of this workshop with regard to the estimate of the current areal extent and carbon content of the circumpolar arctic and the taiga, current rates of carbon accumulation in the peat in the arctic and the taiga, and predicted future carbon accumulation rates based on the present understanding of controlling processes and on the understanding of past climates and vegetation. This report presents a finer resolution of areal extents, standing crops, and production rates than was possible previously because of recent syntheses of data from the International Biological Program and current studies in the northern ecosystems, some of which have not yet been published. This recent information changes most of the earlier estimates of carbon content and affects predictions of the effect of climate change. The second part of this report outlines research needed to fill major gaps in the understanding of the role of northern ecosystems in global climate change.

Miller, P.C.

1982-10-01

392

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer...

2011-07-01

393

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer...

2010-07-01

394

Using the 5E Learning Cycle Sequence with Carbon Dioxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used the 5E learning cycle (engage, explore, explain, extend, and evaluate) and a pulmonary carbon dioxide mystery to introduce eighth grade students to the study of chemistry. The activity engages students in measurement, data collection, data analysis, media and internet research, research design, and report writing as they search

Schlenker, Richard M.; Blanke, Regina; Mecca, Peter

2007-01-01

395

DIRECT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report assesses the likely biological nonclimatic, direct effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and on human health. It summarizes the current literature on the direct effects of rising CO2 levels on the biosphere and identifies technical info...

396

Carbon dioxide emissions and fossil fuel consumption a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential climate change due to increased loading of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has emerged as one of the most significant environmental threats of the late twentieth century. An analysis of a variety of feasible energy demand scenarios for Canada indicates that if we continue to consume the same types and proportions of fuels as we do today, the

John Peter Doucet

1988-01-01

397

Water vapor and carbon dioxide species measurements in narrow channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical spectroscopic techniques have been applied in a novel manner to measure the concentration of gas species, water vapor and carbon dioxide, within a narrow channel flow field non-invasively. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used in conjunction with a laser modulated at a high frequency [Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS)] tuned to the ro-vibrational transition of the species. This

Saptarshi Basu; Derek E. Lambe; Ranganathan Kumar

2010-01-01

398

Current inventory of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric increase of carbon dioxide is the result of the burning of fossil fuels and massive deforestation currently underway. Since 1958, the atmosphere CO concentration has risen from about 315 ppm to about 343 ppm. The major repositories for anthropogenic CO are the oceans and the atmosphere. The distributions of freon-11, as a surrogate tracer, have been combined with

J. D. Cline; R. A. Feely; K. Kelly-Hansen; J. F. Gendron; D. P. Wisegarver

1985-01-01

399

Annual carbon dioxide drawdown and the Northern Annular Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeartoyear variations in summer drawdown of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are compared with corresponding yeartoyear variations in sealevel pressure (SLP), surface air temperature, and the productivity of land vegetation as inferred from the satellitederived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Annual values of CO2 drawdown for the years 19802000 are estimated from smoothed time series derived directly from individual

Joellen L. Russell; John M. Wallace

2004-01-01

400

Carbon Dioxide Production and Sodium Transport by the Toad Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN order to investigate further the relationship of cellular metabolism to active ion transport, we have correlated carbon dioxide production with sodium transport by the urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, in vitro. The toad bladder was mounted so as to separate the two halves of a glass chamber, and each side was bathed with a phosphate Ringer's solution

Roy H. Maffly; Cecil H. Coggins

1965-01-01

401

Carbon dioxide levels in the biosphere: Effects on plant productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human society is now inadvertently conducting a great biological and environmental experiment, the outcome of which is not known. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing at the rate of 1.5 parts per million (ppm) per year. It has risen from 315 ppm to 340 ppm in the past 25 years a 9% increase. Because CO2 is among the factors

Sylvan H. Wittwer; Boyd R. Strain

1985-01-01

402

Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of

Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

2014-01-01

403

Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production  

E-print Network

(cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

2006-01-01

404

Raising the Level of Carbon Dioxide in Your Blood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 146 of the PDF), learners will explore the effects of increased carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Astronaut's Sleep" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource guide includes background information and sample evaluation questions. Note: learners with respiratory ailments should not participate as subjects.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2013-05-15

405

A Discovery Experiment: Carbon Dioxide Soap Bubble Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The observation of soap bubbles in a beaker of carbon dioxide gas helps students to feel the pleasure that comes from understanding nature, from applying that understanding to real problems, and from making unexpected discoveries that yield to analysis. (Author/BB)

Millikan, Roger C.

1978-01-01

406

2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon  

E-print Network

that are associated with a reduction in blood lipids, cholesterol and platelet activity2 , onion release a variety2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon Emissions and Flavor in Onion P. W. Paré, R are grown at elevated CO2 compared to controls grown at ambient CO2 levels. Sensory panel taste testing has

Paré, Paul W.

