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Sample records for volume holographic correlator

  1. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  2. Sidelobe suppression in volume holographic optical correlators by use of speckle modulation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chuan; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Liao, Yi; Wu, Minxian; Jin, Guofan

    2003-10-15

    By use of speckle modulation on the object beam of a volume holographic optical correlation system, we show that the sidelobes of the correlation patterns along the vertical direction, as well as those along the horizontal direction, are well suppressed. A theoretical explanation and experimental results are presented and discussed. PMID:14587793

  3. Wavelet and harmonic filtering for distortion-invariant volume holographic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Cai, De; Xue, Qingzeng; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

    2006-04-01

    The wavelet and harmonic filtering method suggested by Zalevsky and Ouzieli is introduced in this paper and adopted in our volume holographic image recognition system. This composite filter combines several scaled versions of the cascaded wavelet and harmonic filter, obtaining high discrimination ability and wide dynamic range of rotation and scale deformations. Optical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using this algorithm in a volume holographic system. Moreover, the separate correlation approach proposed in this paper greatly simplifies the manufacturing process and reduces the cost of the system.

  4. Volume holographic gratings: fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Roviello, A.; Pagliarulo, V.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.

    2015-05-01

    Volume Holographic Gratings is designed and fabricated to obtain a simple, lightweight and cheap light deflector. The entire process, starting from the chemical preparation of the photosensitive material, to the recording of Volume Holographic Gratings and their appropriate characterization, is reported. The recording material was a new photopolymer sensitive to light at 532nm. Results showed that the recorded Volume Holographic Grating presents a very high value of the diffraction efficiency, up to 94%. In addition, a flexible material is used to write Volume Holographic Gratings.

  5. In-line digital holographic imaging in volume holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaomin; Lin, Wei-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Wang, Po-Hao; Yeh, Li-Hao; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Singh, Vijay Raj; Luo, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    A dual-plane in-line digital holographic imaging method incorporating volume holographic microscopy (VHM) is presented to reconstruct objects in a single shot while eliminating zero-order and twin-image diffracted waves. The proposed imaging method is configured such that information from different axial planes is acquired simultaneously using multiplexed volume holographic imaging gratings, as used in VHM, and recorded as in-line holograms where the corresponding reference beams are generated in the fashion of Gabor's in-line holography. Unlike conventional VHM, which can take axial intensity information only at focal depths, the proposed method digitally reconstructs objects at any axial position. Further, we demonstrate the proposed imaging technique's ability to effectively eliminate zero-order and twin images for single-shot three-dimensional object reconstruction. PMID:26625046

  6. Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Correlation System Using Holographic Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ichikawa, Yuki; Akiyama, Reiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2008-07-01

    The volume of information we handle is markedly increasing as a result of the change from text data to still and moving image files. In this paper, we propose and describe fabrication of a much higher speed search engine for image and video data using a holographic optical disc system. Preliminary correlation experiments using the holographic optical disc setup show an excellent performance as indicated by high correlation peaks and low error rates at a multiplexing pitch of 10 µm, and a rotational speed of 300 rpm. It is clear that the processing speed of our optical holographic calculation is markedly higher than the conventional digital signal processing architecture. This system can also be applied to various search engine systems.

  7. High-speed optical correlator with coaxial holographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Watanabe, Eriko

    2015-09-01

    A high-speed volume holographic optical correlator is developed, which takes advantage of a coaxial holographic system. We have realized this high-speed correlator using an optimal design of the signal pattern, which improves the shift multiplex recording shift pitch. The speed of this correlator was further improved by increasing the number of pixels in the spatial light modulator and using a high speed rotating actuator. This correlation system successfully achieved an equal error rate of 0% by performing optical correlation over 900 times. It also achieved optical correlation experiment, at a shift pitch of 2.45 µm and a disk rotation speed of 900 rpm. In terms of optical correlation calculation speed, it yielded a peak interval of 542 ns, which corresponds to 1.846 × 106 frames per second.

  8. MSFC holographic correlation techniques facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foreman, J. W., Jr.; Cardone, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The basic theory of the holographic correlation system is illustrated. The effect of translating the object distribution in the object plane when the hologram is illuminated is investigated. The effect of translating the object along the optical axis is discussed and preliminary results presented.

  9. Correlation functions in the holographic replica method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yanwen

    2012-12-01

    Disorder has long been a difficult subject in condensed matter systems and the The replica method is a well-known tool in this field. Implementing the replica method the AdS/CFT correspondence has been proposed and discussed in literatures. We point out, for any CFT that has a holographic dual and to the leading order of the large- N expansion, the corrections due to the presence of random disorder to any connected correlation functions vanish identically, provided that the disorder strength is normalized as discussed in literatures and that the symmetry among replicas is unbroken. Same must hold true to any observables that are determined by the connected correlation functions through a linear relation. This behavior resembles strongly that of a free theory where disorder is coupled to the fundamental field. We demonstrate this by both the means of holographic principle and field theory analysis in a toy model. We also propose ways of evaluating the non-zero sub-leading effects perturbatively in terms of the disorder strength and discuss a novel possibility of defining a new holographic dual if we adopt a different normalization for the disorder strength.

  10. Study on spectrometer based upon volume holographic transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Guodong; Ren, Zhong; Zeng, Lvming

    2010-10-01

    In this present paper, a spectrometer based upon axial transmissive optical structure with the volume-phase holographic (VPH) transmission grating technology is introduced. We give a physical insight for the structure and mechanism of photorefractive volume holographic gratings and theoretically analyze some important performance parameters of the spectrometer device using the coupled wave theory, which should be considered in the process of the following design for the device with volume phase holographic transmission gratings. The experimental results show, owing to its axial transmissive optical geometry and the perfect performance of the VPH transmission grating, the spectrometer based on the volume-phase holographic transmission grating has satisfactory high resolution and wavelength accuracy. It has great promise to be widely used in the future.

  11. Coding applications in volume holographic memory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Wu-Chun

    1999-11-01

    Volume holographic memory (VHM) systems are page-oriented optical data storage systems with a relatively large storage capacity, a high aggregate data transfer rate, and a fast access time as compared with other conventional mass data storage systems. In addition to the noise sources commonly present in a conventional communication channel, the VHM systems use a two- dimensional (2-D) data format and therefore suffers from 2-D electrical/optical hybrid noises. In this dissertation, we apply digital communication coding techniques to such a page-oriented optical memory system. To establish a coding performance baseline, we take an information theoretical perspective to study the design of 4F optical imaging systems, and the storage capacity of page-wise accessed VHM systems. In addition to the information-based figure of merit, bit-error rate (BER) serves as a more practical data fidelity measure. A BER- based optical design and a constant BER recording schedule in VHM systems are shown to support the coding analyses based on the BER metric. We analyze the VHM storage capacity while applying Reed- Solomon error-correction coding (ECC) and demonstrate that the use of the 2-D interleaving together with ECC results in a significant capacity improvement in the presence of systematic errors. In addition, soft-decision iterative decoding affords us a 2-D parallel decoding scheme that unifies the 2-D page equalization and decoding. A highly parallel decoder is discussed in the context of the 2-D low-pass channel mitigation and error correction. In the last part of this dissertation, we consider hardware implementation issues in 2-D optical systems. We design two coding related components using the MOSIS Orbit 2 ?m n-well process to fabricate two CMOS VLSI chips. Power consumption and aerial scaling laws are discussed for each applications.

  12. Evaluation of volume phase holographic gratings at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, James A.; Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Benson, Mark

    2008-07-01

    Collaboration between Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc. and the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University has resulted in the construction of volume phase holographic (VPH) transmission gratings that were subsequently tested in a cryogenic environment. VPH gratings were built on two popular optical glasses and subjected to temperatures near 100 Kelvin. Test conditions, observations and results are reported. Design considerations for optimizing VPH grating performance in cold environment is discussed.

  13. Volume Holographic Storage of Digital Data Implemented in Photorefractive Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heanue, John Frederick

    A holographic data storage system is fundamentally different from conventional storage devices. Information is recorded in a volume, rather than on a two-dimensional surface. Data is transferred in parallel, on a page-by -page basis, rather than serially. These properties, combined with a limited need for mechanical motion, lead to the potential for a storage system with high capacity, fast transfer rate, and short access time. The majority of previous volume holographic storage experiments have involved direct storage and retrieval of pictorial information. Success in the development of a practical holographic storage device requires an understanding of the performance capabilities of a digital system. This thesis presents a number of contributions toward this goal. A description of light diffraction from volume gratings is given. The results are used as the basis for a theoretical and numerical analysis of interpage crosstalk in both angular and wavelength multiplexed holographic storage. An analysis of photorefractive grating formation in photovoltaic media such as lithium niobate is presented along with steady-state expressions for the space-charge field in thermal fixing. Thermal fixing by room temperature recording followed by ion compensation at elevated temperatures is compared to simultaneous recording and compensation at high temperature. In particular, the tradeoff between diffraction efficiency and incomplete Bragg matching is evaluated. An experimental investigation of orthogonal phase code multiplexing is described. Two unique capabilities, the ability to perform arithmetic operations on stored data pages optically, rather than electronically, and encrypted data storage, are demonstrated. A comparison of digital signal representations, or channel codes, is carried out. The codes are compared in terms of bit-error rate performance at constant capacity. A well-known one-dimensional digital detection technique, maximum likelihood sequence estimation, is extended for use in a two-dimensional page format memory. The effectiveness of the technique in a system corrupted by intersymbol interference is investigated both experimentally and through numerical simulations. The experimental implementation of a fully-automated multiple page digital holographic storage system is described. Finally, projections of the performance limits of holographic data storage are made taking into account typical noise sources.

  14. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3 -Vaidya background. We gave a prescription for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator ? O (v ,x )O (v ,0 )? , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. We found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  15. A theoretical analysis of the MSFC holographic correlation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis was completed for the correlation output signal for the MSFC holographic correlation filtering system. Under appropriate assumptions, the correlation output was derived as a function of the roughness of the tested surface, the displacement of the illuminated area of the test surface, the characteristics of the optical components used in the system, and the system configuration. In addition, an approximate relationship between the displacement of the detected signal (which is focused on the photomultiplier tube) and the displacement of the illuminated area on the test surface was also derived.

  16. An external cavity diode laser using a volume holographic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Chang, Chang-Ray; Chen, Chun-Chia; Chang, Ming-Shien

    2012-10-01

    This study presents an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system, utilizing a volume holographic grating (VHG) and a microfabricated silicon flexure as the VHG holder. The laser design is aimed for easy assembly, controllability, and better stability of the laser cavity. The laser frequency was stabilized to a D2 transition of rubidium at 780.247 nm, with a mode-hop-free tuning range of 16 GHz and 9.6 GHz with and without feed-forward on the diode injection current. The measured linewidth was 850 kHz in 500 s, qualified for laser cooling experiments.

  17. The Impact of Volume Phase Holographic Filters and Gratings on the Development of Raman Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) optical elements have made a major contribution to Raman spectroscopy by providing notch filters, and VPH gratings that provide remarkable performance advantages over previous technologies. Holographic notch filters have eliminated Rayleigh scattered laser light from single monochromators, thereby contributing to the

  18. The Impact of Volume Phase Holographic Filters and Gratings on the Development of Raman Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) optical elements have made a major contribution to Raman spectroscopy by providing notch filters, and VPH gratings that provide remarkable performance advantages over previous technologies. Holographic notch filters have eliminated Rayleigh scattered laser light from single monochromators, thereby contributing to the…

  19. Soft-decision array decoding for volume holographic memory systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, W; Neifeld, M A

    2001-01-01

    We study the use of soft-decision array decoding in a volume holographic memory (VHM) system that is corrupted by interpixel interference (IPI) and detector noise. Soft-decision methods can unify equalization and error decoding. A highly parallel array decoder is presented in the context of two-dimensional low-pass channel mitigation and error correction. The new decoding algorithm is motivated by iterative turbo-decoding methods and is capable of incorporating a priori knowledge of the corrupting IPI channel during decoding. The resulting joint detection decoding algorithm is shown to offer VHM capacity and density performance superior to that of hard-decision n = 255 Reed-Solomon codes in concatenation with a Wiener filter. PMID:11151997

  20. Angle amplifier based on multiplexed volume holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Yifei; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2008-03-01

    Angle amplifier of laser beam scanner is a widely used device in optical systems. Volume holographic optical elements can be applied in the angle amplifier. Compared with the traditional angle amplifier, it has the advantages of high angle resolution, high diffraction efficiency, small size, and high angle magnification and flexible design. Bragg anglewavelength- compensating recording method is introduced. Because of the Bragg compensatory relation between angle and wavelength, this device could be recorded at another wavelength. The design of the angle amplifier recording at the wavelength of 514.2nm for the working wavelength of 632.8nm is described. An optical setup for recording the angle amplifier device is designed and discussed. Experimental results in the photorefractive crystal Fe:LiNbO 3 demonstrate the feasibility of the angle amplifier scheme.

  1. Cryogenic Volume-Phase Holographic Grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Yamada, Toru; Tokoku, Chihiro; Onodera, Masato; Hanesaka, Mai; Kodate, Kashiko; Katsuno Uchimoto, Yuka; Maruyama, Miyoko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    We have developed high-dispersion VPH (volume phase holographic) grisms with zinc selenide (ZnSe) prisms for the cryogenic optical system of MOIRCS (Multi-Object near-InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph) for Y-, J-, H-, and K-band observations. We fabricated VPH gratings using a hologram resin. After several heat cycles at between room temperature and 120 K, the VPH gratings were assembled to grisms by gluing with two ZnSe prisms. Several heat cycles were also carried out for the grisms before being installed into MOIRCS. We measured the efficiencies of the VPH grisms in a laboratory, and found them to be 70%-82%. The performances obtained by observations of MOIRCS with the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope have been found to be very consistent with the results in the laboratory test. This is the first astronomical application of cryogenic VPH grisms.

  2. Multiquark Correlations in Light Mesons and Baryons from holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Forkel, Hilmar

    2011-10-21

    A hadron's multiquark content reflects itself in the quark composition of the interpolator with which it has maximal overlap. The AdS/CFT dictionary translates the anomalous dimension of this interpolator into a mass correction for the corresponding dual mode. Hence such bulk-mass corrections can carry specific information on multiquark correlations. Two prominent examples are studied by implementing this robust and universal holographic mechanism into AdS/QCD gravity duals. In the baryon sector bulk-mass corrections are used to describe systematic good (i.e. maximally attractive) diquark effects. The baryon sizes are predicted to decrease with increasing good-diquark content, and the masses of all 48 observed light-quark baryon states are reproduced with unprecedented accuracy. Our approach further provides the first holographic description of a dominant tetraquark component in the lowest-lying scalar mesons. The tetraquark ground state emerges naturally as the lightest scalar nonet whereas higher excitations become heavier than their quark--antiquark counterparts and are thus likely to dissolve into the multiparticle continuum.

  3. Cross-talk noise in volume holographic memory with spherical reference beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianmin; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

    1995-09-01

    We investigate angle-multiplexed volume holographic memory with spherical reference beams, for which the spherical approximation is made to model the wave-front distortion in general. We find that the angular selectivity and the cross-talk noise with spherical reference beams are close to those with planar reference beams. The results indicate that angle-multiplexed volume holographic memory can be realized in compact systems for which large wave-front distortion is expected.

  4. PQ:DMNA/PMMA photopolymer having amazing volume holographic recording at wavelength of insignificant absorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fang; Lin, June-Hua; Lin, Shiuan Huei; Hsu, Ken Y; Whang, Wha-Tzong

    2013-06-15

    N, N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline doping enables red-light holographic recording that was originally insensitive in thick phenanthrenequinone/poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer to have reasonable sensitivity. A volume hologram was recorded by a 647 nm laser with maximum diffraction efficiency of about 43% in a 2-mm-thick sample. A Bragg selectivity curve and an image hologram reconstruction are also demonstrated. These experimental results support recording material for volume holographic applications in an extended red spectral range. PMID:23938975

  5. Volume Holographic Reflection Endoscope for In-Vivo Ovarian Cancer Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, I. D.; Gordon, M.; Brownlee, J. W.; Barton, J. K.; Kostuk, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design for an endoscopic system capable of imaging tissues of the ovary at two selected imaging depths simultaneously. The method utilizes a multiplexed volume hologram to select wavefronts from different depths within the tissue. It is the first demonstration of an endoscopic volume holographic imaging system. The endoscope uses both gradient index (GRIN) optical components and off the shelf singlet lenses to relay an image from the distal tip to the proximal end. The endoscope has a minimum diameter of 3.75 mm. The system length is 30 cm which is connected to a handle that includes the holographic components and optics that relay the image to a camera. Preliminary evaluation of the endoscope was performed with tissue phantoms and calibrated targets, which shows lateral resolution ≈ 4 μm at an operating wavelength of 660 nm. The hologram is recorded in phenanthraquinone doped poly methacrylate and is designed to produce images from two tissue depths. One image is obtained at the tissue surface and the second 70 μm below the surface. This method requires no mechanical scanning and acquires an image at the camera frame rate. The preliminary ex-vivo results show good correlation with histology sections of the same tissue sections. PMID:25009709

  6. Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707

  7. Photopolymer-Based Volume Holographic Optical Elements: Design and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Roviello, A.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, Volume Holographic Optical Elements (V-HOEs), such as holographic gratings and spherical lenses, are designed and fabricated by using a prototype of photopolymer. The recording process of V-HOEs and their appropriate characterization are described. Moreover, V-HOEs possible applications as solar concentrator are investigated and results are discussed. Finally, a system that allows passive solar tracking is proposed and preliminary results are reported.

  8. Laser diode lensless MSF-HOE correlator. [Matched Spatial Filter-Holographic Optical Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, F.; Casasent, D.; Shen, M.; Feng, B.

    1980-01-01

    Description of an optical pattern recognition system employing a laser-diode lensless MSF correlator based on the use of holographic optical elements (HOE). The system has size, cost, and weight advantages over conventional optical processors, and it is believed to be the first unification of MSF correlation, laser diode, and HOE technologies.

  9. Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali

    2003-02-01

    We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity.

  10. Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems.

    PubMed

    Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali

    2003-02-10

    We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity. PMID:12593489

  11. Performances of volume phase holographic grating for space applications: study of the radiation effect.

    PubMed

    Loicq, Jrme; Venancio, Luis Miguel; Stockman, Yvan; Georges, Marc P

    2013-12-01

    The special properties of volume phase holographic gratings make them promising candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low levels of straylight, and low polarization sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of volume phase holographic gratings as enabling technologies for future space missions, with demanding requirements for spectrometry. One of the main areas of research is related to grating ageing under space radiation. In the present paper, two volume grating technologies are analyzed and compared under gamma irradiation. The performances of both technologies, the photo-thermo-refractive glass and the Dichromated Gelatin, are tested on samples and assessed in the H? and near-infrared bands. The diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. PMID:24513836

  12. Position feedback system for volume holographic storage media

    DOEpatents

    Hays, Nathan J.; Henson, James A.; Carpenter, Christopher M.; Akin, Jr.. William R.; Ehrlich, Richard M.; Beazley, Lance D.

    1998-07-07

    A method of holographic recording in a photorefractive medium wherein stored holograms may be retrieved with maximum signal-to noise ratio (SNR) is disclosed. A plurality of servo blocks containing position feedback information is recorded in the crystal and made non-erasable by heating the crystal. The servo blocks are recorded at specific increments, either angular or frequency, depending whether wavelength or angular multiplexing is applied, and each servo block is defined by one of five patterns. Data pages are then recorded at positions or wavelengths enabling each data page to be subsequently reconstructed with servo patterns which provide position feedback information. The method of recording data pages and servo blocks is consistent with conventional practices. In addition, the recording system also includes components (e.g. voice coil motor) which respond to position feedback information and adjust the angular position of the reference angle of a reference beam to maximize SNR by reducing crosstalk, thereby improving storage capacity.

  13. Astigmatism compensation in digital holographic microscopy using complex-amplitude correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Khairul Fikri; Rahmatullah, Bahbibi; Samuri, Suzani Mohamad

    2015-07-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a promising tool for a three-dimensional imaging of microscopic particles. It offers the possibility of wavefront processing by manipulating amplitude and phase of the recorded digital holograms. With a view to compensate for aberration in the reconstructed particle images, this paper discusses a new approach of aberration compensation based on complex amplitude correlation and the use of a priori information. The approach is applied to holograms of microscopic particles flowing inside a cylindrical micro-channel recorded using an off-axis digital holographic microscope. The approach results in improvements in the image and signal qualities.

  14. Characterization of volume holographic recording in photopolymerizable nanoparticle-(thiol-ene) polymer composites at 404 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawana, Masaru; Takahashi, Jun-ichiro; Yasui, Satoru; Tomita, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    We report on the photopolymerization dynamics and the volume holographic recording properties of a thiol-ene based nanoparticle-polymer composite (NPC) doped with a blue-sensitive photoinitiator, Darocur® TPO, by using a highly coherent blue diode laser operating at a wavelength of 404 nm. Our study indicates that volume gratings recorded in the NPC amount to meeting the material requirements of refractive index modulation and material recording sensitivity for holographic data storage media. It is also found that polymerization shrinkage of recorded NPC gratings is higher than that of the same thiol-ene based NPC with a green (523 nm)-sensitive photoinitiator, Irgacure® 784/BzO2. We attribute such a difference in shrinkage to the photopolymerization dynamics at these recording wavelengths. We show that this shrinkage increase at 404 nm can be mitigated to some extent by controlling the thiol-ene stoichiometry in the NPC.

  15. Volume holographic recording in nanoparticle-polymer composites doped with multifunctional chain transfer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinxin; Fujii, Ryuta; Tomita, Yasuo

    2015-10-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of the properties of volume holographic recording in photopolymerizable nanoparticle-polymer composites (NPCs) doped with chain transferring multifunctional di- and tri-thiols as chain transfer agents. It is shown that the incorporation of the multifunctional thiols into NPCs more strongly influences on volume holographic recording than that doped with mono-thiol since more chemical reactions involve in the polymer network formation. It is found that, as similar to the case of mono-thiol doping, there exist optimum concentrations of di- and tri-thiols for maximizing the saturated refractive index modulation. It is also seen that recording sensitivity monotonically decreases with an increase in multifunctional thiol concentration due to the partial inhibition of the photopolymerization event by excessive thiols.

  16. Characterization of photopolymerizable nanoparticle-(thiol-ene) polymer composites for volume holographic recording at 404 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawana, Masaru; Takahashi, Jun-ichiro; Yasui, Satoru; Tomita, Yasuo

    2014-05-01

    We report on volume holographic recording in thiol-ene based nanoparticle-polymer composites (NPCs) at a wavelength of 404 nm by using a highly coherent blue diode laser. We study the photopolymerization dynamics of two types of thiol-ene based NPCs doped with different blue-sensitive initiator/sensitizer systems (Darocur ® TPO and Irgacure ® 784/BzO2) at various doping concentrations. We also characterize a volume holographic grating recorded in these two types of thiol-ene based NPCs. Such material characterization includes the refractive index modulation, the material recording sensitivity and polymerization shrinkage. It is shown that Darocur R _ TPO provides larger refractive index modulation and higher material recording sensitivity than those with Irgacure ® 784/BzO2 but these two blue-sensitive initiator/sensitizer systems amount to meeting the requirements of the refractive index modulation and the material recording sensitivity for holographic data storage. However, it is found that shrinkage reduction of a volume grating recorded in these two types of thiol-ene based NPCs at 404 nm is not as effective as the same thiol-ene based NPC doped with Irgacure ® 784/BzO2 at 532 nm.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Luo Y; Gelsinger-Austin PJ; Watson JM; Barbastathis G; Barton JK; Kostuk RK

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  18. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously. PMID:18794943

  19. Statistical analysis of cross-talk noise and storage capacity in volume holographic memory: image plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianmin; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

    1995-04-01

    We investigate the cross-talk noise in optical storage based on angle-multiplexed image plane volume holograms. Simple expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio and the storage density are obtained. The cross-talk noise is found to limit the size of the pixels and the number of recorded holograms. The cross-talk-limited storage density of image plane holographic storage is found to be close to that of Fourier plane holographic storage.

  20. Holographic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    For a field theory with a gravitational dual, following Susskind's proposal we define holographic complexity for a subsystem. The holographic complexity is proportional to the volume of a codimension one time slice in the bulk geometry enclosed by the extremal codimension two hypersurface appearing in the computation of the holographic entanglement entropy. The proportionally constant, up to a numerical order of 1 factor is G R where G is the Newton constant and R is the curvature of the space-time. We study this quantity in certain holographic models. We also explore a possible relation between the defined quantity and fidelity appearing in quantum information literature.

  1. A new approach for implementation of associative memory using volume holographic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad; Pashaie, Ramin

    2012-02-01

    Associative memory, also known as fault tolerant or content-addressable memory, has gained considerable attention in last few decades. This memory possesses important advantages over the more common random access memories since it provides the capability to correct faults and/or partially missing information in a given input pattern. There is general consensus that optical implementation of connectionist models and parallel processors including associative memory has a better record of success compared to their electronic counterparts. In this article, we describe a novel optical implementation of associative memory which not only has the advantage of all optical learning and recalling capabilities, it can also be realized easily. We present a new approach, inspired by tomographic imaging techniques, for holographic implementation of associative memories. In this approach, a volume holographic material is sandwiched within a matrix of inputs (optical point sources) and outputs (photodetectors). The memory capacity is realized by the spatial modulation of refractive index of the holographic material. Constructing the spatial distribution of the refractive index from an array of known inputs and outputs is formulated as an inverse problem consisting a set of linear integral equations.

  2. Analysis of volume holographic storage allowing large-angle illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Advanced technological developments have stimulated renewed interest in volume holography for applications such as information storage and wavelength multiplexing for communications and laser beam shaping. In these and many other applications, the information-carrying wave fronts usually possess narrow spatial-frequency bands, although they may propagate at large angles with respect to each other or a preferred optical axis. Conventional analytic methods are not capable of properly analyzing the optical architectures involved. For mitigation of the analytic difficulties, a novel approximation is introduced to treat narrow spatial-frequency band wave fronts propagating at large angles. This approximation is incorporated into the analysis of volume holography based on a plane-wave decomposition and Fourier analysis. As a result of the analysis, the recently introduced generalized Bragg selectivity is rederived for this more general case and is shown to provide enhanced performance for the above indicated applications. The power of the new theoretical description is demonstrated with the help of specific examples and computer simulations. The simulations reveal some interesting effects, such as coherent motion blur, that were predicted in an earlier publication.

  3. Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope. PMID:22660099

  4. Dynamic characterizations of high diffraction efficiency in volume Bragg grating formed by holographic photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Haihui; Yin, Dejin; Gao, Bin; Gao, Hongyue; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Jianhua

    2009-10-01

    Volume Bragg grating with 96% diffraction efficiency (DE) was efficiently formed by holographic photopolymerization in blend syrup of photocurable trimethylolpropane triacrylate monomer and nematic liquid crystal. The formation dynamics of the composite gratings was quantitatively characterized under the frame of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model with a revision of individual decay constants for monomer diffusion and reaction. Initial parameters of diffusion and reaction were analytically determined from the measured first order DE at the beginning stage. Evolutions of the DE, both in curing and postcuring periods, were excellently simulated, especially with postcuring reaction been taken into account.

  5. Performances of new green sensitive liquid photopolymers for volume phase holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Zerbi, Filippo M.

    2012-03-01

    Liquid photopolymers produced by Polygrama-Lynx (SM-532TR and SM-532TRF) have been studied to determine their performances in terms of refractive index modulation, transparency and overall optical quality. Volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) based on these materials have been obtained using a 532 DPSS laser and the grating efficiency has been measured at different angles and wavelengths. Using the Kogelnik model and/or the RCWA approach, the thickness and the refractive index modulation has been determined for gratings as function of light exposure, line density, etc. Index modulations up to 0.03 together with good optical quality were obtained.

  6. Retrieving complex coherence from two-point intensity correlation using holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Vinu, Raveendran Pillai Vasantha Kumari; Anandraj Sharma, Megharaj Sharma

    2014-10-01

    A method to retrieve complex coherence of the speckle field from two-point intensity correlation is described and experimentally demonstrated. This is carried out by combining two-point intensity correlation and a holographic principle. Experimental results of the complex coherence function of the speckle fields are presented for two different sources at the scattering plane. For comparison purposes, complex coherence functions of the speckle fields are also analytically evaluated using the van Cittert-Zernike theorem and good agreement between experimental and analytical results confirms the accuracy of our method.

  7. Simultaneous multiplane imaging of human ovarian cancer by volume holographic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Michael; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; de Leon, Erich E.; Brownlee, Johnathan W.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Romanowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic cancer, a fact which is attributable to poor early detection and survival once the disease has reached advanced stages. Intraoperative laparoscopic volume holographic imaging has the potential to provide simultaneous visualization of surface and subsurface structures in ovarian tissues for improved assessment of developing ovarian cancer. In this ex vivo ovarian tissue study, we assembled a benchtop volume holographic imaging system (VHIS) to characterize the microarchitecture of 78 normal and 40 abnormal tissue specimens derived from ovarian, fallopian tube, uterine, and peritoneal tissues, collected from 26 patients aged 22 to 73 undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, or abdominal cytoreductive surgery. All tissues were successfully imaged with the VHIS in both reflectance- and fluorescence-modes revealing morphological features which can be used to distinguish between normal, benign abnormalities, and cancerous tissues. We present the development and successful application of VHIS for imaging human ovarian tissue. Comparison of VHIS images with corresponding histopathology allowed for qualitatively distinguishing microstructural features unique to the studied tissue type and disease state. These results motivate the development of a laparoscopic VHIS for evaluating the surface and subsurface morphological alterations in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24676382

  8. Generation of individually modulated femtosecond pulse string by multilayer volume holographic gratings.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaona; Gao, Lirun; Yang, Xihua; Dai, Ye; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Guohong

    2014-10-20

    A scheme to generate individually modulated femtosecond pulse string by multilayer volume holographic grating (MVHG) is proposed. Based on Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory and matrix optics, temporal and spectral expressions of diffracted field are given when a femtosecond pulse is diffracted by a MVHG. It is shown that the number of diffracted sub-pulses in the pulse string equals to the number of grating layers of the MVHG, peak intensity and duration of each diffracted sub-pulse depend on thickness of the corresponding grating layer, whereas pulse interval between adjacent sub-pulses is related to thickness of the corresponding buffer layer. Thus by modulating parameters of the MVHG, individually modulated femtosecond pulse string can be acquired. Based on Bragg selectivity of the volume grating and phase shift provided by the buffer layers, we give an explanation on these phenomena. The result is useful to design MVHG-based devices employed in optical communications, pulse shaping and processing. PMID:25401645

  9. Femtosecond pulse shaping by modulating the refractive index modulation of volume holographic grating.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaona; Dai, Ye; Gao, Zixuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xihua; Ma, Guohong

    2013-03-25

    Based on the modified Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory, time- and frequency-domain diffractions of a femtosecond pulse from transmitted volume holographic gratings (VHGs) are theoretically studied. Results show that when the refractive index modulation of the VHG changes in a certain range, the number of temporal diffracted pulse will evolve from one to two, then to three, and this pulse number evolution is periodic. This particular phenomenon can be explained by diffraction intensity spectrum and the overmodulation effect of refractive index modulation of transmitted VHG. Moreover, we find centers of all temporal diffracted pulses translate along the negative time axis, and the translation is irrelevant to the refractive index modulations. We will use time delay of volume grating to give a reasonable explanation. PMID:23546138

  10. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  11. Characterization of OAM carrying beams by means of holographic correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brning, Robert; Schulze, Chistian; Flamm, Daniel; Forbes, Andrew; Duparr, Michael

    2015-03-01

    For the control and further improvement of applications concerning the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light the detailed knowledge about the properties of the used OAM beam is required. We present a detailed analysis method for vortex beams carrying OAM, which is based on an all optical holographic correlation filter technique. For this purpose, the beam is decomposed into a complete and orthogonal set of vortex modes, which enables the real-time determination of the underlying OAM state spectrum, of total OAM , OAM density distribution and position of occurring phase singularities.

  12. Development of a large mosaic volume phase holographic (VPH) grating for APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, James; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Mike; Smee, Steve; Barkhouser, Robert; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Hearty, Fred; Harding, Al; Maseman, Paul; Holtzman, Jon; Schiavon, Ricardo; Gillespie, Bruce; Majewski, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are increasingly being used as diffractive elements in astronomical instruments due to their potential for very high peak diffraction efficiencies and the possibility of a compact instrument design when the gratings are used in transmission. Historically, VPH grating (VPHG) sizes have been limited by the size of manufacturer's holographic recording optics. We report on the design, specification and fabrication of a large, 290 mm × 475 mm elliptically-shaped, mosaic VPHG for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph. This high-resolution near-infrared multi-object spectrograph is in construction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). The 1008.6 lines/mm VPHG was designed for optimized performance over a wavelength range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm. A step-and-repeat exposure method was chosen to fabricate a three-segment mosaic on a 305 mm × 508 mm monolithic fused-silica substrate. Specification considerations imposed on the VPHG to assure the mosaic construction will satisfy the end use requirements are discussed. Production issues and test results of the mosaic VPHG are discussed.

  13. Simulation and analysis of volume holographic gratings integrated in collimation optics for wavelength stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesbach, S.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Hoffmann, D.

    2011-03-01

    Integrating volume holographic gratings into micro-optical components such as cylindrical fast-axis collimation lenses (VHG-FAC) for diode lasers constitutes a promising concept for wavelength stabilization by forming an external cavity laser. Compared to standard wavelength stabilization configurations the integrated element reduces the alignment complexity and is furthermore insensitive to the smile-error of diode laser bars. In order to configure and optimize these components the diffraction of the divergent field distribution of a broad area semiconductor laser must be calculated. The present paper presents the extension of the coupled-mode theory in order to calculate the spectral distribution of the diffracted field and the coupling efficiency within the external cavity. The model was extended to three-dimensional space and supplemented to include surface effects, polarization dependency and wave-optical propagation. The asymmetric spectral distribution emitted by an external cavity laser with VBG-FAC is tracked back to the feedback of highly divergent radiation diffracted at the holographic grating. Power losses due to the coupling efficiency within the cavity are also calculated for various field distributions and compared with experimental data. In summary the mathematical model allows to estimate the minimum spectral width and the losses using a VHG-FAC in an external cavity. Thus the injection locking concept using the VHG-FAC can be compared to the spectral characteristics and estimated power losses of standard wavelength stabilization configurations, e.g. the alignment of the grating in the collimated beam.

  14. Volume phase holographic grating used for beams combination of RGB primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xizhao; Tang, Minxue

    2013-12-01

    Volume phase holographic grating (VPHG) has the characteristics of high diffraction efficiency, high signal to noise ratio, high wavelength and angular selectivity, low scattering , low absorption and low cost. It has been widely used in high resolution spectrometer, wavelength division multiplexing and pulse compression technique. In this paper, a novel kind of RGB primary colors beams combiner which is consisted of a transmission VPHG and a reflection VPHG as core components is proposed. The design idea of the element is described in detail. Based on the principle of VPHG, the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and Kogelnik's coupled wave theory, diffraction properties of the transmission and reflection VPHG are studied theoretically. As an example, three primary colors at wavelengths of 632.8nm, 532nm and 476.5nm are taken into account. Dichromated gelatin (DCG) is used as the holographic recording material. The grating parameters are determined by the Bragg conditions. The TE and TM wave diffraction efficiency, the wavelength selectivity and the angular selectivity of the transmission and reflection VPHG are calculated and optimized by setting the amplitude of the index modulation (Δn) and the thickness of the gelatin layer (d) by applying Kogelnik's coupled wave theory and G-solver software, respectively. The theoretical calculating results give guidance for further manufacture of the element.

  15. Volume phase holographic grating performance on the VIRUS-P instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2008-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph Prototype (VIRUS-P) has been in operation on the Harlan J Smith 2.7m Telescope at McDonald Observatory since October of 2006. The prototype was created to test the design and science capabilities of the full VIRUS instrument, wherein 150 copies of the spectrograph will be installed on the Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET). We here discuss the specialized test bench built to assess the blue optimized Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating performance. We also give lab and on-telescope efficiency measurements for three such gratings in the wavelength range 3400-6800Å. Two sources of stray light relevant to most spectrograph designs are also discussed.

  16. Performance of volume phase holographic transmission grating recorded in DCG for PGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Tang, Minxue; Xia, Haohan; Fang, Chunhuan; Wu, Jianhong; Zhao, Xunjie

    2010-11-01

    The volume phase holographic (VPH) transmission grating recorded in dichromate gelatin (DCG) with a specific spectral coverage from 420 nm to 760 nm is designed for a novel prism-grating-prism imaging spectrometer. Based on the Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis, its performances are predicted and analyzed. The grating is manufactured and its properties are measured experimentally. The diffraction efficiency over the spectral range, the bandwidth, and the angular selectivity of the grating is measured, analyzed and compared with that of the theoretical ones. The results show that by adjusting and controlling the preparation conditions of DCG plates, the exposure time and the post-processing technique of the grating, the VPH transmission grating with high diffraction efficiency approximate to the design requirement can be obtained. The measured peak diffraction efficiency reaches nearly 85% at central wavelength of 590 nm while the average diffraction efficiency is larger than 75% over the required spectral range from 420 nm to 760 nm.

  17. Characterization of a spatial and angular multiplexed volume holographic memory in terms of M/#

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Arthur E. T.; Hong, John H.; McMichael, Ian C.