407

Recent advances in catalyst immobilization using supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous organometallic catalysts have a great potential for the development of sustainable synthetic processes. There is, however, an urgent need for the development of new techniques to separate products and catalysts efficiently, allowing for recycling and reuse of the precious catalyst. The unique solvent properties of supercritical carbon dioxide offer new approaches for the immobilization of organometallic catalysts, many of

Walter Leitner

2004-01-01

408

Role of carbon dioxide in cooling planetary thermospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new value of the rate coefficient for the deactivation of the bending mode of carbon dioxide by atomic oxygen at low temperatures is derived from the observation of 15-micron emission from the atmosphere of the earth. This new value gives a cooling rate for the lower thermosphere that is two to three times the rate previously calculated, and it

Ramesh D. Sharma; Peter P. Wintersteiner

1990-01-01

409

Synthesis of epoxy ferrite nanocomposites in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of epoxy ferrite nanocomposites (EFNCs) was synthesised through dispersing ferrite nanoparticles (5.0 phr, parts per hundred of resin) into diglycidylether of bisphenol A (0.1 mol) in supercritical carbon dioxide at 85 1C, 1600 psi over 1 h followed by curing with triethylene tetramine (15 phr) at 40 1C. For this purpose, ferrite nanoparticles were synthesised through

M. G. H. Zaidi; P. L. Sah; S. Alam; A. K. Rai

2009-01-01

410

Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide Policy document 12/05 June 2005 ISBN 0 85403 617 2 This report can be found at www.royalsoc.ac.uk #12;Ocean acidification due.advice@royalsoc.ac.uk Copy edited and typeset by The Clyvedon Press Ltd, Cardiff, UK #12;Ocean acidification due

Levin, Lisa

411

Carbon Dioxide and Energy Exchanges in a Temperate Grassland Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micrometeorological study was conducted from May to October in 1987 to evaluate the surface exchanges of carbon dioxide and energy at a temperate grassland site in northeastern Kansas. The fluxes of CO_2 (F_{rm c}), latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H) and momentum were measured using the eddy correlation technique. Pertinent microclimatic, plant and soil variables were also monitored through

Joon Kim

1990-01-01

412

Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters the Structure of Soil Microbial Communities  

E-print Network

Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters the Structure of Soil Microbial Communities Ye Deng,a Zhili He that the soil microbial community composition and structure significantly altered under conditions of eCO2 and primary productivity (2, 19, 23), the impact of eCO2 on soil microbial communities remains poorly

Minnesota, University of

413

Carbon dioxide in soil profiles: Production and temperature dependence  

E-print Network

the diffusion of gas in response to a concentration gradient according to Fick's Law. In an ideal situationCarbon dioxide in soil profiles: Production and temperature dependence David Risk, Lisa Kellman 2002. [1] The temperature dependance of soil respiration has most commonly been addressed using surface

414

Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya  

E-print Network

Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry at the foot of the Higher Himalaya near the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Nepal Himalaya. We have sampled hot weathering for the Narayani River basin by a factor of four. Our study implies that the net impact

Derry, Louis A.

415

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major amtrihtitor to global wanning is considered to he the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (COJ, caused by the burtiing of fossil fuel. Thus, to mitigate CO^ emissions, renewable energy sources such as ethanol have been seen as a promising alternative to fossil fuel consumption. Brazil was the world's first nation to run a large-scale

MARCELO E. DIAS DE OLIVEIRA; BURTON E. VAUGHAN; EDWARD J. RYKIEL JR

2005-01-01

416

The Effects of Acute Carbon Dioxide on Behavior and  

E-print Network

of non-neuronal cells to be sensitive to either increased levels of CO2/H1 or acid alone. CO2 affects and invertebrates show a similar response of rapid anesthesia with high levels of carbon dioxide. In this study, we the rapid unresponsiveness and cessation of an autonomic response. Hypoxic and low pH environments

Cooper, Robin L.

417

Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2010-01-01

418

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor  

E-print Network

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor Nancy O. Savagea , Sheikh of lanthanum oxide and copper oxide (labeled as ALC sensor), the sensor showed minimal response towards CH4 at elevated temperatures. Lanthanum oxide was used to inhibit the anatase to rutile transformation. Infrared

Dutta, Prabir K.