    1996-10-01

    Of the several configurations that have been proposed and studied for the implementation of a high-density, fast- access volume holographic memory system, a 90 degree(s) angular multiplexing configuration that uses a 45 degree(s)-cut iron- doped lithium niobate (LNB:Fe) crystal has attracted much attention in the last few years. In a recent paper, Burr and Psaltis have used this configuration to show that the diffraction efficiency ((eta) ) of each hologram can be estimated by (eta) equals (M/#/N)2, where N is the total number of angular-multiplexed holograms, and that the system parameter (M/#) can be determined by monitoring the recording and erasure dynamic of just one hologram. In addition, the authors have presented a mathematical expression which relates M/# to the photorefractive properties of the holographic material, the intensities of the recording beams and the recording geometry. We have applied the techniques (of Burr and Psaltis) to study a spatial and angular multiplexing configuration in the 90 degree(s) geometry. In this approach the angular multiplexing is combined with the spatial multiplexing technique by partitioning the crystal into a vertical array of `NL' layers, and each layer into a horizontal array of `NC' cells. If each cell can accommodate `N' holograms (by angular multiplexing, for example), then the total number of holograms recorded in the sample becomes N X NL X NC. In this paper, we present the theoretical and experimental results on cell-to-cell variation in M/# within a layer. Our results indicate that the cell-to-cell variation in the M/# can be reduced at the cost of a lower average M/# and a longer recording time. Advantages and limitations of both the theoretical model and the experimental techniques are discussed.

  18. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  19. High-speed holographic correlation system by a time-division recording method for copyright content management on the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko

    2012-10-01

    Using a holographic disc memory on which a huge amount of data can be stored, we constructed an ultra-high-speed, all-optical correlation system. In this method, multiplex recording is, however, restricted to "one page" on "one spot." In addition, signal information must be normalized as data of the same size, even if the object data size is smaller. Therefore, this system is difficult to apply to part of the object data scene (i.e., partial scene searching and template matching), while maintaining high accessibility and programmability. In this paper, we develop a holographic correlation system by a time division recording method that increases the number of multiplex recordings on the same spot. Assuming that a four-channel detector is utilized, 15 parallel correlations are achieved by a time-division recording method. Preliminary correlation experiments with the holographic optical disc setup are carried out by high correlation peaks at a rotational speed of 300 rpm. We also describe the combination of an optical correlation system for copyright content management that searches the Internet and detects illegal contents on video sharing websites.

  20. The transmission volume-phase holographic grating recorded on dichromated gelatin film used in Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Qijing; Liu, Peng; Tang, Minxue

    2015-11-01

    With the intrinsic advantages of high diffraction efficiency, signal to noise ratio, wavelength and angular selectivity, and low scattering and absorption, volume phase holographic grating (VPHG) has been widely used for spectroscopy, telecommunications, astronomy and ultra-fast laser sciences. The transmission VPHG combined with on-axis imaging lenses can be used in the Raman spectroscopic imaging, which enables a spectrometer to work at high resolution over a wide field of view, and compresses the configuration to achieve very little vignetting. The subject of this paper is to design a kind of transmission VPHG used in Raman Spectrometer with high diffraction efficiency theoretically. According to the Bragg condition and the coupled wave theory, the diffraction efficiency of transmission VPHG recorded on dichromated gelatin (DCG) has been optimized by using G-solver software, which is applicable to the visible waveband ranging from 0.46μm to 0.70μm. The effects of the recording and reconstruction setup parameters, the amplitude of the index modulation (Δn) and the thickness of the gelatin layer (d), and the polarization state of reconstruction beams on the diffraction efficiency properties of the gratings are analyzed at the same time.

  1. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 < λ (nm) < 550. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  2. Methods for evaluating the performance of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Dunlap, Bart; Lee, Hanshin

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is an array of at least 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) to carry out the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic grating as its dispersing element that is used in first order for 350 < ?(nm) < 550. We discuss the test methods used to evaluate the performance of the prototype gratings, which have aided in modifying the fabrication prescription for achieving the specified batch diffraction efficiency required for HETDEX. In particular, we discuss tests in which we measure the diffraction efficiency at the nominal grating angle of incidence in VIRUS for all orders accessible to our test bench that are allowed by the grating equation. For select gratings, these tests have allowed us to account for < 90% of the incident light for wavelengths within the spectral coverage of VIRUS. The remaining light that is unaccounted for is likely being diffracted into reflective orders or being absorbed or scattered within the grating layer (for bluer wavelengths especially, the latter term may dominate the others). Finally, we discuss an apparatus that will be used to quickly verify the first order diffraction efficiency specification for the batch of at least 150 VIRUS production gratings.

  3. Wavelength stabilization of high power laser systems using volume holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Li, Yufeng; Barnowski, Tobias; Jiang, John; An, Haiyan; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Vethake, Thilo; Gottwald, Tina; Schad, Sven; Treusch, Georg

    2014-03-01

    We present our latest experimental results in wavelength stabilization of high power laser diode systems by using Volume Holographic (Bragg) Gratings. Such systems are used as optical pumps to increase the efficiency and brightness of Thin Disk Lasers. To achieve a wide locking range from threshold until maximum operation current (for example from 30A to 250A), careful control of laser system alignment is necessary to ensure effective feedback and locking, without using strong gratings which could reduce laser efficiency. For this purpose, we use wavefront correction optics to compensate for laser bar smile and Fast Axis Collimation pointing errors. We reduce the pointing errors from ~ 1 mrad to an average under 0.1 mrad across the bar and across the entire stack. Time resolved spectra are used to investigate the dynamic locking behavior with the goal of achieving a locking speed comparable to the rise time of the current (100 ?s). Experimental results for multi-kW laser systems are presented, both in CW and soft pulsed operation modes.

  4. Volume holographic gratings as optical sensor for heavy metal in bathing waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Zuppardi, F.; Roviello, A.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.

    2015-05-01

    Sensor holograms utilize the diffraction principle of transmitting volume holographic grating (VHG) recorded within a photopolymer appositely functionalized to detect a specific stimulus or analyte. A change in the swelling or shrinking state or cross-linking density of the polymer can be caused by the hologram interaction with an analyte. This leads to a change in the recorded hologram sensor and thus, considering an incident monochromatic light and the VHG angular selectivity, to an angle shift of the diffracted maximum intensity. In this work, two new photopolymers based on a sol-gel matrix opportunely functionalized to be sensitive to transition metals or heavy metals were used as sensitive material to record VHGs. An interferometric set up with a laser source at 532nm was used to record VHGs and gratings of 1000 lines/mm were realized. When exposed to a solution of water and lead, an angle shift of about 3° of the first order diffraction of the grating was measured, demonstrating its capability to reveal the presence of heavy metal in water.

  5. Research of the file system of volume holographic storage based on virtual storage layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei; Yi, Faling; Xie, Changsheng

    2008-02-01

    Volume holographic storage (VHS) is currently the subject of widespread interest as a fast-readout-rate, high-capacity digital data-storage technology. To make need of characteristics of the VHS, the paper present the file system using a virtual storage layer (VSL) which can be compatible with the logic layer of the current used file system and accommodate the requirement of VHS in the physical layer. The VSL which is made of the super block, directory area, the metadata area and dynamic file area can connect directly to the storage media one side and implement compatible to the existing file system by providing the operating interfaces for the above logical file system. We produce the two layer storage structure which effectively reduces the number of disk accessed and improves the speed of file read and write. The allocation mode of 'hybrid of block and zone' and allocation strategy of 'block priority' greatly improve the space utilization rate of storage device and enforce the storage adaptability in VHS.

  6. Design of optical system for spectrometer involving a volume phase holographic transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-08-01

    At present, spectrometer has popularly being used into varieties of fields including environment, food, medical health monitoring and metal industry because it has the advantages of noninvasive, high efficient and convenient etc. The performance of the spectrometer is determined by its optical system. Normally, according to the apparatus and principle of splitting-light, optical system of spectrometer can be classified into several categories, for example, filter-typed, dispersion typed, Fourier transform typed and acousto-optic tunable typed. The grating typed optical system has been popularly used into the spectrometer due to the features of higher diffraction efficiency, resolution and dispersion rate etc. In the grating-typed optical system, although the traditional plane and concave grating have usually been used into some spectrometers, some disadvantages of them still limit their applications, such as, large aberration, worse spectral flatness and low deficiency, etc. In this paper, to overcome these disadvantages of the traditional plane and concave grating, a novel optical system for spectrometer (OSS) based on volume phase holographic transmission (VPHT) grating was designed. For this novel grating, its manufacture and theories were investigated, and its diffraction efficiency was firstly numerically simulated according to different parameters. In order to prove the feasibility of this designed OSS, the spectral calibration experiment was performed and the spectral resolution reached 2nm.

  7. Holographic Goldstino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo; Musso, Daniele; Porri, Flavio; Redigolo, Diego

    2015-06-01

    We find the fingerprints of the Goldstino associated to spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in a prototype holographic model for a strongly coupled field theory. The Goldstino massless pole arises in two-point correlators of the supercurrent, due to contact terms in supersymmetry Ward identities. We show how these contact terms are obtained from the holographic renormalization of the gravitino sector, independently of the details of the bulk background solution. For completeness, we prove the existence of a family of such solutions in a simple supergravity model.

  8. Optical memory development. Volume 2: Gain-assisted holographic storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Mezrich, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin deformable films were investigated for use as the storage medium in a holographic optical memory. The research was directed toward solving the problems of material fatigue, selective heat addressing, electrical charging of the film surface and charge patterning by light. A number of solutions to these problems were found but the main conclusion to be drawn from the work is that deformable media which employ heat in the recording process are not satisfactory for use in a high-speed random-access read/write holographic memory. They are, however, a viable approach in applications where either high speed or random-access is not required.

  9. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaojie; Meyer, Elliot; Wright, Shelley A.; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

    2014-07-01

    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82μm (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19-1.37μm (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000. The center wavelengths for each grating are 1.629μm and 1.27μm, and the groove densities are 177l/mm and 440l/mm for H-band R=4000 and J-band R=8000, respectively. We directly measure the efficiencies in the lab and find that the peak efficiencies of these two types of gratings are quite good with a peak efficiency of ~88% at the Bragg angle in both TM and TE modes at H-band, and 90.23% in TM mode, 79.91% in TE mode at J-band for the best vendor. We determine the drop in efficiency off the Bragg angle, with a 20-23% decrease in efficiency at H-band when 2.5° deviation from the Bragg angle, and 25%-28% decrease at J-band when 5° deviation from the Bragg angle.

  10. Three-dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis for rapid and highly-accurate large-volume metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M.; Barber, Zeb W.; Reibel, Randy R.

    2015-09-01

    Currently large volume, high accuracy three-dimensional (3D) metrology is dominated by laser trackers, which typically utilize a laser scanner and cooperative reflector to estimate points on a given surface. The dependency upon the placement of cooperative targets dramatically inhibits the speed at which metrology can be conducted. To increase speed, laser scanners or structured illumination systems can be used directly on the surface of interest. Both approaches are restricted in their axial and lateral resolution at longer stand-off distances due to the diffraction limit of the optics used. Holographic aperture ladar (HAL) and synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) can enhance the lateral resolution of an imaging system by synthesizing much larger apertures by digitally combining measurements from multiple smaller apertures. Both of these approaches only produce two-dimensional imagery and are therefore not suitable for large volume 3D metrology. We combined the SAL and HAL approaches to create a swept frequency digital holographic 3D imaging system that provides rapid measurement speed for surface coverage with unprecedented axial and lateral resolution at longer standoff ranges. The technique yields a "data cube" of Fourier domain data, which can be processed with a 3D Fourier transform to reveal a 3D estimate of the surface. In this paper, we provide the theoretical background for the technique and show experimental results based on an ultra-wideband frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) chirped heterodyne ranging system showing ~100 micron lateral and axial precisions at >2 m standoff distances.

  11. Holographic volume gratings recorded on self-developing photopolymers: unseized advantages in optical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Eugene A.

    2000-12-01

    With the purpose of expansion of polymer materials in the area of fotonics and image registration we prepared, tested and investigated photopolymer photoresist layers from carbazolylalcylmethacrylats (CEM) with oktylmethacrylats (OMA) copolymers, having the high photosensitivity, adhesive and film forming properties. The photopolymer layers were made by pouring from solutions. The contents of iodophorm and other electron-acceptor additives was maintained within the limits of 5-10 weight % ofthe photopolymer. For all the photoresist layers the photographic sensitivity, factor of contrast, diffraction efficiency and resolution at holographic recording were studied. The numerous tests of the samples have shown, that complete crosslinking of copolymer CEM:OMA layers occurs during 10 - 15 s at (4,0 - 5,0) sm2/mWxs. The photographic sensitivity depends on the thickness of photopolymer layer. To examine the holographic characteristics of the layers, the growth kinetics of diffraction efficiency in dependence on the doze of exposure, the kinetics of diffraction efficiency in dependence on the duration and conditions of solvent treatment were investigated, the holographic sensitivity, resolution capability and optimal diffraction efficiency of the photoresist layers have been defmed. The diffraction efficiency more than 20% and the resolution capability up to 2500 irmiT1 were obtained for the developed photoresist layers based on CEM:OMA photopolymers.

  12. Diffractive optics with high Bragg selectivity: volume holographic optical elements in Bayfol® HX photopolymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther

    2015-09-01

    For a long time volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOE) have been discussed as an alternative, but were hampered by a lack of suitable materials. They provide several benefits over surface corrugated diffractive optical element like high diffraction efficiency due to their ability to reconstruct a single diffraction order, freedom of optical design by freely setting the replay angles and adjusting their bandwidth by a selection of the vHOE's thickness. Additional interesting features are related to their high Bragg selectivity providing transparent films for off-Bragg illumination. In this paper we report on our newly developed photopolymer film technology (Bayfol® HX) that uniquely requires no post processing after holographic exposure. We explain the governing non-local polymerization driven diffusion process leading to an active mass transport triggered by constructive interference. Key aspects of the recording process and their impact on index modulation formation is discussed. The influence on photopolymer film thickness on the bandwidth is shown. A comparison between coupled wave theory (CWT) simulation and experimental results is given. There are two basic recording geometries: reflection and transmission vHOEs. We explain consequences of how to record them properly and discuss in more detail the special challenges in transmission hologram recording. Here beam ratio and customization of photopolymer film properties can be applied most beneficially to achieve highest diffraction efficiency.

  13. Optimisation of a Stirred Bioreactor through the Use of a Novel Holographic Correlation Velocimetry Flow Measurement Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ismadi, Mohd-Zulhilmi; Higgins, Simon; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Paganin, David; Hourigan, Kerry; Fouras, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for measuring three dimensional (3D) velocity fields of a fluid at high speed, by combining a correlation-based approach with in-line holography. While this method utilizes tracer particles contained within the flow, our method does not require the holographic reconstruction of 3D images. The direct flow reconstruction approach developed here allows for measurements at seeding densities in excess of the allowable levels for techniques based on image or particle reconstruction, thus making it suited for biological flow measurement, such as the flow in bioreactor. We outline the theory behind our method, which we term Holographic Correlation Velocimetry (HCV), and subsequently apply it to both synthetic and laboratory data. Moreover, because the system is based on in-line holography, it is very efficient with regard to the use of light, as it does not rely on side scattering. This efficiency could be utilized to create a very high quality system at a modest cost. Alternatively, this efficiency makes the system appropriate for high-speed flows and low exposure times, which is essential for imaging dynamic systems. PMID:23776534

  14. Vector-axial vector correlators in weak electric field and the holographic dynamics of the chiral condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kiritsis, Elias

    2012-02-01

    The transverse part of the vector-axial vector flavor current correlator in the presence of weak external electric field is studied using holography. The correlator is calculated using a bottom-up model proposed recently , that includes both contributions of higher string states and the non-linear dynamics of the chiral condensate. It is shown that for low momenta the result agrees with the relation proposed by Son and Yamamoto motivated by a simpler holographic model. This suggests that the Son-Yamamoto relation is generically valid in the IR of models with the proper chiral symmetry breaking pattern.

  15. Correlation of ultrasound estimated placental volume and umbilical cord blood volume in term pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pannopnut, Papinwit; Kitporntheranunt, Maethaphan; Paritakul, Panwara; Kongsomboon, Kittipong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between ultrasound measured placental volume and collected umbilical cord blood (UCB) volume in term pregnancy. Material and Methods An observational cross-sectional study of term singleton pregnant women in the labor ward at Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center was conducted. Placental thickness, height, and width were measured using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and calculated for placental volume using the volumetric mathematic model. After the delivery of the baby, UCB was collected and measured for its volume immediately. Then, birth weight, placental weight, and the actual placental volume were analyzed. The Pearsons correlation was used to determine the correlation between each two variables. Results A total of 35 pregnant women were eligible for the study. The mean and standard deviation of estimated placental volume and actual placental volume were 534180 mL and 575118 mL, respectively. The median UCB volume was 140 mL (range 98220 mL). The UCB volume did not have a statistically significant correlation with the estimated placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.15; p=0.37). However, the UCB volume was significantly correlated with the actual placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.62; p<0.001) and birth weight (correlation coefficient 0.38; p=0.02). Conclusion The estimated placental volume by 2D ultrasound was not significantly correlated with the UCB volume. Further studies to establish the correlation between the UCB volume and the estimated placental volume using other types of placental imaging may be needed. PMID:26097385

  16. Real-time optical correlator using computer-generated holographic filter on a liquid crystal light valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.

  17. Imaging bacterial 3D motion using digital in-line holographic microscopy and correlation-based de-noising algorithm.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2014-12-29

    Better understanding of bacteria environment interactions in the context of biofilm formation requires accurate 3-dimentional measurements of bacteria motility. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) has demonstrated its capability in resolving 3D distribution and mobility of particulates in a dense suspension. Due to their low scattering efficiency, bacteria are substantially difficult to be imaged by DHM. In this paper, we introduce a novel correlation-based de-noising algorithm to remove the background noise and enhance the quality of the hologram. Implemented in conjunction with DHM, we demonstrate that the method allows DHM to resolve 3-D E. coli bacteria locations of a dense suspension (>107 cells/ml) with submicron resolutions (<0.5 m) over substantial depth and to obtain thousands of 3D cell trajectories. PMID:25607177

  18. Imaging bacterial 3D motion using digital in-line holographic microscopy and correlation-based de-noising algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Better understanding of bacteria environment interactions in the context of biofilm formation requires accurate 3-dimentional measurements of bacteria motility. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) has demonstrated its capability in resolving 3D distribution and mobility of particulates in a dense suspension. Due to their low scattering efficiency, bacteria are substantially difficult to be imaged by DHM. In this paper, we introduce a novel correlation-based de-noising algorithm to remove the background noise and enhance the quality of the hologram. Implemented in conjunction with DHM, we demonstrate that the method allows DHM to resolve 3-D E. coli bacteria locations of a dense suspension (>107 cells/ml) with submicron resolutions (<0.5 m) over substantial depth and to obtain thousands of 3D cell trajectories. PMID:25607177

  19. Application of a volume holographic grating in a CaF2 crystal for measuring linear displacements with nanoscale accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheulin, A. S.; Angervaks, A. E.; Kupchikov, A. K.; Verkhovskii, E. B.; Ryskin, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A holographic method for measuring linear displacements based on the use of a highly stable volume scale hologram recorded in an additively colored calcium fluoride crystal with photochromic color centers is proposed and experimentally approved. The essence of this method lies in measuring and analyzing harmonic signals formed during linear displacement of crystal with a volume hologram in an external interference field. A physical model of the formation of harmonic signals in photodetectors when measuring displacements is considered, and a mathematical method for calculating linear displacements by plotting a Lissajous figure is substantiated. A laboratory breadboard of a device for measuring linear displacements in a range of 10 mm, limited by the aperture of crystal with a recorded 8.7-mm-thick hologram, is designed. When using a scale hologram with a period of 2.18 μm and a 632.8-nm He-Ne laser for reading this hologram, the error in measuring displacements by this method is 9 nm at a resolution of 3 nm.