419

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

420

Solubility of fluoranthene, chrysene, and triphenylene in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in supercritical carbon dioxide is very low, and very little experimental data exist. A method has been developed for the measurement of such low solubilities, and the solubilities of fluoranthene, chrysene, and triphenylene in a temperature range 308.15 K to 328.15 K and in a pressure range 84 bar to 251 bar have been

Ligia Barna; Jean-Marie Blanchard; Evelyne Rauzy; Charles Berro

1996-01-01

421

Process Based Belowground Carbon Dioxide Modeling in a Desert Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a study to integrate and assess biological and physical processes that govern belowground carbon dioxide levels at a semi-arid grassland near Canyonlands National Park. Carbon dioxide concentrations were measured every 30 minutes at 5 and 15 cm depth within the rooting zones of the two dominant grass species, Stipa hymenoides and Hilaria jamesii, as well as the interspace between the two. For Stipa hymenoides at 5 cm, a rain event caused belowground carbon dioxide levels to rise from 600 ppm to 2000 ppm with a response time of 8 hours, with a gradual return to quasi-steady state levels in subsequent days. A similar response was observed for H. jamesii. We developed and simulated a one-dimensional diffusion model with a production term for various types of CO2 production from the literature (either constant with increasing depth or a process based source). The process based production considered microbial and root respiration as well as the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Model inputs included volumetric soil water content, temperature and bulk density. Incorporating a process based production term led to high correlation between measured and modeled CO2 concentrations (r2 as high as 0.92). Our results indicate that carbon dioxide levels increased during rain events due to physical (not biological) processes as the soil saturated with water, and CO2 molecules diffused more slowly from the soil.

Zobitz, J. M.; Bowling, D. R.

2003-12-01

422

Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methylamines under Metal-Free Conditions.  

PubMed

The first metal-free catalysts are reported for the methylation of amines with carbon dioxide. Proazaphosphatrane superbases prove to be highly active catalysts in the reductive functionalization of CO2 , in the presence of hydroboranes. The new methodology enables the methylation of N?H bonds in a wide variety of amines, including secondary amines, with increased chemoselectivity. PMID:25243949

Blondiaux, Enguerrand; Pouessel, Jacky; Cantat, Thibault

2014-11-01

423

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to

Robert Joseph Andres; J. S. Gregg; London M Losey; Gregg Marland; Thomas A Boden

2011-01-01

424

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-print Network

demonstrates the connections between fossil fuel emissions, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations coupling that warming to global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. 1 #12;2 B. W. Rust Figure 1: Michael Crichton and Statistics, Vol. 37. Abstract In his recent novel, State of Fear (HarperCollins, 2004), Michael Crichton ques

Rust, Bert W.

425

Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as

Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

2010-01-01

426

Microbiological and Mineralogical Characterization of Columbia River Basalts Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep geologic sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide can remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere but will cause profound changes to the geochemistry and microorganisms in the deep strata where it is injected. Here we report the original subsurface microbial constituents in basalt aquifers where supercritical carbon dioxide will be injected as part of the DOE Big Sky Regional Partnership

F. S. Colwell; M. R. Fisk; H. Yip; A. Schwartz; B. R. Briggs; F. Spane

2009-01-01

427

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-print Network

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October, 2008 Contract #05-310 "Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission-310 "Spatial disaggregated estimate of energy-related carbon dioxide for California" #12;Acknowledgments

428

Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales  

E-print Network

approach for representing the partitioning of fossil fuel carbon dioxide in climate and earth systemOcean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales Philip-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure

Follows, Mick

429

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas A Boden (CDIAC Di-  

E-print Network

;Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) bon releases from fossil-fuel consumption at globalCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas A Boden (CDIAC Di://cdiac.ornl.gov/ PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate -change

430

Effect of carbon dioxide on the performance of biogas\\/diesel duel-fuel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane and carbon dioxide are the two main constituents of biogas. Biogas also contains traces of nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and hydrogen sulphide. When diesel engine runs on biogas, the combustion is poor as compared to diesel fuel. One of the reason of poor combustion is the presence of carbon dioxide in the biogas. Percentage of methane and carbon dioxide in

Saiful Bari

1996-01-01

431

Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

432

Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander  

E-print Network

Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve compression cycle is applicable for carbon dioxide for water heating and comfort cooling and heating [4

Bahrami, Majid

433

A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles  

E-print Network

A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles S.M. Liaoa) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical carbon dioxide cycle varies nonmonotonically with the heat rejection pressure; a maximum COP occurs

Zhao, Tianshou

434

Using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent to replace water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric dyeing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyeing fabrics in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCD) instead of water can save energy, reduce water use and prevent pollution. The special pilot plant was designed to test dyeing procedures in supercritical carbon dioxide and the analyses of the results indicate major benefits as compared to water based procedures. The dyeing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric in supercritical carbon dioxide using

Aiqin Hou; Bo Chen; Jinjin Dai; Kai Zhang

2010-01-01

435

21 CFR 179.43 - Carbon dioxide laser for etching food.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. 179.43 Section 179...Radiation Sources 179.43 Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. Carbon dioxide laser light may be safely used for etching...

2014-04-01

436

Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric  

E-print Network

Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical@mit.edu Website: http://mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Model by Yu

437

Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a  

E-print Network

Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a , M. Keswani damage Sonoluminescence Carbon dioxide Acoustic cavitation Cavitation threshold a b s t r a c t Megasonic processing of wafers. In this study, the ability of carbon dioxide to quench sonolumi- nescence generation

Deymier, Pierre

438

Fluid Phase Equilibria 226 (2004) 161172 Analysis of Henry's constant for carbon dioxide in water  

E-print Network

Fluid Phase Equilibria 226 (2004) 161­172 Analysis of Henry's constant for carbon dioxide in water of the Henry constant for carbon dioxide in water by Monte Carlo simulations over a broad range of temperatures for each species. Carbon dioxide is modelled by two three-site (EPM2, and Errington and Panagiotopoulos

Lisal, Martin

439

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-print Network

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental. In this project, the sunlight-induced/photochemical production of carbon dioxide will be determined in a study

Uppsala Universitet

440

Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the  

E-print Network

1 Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen Department, CNRS-UMR 5307 LGF, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 St Etienne, FRANCE. ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide the mole fraction of CO2 in the carbon dioxide + nitrogen + cyclopentane mixed hydrate phase, both defined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on leaf gas exchange and growth of cork-oak  

E-print Network

Short note Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on leaf gas exchange and growth of cork-oak (Quercus) and at elevated (700 ?mol mor-1) concentrations of carbon dioxide. In well-watered conditions, daily max- imum CO2, but no change in root/shoot ratio was observed. Quercus suber / carbon dioxide / photosynthesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST...ALL 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarmsT/ALL. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire...

2012-10-01

443

ORNL/CDIAC-132 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING  

E-print Network

ORNL/CDIAC-132 NDP-077 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE R by Alexander Kozyr6 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge 12 02 03 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

444

TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)  

TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) News: TES News ... L2 Platform: TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage: 5.2 x 8.5 km nadir ... TES Order Tool Parameters: Carbon Dioxide Order Data: Reverb: Order Data ...

2014-08-04

445

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section...Equipment Markings 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm...

2012-10-01

446

Dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles and microfluidic multiphase flows Ruopeng Sun and Thomas Cubaud*  

E-print Network

Dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles and microfluidic multiphase flows Ruopeng Sun and Thomas the dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles into common liquids (water, ethanol, and methanol) using microfluidic. Introduction Carbon dioxide gas is widespread in natural and industrial processes. At the small scale

Cubaud, Thomas

447

TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS)  

TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS) News: TES News ... L2 Platform: TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage: 5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... TES Order Tool Parameters: Carbon Dioxide Order Data: Reverb: Order Data ...

2014-08-04

448

ORNL/CDIAC-155 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE  

E-print Network

ORNL/CDIAC-155 NDP-090 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE R Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami, FL Prepared by Alex Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Budget Activity Numbers KP 12 04 01 0 and KP 12 02 03 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information

449

ORNL/CDIAC-135 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED  

E-print Network

#12;ORNL/CDIAC-135 NDP-079 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE R and Tammy W. Beaty Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge 12 02 03 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

450

ORNL/CDIAC-148 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE  

E-print Network

ORNL/CDIAC-148 NDP-084 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE R Prepared by Alex Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Numbers KP 12 04 01 0 and KP 12 02 03 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center OAK

451

Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System  

E-print Network

Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Sea of carbon dioxide in the oceans. Version 2 -- September 1994 (version 2.1 is only available electronically of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water; version 2, A

452

Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming  

E-print Network

LETTERS Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming Shilong Piao in the future8 . Here we analyse interannual variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentra- tion data and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes. We find that atmo- spheric records from the past 20 years show a trend

Richardson, Andrew D.

453

RNL/CDIAC-151 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE  

E-print Network

RNL/CDIAC-151 NDP-087 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE R Prepared by Alex Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge 12 02 03 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

454

Observed relationships between the Southern Annular Mode and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

Observed relationships between the Southern Annular Mode and atmospheric carbon dioxide Amy H between large-scale climate variability and concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 Annular Mode and atmospheric carbon dioxide, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB4014, doi:10.1029/2006GB

455

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section...Equipment Markings 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm...