  20. Design and optimization of a volume-phase holographic grating for simultaneous use with red, green, and blue light using unpolarized light.

    PubMed

    Mahamat, Adoum H; Narducci, Frank A; Schwiegerling, James

    2016-03-01

    Volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology, such as optical communication, optical imaging, and astronomy. In this paper, the design of a volume-phase holographic grating, simultaneously optimized to operate in the red, green, and blue wavelengths, is presented along with a study of its fabrication tolerances. The grating is optimized to produce 98% efficiency at λ=532  nm and at least 75% efficiency in the region between 400 and 700 nm, when the incident light is unpolarized. The optimization is done for recording in dichromated gelatin with a thickness of 12 μm, an average refractive index of 1.5, and a refractive index modulation of 0.022. PMID:26974620

  1. High resolution MRI evaluation of meniscal volume and anthropometric correlations.

    PubMed

    Narvy, Steven J; Asami, Danny K; Solomon, Thomas C; Burke, Wendy S; Colletti, Patrick M; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to digitally determine meniscal volumes, and compare them with linear and surface area anthropometric measurements to evaluate these measurements for meniscal allograft sizing. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; mean age 37.5 years) underwent 3.0 T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant leg. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: medial meniscal volume (MMV), lateral meniscal volume (LMV), tibial plateau width (TPW), width of the femoral condyles (WFC), and tibial plateau surface area (TPSA). MMV and LMV were compared to TPW, WFC, and TPSA. Meniscal volume and TPW were correlated to height and body-mass index (BMI) and stratified by gender. Statistical analysis included coefficient of determination (r(2)) between MRI-based MMV, LMV, TPW, TPSA, WFC, height, BMI, and gender. Significance was set at the P = 0.05 level. The mean MMV was 2275 mm(3) and the mean LMV was 2102 mm(3). TPW correlated well with meniscal volumes (r(2) > 0.62). WFC and TPSA correlated with meniscal volumes in the range of 0.40 < r(2) < 0.61. Height, BMI, and gender correlated poorly with total meniscal volume and TPW with values of r(2) < 0.44. Medial and lateral menisci have statistically similar volumes. TPW had the greatest utility for volumetric meniscal sizing. MRI-based TPW can be considered as a statistically accurate measurement for determining meniscal volumes and meniscal size. PMID:26118625

  2. A novel backlight unit for volume-holographic optical elements-based time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung-Mok; Hwang, Yong-Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2015-11-01

    In volume-holographic optical elements (VHOEs)-based time-sequential three-dimensional (3-D) displays, two reference beams generated from a backlight unit (BLU) illuminate VHOEs, and from which object beams satisfying the Brag condition are then diffracted. These beams form a pair of alternating light fields for stereo 3-D view. Since this system operates based on diffraction optics, its performance highly depends on the degrees of collimation and uniformity of the reference beams. Thus, a new BLU system to generate uniformly-collimated reference beams for the VHOEs-based 3-D display is proposed by combined use of a light-guide-plate (LGP) grooved with an array of angle-variant flat-top prisms, and two LED light sources attached with reflection-type beam collimators. Simulation results with LightTools 7.1 show that the average full-width at half maximum (FWHM), backshift ratio and intensity uniformity of the LGP output beam of the proposed system have been significantly reduced down to 2.8 and 0.4%, and increased up to 90.9%, respectively, from the values of 51.8, 26.5% and 24.5% of the conventional system. They represent 18.5-, 66.3- and 3.7-fold improvements of those values in the proposed system, respectively. These successful results confirm the feasibility of the proposed system in the practical VHOEs-based 3-D display.

  3. Three-dimensional coupled wave study for finite-sized anisotropic volume holographic gratings under ultrashort pulsed beam readout.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhua; Liu, Liren; Yan, Aimin; Liu, Dean; Zhou, Yu; Dai, Cuixia

    2007-06-01

    The three-dimensional coupled wave theory is extended to systematically investigate the diffraction properties of finite-sized anisotropic volume holographic gratings (VHGs) under ultrashort pulsed beam (UPB) readout. The effects of the grating geometrical size and the polarizations of the recording and readout beams on the diffraction properties are presented, in particular under the influence of grating material dispersion. The wavelength selectivity of the finite-sized VHG is analyzed. The wavelength selectivity determines the intensity distributions of the transmitted and diffracted pulsed beams along the output face of the VHG. The distortion and widening of the diffracted pulsed beams are different for different points on the output face, as is numerically shown for a VHG recorded in a LiNbO3 crystal. The beam quality is analyzed, and the variations of the total diffraction efficiency are shown in relation to the geometrical size of the grating and the temporal width of the readout UPB. In addition, the diffraction properties of the finite-sized and one-dimensional VHG for pulsed and continuous-wave readout are compared. The study shows the potential application of VHGs in controlling spatial and temporal features of UPBs simultaneously. PMID:17491651

  4. Cell volume regulation monitored with combined epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pavillon, Nicolas; Marquet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative phase imaging emerged recently as a valuable tool for cell observation, by enabling label-free imaging through the intrinsic phase-contrast provided by transparent living cells, thus greatly simplifying observation protocols. The quantitative phase signal, unlike the one provided by the widely used phase-contrast microscope, can be related to relevant biological indicators including dry mass, cell volume regulation or transmembrane water movements. Here, we present quantitative phase imaging coupled with live fluorescence, making it possible to follow the phase signal in time to monitor the cell volume regulation, an early indicator of cell viability, along with specific information such as intracellular Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2 ratiometric fluorescence. PMID:25431054

  5. A floating type holographic display.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Chun-Hae; Chernyshov, Oleksii O; Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2013-08-26

    A floating image type holographic display which projects an electronically generated holographic image together with a background image displayed on a monitor/TV to enhance the visual effects of the former image is introduced. This display can display a holographic image with a spatial volume floating in the front space of the display with use of PDLC sheets as the focused plane of the image. This display can preserve and enhance the main property of holographic image from a display chip, i.e., a spatial image with a volume. This property had not been appealed by the previous holographic displays due to the much brighter active surface image accompanied with the reconstructed image and the diffuser used for viewing the image. PMID:24105588

  6. High-speed holographic correlation system for video identification on the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko

    2013-12-01

    Automatic video identification is important for indexing, search purposes, and removing illegal material on the Internet. By combining a high-speed correlation engine and web-scanning technology, we developed the Fast Recognition Correlation system (FReCs), a video identification system for the Internet. FReCs is an application thatsearches through a number of websites with user-generated content (UGC) and detects video content that violates copyright law. In this paper, we describe the FReCs configuration and an approach to investigating UGC websites using FReCs. The paper also illustrates the combination of FReCs with an optical correlation system, which is capable of easily replacing a digital authorization sever in FReCs with optical correlation.

  7. Regional white matter volumes correlate with delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun

    2012-01-01

    A preference for immediate gratification is a central feature in addictive processes. However, the neural structures underlying reward delay tolerance are still unclear. Healthy participants (n?=?121) completed a delay discounting questionnaire assessing the extent to which they prefer smaller immediate rewards to larger delayed reward after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Whole brain voxel-based morphometric analysis shows that delay discounting severity was negatively correlated with right prefrontal subgyral white matter volume and positively correlated with white matter volume in parahippocampus/hippocampus, after whole brain correction. This study might better our understanding of the neural basis of impulsivity and addiction. PMID:22393420

  8. Holographic calculations of Euclidean Wilson loop correlator in Euclidean anti-de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziama, Sannah

    2015-04-01

    The correlation functions of two or more Euclidean Wilson loops of various shapes in Euclidean anti-de Sitter space are computed by considering the minimal area surfaces connecting the loops. The surfaces are parametrized by Riemann theta functions associated with genus three hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces. In the case of two loops, the distance L by which they are separated can be adjusted by continuously varying a specific branch point of the auxiliary Riemann surface. When L is much larger than the characteristic size of the loops, then the loops are approximately regarded as local operators and their correlator as the correlator of two local operators. Similarly, when a loop is very small compared to the size of another loop, the small loop is considered as a local operator corresponding to a light supergravity mode.

  9. Holographic technidilaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Kazumoto; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2010-09-01

    Technidilaton, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of scale symmetry, was predicted long ago in the scale-invariant/walking/conformal technicolor (SWC-TC) as a remnant of the (approximate) scale symmetry associated with the conformal fixed point, based on the conformal gauge dynamics of ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation with nonrunning coupling. We study the technidilaton as a flavor-singlet bound state of technifermions by including the technigluon condensate (tGC) effect into the previous (bottom-up) holographic approach to the SWC-TC, a deformation of the holographic QCD with ?m?0 by large anomalous dimension ?m?1. With including a bulk scalar field corresponding to the gluon condensate, we first improve the operator product expansion of the current correlators so as to reproduce gluonic 1/Q4 term both in QCD and SWC-TC. We find in QCD about 10% (negative) contribution of gluon condensate to the ? meson mass. We also calculate the oblique electroweak S-parameter in the presence of the effect of the tGC and find that for the fixed value of S the tGC effects dramatically reduce the flavor-singlet scalar (technidilaton) mass MTD (in the unit of F?), while the vector and axial-vector masses M? and Ma1 are rather insensitive to the tGC, where F? is the decay constant of the technipion. If we use the range of values of tGC implied by the ladder SD analysis of the nonperturbative scale anomaly in the large Nf QCD near the conformal window, the phenomenological constraint S?0.1 predicts the technidilaton mass MTD600GeV which is within reach of LHC discovery.

  10. Holographic baryons and instanton crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Melnikov, Dmitry; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    In a wide class of holographic models, like the one proposed by Sakai and Sugimoto, baryons can be approximated by instantons of non-Abelian gauge fields that live on the world-volume of flavor D-branes. In the leading order, those are just the Yang-Mills instantons, whose solutions can be constructed from the celebrated Atiyah-Drinfeld-Hitchin-Manin (ADHM) construction. This fact can be used to study various properties of baryons in the holographic limit. In particular, one can attempt to construct a holographic description of the cold dense nuclear matter phase of baryons. It can be argued that holographic baryons in such a regime are necessarily in a solid crystalline phase. In this review, we summarize the known results on the construction and phases of crystals of the holographic baryons.

  11. Volume phase holographic gratings for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph: performance measurements of the prototype grating set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhouser, Robert H.; Arns, James; Gunn, James E.

    2014-08-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea. Four identical, fixed spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55 m fiber optic cable feeds light into the spectrographs from a robotic fiber positioner mounted at the telescope prime focus, behind the wide field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3 degree hexagonal field of view. Each spectrograph module will be capable of simultaneously acquiring 600 spectra. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to separate the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual- corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275 mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380 nm to 1.26 µm, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.1 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and cover the bandpasses 380-650 nm (blue), 630-970 nm (red), and 0.94-1.26 µm (NIR). A mosaic of two Hamamatsu 2k×4k, 15 µm pixel CCDs records the spectra in the blue and red channels, while the NIR channel employs a 4k×4k, substrate-removed HAWAII-4RG array from Teledyne, with 15 µm pixels and a 1.7 µm wavelength cutoff. VPH gratings have become the dispersing element of choice for moderate-resolution astronomical spectro- graphs due their potential for very high diffraction efficiency, low scattered light, and the more compact instru- ment designs offered by transmissive dispersers. High quality VPH gratings are now routinely being produced in the sizes required for instruments on large telescopes. These factors made VPH gratings an obvious choice for PFS. In order to reduce risk to the project, as well as fully exploit the performance potential of this technology, a set of three prototype VPH gratings (one each of the blue, red, and NIR designs) was ordered and has been recently delivered. The goal for these prototype units, but not a requirement, was to meet the specifications for the final gratings in order to serve as spares and also as early demonstration and integration articles. In this paper we present the design and specifications for the PFS gratings, the plan and setups used for testing both the prototype and final gratings, and results from recent optical testing of the prototype grating set.

  12. Cross-correlations between volume change and price change.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2009-12-29

    In finance, one usually deals not with prices but with growth rates R, defined as the difference in logarithm between two consecutive prices. Here we consider not the trading volume, but rather the volume growth rate R, the difference in logarithm between two consecutive values of trading volume. To this end, we use several methods to analyze the properties of volume changes |R|, and their relationship to price changes |R|. We analyze 14,981 daily recordings of the Standard and Poor's (S & P) 500 Index over the 59-year period 1950-2009, and find power-law cross-correlations between |R| and |R| by using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). We introduce a joint stochastic process that models these cross-correlations. Motivated by the relationship between |R| and |R|, we estimate the tail exponent alpha of the probability density function P(|R|) approximately |R|(-1-alpha) for both the S & P 500 Index as well as the collection of 1819 constituents of the New York Stock Exchange Composite Index on 17 July 2009. As a new method to estimate alpha, we calculate the time intervals tau(q) between events where R > q. We demonstrate that tau(q), the average of tau(q), obeys tau(q) approximately q(alpha). We find alpha approximately 3. Furthermore, by aggregating all tau(q) values of 28 global financial indices, we also observe an approximate inverse cubic law. PMID:20018772

  13. Cross-correlations between volume change and price change

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    In finance, one usually deals not with prices but with growth rates R, defined as the difference in logarithm between two consecutive prices. Here we consider not the trading volume, but rather the volume growth rate R?, the difference in logarithm between two consecutive values of trading volume. To this end, we use several methods to analyze the properties of volume changes |R?|, and their relationship to price changes |R|. We analyze 14,981 daily recordings of the Standard and Poor's (S & P) 500 Index over the 59-year period 19502009, and find power-law cross-correlations between |R| and |R?| by using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). We introduce a joint stochastic process that models these cross-correlations. Motivated by the relationship between |R| and |R?|, we estimate the tail exponent ?? of the probability density function P(|R?|) ? |R?|?1??? for both the S & P 500 Index as well as the collection of 1819 constituents of the New York Stock Exchange Composite Index on 17 July 2009. As a new method to estimate ??, we calculate the time intervals ?q between events where R? > q. We demonstrate that ??q, the average of ?q, obeys ??q ? q??. We find ?? ? 3. Furthermore, by aggregating all ?q values of 28 global financial indices, we also observe an approximate inverse cubic law. PMID:20018772

  14. Weak correlation of starch and volume in synchronized photosynthetic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rading, M. Michael; Sandmann, Michael; Steup, Martin; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    In cultures of unicellular algae, features of single cells, such as cellular volume and starch content, are thought to be the result of carefully balanced growth and division processes. Single-cell analyses of synchronized photoautotrophic cultures of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal, however, that the cellular volume and starch content are only weakly correlated. Likewise, other cell parameters, e.g., the chlorophyll content per cell, are only weakly correlated with cell size. We derive the cell size distributions at the beginning of each synchronization cycle considering growth, timing of cell division and daughter cell release, and the uneven division of cell volume. Furthermore, we investigate the link between cell volume growth and starch accumulation. This work presents evidence that, under the experimental conditions of light-dark synchronized cultures, the weak correlation between both cell features is a result of a cumulative process rather than due to asymmetric partition of biomolecules during cell division. This cumulative process necessarily limits cellular similarities within a synchronized cell population.

  15. Measurement of absolute cell volume, osmotic membrane water permeability, and refractive index of transmembrane water and solute flux by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Daniel; Khn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons.

  16. Measurement of absolute cell volume, osmotic membrane water permeability, and refractive index of transmembrane water and solute flux by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boss, Daniel; Khn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons. PMID:23487181

  17. Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yasutaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sawada, Reiko; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-03-30

    Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. The relationship between volume/shape of each structures and MOCI measure was analyzed, with sex, age, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and full-scale Intelligence Quotient regressed out. The volume analysis revealed a positive relationship between the MOCI total score and the bilateral putamen volumes. The shape analysis demonstrated associations between the higher MOCI total score and hypertrophy of the anterior putamen in both hemispheres. The present study firstly revealed that the volume changes of the putamen correlated with the manifestation of subclinical OC traits. The dysfunctional cortico-anterior striatum networks seemed to be one of the neuronal subsystems underlying the subclinical OC traits. PMID:26849956

  18. Holographic thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    2000-10-01

    Holographic thinking is everywhere although we do not realize it. Turn on your TV and you will see many representations of holographic images. It is in many science fiction movies, as well as in books and the news. Now, start your computer and search the Web. What do you see, a screen with plenty of little boxes or frames, each one containing information. You can choose to go deeper by clicking here and there, but ultimately all the little boxes are related to each other. What do you have? A holographic principle where each point stands by itself, containing the whole entity while composing part of it at the same time. The following paragraphs, discussing and evaluating the characteristics of holographic thinking can be read in any order you wish. Each paragraph contributes an understanding of just one aspect of all the ideas which cannot be limited to this paper alone.

  19. Holographic sundial.

    PubMed

    Penland, R; Cormack, R; Carsten, J; Sayhun, S; Johnson, K M

    1990-09-01

    A holographic sundial, to our knowledge the first sundial that does not use a gnomen or shadow-casting device, is designed and demonstrated. The accuracy of the device is measured and analyzed. PMID:19770955

  20. Heavy quark correlations and the effective volume for quarkonia production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Using the Boltzmann transport approach, we study the effect of initial spatial and momentum correlations between a heavy quark pair, such as that produced from a p +p collision, on their collision rate in a partonic medium, which is relevant for their thermalization and the production of quarkonium from regeneration. Characterizing this effect by an effective volume given by the inverse of the ratio of their collision rate to the collision rate of a thermally equilibrated and spatially uniformly distributed heavy quark pair in a unit volume, we find that the effective volume is finite and depends sensitively on the momentum of the heavy quark and the temperature of the medium. Generally, it increases linearly with time t at the very beginning, thus an enhanced collision rate, and the increase then becomes slower due to multiple scattering, and finally it increases as t3 /2. We further find that the momentum distribution of the colliding heavy quark pair approaches a thermal distribution after about 5 fm /c with an effective temperature similar to that of the medium even though their transverse momentum spectra initially have a δ -like distribution.

  1. 3D Thermo-Elastic Distortion Measurements on Osiris Sic Hardware by Holographic Interferometry and Correlation with Finite Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliot, F.; Thizy, C.; Ballhause, D.; Laduree, G.; Logut, D.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate prediction and verification of thermal distortions are of primary importance for highly stable opto-mechanical structures to deliver high quality images. Modelling guidelines have been issued, for bolted and glued connections, using samples, during the first phase of this study. The aim of this second phase is to validate those guidelines on a complete instrument. Thermal load cases have been applied to OSIRIS STM flight representative hardware. Thermo-elastic distortions have then been measured with a four- illuminations holographic camera system providing the three components of displacement without physical contact on the hardware. This technique was developed and validated for this study in CSL laboratory. Tested load cases have been analytically reproduced using transient analysis for thermal mapping. Predictions obtained by Finite Element Modelling have then been compared to the test results. The predictions are within measurement uncertainties (120nm to 400nm): validity of the modelling guidelines, on a complete instrument, has been assessed.

  2. Quantitative measurement of absolute cell volume and intracellular integral refractive index (RI) with dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy (DHM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative Phase Imaging techniques including DHM have been applied recently in the field of cell imaging to monitor and quantify non-invasively dynamic cellular processes modifying cell morphology and/or content . Concretely, the DHM phase signal is highly sensitive to cell thickness and intracellular integral RI variations associated with transmembrane water movements. As net water flow across the cell membrane leads at the same time to changes in cell thickness and intracellular RI, the interpretation of phase signal variations remains difficult. To overcome this drawback, we have developed a Dual-wavelength Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) setup allowing to separately measure, with a single CCD camera acquisition, thickness and integral RI of living cells. The method is based on the use of an absorbing dye that enhances the refractive index dispersion of the extracellular medium. Practically, two significantly different phase signals can be obtained when measuring at two appropriate wavelengths. From the two phase measurements, both cell RI and thickness can be univocally determined.

  3. Intelligent holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features of the sensory inputs, fused with relevant recollections, reminiscent of the hypothesized cognitive function of awareness. The Declarative Memory is searched both by content and address, suggesting a holographic implementation. The proposed computer architecture may lead to a novel paradigm that solves 'hard' cognitive problems at low cost.

  4. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbn, Jos L. F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  5. Holographic vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.

  6. Using frequency-narrowed, tunable laser diode arrays with integrated volume holographic gratings for spin-exchange optical pumping at high resonant fluxes and xenon densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, N.; Nikolaou, P.; Eschmann, N. A.; Barlow, M. J.; Lammert, R.; Ungar, J.; Hu, W.; Vaissie, L.; Goodson, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Next-generation laser diode arrays with integrated `on-chip' volume holographic gratings can provide high power with spectrally narrowed output that can be tuned about the rubidium D1 linewithout causing significant changes to the laser's flux or spectral profile. These properties were exploited to independently evaluate the effects of varying the laser centroid wavelength and power on batch-mode Rb/129Xe spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) as functions of xenon partial pressure and cell temperature. Locally optimized SEOP was often achieved with the laser tuned to either the red or blue side of the Rb D1 line; global optimization of SEOP was observed at lower cell temperatures and followed the D1 absorption profile, which was asymmetrically broadened and red-shifted from the nominal wavelength. The complex dependence of the optimal wavelength for laser excitation on the cell temperature and Xe density appears to result from an interplay between cell illumination and the Rb/129Xe spin-exchange rate, as well as [Xe]cell-dependent changes to the Rb absorption lineshape that are in qualitative agreement with expectations based on previous work [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. A, 56:4569-4578, (1997)], but significantly greater in magnitude. These next-generation lasers provide a 2-3-fold improvement in 129Xe polarization compared to conventional broadband lasers.

  7. Holographic Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Tom

    2012-10-01

    The theory of holographic spacetime (HST) generalizes both string theory and quantum field theory (QFT). It provides a geometric rationale for supersymmetry (SUSY) and a formalism in which super-Poincare invariance follows from Poincare invariance. HST unifies particles and black holes, realizing both as excitations of noncommutative geometrical variables on a holographic screen. Compact extra dimensions are interpreted as finite-dimensional unitary representations of super-algebras, and have no moduli. Full field theoretic Fock spaces, and continuous moduli are both emergent phenomena of super-Poincare invariant limits in which the number of holographic degrees of freedom goes to infinity. Finite radius de Sitter (dS) spaces have no moduli, and break SUSY with a gravitino mass scaling like ?1/4. In regimes where the Covariant Entropy Bound is saturated, QFT is not a good description in HST, and inflation is such a regime. Following ideas of Jacobson, the gravitational and inflaton fields are emergent classical variables, describing the geometry of an underlying HST model, rather than "fields associated with a microscopic string theory". The phrase in quotes is meaningless in the HST formalism, except in asymptotically flat and AdS spacetimes, and some relatives of these.

  8. Fast fluorescence holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Qu, Xinghua; Yao, Hai; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2015-01-01

    FINCHSCOPE is a new technology of fluorescence holographic microscopy. It has been successfully applied to recording high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens without the need for scanning. In this study, we revealed and analyzed an intrinsic phenomenon, called ghost lens effect, on spatial light modulator which is the core element enabling the incoherent correlation in the FINCHSCOPE. The ghost lens effect can degrade the imaging quality by introducing multiple spherical waves with different focal lengths into the correlation and thus increasing the noise in the recorded holograms. PMID:25767693

  9. Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Christoph; Otis, Thomas S.; DeSars, Vincent; Charpak, Serge; DiGregorio, David A.; Emiliani, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of light-sensitive chemical probes has become a powerful tool for the study of dynamic signaling processes in living tissue. Classically, this approach has been constrained by limitations of lens–based and point-scanning illumination systems. Here we describe a novel microscope configuration that incorporates a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) to generate holographic patterns of illumination. This microscope can produce illumination spots of variable size and number and patterns shaped to precisely match user-defined elements in a specimen. Using holographic illumination to photolyse caged glutamate in brain slices, we demonstrate that shaped excitation on segments of neuronal dendrites and simultaneous, multi-spot excitation of different dendrites enables precise spatial and rapid temporal control of glutamate receptor activation. By allowing the excitation volume shape to be tailored precisely, the holographic microscope provides an extremely flexible method for activation of various photosensitive proteins and small molecules. PMID:19160517

  10. The traveltime holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes ?pq from exterior transmission traveltimes ?sp and ?sq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times ?pq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes ?pq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes ?pq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  11. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising, and security medium as well. The evolution of holographic optical memories has followed a path not altogether different from holography itself, with several cycles of alternating interest over the past four decades. P. J. van Heerden is widely credited for being the first to elucidate the principles behind holographic data storage in a 1963 paper, predicting bit storage densities on the order of 1/lambda(sup 3) with source wavelength lambda - a fantastic capacity of nearly 1 TB/cu cm for visible light! The science and engineering of such a storage paradigm was heavily pursued thereafter, resulting in many novel hologram multiplexing techniques for dense data storage, as well as important advances in holographic recording materials. Ultimately, however, the lack of such enabling technologies as compact laser sources and high performance optical data I/O devices dampened the hopes for the development of a commercial product. After a period of relative dormancy, successful applications of holography in other arenas sparked a renewed interest in holographic data storage in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Currently, with most of the critical optoelectronic device technologies in place and the quest for an ideal holographic recording medium intensified, holography is once again considered as one of several future data storage paradigms that may answer our constantly growing need for higher-capacity and faster-access memories.

  12. Holographic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong

    2014-04-18

    We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028

  13. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  14. Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal

  15. Price-volume cross-correlation analysis of CSI300 index futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Hua; Suo, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Wen; Lei, Man

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the cross-correlation between price returns and trading volumes for the China Securities Index 300 (CSI300) index futures, which are the only stock index futures traded on the China Financial Futures Exchange (CFFEX). The basic statistics suggest that distributions of these two time series are not normal but exhibit fat tails. Based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we obtain that returns and trading volumes are long-range cross-correlated. The existence of multifractality in the cross-correlation between returns and trading volumes has been proven with the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA) algorithm. The multifractal analysis also confirms that returns and trading volumes have different degrees of multifractality. We further perform a cross-correlation statistic to verify whether the cross-correlation significantly exists between returns and trading volumes for CSI300 index futures. In addition, results of the test for lead-lag effect demonstrate that contemporaneous cross-correlation of return and trading volume series is stronger than cross-correlations of leaded or lagged series.

  16. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  17. Holographic data processing methods for medical prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. A.; Grosmann, M. H.; Kartavenko, V. I.; Larkin, A. I.; Trukhanov, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The various methods of laser coherent photonic implementations of multiparametric classification are discussed in this paper. The holographic and optical data processing methods for medical application are considered. Inverse two-phase coding and analysis of light distribution in the correlation plane enables us to realize a number of algorithms: search for a precedent, Hamming distance measurement, Bayes probability algorithm, deterministic and correspondence algorithms. The experimental holographic results for medicine prognosis are shown.

  18. Volume Functions of Historical Texts and the Amplitude Correlation Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomenko, Anatoliy T.; Rachev, Svetlozar T.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes an empirico-statistical model to differentiate dependent and independent historical texts. Formulates a regard for information principle and an amplitude correlation principle. Experimentally examines and validates the model and both principles using specific historical texts. Includes tables and graphs. Appends further discussion of the

  19. Holographic realization of ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Naoto; Ishihara, Masafumi; Sato, Koji; Saitoh, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    A holographic realization for ferromagnetic systems is constructed. Owing to the holographic dictionary proposed on the basis of this realization, we obtain relevant thermodynamic quantities such as magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and free energy. This holographic model reproduces the behavior of the mean field theory near the critical temperature. At low temperatures, the results automatically incorporate the contributions from spin wave excitations and conduction electrons.

  20. Long-term correlations and multifractality in trading volumes for Chinese stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Chen, Wei; Kertsz, Jnos

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the temporal correlations and multifractal nature of trading volume of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003. We find that non-universal long memory exhibits size-dependence on the trading volume, while the multifractal nature is independent of the trading volume. No crossover in the power-law dependence of the detrended fluctuation functions is observed. Our results show that the intraday pattern in the trading volume has negligible impact on the long memory and multifractality. We also find that both the long memory and probability distribution of trading volume have important influence on the multifractal nature.

  1. Correlations of Length and Volume Measurements in Myofibril Suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Kominz, David R.

    1971-01-01

    Instrumentation has been developed for the rapid electronic sizing of large numbers of myofibrils. The response of myofibrils in the presence of ATP to changes in Ca++ concentration was examined. Shortening of myofibrils upon addition of Ca++ was accompanied by an increased protein effective volume of approximately 10-40%. Whereas ATPase activation and increased turbidity of myofibrils upon addition of Ca++ were reversible upon subsequent addition of EGTA, the shortening and swelling were irreversible. It is proposed that the swelling may result from the breaking of hydrophobic bonds within myosin. The ATPase activity and turbidity are measures of the input, while the shortening and swelling are measures of the output of a coupled nonequilibrium process; failure of reversal of the output indicates an uncoupling under the experimental conditions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 6Figure 9 PMID:4249975

  2. Holographic MQCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Kutasov, David; Lunin, Oleg; Sonnenschein, Jacob; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2010-11-15

    We study a brane configuration of D4-branes and NS5-branes in weakly coupled type IIA string theory, which describes in a particular limit d=4 N=1 SU(N+p) supersymmetric QCD with 2N flavors and a quartic superpotential. We describe the geometric realization of the supersymmetric vacuum structure of this gauge theory. We focus on the confining vacua of the gauge theory, whose holographic description is given by the MQCD brane configuration in the near-horizon geometry of N D4-branes. This description, which gives an embedding of MQCD into a field theory decoupled from gravity, is valid for 1<

  3. Holographic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  4. Holographic lattices and metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi

    2015-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the talk given at the conference on Gravitation and Cosmology/The Fourth Galileo-Xu Guangqi Meeting. We intend to present a short review on recent progress on the construction of holographic lattices and its application to metal-insulator transition (MIT), which is a fundamentally important phenomenon in condensed matter physics. We will firstly implement the Peierls phase transition by constructing holographic charge density waves which are induced by the spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry. Then we turn to the holographic realization of metal-insulator transition as a quantum critical phenomenon with many strongly correlated electrons involved. The holographic entanglement entropy as a diagnostic for such quantum phase transitions will be briefly mentioned.

  5. Holographic duality in nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2014-07-01

    According to the holographic principle, the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on its boundary. Holographic principle establishes equivalence, or duality, between theoretical description of volume physics, which involves gravity, and the gravity-free field theory, which describes physics on its surface. While generally accepted as a theoretical framework, so far there was no known experimental system which would exhibit explicit holographic duality and be amenable to direct experimental testing. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear optics of hyperbolic metamaterials admits such a dual holographic description. Wave equation which describes propagation of extraordinary light through the volume of metamaterial exhibits 2 + 1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the material. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational interaction between extraordinary photons. On the other hand, a holographic dual theory may be formulated on the metamaterial surface, which describes its nonlinear optics via interaction of cylindrical surface plasmons possessing conserved charges proportional to their angular momenta. Potential implications of this duality for superconductivity of hyperbolic metamaterials are discussed.

  6. Disordered holographic systems: Functional renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Allan; Yaida, Sho

    2015-12-01

    We study quenched disorder in strongly correlated systems via holography, focusing on the thermodynamic effects of mild electric disorder. Disorder is introduced through a random potential which is assumed to self-average on macroscopic scales. Studying the flow of this distribution with energy scale leads us to develop a holographic functional renormalization scheme. We test this scheme by computing thermodynamic quantities and confirming that the Harris criterion for relevance, irrelevance, or marginality of quenched disorder holds.

  7. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood. PMID:24336512

  8. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  9. Holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We study holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity using the Chern-Simons-like formulation of the model. We explicitly present Gibbons- Hawking term as well as all counterterms needed to make the action finite in terms of dreibein and spin-connection. This can be used to find correlation functions of stress tensor of holographic dual field theory.

  10. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mhle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r?=?0.372, p?=?0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r?=?0.507, p?=?0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r?=?0.306, p?=?0.04 and r?=?0.459, p?=?0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to cognitive performance. PMID:24699871

  11. Holographic entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-10-01

    The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.

  12. Holographic Interferometry In Biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podbielska, Halina

    1990-04-01

    From the various capabilities of holography for image processing and measuring purposes, holographic interferometry has mainly found more extended application in biological and medical research. As a technique allows a non-destructive testing and high resolving deformation analysis, it has gained popularity in the recent years in experimental biomedicine. The most commonly, used techniques of holographic interferometry, as well as other holographic methods of importance for biomedical research, are reported in this review.

  13. Correlated volume-energy fluctuations of phospholipid membranes: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ulf R; Peters, Gnther H; Schrder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2010-02-18

    This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes (DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH) with focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and chain order. At constant temperature and pressure, volume and energy exhibit strong correlations of their slow fluctuations (defined by averaging over 0.5 ns). These quantities, on the other hand, do not correlate significantly with area, thickness, or chain order. The correlations are mainly reported for the fluid phase, but we also give some results for the ordered (gel) phase of two membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, and showing that the slow volume-energy fluctuations derive from van der Waals interactions of the tail region; they are thus analogous to the similar strong correlations recently observed in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones and other simple van der Waals type liquids (U. R. Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 015701). The strong correlations reported here confirm one crucial assumption of a recent theory for nerve signal propagation proposed by Heimburg and Jackson (T. Heimburg and A. D. Jackson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2005, 102, 9790-9795). PMID:20095587

  14. Correlated Volume?Energy Fluctuations of Phospholipid Membranes: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes (DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH) with focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and chain order. At constant temperature and pressure, volume and energy exhibit strong correlations of their slow fluctuations (defined by averaging over 0.5 ns). These quantities, on the other hand, do not correlate significantly with area, thickness, or chain order. The correlations are mainly reported for the fluid phase, but we also give some results for the ordered (gel) phase of two membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, and showing that the slow volume?energy fluctuations derive from van der Waals interactions of the tail region; they are thus analogous to the similar strong correlations recently observed in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones and other simple van der Waals type liquids (U. R. Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.2008, 100, 015701). The strong correlations reported here confirm one crucial assumption of a recent theory for nerve signal propagation proposed by Heimburg and Jackson (T. Heimburg and A. D. Jackson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.2005, 102, 9790?9795). PMID:20095587

  15. Correlation of right and left ventricular ejection fraction and volume measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetto, A.R.; Nusynowitz, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    First-pass radiocardiography and biplane angiocardiography were performed on 13 patients with left-sided regurgitant valvular disease (R+) and 7 patients without regurgitation but with coronary artery disease and/or cardiomyopathy (R-). Right and left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions were calculated and compared. In the R- group, corresponding right and left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions correlated highly with each other (r = 0.86-0.89, p approximately equal to 0.01). Ejection fractions in the R+ group correlated (r = 0.64, p less than 0.05) only because stroke volume correlation was very high (r = 0.93), with end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes showing no significant correlation. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) decreased significantly with increasing mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in both R- and R+ groups. The correlation of RVEF and LVEF in the R- group appears to be multifactorial in origin, consisting of effects of increased PAP, the mechanical interference of an enlarged left ventricle on the right ventricle, and direct biventricular ischemic effects. In the R+ group, the correlation appears to be due to only increased PAP and its sequelae.

  16. Interactive holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Beam-Ryeol; Kim, Jin-Woong; Chernyshov, Oleksii O.; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    A holographic display which is capable of displaying floating holographic images is introduced. The display is for user interaction with the image on the display. It consists of two parts; multiplexed holographic image generation and a spherical mirror. The time multiplexed image from 2 X 10 DMD frames appeared on PDLC screen is imaged by the spherical mirror and becomes a floating image. This image is combined spatially with two layered TV images appearing behind. Since the floating holographic image has a real spatial position and depth, it allows a user to interact with the image.