2013-10-01

456

Tropical deforestation and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent estimates of the net release of carbon to the atmosphere from deforestation in the tropics have ranged between 0.4 and 2.5 1015 g yr-1. Two things have happened to require a revision of these estimates. First, refinements of the methods used to estimate the stocks of carbon in the vegetation of tropical forests have produced new estimates that

R. A. Houghton

1991-01-01

457

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-print Network

plants and heavy emitting indus- try is a challenge and the storage of huge quantities of Co2 underground Carbon capture CO2 Industry Eg: cement plant Coal fired power plant Gas fired power plant Coal and biomass Low carbon energy Oil to industry To the electricity grid and compresssion Gas CO2 Electricity Gas

458

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-11

459

Monitoring of end tidal carbon dioxide and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during neonatal transport  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the accuracy of measurements of end tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) during neonatal transport compared with arterial and transcutaneous measurements. Design: Paired end tidal and transcutaneous CO2 recordings were taken frequently during road transport of 21 ventilated neonates. The first paired CO2 values were compared with an arterial blood gas. The differences between arterial CO2 (PaCO2), transcutaneous CO2 (TcPCO2), and end tidal CO2 (PetCO2) were analysed. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess bias and repeatability. Results: PetCO2 correlated strongly with PaCO2 and TcPCO2. However, PetCO2 underestimated PaCO2 at a clinically unacceptable level (mean (SD) 1.1 (0.70) kPa) and did not trend reliably over time within individual subjects. The PetCO2 bias was independent of PaCO2 and severity of lung disease. Conclusions: PetCO2 had an unacceptable under-recording bias. TcPCO2 should currently be considered the preferred method of non-invasive CO2 monitoring for neonatal transport. PMID:15863489

Tingay, D; Stewart, M; Morley, C

2005-01-01

460

Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions  

E-print Network

GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems thermodynamic models. The range in CO2 solubility measured from 100 � 120 o C for K+ /PZ mixtures was from (0 and Technology to expand the thermodynamic data of for potassium carbonate/piperazine/CO2 with measurements of CO

Rochelle, Gary T.

461

Carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouse crops  

SciTech Connect

These volumes bring current information to growers, plant scientists, horticulturalists, and extension officers on the influence of atmospheric CO2 on greenhouse crops. Results of recent research and successful techniques in the US and Europe are reported. Discussions cover such practical topics as fossil and biological sources of CO2, control, strategies of choosing optimal concentration, effects of outdoor climate, and economic factors. Volume II will follow.

Enoch, H.Z.; Kimball, B.A. (eds.)

1986-01-01

462

Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO capture is reversible

Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

2009-01-01

463

High-pressure phase equilibria for the carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol and carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol + water systems  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria for the binary carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol system were measured at 313.2 K. The phase equilibrium apparatus used in this work was of the circulation type in which the coexisting phases were recirculated, on-line sampled, and analyzed. The critical pressure and corresponding mole fraction of carbon dioxide at 313.2 K were found to be 8.22 MPa and 0.974, respectively, for this binary system. The phase equilibria for the ternary carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol + water system were also measured at 313.2 K and pressures of 2.00, 4.00, 6.00, 8.00, and 8.25 MPa. This ternary system showed the liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) phase behavior over the range of pressure up to the critical pressure of 8.25 MPa. The binary equilibrium data were all reasonably well-correlated with the Redlich-Kwong, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Patel-Teja equations of state incorporated with the eight different mixing rules: the van der Waals, Panagiotopoulos-Reic, and six modified Huron-Vidal mixing rules with UNIQUAC parameters. For the prediction of high-pressure phase equilibria for the systems containing carbon dioxide and alcohols, the SRK-MHV2 might reproduce many features of the measured behavior although further tests are needed with other systems.

Lee, H.S.; Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-01

464

Seasonal polar carbon dioxide frost on Mars: Spatiotemporal quantification of carbon dioxide utilizing 2001 Mars Odyssey gamma ray spectrometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the polar caps on Mars creates a seasonal cycle of growth and retreat of the polar caps. As the major component of the Martian atmosphere, CO 2 condenses in the polar regions of the planet during the winter seasons and precipitates as CO 2 frost. It then sublimes during the spring

Eleanor Jane Kelly

2006-01-01

465

Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

2009-10-15

466

The effects of carbon cycle model error in calculating future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical investigations have indicated that projections of future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of a quality\\u000a quite adequate for practical questions regarding the environmental threat of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and its\\u000a relationship to energy use policy could be made with the simple assumption that a constant fraction of these emissions would\\u000a be retained by the atmosphere. By analysis of the

J. A. Laurmann; J. R. Spreiter

1983-01-01

467

Photoassisted carbon dioxide reduction and formation of twoand three-carbon compounds. [prebiological photosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoassisted reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide in the presence of naturally occurring minerals is investigated as a possible abiotic precursor of photosynthesis. Aqueous carbon dioxide saturated suspensions or surfaces of the minerals nontronite, bentonite, anatase, wolframite, molybdenite, minium, cinnabar and hematite were irradiated with high-pressure mercury lamps or sunlight. Chemical analyses reveal the production of formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol and methane, and the two and three-carbon compounds glyoxal (CHOCHO) and malonaldehyde (CH2(CHO)2). It is suggested that such photosynthetic reactions with visible light in the presence of semiconducting minerals may provide models for prebiological carbon and nitrogen fixation in both oxidized and reduced atmospheres.