  17. Correlated variability in the breathing pattern and end-expiratory lung volumes in conscious humans.

    PubMed

    Dellaca, Raffaele L; Aliverti, Andrea; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Pedotti, Antonio; Suki, Bela

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the variability and correlation properties of spontaneous breathing in humans, the breathing pattern of 16 seated healthy subjects was studied during 40 min of quiet breathing using opto-electronic plethysmography, a contactless technology that measures total and compartmental chest wall volumes without interfering with the subjects breathing. From these signals, tidal volume (VT), respiratory time (TTOT) and the other breathing pattern parameters were computed breath-by-breath together with the end-expiratory total and compartmental (pulmonary rib cage and abdomen) chest wall volume changes. The correlation properties of these variables were quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis, computing the scaling exponenta. VT, TTOT and the other breathing pattern variables showed ? values between 0.60 (for minute ventilation) to 0.71 (for respiratory rate), all significantly lower than the ones obtained for end-expiratory volumes, that ranged between 1.05 (for rib cage) and 1.13 (for abdomen) with no significant differences between compartments. The much stronger long-range correlations of the end expiratory volumes were interpreted by a neuromechanical network model consisting of five neuron groups in the brain respiratory center coupled with the mechanical properties of the respiratory system modeled as a simple Kelvin body. The model-based ? for VT is 0.57, similar to the experimental data. While the ? for TTOT was slightly lower than the experimental values, the model correctly predicted ? for end-expiratory lung volumes (1.045). In conclusion, we propose that the correlations in the timing and amplitude of the physiological variables originate from the brain with the exception of end-expiratory lung volume, which shows the strongest correlations largely due to the contribution of the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. This cycle-by-cycle variability may have a significant impact on the functioning of adherent cells in the respiratory system. PMID:25803710

  18. Correlated Variability in the Breathing Pattern and End-Expiratory Lung Volumes in Conscious Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dellaca, Raffaele L.; Aliverti, Andrea; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Lutchen, Kenneth R.; Pedotti, Antonio; Suki, Bela

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the variability and correlation properties of spontaneous breathing in humans, the breathing pattern of 16 seated healthy subjects was studied during 40 min of quiet breathing using opto-electronic plethysmography, a contactless technology that measures total and compartmental chest wall volumes without interfering with the subjects breathing. From these signals, tidal volume (VT), respiratory time (TTOT) and the other breathing pattern parameters were computed breath-by-breath together with the end-expiratory total and compartmental (pulmonary rib cage and abdomen) chest wall volume changes. The correlation properties of these variables were quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis, computing the scaling exponent?. VT, TTOT and the other breathing pattern variables showed ? values between 0.60 (for minute ventilation) to 0.71 (for respiratory rate), all significantly lower than the ones obtained for end-expiratory volumes, that ranged between 1.05 (for rib cage) and 1.13 (for abdomen) with no significant differences between compartments. The much stronger long-range correlations of the end expiratory volumes were interpreted by a neuromechanical network model consisting of five neuron groups in the brain respiratory center coupled with the mechanical properties of the respiratory system modeled as a simple Kelvin body. The model-based ? for VT is 0.57, similar to the experimental data. While the ? for TTOT was slightly lower than the experimental values, the model correctly predicted ? for end-expiratory lung volumes (1.045). In conclusion, we propose that the correlations in the timing and amplitude of the physiological variables originate from the brain with the exception of end-expiratory lung volume, which shows the strongest correlations largely due to the contribution of the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. This cycle-by-cycle variability may have a significant impact on the functioning of adherent cells in the respiratory system. PMID:25803710

  19. Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating

    SciTech Connect

    Starkschall, George . E-mail: gstarksc@mdanderson.org; Forster, Kenneth M.; Kitamura, Kei; Cardenas, Alex; Tucker, Susan L.; Stevens, Craig W.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of thoracic tumor motion can be used to determine the desirability of respiratory gating. Methods and materials: Twenty patients to be treated for lung tumors had computed tomography image data sets acquired under assisted breath hold at normal inspiration (100% tidal volume), at full expiration (0% tidal volume), and under free breathing. A radiation oncologist outlined gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the breath-hold computed tomographic images. These data sets were registered to the free-breathing image data set. Two sets of treatment plans were generated: one based on an internal target volume explicitly formed from assessment of the excursion of the clinical target volume (CTV) through the respiratory cycle, representing an ungated treatment, and the other based on the 0% tidal volume CTV, representing a gated treatment with little margin for residual motion. Dose-volume statistics were correlated to the magnitude of the motion of the center of the GTV during respiration. Results: Patients whose GTVs were >100 cm{sup 3} showed little decrease in lung dose under gating. The other patients showed a correlation between the excursion of the center of the GTV and a reduction in potential lung toxicity. As residual motion increased, the benefits of respiratory gating increased. Conclusion: Gating seems to be advantageous for patients whose GTVs are <100 cm{sup 3} and for whom the center of the GTV exhibits significant motion, provided residual motion under gating is kept small.

  20. Applications of holographic spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Terrence J.

    Here we present an overview of the theory of holographic spacetime (HST), originally devised and primarily developed by Tom Banks and Willy Fischler, as well as its various applications and predictions for cosmology and particle phenomenology. First we cover the basic theory and motivation for holographic spacetime and move on to present the latest developments therein as of the time of this writing. Then we indicate the origin of the quantum degrees of freedom in the theory and then present a correspondence with low energy effective field theory. Further, we proceed to show the general origins of inflation and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) within the theory of HST as well as predict the functional forms of two and three point correlation functions for scalar and tensor curvature fluctuations in the early universe. Next, we constrain the theory parameters by insisting on agreement with observational bounds on the scalar spectral index of CMB fluctuations from the Planck experiment as well as theoretical bounds on the number of e-folds of inflation. Finally, we argue that HST predicts specific gauge structures for the low-energy effective field theory at the present era and proceed to construct a viable supersymmetric model extension. Constraints on model parameters and couplings are then calculated by numerically minimizing the theory's scalar potential and comparing the resultant model mass spectra to current observational limits from the LHC SUSY searches. In the end we find that the low-energy theory, while presenting a little hierarchy problem, is fully compatible with current observational limits. Additionally, the high-energy underlying theory is generically compatible with observational constraints stemming from inflation, and predictions on favored model parameters are given.

  1. Beam shaping for holographic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2014-09-01

    Uniform intensity of laser radiation is very important in holographic and interferometry technologies, therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Holography and interferometry have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam, most important of them are flatness of phase front and extended depth of field. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers piShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. This approach is used in SLM-based technologies of Computer Generated Holography, Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms, holographic data storage, holographic projection, lithography, interferometric recording of Volume Bragg Gratings. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to vary beam size and shape, thus adapting an optical system to requirements of a particular application. This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  2. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual. Volume 4, Models and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I presents modeling theory and associated numerical schemes; Volume II details instructions for code application and input data preparation; Volume III presents the results of developmental assessment cases that demonstrate and verify the models used in the code; Volume IV discusses in detail RELAP5 models and correlations; Volume V presents guidelines that have evolved over the past several years through the use of the RELAP5 code; Volume VI discusses the numerical scheme used in RELAP5; and Volume VII presents a collection of independent assessment calculations.

  3. Three Dimensional Holographic Archival Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, Bruce

    2006-11-09

    To address the DOE need for the storage and handling of terabyte of nuclear physics data, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed a new multi-terabit, 90 recording geometry 3D holographic archival optical memory storage and search system. In contrast to state-of-the-art memory approaches, 3DHAM handles the data through highly parallel optical processing in conjunction with highly redundant hologram multiplexing. The 3DHAM system advantages also stem from its unique 3D volume-recording medium, which theoretically has a significantly greater data density than diskbased systems.

  4. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

  5. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109

  6. Incidence of radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation: Dose-volume correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Miller, Robert C.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Foote, Tyler; Garces, Yolanda I.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric parameters correlated with the risk of clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of consecutive patients treated with definitive thoracic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of RP of Grade 2 or greater by the Common Toxicity Criteria. Dose-volume histograms using total lung volume (TL) and TL minus gross tumor volume (TL-G) were created with and without heterogeneity corrections. Mean lung dose (MLD), effective lung volume (V{sub eff}), and percentage of TL or TL-G receiving greater than or equal to 10, 13, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (V10-V30, respectively) were analyzed by logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate RP predictive values. Results: Twelve cases of RP were identified in 92 eligible patients. Mean lung dose, V10, V13, V15, V20, and V{sub eff} were significantly correlated to RP. Combinations of MLD, V{sub eff}, V20, and V30 lost significance using TL-G and heterogeneity corrections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined V10 and V13 as the best predictors of RP risk, with a decrease in predictive value above those volumes. Conclusions: Intrathoracic radiotherapy should be planned with caution when using radiotherapy techniques delivering doses of 10 to 15 Gy to large lung volumes.

  7. Dose-volume factors correlating with trismus following chemoradiation for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    RAO, SHYAM D.; SALEH, ZIAD H.; SETTON, JEREMY; TAM, MOSES; MCBRIDE, SEAN M.; RIAZ, NADEEM; DEASY, JOSEPH O.; LEE, NANCY Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the dose-volume factors in mastication muscles that are implicated as possible causes of trismus in patients following treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for head and neck cancers. Material and methods All evaluable patients treated at our institution between January 2004 and April 2009 with chemotherapy and IMRT for squamous cell cancers of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx or larynx were included in this analysis (N = 421). Trismus was assessed using CTCAE 4.0. Bi-lateral masseter, temporalis, lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid muscles were delineated on axial computed tomography (CT) treatment planning images, and dose-volume parameters were extracted to investigate univariate and multimetric correlations. Results Forty-six patients (10.9%) were observed to have chronic trismus of grade 1 or greater. From analysis of baseline patient characteristics, toxicity correlated with primary site and patient age. From dose-volume analysis, the steepest dose thresholds and highest correlations were seen for mean dose to ipsilateral masseter (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient Rs = 0.25) and medial pterygoid (Rs = 0.23) muscles. Lyman-Kutcher-Burman modeling showed highest correlations for the same muscles. The best correlation for multimetric logistic regression modeling was with V68Gy to the ipsilateral medial pterygoid (Rs = 0.29). Conclusion Chemoradiation-induced trismus remains a problem particularly for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Strong dose-volume correlations support the hypothesis that limiting dose to the ipsilateral masseter muscle and, in particular, the medial pterygoid muscle may reduce the likelihood of trismus. PMID:25920361

  8. Contraction of neuronal branching volume: an anatomic correlate of Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, D L; Ikeno, H; Dworkin, J; McPhie, D L; Olds, J L; Lederhendler, I; Matzel, L; Schreurs, B G; Kuzirian, A; Collin, C

    1990-01-01

    Associative memory of the mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis, previously correlated with changes of specific K+ currents, protein phosphorylation, and increased synthesis of mRNA and specific proteins, is here shown to be accompanied by macroscopic alteration in the structure of a single identified neuron, the medial type B photoreceptor cell. Four to five days after training, terminal arborizations of B cells iontophoretically injected with Ni2+ ions and then treated with rubeanic acid were measured with charge-coupled device (CCD)-digitized pseudocolor images of optical sections under "blind" conditions. Boundary volumes enclosing medial-type B-cell arborizations from classically conditioned animals were unequivocally reduced compared with volumes for naive animals or those trained with unpaired stimuli. Branch volume magnitude was correlated with input resistance of the medial type B-cell soma. Such associative learning-induced structural changes may share function with "synapse elimination" described in developmental contexts. Images PMID:2304920

  9. Evaluation of aero-optical effects in hypersonic flow using holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzazy, M.

    1991-01-01

    The aerooptical performance of a generic high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) in a hypersonic tunnel is evaluated. The problem of a plane monochromatic wave incident on volume V of a turbulent medium is studied, and it is concluded that in order to evaluate the aerooptical effects on HEDI performance, it is imperative to measure phase fluctuations. A holographic optical system employed in the experiment is outlined, along with the test setup where the object beam travels through the wind-tunnel Schlieren window on the top of the tunnel, the splitter window on the bottom of the pylon, and the HEDI window before it is reflected back on itself through the same path to a steering mirror and on a holographic plate. The interferogram images are analyzed digitally to yield the fringe RMS and the phase correction function. It is noted that the fringe RMS influences the attenuation of the coherent beam, while the correlation length scale affects the circle of blur.

  10. Positive correlation between endoscopist radiofrequency ablation volume and response rates in Barretts esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Fudman, David I.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Poneros, John M.; Ginsberg, Gregory G.; Falk, Gary W.; Demarshall, Maureen; Gupta, Milli; Iyer, Prasad G.; Lutzke, Lori; Wang, Kenneth K.; Abrams, Julian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become an accepted form of endoscopic treatment for Barretts esophagus (BE), yet reported response rates are variable. There are no accepted quality measures for performing RFA, and provider-level characteristics may influence RFA outcomes. Objective To determine whether endoscopist RFA volume is associated with rates of complete remission of intestinal metaplasia (CRIM) after RFA in patients with BE. Design Retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Setting Three tertiary-care medical centers. Patients Patients with BE treated with RFA. Intervention RFA. Main Outcome Measurements For each endoscopist, we recorded RFA volume, defined as the number of unique patients treated as well as corresponding CRIM rates. We calculated a Spearman correlation coefficient relating these 2 measures. Results We identified 417 patients with BE treated with RFA who had at least 1 post-RFA endoscopy with biopsies. A total of 73% of the cases had pretreatment histology of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. The procedures were performed by 7 endoscopists, who had a median RFA volume of 62 patients (range 20188). The overall CRIM rate was 75.3% (provider range 62%88%). The correlation between endoscopist RFA volume and CRIM rate was strong and significant (rho = 0.85; P = .014). In multivariable analysis, higher RFA volume was significantly associated with CRIM (P for trend .04). Limitations Referral setting may limit generalizability. Limited number of endoscopists analyzed. Conclusion Endoscopist RFA volume correlates with rates of successful BE eradication. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to determine whether RFA volume is a valid predictor of treatment outcomes in BE. PMID:24565071

  11. Effects of excluded volume and correlated molecular orientations on Frster resonance energy transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mino

    2014-04-14

    Frster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Frster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.

  12. Experimental approach toward holographic interferometric fringe interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    Current literature concerning the measurement of small displacements by the laser holographic technique was reviewed. It was found that existing theories are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to apply to any realistic nondestructive testing conditions in which the geometries of the objects are complex and the three-dimensional displacements are irregular. An experimental approach was adopted for interpreting correlation between real time holographic fringe patterns and small displacements. Preliminary results show that the present method is feasible for the quantitative interpretation of the fringes as well as the calibration of the mobile HNDT system.

  13. Holographic Geometries for Condensed Matter Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernen, V.; Thorlacius, L.

    2015-01-01

    Holographic modeling of strongly correlated many-body systems motivates the study of novel spacetime geometries where the scaling behavior of quantum critical systems is encoded into spacetime symmetries. Einstein-Dilaton-Maxwell theory has planar black brane solutions that exhibit Lifshitz scaling and in some cases hyperscaling violation. Entanglement entropy and Wilson loops in the dual field theory are studied by inserting simple geometric probes involving minimal surfaces into the black brane geometry. Coupling to background matter fields leads to interesting low-energy behavior in holographic models, such as U(1) symmetry breaking and emergent Lifshitz scaling.

  14. Holographically corrected telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Knize, Randall J.

    1998-08-01

    Holographic correction of low-quality telescopes is an inexpensive method of obtaining large aperture devices suitable for lidar, imaging, and directed energy weaponry. We present an analysis of two different methods for producing diffraction-limited telescopes from the holographic correction of spherical mirrors. These evaluations are essential for choosing the optimal design for a given telescope application. Included in our discussion are the results from preliminary experiments into the various designs. The aim of the project is construct the first ever holographically corrected astronomical telescope for both ground and space-based operations.

  15. Holographic thermalization with Weyl corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anshuman; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2016-01-01

    We consider holographic thermalization in the presence of a Weyl correction in five dimensional AdS space. We first obtain the Weyl corrected black brane solution perturbatively, up to first order in the coupling. The corresponding AdS-Vaidya like solution is then constructed. This is then used to numerically analyze the time dependence of the two point correlation functions and the expectation values of rectangular Wilson loops in the boundary field theory, and we discuss how the Weyl correction can modify the thermalization time scales in the dual field theory. In this context, the subtle interplay between the Weyl coupling constant and the chemical potential is studied in detail.

  16. Dermatoglyphic correlates of hippocampus volume: Evaluation of aberrant neurodevelopmental markers in antipsychotic-nave schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Gautham, S; Arasappa, Rashmi; Jose, Dania A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, B N

    2015-10-30

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of aberrant neurodevelopment is marked by abnormalities in brain structure and dermatoglyphic traits. However, the link between these two (i.e. dermatoglyphic parameters and brain structure) which share ectodermal origin and common developmental window has not been explored extensively. The current study examined dermatoglyphic correlates of hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-nave schizophrenia patients in comparison with matched healthy controls. Ridge counts and asymmetry measures for palmar inter-digital areas (a-b, b-c, c-d) were obtained using high resolution digital scans of palms from 89 schizophrenia patients [M:F=48:41] and 48 healthy controls [M:F=30:18]. Brain scans were obtained for subset of subjects including 26 antipsychotic-nave patients [M:F=13:13] and 29 healthy controls [M:F=19:10] using 3 T-MRI. Hippocampal volume and palmar ridge counts were measured by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using valid methods. Directional asymmetry (DA) of b-c and bilateral hippocampal volume were significantly lower in patients than controls. Significant positive correlation was found between DA and ridge count of b-c with bilateral anterior hippocampal volume. Study demonstrates the utility of dermatoglyphic markers in identifying structural changes in the brain which may form the basis for neurodevelopmental pathogenesis in schizophrenia. PMID:26385539

  17. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  18. A holographic sensor based on a rationally designed synthetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Mayes, A G; Blyth, J; Millington, R B; Lowe, C R

    1998-01-01

    A new silver halide-containing holographic recording material has been designed and developed specifically for holographic chemical sensors. The hologram enables very small volume changes to be measured in a polymer layer throughout which the hologram is located. The holographic film is based on a fine-grain silver bromide emulsion suspended in a poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix crosslinked with Cr(III) ions. Cross-linking gives the material sufficient spatial integrity to allow a holographic image to be recorded, while maintaining adequate porosity and elasticity of the polymer matrix for sensing applications. The new material has been characterized with respect to its response to pH and compared with a traditional gelatin holographic film. The response to some ions and small molecules typically found in analytical samples has also been measured. Functional groups introduced covalently into the poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix transform the base matrix into a pH-responsive polymer with predictable swelling properties and which can be further derivatized to incorporate specific ligands. A rationally designed holographic sensor for trypsin has been developed from chemically synthesized artificial polymers. A trypsin substrate, the poly(amino acid) poly(L-lysine), was incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol) holograms to create a 'designed' holographic material which was degraded in a concentration-dependent manner by trypsin. Extensions of this approach to other hydrolytic enzymes are briefly discussed. PMID:10076832

  19. Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure.

    PubMed

    Coppola, G; Di Caprio, G; Wilding, M; Ferraro, P; Esposito, G; Di Matteo, L; Dale, R; Coppola, G; Dale, B

    2014-11-01

    The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization, and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection. In this paper, we have studied whether digital holographic microscopy (DHM) may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique with high-power digitally enhanced Nomarski optics. The main advantage of digital holography is that high-resolution three-dimensional quantitative sample imaging may be automatically produced by numerical refocusing of a two-dimensional image at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DHM generates useful information on the dimensions and structure of human sperm, not revealed by conventional phase-contrast microscopy, in particular the volume of vacuoles, and suggest its use as an additional prognostic tool in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:23469807

  20. PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression.

    PubMed

    Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia H; Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I; Burke, Heather; Rosser, Rebecca; Mahan, Laura; Mackin, Scott; Yang, Tony; Weiner, Michael; Mueller, Susanne

    2015-04-30

    Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. We predicted that, to the extent peripheral and central telomerase activity are directly related, PBMC telomerase activity would be positively correlated with hippocampal volume, perhaps due to hippocampal telomerase-associated neurogenesis, neuroprotection or neurotrophic facilitation, and that this effect would be clearer in individuals with increased PBMC telomerase activity, as previously reported in un-medicated MDD. We did not have specific hypotheses regarding the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampal volume, due to conflicting reports in the published literature. We found, in 25 un-medicated MDD subjects, that PBMC telomerase activity was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume; this relationship was not observed in 18 healthy controls. Leukocyte telomere length was not significantly related to hippocampal volume in either group (19 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 healthy controls). Although the nature of the relationship between peripheral telomerase activity and telomere length and the hippocampus is unclear, these preliminary data are consistent with the possibility that PBMC telomerase activity indexes, and may provide a novel window into, hippocampal neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis in MDD. PMID:25773002

  1. Geochemical correlation of three large-volume ignimbrites from the Yellowstone hotspot track, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Ben S.; Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.; Barfod, D.; Bindeman, I.; Wolff, J. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Three voluminous rhyolitic ignimbrites have been identified along the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain. As a result of wide-scale correlations, new volume estimates can be made for these deposits: ~350 km3 for the Steer Basin Tuff and Cougar Point Tuff XI, and ~1,000 km3 for Cougar Point Tuff XIII. These volumes exclude any associated regional ashfalls and correlation across to the north side of the plain, which has yet to be attempted. Each correlation was achieved using a combination of methods including field logging, whole rock and mineral chemistry, magnetic polarity, oxygen isotope signature and high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. The Steer Basin Tuff, Cougar Point Tuff XI and Cougar Point Tuff XIII have deposit characteristics typical of `Snake River (SR)-type' volcanism: they are very dense, intensely welded and rheomorphic, unusually well sorted with scarce pumice and lithic lapilli. These features differ significantly from those of deposits from the better-known younger eruptions of Yellowstone. The ignimbrites also exhibit marked depletion in δ18O, which is known to characterise the SR-type rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, and cumulatively represent ~1,700 km3 of low δ18O rhyolitic magma (feldspar values 2.3-2.9‰) erupted within 800,000 years. Our work reduces the total number of ignimbrites recognised in the central Snake River Plain by 6, improves the link with the ashfall record of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism and suggests that more large-volume ignimbrites await discovery through detailed correlation work amidst the vast ignimbrite record of volcanism in this bimodal large igneous province.