Halmann, M.; Aurian-Blajeni, B.; Bloch, S.

1981-01-01

468

PMEL CO2: Carbon Dioxide Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to advance a shared scientific understanding of the ocean's carbon cycle and how it continues to change over time, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) continues to investigate the evolving state of the ocean carbon chemistry with high quality measurements on ships and autonomous platforms. This website provides information on their public outreach efforts, along with news features on how these changes may affect everything from marine animal populations to tourism operations. On the homepage, visitors should check out the "Map & Data Viewer", which allows them to look at the collected carbon data via a 3D projection. The site also contains a "Data Portal" which allows interested parties to examine the data that has been collected thus far, along with historical data sets. The site is rounded out by sections that cover their ongoing research projects and their current observations on these changes.

469

Production of nitrogen and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for use in the separation of at least one gaseous component from the combustion products of a hydrocarbon fuel and air is described comprising: (a) a diesel engine in which a mixture of the fuel and air is subjected to a first stage of combustion yielding primary products of combustion containing at least 6% by volume of free oxygen,

1988-01-01

470

Deactivation of carbon electrode for elimination of carbon dioxide evolution from rechargeable lithium-oxygen cells.  

PubMed

Carbon has unfaired advantages in material properties to be used as electrodes. It offers a low cost, light weight cathode that minimizes the loss in specific energy of lithium-oxygen batteries as well. To date, however, carbon dioxide evolution has been an unavoidable event during the operation of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries with carbon electrodes, due to the reactivity of carbon against self-decomposition and catalytic decomposition of electrolyte. Here we report a simple but potent approach to eliminate carbon dioxide evolution by using an ionic solvate of dimethoxyethane and lithium nitrate. We show that the solvate leads to deactivation of the carbon against parasitic reactions by electrochemical doping of nitrogen into carbon. This work demonstrates that one could take full advantage of carbon by mitigating the undesired activity. PMID:24849589

Kang, Seok Ju; Mori, Takashi; Narizuka, Satoru; Wilcke, Winfried; Kim, Ho-Cheol

2014-01-01

471

Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

2000-02-01

472

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport reactor systems is planned to demonstrate the feasibility of this process in large scale operations to separate carbon dioxide from flue gas.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-10-01

473

Assessing the Thermodynamic Feasibility of the Conversion of Methane Hydrate into Carbon Dioxide Hydrate in Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the potential effects of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have stimulated interest in a number of carbon dioxide sequestration studies. One suggestion is the sequestration of carbon dioxide as clathrate hydrates by injection of carbon dioxide into methane hydrate. Energy-supply research estimates indicate that natural gas hydrates in arctic and sub-seafloor formations contain more energy than

Duane H. Smith; Kal Seshadri; Joseph W. Wilder

474

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere on timescales of a few centuries. However, a sizeable fraction of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere, awaiting a return to the solid earth by much slower weathering processes and deposition of CaCO3. Common measures of the atmospheric

David Archer; Michael Eby; Victor Brovkin; Andy Ridgwell; Long Cao; Uwe Mikolajewicz; Ken Caldeira; Katsumi Matsumoto; Guy Munhoven; Alvaro Montenegro; Kathy Tokos

2009-01-01

475

An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA  

PubMed Central

For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Floridas electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels), from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s) is also presented. PMID:21695024

Poiencot, Brandon; Brown, Christopher

2011-01-01

476

Determinants of Chronic Carbon Dioxide Retention and Its Correction in Humans  

PubMed Central

17 patients with chronic ventilatory failure (including 14 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were studied to determine the causes of carbon dioxide retention and the chronic effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on ventilatory drive and acid-base status. Carbon dioxide retention in patients with high mechanical loads occurred concomitantly with a higher than normal inspiratory effort (mouth occlusion pressure) and normal minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production ratio (V?e/V?co2); but with shortened inspiratory time (1.30.1 vs. 1.83 s), increased breathing frequency (171 vs. 141 breaths/min), low tidal volume (0.570.03 vs. 0.880.04 L), and high dead space to tidal volume ratio (0.630.02 vs. 0.390.07). Using a randomized application of treatment and placebo conditions, it was shown that 4 wk of medroxyprogesterone acetate caused significant reductions in Paco2 (from 511 to 421 mm Hg) in 10 of 17 patients. This correction of Paco2 in these patients was associated with increases in mouth occlusion pressure (14%), tidal volume (11%), and alveolar ventilation (15%) compared to placebo, although inspiratory time remained shortened. Arterial and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pH was alkaline compared to placebo in patients who corrected Paco2. No change was noted in lung mechanics or core temperature. Common prerequisites for correction of Paco2 with medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment were the ability to significantly lower Paco2 upon acute voluntary hyperventilation and to increase tidal volume rather than breathing frequency in response to the drug. We attribute chronic CO2 retention in these patients to alterations in respiratory cycle timing and to a neuromuscular inspiratory effort which is adequate for the level of tissue CO2 production, but inadequate in the presence of mechanical and ventilation-perfusion abnormalities to normalize arterial blood gases. PMID:7358847

Skatrud, James B.; Dempsey, Jerome A.; Bhansali, Praful; Irvin, Charles

1980-01-01

477

High resolution atmospheric monitoring of urban carbon dioxide D. E. Pataki,1  

E-print Network

High resolution atmospheric monitoring of urban carbon dioxide sources D. E. Pataki,1 D. R. Bowling atmospheric monitoring of urban carbon dioxide sources, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L03813, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL of carbon, the fossil fuel component of the carbon budget is also uncertain, particularly at increasingly

Ehleringer, Jim

478

ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office  

E-print Network

... Carbon Monitoring Referred to as the Keeling Curve, this graph shows the monthly mean atmospheric carbonC ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna

479

Superpulsed carbon dioxide laser: an update on cutaneous surgical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superpulsing the carbon dioxide laser allows delivery of high energy pulses separated by short pauses during which tissue cooling can occur.1 This new technology can provide several important advantages in cutaneous surgery over similar procedures performed with conventional continuous discharge carbon dioxide laser systems. In the excisional mode, there is a two-thirds reduction in thermal necrosis of the wound edge.2 This should translate into more rapid healing3 and increased rate of gain in tensile strength. In the vaporizational mode, precise, superficial and bloodless ablation of multiple benign appendigeal tumors is possible with less thermal damage yielding excellent cosmetic results. The establishment through additional research of accurate laser parameters, pulse duration, peak energy levels, and frequency of pulses, will help improve the specificity of the laser-tissue interaction to provide even better surgical results.

Wheeland, Ronald G.

1990-06-01

480

Future atmospheric carbon dioxide scenarios and limitation strategies  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses various climatic scenarios relating to the future buildup of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, as well as various options and limitations strategies for controlling or slowing the concentrations of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Although projections for future CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere are fairly straightforward, depending upon the figure used for energy growth rates based on fossil fuels, there are other factors that make predictability very uncertain. For example: the extent that nonfossil fuels will be utilized; the extent of future deforestation and land clearing; a determination of how emissions will be partitioned among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the biosphere; the effects on climate of other gases released from industrial activities; etc. The book is presented in six parts, which consider the CO/sub 2/ problem from varying aspects.

Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Rind, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Palutikof, J.P.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Lough, J.M.; Seidel, S.; Keyes, D.; Steinberg, M.; Trabalka

1986-01-01

481

High Levels of Carbon Dioxide Threaten Oyster Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been widely reported that the build up of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, which is caused by human behavior, will likely lead to climate change and have major implications for life on earth. But less focus has been given to global warmings evil twin, ocean acidification, which occurs when CO2 lowers the pH of water bodies, thus making them more acidic. This lesser known phenomenon may have catastrophic effects on all sea life. Inna Sokolova, associate professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, studies the affect of high carbon dioxide on oyster survival, growth and shell hardness. The results of her research suggest that creatures once thought to be fairly adaptable to changes in the environment, may be in serious trouble.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-08-04

482

Carbon dioxide exchange in a temperate grassland ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy correlation technique, over a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas, U.S.A., during a six-month period in 1987. The diurnal patterns of daytime and nocturnal CO2 fluxes are presented on eight selected days. These days were distributed throughout most of the growing season and covered a wide range of meteorological and soil water conditions. The midday CO2 flux reached a maximum of 1.3 mg/sq m (ground area)/s during early July and was near zero during the dry period in late July. The dependence of the daytime carbon dioxide exchange on pertinent controlling variables, particularly photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and soil water content is discussed. The nocturnal CO2 flux (soil plus plant respiration) averaged -0.4 m sq m (ground area)/s during early July and was about -0.2 mg sq/m during the dry period.

Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.