  2. Nearshore Sediment Budget: Correlating Volume to Shoreline Change, Outer Banks, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Though the importance of understanding the exchange of sediment between the shoreline and the nearshore has long been recognized, data capable of addressing the three-dimensional character of the system are lacking. The response of traditional cross-shore profiles to forcing is not representative of the entire beach because of alongshore variability of the beach and nearshore sandbar. Measuring changes in shoreline position along the coast permits analysis of alongshore shoreline variability, but does not account for the actual volume of sediment lost from and restored to the beach. Temporally and spatially variable erosional hotspots identified by List and Farris (1999) along the Outer Banks, North Carolina further confound the study of coastal sediment exchange in the region of interest. A geophysical survey (from Duck to Oregon Inlet) was carried out in order to understand the role of geological characteristics in the transport of sediment between the shoreline and nearshore. Contrary to the assumptions of many shoreline and shoreface change models, the modern sand layer observed over the 40-km study area is not infinitely thick and is highly variable. Modern sediment thicknesses were calculated to a continuous seismic reflection surface that spanned the survey area, the average being 0.42m 0.19m. Higher standard deviations (variability) in sediment thickness seem to be loosely related to the presence of shore-oblique sandbars as described by McNinch (in press). Nearshore sediment volume was calculated and relationships to nearshore morphology were explored. Though shore-oblique bars may not represent a large percentage of the total sand regionally (7.9%), locally their influence is much greater. Of the three areas in which bars were identified, the volume of sediment contained within the bars represented 44% of the total volume in the largest bar field, and 14% and 11%, respectively, in more minor bar fields. Nearshore sediment volumes correlated well (correlation coefficient 0.60) with long-term shoreline change data (50 year data set, NC Division of Coastal Management) suggesting that long-term trends in shoreline change may be related to the total amount of available sediment in the nearshore. Correlation analyses with short-term shoreline change data will also be explored. These preliminary data suggest that volume calculations considering the total amount of nearshore sediment above a continuous, non-sandy seismic reflection surface may be useful in the prediction of long-term shoreline change trends. The utility of this approach in predicting changes over shorter temporal and spatial scales is the subject of current research.

  3. Characteristic free volumes of bulk metallic glasses: Measurement and their correlation with glass-forming ability

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Qiang; Zeng Xierong; Fu, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    A convenient method is proposed for the measurement of the characteristic free volumes, viz., the amount of excess free volume annihilation in structural relaxation V{sub f-sr} and the amount of new free volume production in glass transition V{sub f-gt} of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by thermal dilation (DIL) test. Through the DIL tests, the characteristic free volumes are found to be sensitive to the change of glass forming ability (GFA). The Pd{sub 40}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} BMG has a quite small V{sub f-sr}. For a series of Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-(Er) BMGs, Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2} with the largest GFA is identified to have the largest V{sub f-gt} and smallest V{sub f-sr}. The correlation between V{sub f-sr} and the squares of critical diameters of these iron-based BMGs can be fitted as a negative exponential function with high accuracy.

  4. Resolution limits in holographic display with LED illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlipa?a, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    In presented paper we study the influence of spatial and temporal coherence of light source on resolution and depth of focus of holographic reconstructions. Presented holographic display setup uses phase - only spatial light modulator and realizes complex coding shame which allows to reconstruct objects in volume centered around plane of the modulator. In simulations we implement partially coherent reconstructions of complex hologram theory. It allows to investigate quality of holographic reconstructions for various degree of illuminating light coherence. During experimental tests we validate simulation results. We show that the influence of spatial coherence effect of light source on resolution of reconstructed objects is stronger than that of temporal coherence. Moreover we prove that it is possible to obtain high quality holographic reconstructions for large size source and wide spectrum for objects having large depths.

  5. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  6. Impulsivity across the psychosis spectrum: Correlates of cortical volume, suicidal history, and social and global function.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Pranav; Tandon, Neeraj; Mathew, Ian T; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychotic disorders appear to exhibit greater impulsivity-related behaviors relative to healthy controls. However, the neural underpinning of this impulsivity remains uncertain. Furthermore, it remains unclear how impulsivity might differ or be conserved between psychotic disorder diagnoses in mechanism and manifestation. In this study, self-reported impulsivity, measured by Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), was compared between 305 controls (HC), 139 patients with schizophrenia (SZ), 100 with schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and 125 with psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP). In each proband group, impulsivity was associated with regional cortical volumes (using FreeSurfer analysis of T1 MRI scans), suicide attempt history, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and Social Functioning Scale (SFS). BIS scores were found to differ significantly between participant groups, with SZA and PBP exhibiting significantly higher impulsivity than SZ, which exhibited significantly higher impulsivity than HC. BIS scores were significantly related to suicide attempt history, and they were inversely associated with GAF, SFS, and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volume in both SZA and PBP, but not SZ. These findings indicate that psychotic disorders, particularly those with prominent affective symptoms, are characterized by elevated self-reported impulsivity measures. Impulsivity's correlations with suicide attempt history, GAF, and SFS suggest that impulsivity may be a mediator of clinical outcome. The observed impulsivity-OFC correlations corroborate the importance of OFC deficits in impulsivity. These correlations' presence in SZA and PBP but not in SZ suggests that impulsivity may have different underlying mechanisms in affective and non-affective psychotic disorders. PMID:26711526

  7. Incorporation of excluded-volume correlations into Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antypov, Dmytro; Barbosa, Marcia C.; Holm, Christian

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the effect of excluded-volume interactions on the electrolyte distribution around a charged macroion. First, we introduce a criterion for determining when hard-core effects should be taken into account beyond standard mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. Next, we demonstrate that several commonly proposed local-density-functional approaches for excluded-volume interactions cannot be used for this purpose. Instead, we employ a nonlocal excess free energy by using a simple constant-weight approach. We compare the ion distribution and osmotic pressure predicted by this theory with Monte Carlo simulations. They agree very well for weakly developed correlations and give the correct layering effect for stronger ones. In all investigated cases our simple weighted-density theory yields more realistic results than the standard PB approach, whereas all local density theories do not improve on the PB density profiles, but on the contrary, deviate even more from the simulation results.

  8. Correlating Gray Matter Volume with Individual Difference in the Flanker Interference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changming; Yang, Jiemin; Lai, Jiayu; Li, Hong; Yuan, Jiajin; Abbasi, Najam ul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The Eriksen Flanker task has been widely used as a measurement of cognitive control, however till now information is still scarce about how the neuroanatomical properties are related to performance in this task. Using voxel-based morphometry technique (VBM), the current study identified a set of distributed areas where the gray matter volume (GM) correlated positively with participants’ efficiency in interference inhibition. These areas included the bilateral prefrontal gyri, left insula and inferior temporal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule. Further analysis using a novel machine learning algorithm with balanced cross-validation procedure confirmed that in these areas the GM-behavioral association was unlikely a byproduct of outlier values, instead, the gray matter volume could predict reliably participants’ interference inhibition efficiency. These results underscore the importance of the fronto-parietal and insula systems to the brain functioning of interference inhibition from the neuroanatomical perspective. PMID:26322974

  9. Hippocampal volume correlates with attenuated negative psychotic symptoms irrespective of antidepressant medication

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, Raffaele; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, Andr; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Raschle, Nora Maria; Lenz, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Simon, Andor; Riecher-Rssler, Anita; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) often suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms, which are clinically similar to the negative symptomatology described for psychosis. Thus, many ARMS individuals are already being treated with antidepressant medication. Objectives To investigate clinical and structural differences between psychosis high-risk individuals with or without antidepressants. Methods We compared ARMS individuals currently receiving antidepressants (ARMS-AD; n=18), ARMS individuals not receiving antidepressants (ARMS-nonAD; n=31) and healthy subjects (HC; n=24), in terms of brain structure abnormalities, using voxel-based morphometry. We also performed region of interest analysis for the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and precuneus. Results The ARMS-AD had higher depression and lower motor hyperactivity scores than the ARMS-nonAD. Compared to HC, there was significantly less GMV in the middle frontal gyrus in the whole ARMS cohort and in the superior frontal gyrus in the ARMS-AD subgroup. Compared to ARMS-nonAD, the ARMS-AD group showed more gray matter volume (GMV) in the left superior parietal lobe, but less GMV in the left hippocampus and the right precuneus. We found a significant negative correlation between attenuated negative symptoms and hippocampal volume in the whole ARMS cohort. Conclusion Reduced GMV in the hippocampus and precuneus is associated with short-term antidepressant medication and more severe depressive symptoms. Hippocampal volume is further negatively correlated with attenuated negative psychotic symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to distinguish whether hippocampal volume deficits in the ARMS are related to attenuated negative psychotic symptoms or to antidepressant action. PMID:26110110

  10. Local fluctuations and spatial correlations in granular flows under constant-volume quasistatic shear.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Zhao, Jidong

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the local fluctuations in dense granular media subjected to athermal, quasistatic shearing, based on three-dimensional discrete element method simulations. By shearing granular assemblies of different polydispersities under constant-volume constraint, we quantify the characteristics of local structures (in terms of local volume and local anisotropy) and local deformation (using local shear strain and nonaffine displacement). The distribution of the local volume in a granular medium is found unchanged during the entire shearing process, which indicates a constant temperaturelike compactivity for the material. The compactivity is not, however, equilibrated among different particle groups in a polydisperse assembly. The local structures of a disordered granular assembly are inherently anisotropic. The fluctuations in local anisotropy can be well captured by a gamma or mixed-gamma distribution function, which is also unchanged during the shear. The local anisotropic orientation evolves towards the coaxial direction of the stress anisotropy with shear. The deformation characteristics of a jammed granular medium have their origins in the structural amorphousness. The local shear strain field depicts clear shear transformation zones which act as plasticity carriers. The spatial correlation of the local shear strains exhibits a fourfold pattern which is stronger in the stress deviatoric planes than in the stress isotropic plane. The fluctuations of nonaffine displacement suggest an isotropic granular temperature and an isotropic spatial correlation independent of the stress state. Both the local strain and the nonaffine displacement exhibit a power-law decayed distribution with a long-range correlation. We further modify the shear-transformation-zone theory to predict the pressure-dependent constitutive behavior of a sheared granular material and compare its prediction with our simulation data. PMID:24827242

  11. Holographic particle image velocimetry measurements in a four-valve combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overbrggen, Timo; Dannemann, Jan; Klaas, Michael; Schrder, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This is a feasibility study to show that the nonreacting three-dimensional flow in the cylinder of a four-valve internal combustion engine at 160 after top dead center (atdc) at 1,500 rpm can be accurately measured by holographic particle image velocimetry. The results evidence the quality of holographic PIV measurements in engine flows and the capability of the holographic method to instantaneously capture the complete three-dimensional flow field in a large area of the highly intricate cylinder flow. The resolved measurement volume has a diameter of about 60 mm and a height of 80 mm with a vector spacing of 0.75 mm per vector. To validate the measurements, the flow structure as well as the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow field is compared with planar two-component/two-dimensional (2C/2D-PIV) measurements performed in the same engine (Dannemann et al., in Exp Fluids 2010). Furthermore, the spatial propagation of the flow field as well as the vortical structures is visualized by 3D streamlines and ? 2-contours. The current results confirm the existence of several large-scale flow structures, such as a counter-rotating ring-vortex pair below the inlet valve and the tumble vortex. The latter possesses a U-shaped propagation of the vortex core. The analysis of the two-point correlation shows the integral length scale to be in the range 2.5-6.1 mm, which is in agreement with literature data.

  12. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  13. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Cleva, Roberto; de Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L) and FVC (2.0±0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p = 0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery. PMID:25029580

  14. Reconstruction of the 3D representative volume element from the generalized two-point correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staraselski, Y.; Brahme, A.; Mishra, R. K.; Inal, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first application of three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation microstructure reconstruction implemented for a representative volume element (RVE) to facilitate the microstructure engineering of materials. This has been accomplished by developing a new methodology for reconstructing 3D microstructure using experimental two-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The proposed methodology is based on the analytical representation of the generalized form of the two-point correlation functionthe distance-disorientation function (DDF). Microstructure reconstruction is accomplished by extending the simulated annealing techniques to perform three term reconstruction with a minimization of the DDF. The new 3D microstructure reconstruction algorithm is employed to determine the 3D RVE containing all of the relevant microstructure information for accurately computing the mechanical response of solids, especially when local microstructural variations influence the global response of the material as in the case of fracture initiation.

  15. Focal volume optics and experimental artifacts in confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Samuel T; Webb, Watt W

    2002-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can provide a wealth of information about biological and chemical systems on a broad range of time scales (<1 micros to >1 s). Numerical modeling of the FCS observation volume combined with measurements has revealed, however, that the standard assumption of a three-dimensional Gaussian FCS observation volume is not a valid approximation under many common measurement conditions. As a result, the FCS autocorrelation will contain significant, systematic artifacts that are most severe with confocal optics when using a large detector aperture and aperture-limited illumination. These optical artifacts manifest themselves in the fluorescence correlation as an apparent additional exponential component or diffusing species with significant (>30%) amplitude that can imply extraneous kinetics, shift the measured diffusion time by as much as approximately 80%, and cause the axial ratio to diverge. Artifacts can be minimized or virtually eliminated by using a small confocal detector aperture, underfilled objective back-aperture, or two-photon excitation. However, using a detector aperture that is smaller or larger than the optimal value (approximately 4.5 optical units) greatly reduces both the count rate per molecule and the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, there is a tradeoff between optimizing signal-to-noise and reducing experimental artifacts in one-photon FCS. PMID:12324447

  16. Serotonergic, brain volume and attentional correlates of trait anxiety in primates

    PubMed Central

    Mikheenko, Yevheniia; Braesicke, Katrin; Cockcroft, Gemma; Clarke, Hannah; Roberts, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of affective disorders, and insights into the underlying brain mechanisms are vital for improving treatment and prevention strategies. Translational studies in non-human primates, where targeted neurochemical and genetic manipulations can be made, are critical in view of their close neuroanatomical similarity to humans in brain regions implicated in trait anxiety. Thus, we characterised the serotonergic and regional brain volume correlates of trait-like anxiety in the marmoset monkey. Low- and high-anxious animals were identified by behavioral responses to a human intruder that are known to be sensitive to anxiolytic drug treatment. Extracellular serotonin levels within the amygdala were measured with in vivo microdialysis, at baseline and in response to challenge with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. Regional brain volume was assessed by structural magnetic resonance imaging. Anxious individuals showed persistent, long-term fearful responses to both a human intruder and a model snake, alongside sustained attention (vigilance) to novel cues in a context associated with unpredictable threat. Neurally, high-anxious marmosets showed reduced amygdala serotonin levels, and smaller volumes in a closely connected prefrontal region, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight behavioral and neural similarities between trait-like anxiety in marmosets and humans, and set the stage for further investigation of the processes contributing to vulnerability and resilience to affective disorders. PMID:25586542

  17. GSTM1 Gene Expression Correlates to Leiomyoma Volume Regression in Response to Mifepristone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Engman, Mikael; Varghese, Suby; Lagerstedt Robinson, Kristina; Malmgren, Helena; Hammarsj, Anna; Bystrm, Birgitta; L Lalitkumar, Parameswaran Grace; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor modulators, such as mifepristone are useful and well tolerated in reducing leiomyoma volume although with large individual variation. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular basis for the observed leiomyoma volume reduction, in response to mifepristone treatment and explore a possible molecular marker for the selective usage of mifepristone in leiomyoma patients. Premenopausal women (N?=?14) were treated with mifepristone 50 mg, every other day for 12 weeks prior to surgery. Women were arbitrarily sub-grouped as good (N?=?4), poor (N?=?4) responders to treatment or intermediate respondents (N?=?3). Total RNA was extracted from leiomyoma tissue, after surgical removal of the tumour and the differential expression of genes were analysed by microarray. The results were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The glutathione pathway was the most significantly altered canonical pathway in which the glutathione-s transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) gene was significantly over expressed (+8.03 folds) among the good responders compared to non responders. This was further confirmed by Real time PCR (p?=?0.024). Correlation of immunoreactive scores (IRS) for GSTM1 accumulation in leiomyoma tissue was seen with base line volume change of leiomyoma R?=??0.8 (p?=?0.011). Furthermore the accumulation of protein GSTM1 analysed by Western Blot correlated significantly with the percentual leiomyoma volume change R?=??0.82 (p?=?0.004). Deletion of the GSTM1 gene in leiomyoma biopsies was found in 50% of the mifepristone treated cases, with lower presence of the GSTM1 protein. The findings support a significant role for GSTM1 in leiomyoma volume reduction induced by mifepristone and explain the observed individual variation in this response. Furthermore the finding could be useful to further explore GSTM1 as a biomarker for tailoring medical treatment of uterine leiomyomas for optimizing the response to treatment. Clinical Trials identifier www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00579475, Protocol date: November 2004. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00579475 PMID:24324590

  18. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-03-17

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.

  19. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.

  20. Holographic microrheology of biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong Cheong, Fook; Duarte, Simone; Grier, David

    2008-03-01

    We present microrheological measurements of polymeric matrices, including the extra-cellular polysaccharide gel synthesized by the dental pathogen S. mutans. As part of this study, we introduce the use of precision three-dimensional particle tracking based on video holographic microscopy. This technique offers nanometer-scale resolution at video rates, thereby providing detailed information on the gels' complex viscoelastic moduli, including insights into their heterogeneity. The particular application to dental biofilms complements previous studies based on macroscopic rheology, and demonstrates the utility of holographic microrheology for soft-matter physics and biomedical research.

  1. Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Horacio; Testé, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d = 2 and in d > 2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.

  2. Correlation of scintigraphy and angiography for ventricular volume determinations using realistic cardiac phantoms: the unimportance of self-attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, T.R.; Dowdey, J.E.; Lipscomb, K.M.; Smitherman, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The volumes of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) were determined by scintigraphy, radiography, and weight, using hollow, morphologically accurate cardiac phantoms that ranged from 99-415 ml (RV) and 72-364 ml (LV). Self-attenuation within these simulated ventricles appeared negligible in view of the nearly linear correlation between scintigraphic and weight determined volumes. Scintigraphy compared favorably with radiography for estimating clinically encountered volumes of the RV and LV.