1990-01-01

483

Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

1987-01-01

484

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of gel-derived polymer foams  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid technology has been used in industry for the extraction and separation of materials in a number of applications such as food preparation and petroleum processing. Gel-derived microcellular polymer foam technology, developed at Sandia, requires the extraction of organic solvents from thermally-induced phase separated gels to yield microcellular foams. We have applied supercritical fluid extraction technology to these specialized materials by using supercritical carbon dioxide to extract a variety of organic solvents from gels to produce foams. Our supercritical extraction process will be described, as well as high pressure equipment that is used to perform the extractions. The results of gel extraction trails and qualitative supercritical carbon dioxide/solvent miscibility experiments will also be presented. We plan to pursue other related areas in this field, including supercritical fluid cleaning, quantitative solubility studies, and supercritical fluid chromatography.

Russick, E.M.; Aubert, J.H.

1992-06-01

485

Carbon Dioxide Snow Storms During the Polar Night on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) detected clouds associated with topographic features during the polar night on Mars. While uplift generated from flow over mountains initiates clouds on both Earth and Mars, we suggest that the Martian clouds differ greatly from terrestrial mountain wave clouds. Terrestrial wave clouds are generally compact features with sharp edges due to the relatively small particles in them. However, we find that the large mass of condensible carbon dioxide on Mars leads to clouds with snow tails that may extend many kilometers down wind from the mountain and even reach the surface. Both the observations and the simulations suggest substantial carbon dioxide snow precipitation in association with the underlying topography. This precipitation deposits CO2, dust and water ice to the polar caps, and may lead to propagating geologic features in the Martian polar regions.

Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony

2001-01-01

486

Widespread positive bias in calculated carbon dioxide concentration: causes and implications for large-scale estimates of carbon dioxide efflux from freshwater ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale estimates of carbon dioxide efflux from freshwater aquatic ecosystems provide important insights into the role of these systems in the global carbon cycle. At the largest scales (continental, global), the available data on direct carbon dioxide measurements are not sufficient to provide adequate spatial coverage, and so carbon dioxide is often calculated from pH, alkalinity, and temperature using well-established carbonate equilibrium constants. However, in a globally distributed data set, we find a consistent positive bias in calculated values versus those measured directly. The overall bias is nearly 40 percent, but varies strongly and is most pronounced in with low-pH samples . This finding is particularly important for global and continental carbon dioxide efflux estimates because regions with low pH freshwaters tend to have high carbon dioxide concentrations and so figure prominently in carbon dioxide efflux estimates. We explore several likely causes of the bias in carbon dioxide estimates including dissolved organic carbon contribution to alkalinity in low-pH samples, asymmetric error propagation in pH probes, and improper probe calibration when sampling low-conductivity systems. The outcome of this study will help guide refinements to ongoing efforts to constrain the role of freshwater systems in the global carbon cycle.

Stets, E.; Raymond, P. A.; Abril, G.; Borges, A. V.; Bouillon, S.; Marwick, T. R.; Tamooh, F.; Teodoru, C.

2013-12-01

487

Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation  

E-print Network

LETTERS Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation Eric D , John R. Southon6 & Roger Francois1 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower dioxide occupied the North Pacific abyss during the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite an inferred increase

Gilli, Adrian

488

Selective Permeation of Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide by Novel Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented on membranes of novel composition which selectively permeate ammonia and carbon dioxide from mixtures containing hydrogen. The CO2-selective membrane, which consists of a thin liquid film of the salt hydrate tetramethylammonium fluoride tetrahydrate, exhibits a CO2 permeance of 4-1 10 cm\\/cmscmHg with selectivity, ?(CO2\\/H2), ranging from 360-30. The NH3-selective membrane, poly(vinylammonium thiocyanate), displays a high

Daniel V. Laciak; Robert Quinn; Guido P. Pez; John B. Appleby; Pushpinder S. Puri

1990-01-01

489

A Support Vector Regression Approach to Predict Carbon Dioxide Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this study, a new monitoring system for carbon dioxide exchange is presented. The mission of the intelligent environment\\u000a presented in this work, is to globally monitor the interaction between the oceans surface and the atmosphere, facilitating\\u000a the work of oceanographers. This paper proposes a hybrid intelligent system integrates case-based reasoning (CBR) and support\\u000a vector regression (SVR) characterised for their

Juan F. De Paz; Beln Prez; Anglica Gonzlez; Emilio Corchado; Juan M. Corchado

490

The carbon dioxide system in the Strait of Gibraltar  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the CANIGO Project pHT and total alkalinity (AT) and continuous underway fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) measurements were carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar in September 97 and February 98. The pH values describe the most representative water masses in the area, including the Levantine Intermediate Water (7.86) and West Mediterranean Deep Water (7.89). The linear relationships between

J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano; Melchor Gonzalez-Davila; Luis M. Laglera

2002-01-01

491

Experiments and Statistical Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, experimental design was employed in order to investigate the effects of operating condition on supercritical carbon dioxide