  3. Gray matter volume and executive functioning correlate with time since injury following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Singh, Prabhjyot; Kipman, Maia; Pisner, Derek; Fridman, Andrew; Weber, Mareen

    2016-01-26

    Most people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) will recover to baseline functioning within a period of several days to weeks. A substantial minority of patients, however, will show persistent symptoms and mild cognitive complaints for much longer. To more clearly delineate how the duration of time since injury (TSI) is associated with neuroplastic cortical volume changes and cognitive recovery, we employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and select neuropsychological measures in a cross-sectional sample of 26 patients with mTBI assessed at either two-weeks, one-month, three-months, six-months, or one-year post injury, and a sample of 12 healthy controls. Longer duration of TSI was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and right fusiform gyrus, and better neurocognitive performance on measures of visuospatial design fluency and emotional functioning. In particular, volume within the vmPFC was positively correlated with design fluency and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety, whereas GMV of the fusiform gyrus was associated with greater design fluency and sustained visual psychomotor vigilance performance. Moreover, the larger GMV seen among the more chronic individuals was significantly greater than healthy controls, suggesting possible enlargement of these regions with time since injury. These findings are interpreted in light of burgeoning evidence suggesting that cortical regions often exhibit structural changes following experience or practice, and suggest that with greater time since an mTBI, the brain displays compensatory remodeling of cortical regions involved in emotional regulation, which may reduce distractibility during attention demanding visuo-motor tasks. PMID:26711488

  4. Holographic non-Fermi-liquid fixed points.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Tom; Iqbal, Nabil; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David

    2011-04-28

    Techniques arising from string theory can be used to study assemblies of strongly interacting fermions. Via this 'holographic duality', various strongly coupled many-body systems are solved using an auxiliary theory of gravity. Simple holographic realizations of finite density exhibit single-particle spectral functions with sharp Fermi surfaces, of a form distinct from those of the Landau theory. The self-energy is given by a correlation function in an infrared (IR) fixed-point theory that is represented by a two-dimensional anti de Sitter space (AdS(2)) region in the dual gravitational description. Here, we describe in detail the gravity calculation of this IR correlation function. PMID:21422019

  5. Conformal quantum mechanics and holographic quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvelä, Jarkko; Keränen, Ville; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko

    2016-02-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in holographic computations of two-point nonequilibrium Green functions from anti-de Sitter- (AdS-)Vaidya backgrounds. In the strongly coupled quantum field theory on the boundary, the dual interpretation of the background is an equilibration process called a holographic quench. The two-dimensional AdS-Vaidya spacetime is a special case, dual to conformal quantum mechanics. We study how the quench is incorporated into a Hamiltonian H +θ (t )Δ H and into correlation functions. With the help of recent work on correlation functions in conformal quantum mechanics, we first rederive the known two-point functions, and then compute nonequilibrium three- and four-point functions. We also compute the three-point function Witten diagram in the two-dimensional AdS-Vaidya background, and find agreement with the conformal quantum mechanics result.

  6. Brain T2 relaxation times correlate with regional cerebral blood volume.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C M; Kaufman, M J; Lowen, S B; Rohan, M; Renshaw, P F; Teicher, M H

    2005-03-01

    We previously reported cerebellar and putaminal transverse relaxation time (T2) differences in children with ADHD and in adults with childhood trauma. As brain T2 can be altered by deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([dHb]) and because [dHb] is proportional to regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), at steady state we attributed those differences to rCBV changes. Studies in other species have established a correlation between T2 and rCBV; however this has yet to be demonstrated in human brain. Echo planar imaging (EPI) T2 relaxometry and dynamic susceptibility-contrast (DSC) MRI were used to measure T2 and rCBV in 11 healthy adults. Significant T2-rCBV correlations were observed in both cerebellar vermis and putamen (r = 0.759,p = 0.007;r = 0.782,p = 0.004, respectively). These correlations predict 9 +/- 3% and 10 +/- 3% rCBV changes, respectively, for each 1-msec change in T2. Consequently, brain T2 measurements may be useful for estimating steady-state rCBV. PMID:15592693

  7. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore » space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less

  8. The Holographic Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez de Crdoba, P.; Isidro, J. M.; Vazquez Molina, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a map of standard quantum mechanics onto a dual theory, that of the classical thermodynamics of irreversible processes. While no gravity is present in our construction, our map exhibits features that are reminiscent of the holographic principle of quantum gravity.

  9. The holographic entropy cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  10. Chidi holographic video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Benton, Stephen A.

    2000-03-01

    Holo-Chidi is a holographic video processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time computation of Computer Generated Holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. It's processing engine is adapted from Chidi which is reconfigurable multimedia processing system used for real-time synthesis and analysis of digital video frames. Holo-Chidi is made of two main components: the sets of Chidi processor cards and the display video concentrator card. The processor cards are used for hologram computation while the display video concentrator card acts as frame buffer for the system. The display video concentrator also formats the computed holographic data and converts them to analog form for feeding the acousto-optic modulators of the Media Lab's Mark-II holographic display system. The display video concentrator card can display the computed holograms from the Chidi cards loaded from its high-speed I/O interface port or precomputed holograms loaded from a PC through the United Serial Bus port of its communications processor at above video refresh rates. This paper discusses the design of the display video concentrator used to display holographic video in the Mark-II system.

  11. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  12. The Holographic Entropy Cone

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  13. Deriving particle distributions from in-line Fraunhofer holographic data

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Malone, R.M.; Fredericson, R.H.; DeLanoy, A.D.; Johnson, D.E.; Ciarcia, C.A.; Sorenson, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.

  14. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Ciarcia; D.E. Johnson; D.S. Sorenson; R.H. Frederickson, A.D. Delanoy; R.M. Malone; T.W. Tunnel

    1997-08-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.

  15. Measurement of Interfacial Area per Volume on Spatially Correlated and Uncorrelated Micro-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J.; Giordano, N.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2002-12-01

    Recent theoretical developments suggest that interfacial area per volume (IAV) plays an important role in scaling theories for the flow of multiple fluid phases in a porous medium. Many investigations have shown that the values of capillary pressure (Pcap) and saturation (S) do not uniquely specify the state of the system. A single value of relative volume saturation can correspond to infinitely different distributions of two phases within the volume. IAV provides a natural yard-stick for defining the role of scale in multiphase fluid properties. The dimensional units of interfacial area per volume is a spatial frequency (inverse length) that breaks scale invariance. In this study, we investigate whether or not IAV provides a state-function-like description of the flow properties, and if so, what does this function look like. Measurements of interfacial area per volume as a function of capillary pressure and saturation were made on micro-models of pore structures. Photo-projection lithography was used to make transparent micro-models that were 600 x 600 microns with an aperture of 1.08 microns. Two phase flow measurements were performed on the micro-models using nitrogen gas and decane for a series of drainage and imbibition cycles. The initially decane-saturated micro-models were invaded with nitrogen by the application of pressure in increments. At each pressure increment, the system was allowed to equilibrate, and the saturation and distribution of each phase was digitally imaged and analyzed. We observed that the Pcap - S - IAV surface appears to be a smooth, single valued surface. Several measurements were made for the same, or nearly the same, values of Pcap and S, and it was observed that the geometrical arrangement of the two phases was visually quite different. However, the value of the IAV in such cases was the same, to within a typical 5% experimental error in analyzing the digital photo-micrographs. We also observed that the magnitude of IAV was significantly different between the two types of models. Correlated micro-models exhibited values of IAV that were smaller by about a factor of 2, than that found for the uncorrelated micro-model. Acknowledgments: DOE-FE contract DE-AC26-99BC15207. LJPN wishes to acknowledge Purdue University Faculty Scholar.

  16. Emergent spacetime and holographic CFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Showk, Sheer; Papadodimas, Kyriakos

    2012-10-01

    We discuss universal properties of conformal field theories with holographic duals. A central feature of these theories is the existence of a low-lying sector of operators whose correlators factorize. We demonstrate that factorization can only hold in the large central charge limit. Using conformal invariance and factorization we argue that these operators are naturally represented as fields in AdS as this makes the underlying linearity of the system manifest. In this class of CFTs the solution of the conformal bootstrap conditions can be naturally organized in structures which coincide with Witten diagrams in the bulk. The large value of the central charge suggests that the theory must include a large number of new operators not captured by the factorized sector. Consequently we may think of the AdS hologram as an effective representation of a small sector of the CFT, which is embedded inside a much larger Hilbert space corresponding to the black hole microstates.

  17. Dynamic volume vs respiratory correlated 4DCT for motion assessment in radiation therapy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Coolens, Catherine; Bracken, John; Driscoll, Brandon; Hope, Andrew; Jaffray, David

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Conventional (i.e., respiratory-correlated) 4DCT exploits the repetitive nature of breathing to provide an estimate of motion; however, it has limitations due to binning artifacts and irregular breathing in actual patient breathing patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and image quality of a dynamic volume, CT approach (4D{sub vol}) using a 320-slice CT scanner to minimize these limitations, wherein entire image volumes are acquired dynamically without couch movement. This will be compared to the conventional respiratory-correlated 4DCT approach (RCCT). Methods: 4D{sub vol} CT was performed and characterized on an in-house, programmable respiratory motion phantom containing multiple geometric and morphological ''tumor'' objects over a range of regular and irregular patient breathing traces obtained from 3D fluoroscopy and compared to RCCT. The accuracy of volumetric capture and breathing displacement were evaluated and compared with the ground truth values and with the results reported using RCCT. A motion model was investigated to validate the number of motion samples needed to obtain accurate motion probability density functions (PDF). The impact of 4D image quality on this accuracy was then investigated. Dose measurements using volumetric and conventional scan techniques were also performed and compared. Results: Both conventional and dynamic volume 4DCT methods were capable of estimating the programmed displacement of sinusoidal motion, but patient breathing is known to not be regular, and obvious differences were seen for realistic, irregular motion. The mean RCCT amplitude error averaged at 4 mm (max. 7.8 mm) whereas the 4D{sub vol} CT error stayed below 0.5 mm. Similarly, the average absolute volume error was lower with 4D{sub vol} CT. Under irregular breathing, the 4D{sub vol} CT method provides a close description of the motion PDF (cross-correlation 0.99) and is able to track each object, whereas the RCCT method results in a significantly different PDF from the ground truth, especially for smaller tumors (cross-correlation ranging between 0.04 and 0.69). For the protocols studied, the dose measurements were higher in the 4D{sub vol} CT method (40%), but it was shown that significant mAs reductions can be achieved by a factor of 4-5 while maintaining image quality and accuracy. Conclusions: 4D{sub vol} CT using a scanner with a large cone-angle is a promising alternative for improving the accuracy with which respiration-induced motion can be characterized, particularly for patients with irregular breathing motion. This approach also generates 4DCT image data with a reduced total scan time compared to a RCCT scan, without the need for image binning or external respiration signals within the 16 cm scan length. Scan dose can be made comparable to RCCT by optimization of the scan parameters. In addition, it provides the possibility of measuring breathing motion for more than one breathing cycle to assess stability and obtain a more accurate motion PDF, which is currently not feasible with the conventional RCCT approach.

  18. ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF DIGITAL VOLUME CORRELATION IN QUANTIFYING DISPLACEMENTS AND STRAINS IN TRABECULAR BONE

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Morgan, Elise F.

    2008-01-01

    Strain measurement is an essential tool in the study of trabecular bone structure-function relationships. Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a measurement technique that quantifies strains throughout the interior of a specimen, rather than simply those on the surface. DVC relies on tracking the movement of microstructural features, and as such, the accuracy and precision of this technique may depend on trabecular structure. This study quantified displacement and strain measurement errors in six types of trabecular bone that spanned a wide range of volume fraction and trabecular architecture. Accuracy and precision were compared across bone type and also across three DVC methods. Both simulated and real displacement fields were analyzed using micro-computed tomography images of specimens from the bovine distal femur, bovine proximal tibia, rabbit distal femur, rabbit proximal tibia, rabbit vertebra, and human vertebra. Differences as large as three-fold in accuracy and precision of the displacements and strains were found among DVC methods and among bone types. The displacement precision and the strain accuracy and precision were correlated with measures of trabecular structure such as structural model index. These results demonstrate that the performance of the DVC technique can depend on trabecular structure. Across all bone types, the displacement and strain errors ranged 1.86–3.39 μm and 345–794 με, respectively. For specimens from the human vertebra and bovine distal femur, the measurement errors were approximately twenty times smaller than the yield strain. In these cases, DVC is a viable technique for measuring pre- and post-yield strains throughout trabecular bone specimens and the trabecular compartment of whole bones. PMID:17570374

  19. Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits afforded the children of invested fathers in modern Western societies, some fathers choose not to invest in their children. Why do some men make this choice? Life History Theory offers an explanation for variation in parental investment by positing a trade-off between mating and parenting effort, which may explain some of the observed variance in human fathers parenting behavior. We tested this hypothesis by measuring aspects of reproductive biology related to mating effort, as well as paternal nurturing behavior and the brain activity related to it. Both plasma testosterone levels and testes volume were independently inversely correlated with paternal caregiving. In response to viewing pictures of ones own child, activity in the ventral tegmental areaa key component of the mesolimbic dopamine reward and motivation systempredicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume. Our results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort, as indexed by testicular size and nurturing-related brain function, respectively. PMID:24019499

  20. Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Rilling, James K

    2013-09-24

    Despite the well-documented benefits afforded the children of invested fathers in modern Western societies, some fathers choose not to invest in their children. Why do some men make this choice? Life History Theory offers an explanation for variation in parental investment by positing a trade-off between mating and parenting effort, which may explain some of the observed variance in human fathers' parenting behavior. We tested this hypothesis by measuring aspects of reproductive biology related to mating effort, as well as paternal nurturing behavior and the brain activity related to it. Both plasma testosterone levels and testes volume were independently inversely correlated with paternal caregiving. In response to viewing pictures of one's own child, activity in the ventral tegmental area--a key component of the mesolimbic dopamine reward and motivation system--predicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume. Our results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort, as indexed by testicular size and nurturing-related brain function, respectively. PMID:24019499

  1. White matter volume change and its correlation with symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia: a VBM-DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-12-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the white matter (WM) volume change and its correlation with symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. A total of 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. MR image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. The patients with schizophrenia showed significant decreases (P=0.042) in the WM volumes of the temporal lobe and superior frontal gyrus compared with the healthy controls. The WM volumes of the middle temporal gyrus were negatively correlated with the scores of both the Positive Subscale (Pearson's ρ=-0.68, P=0.001) and the Negative Subscale (ρ=-0.71, P=0.0005) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. In addition, the scores of the General Psychopathology Subscale were negatively correlated with the WM volumes of the superior frontal gyrus (ρ=-0.68, P=0.0009). This study evaluated the WM volume of patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls using DARTEI-based voxel-based morphometry and also assessed the correlation of the localized WM volume changes with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. These findings will be useful to understand the neuropathology associated with WM abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:26485094

  2. Correlators of left charges and weak operators in finite volume chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez, Pilar; Laine, Mikko

    2003-01-01

    We compute the two-point correlator between left-handed flavour charges, and the three-point correlator between two left-handed charges and one strangeness violating DeltaI = 3/2 weak operator, at next-to-leading order in finite volume SU(3)L SU(3)R chiral perturbation theory, in the so-called epsilon-regime. Matching these results with the corresponding lattice measurements would in principle allow to extract the pion decay constant F, and the effective chiral theory parameter g27, which determines the Delta I = 3/2 amplitude of the weak decays K to pipi as well as the kaon mixing parameter BK in the chiral limit. We repeat the calculations in the replica formulation of quenched chiral perturbation theory, finding only mild modifications. In particular, a properly chosen ratio of the three-point and two-point functions is shown to be identical in the full and quenched theories at this order.

  3. Assembling a holographic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-03-01

    A series of art projects that use multiplex holography as a medium to combine and spatially animate multiple photographic perspectives are presented. Through the process of image collection and compilation into holograms, several concepts are explored. The animate spatial qualities of multiplex holograms are used to express an urban gaze of moving through cites and the multiplicity of perceptual experience. A question of how we understand ourselves to be located and the complexity of this sense is also addressed. The ability to assemble multiple photographic views together into a scene is considered as a method to document the collective experience of event. How these holographic scenes are viewed is compared to the compositional activity, showing both how the holographic medium inspired the compositions and is used as a means of expression.

  4. Holographic p -wave superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Yu, Fang

    2014-12-01

    In the probe limit, we numerically construct a holographic p -wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional (5D) anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We find that, for the condensate with the fixed superfluid velocity, the results are similar to the s -wave cases in both 4D and 5D spacetimes. In particular, the Cave of Winds and the phase transition, always being of second order, take place in the 5D case. Moreover, we find that the translating superfluid velocity from second order to first order S/y? increases with the mass squared. Furthermore, for the supercurrent with fixed temperature, the results agree with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction near the critical temperature. In addition, this complex vector superfluid model is still a generalization of the SU(2) superfluid model, and it also provides a holographic realization of the H e3 superfluid system.

  5. Holographic laser protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, G.E.; Chern, M.J.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1987-01-20

    A holographic reflector is described for reflecting laser radiation at a predetermined wavelength which is incident over a predetermined angular range, the reflector comprising: holograms conterminously and adjacently disposed on at least one substrate, each of the holograms having holographic fringes with predetermined spacing which make a predetermined angle with respect to the normal to the surface of the substrate. Each of the holograms has fringe spacings which are different from the fringe spacing of a hologram adapted to optimally reflect the predetermined wavelength. Each hologram has fringe spacings and predetermined angles which are adapted to reflect the predetermined wavelength over separate angular ranges which are different from an angular range associated with a hologram adapted to optimally reflect the predetermined wavelength. The fringe spacings and predetermined angles are such that each of the holograms reflects the predetermined wavelength within the predetermined angular ranges which together comprise the predetermined angular range.

  6. Digital holographic microscopy for non-invasive monitoring of cell cycle arrest in L929 cells.

    PubMed

    Falck Miniotis, Maria; Mukwaya, Anthonny; Gjrloff Wingren, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has emerged as a powerful non-invasive tool for cell analysis. It has the capacity to analyse multiple parameters simultaneously, such as cell- number, confluence and phase volume. This is done while cells are still adhered and growing in their culture flask. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHM was able to monitor drug-induced cell cycle arrest in cultured cells and thus provide a non-disruptive alternative to flow cytometry. DHM parameters from G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrested L929 mouse fibroblast cells were collected. Cell cycle arrest was verified with flow cytometry. This study shows that DHM is able to monitor phase volume changes corresponding to either a G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest. G1-phase arrest with staurosporine correlated with a decrease in the average cell phase volume and G2/M-phase arrest with colcemid and etoposide correlated with an increase in the average cell phase volume. Importantly, DHM analysis of average cell phase volume was of comparable accuracy to flow cytometric measurement of cell cycle phase distribution as recorded following dose-dependent treatment with etoposide. Average cell phase volume changes in response to treatment with cell cycle arresting compounds could therefore be used as a DHM marker for monitoring cell cycle arrest in cultured mammalian cells. PMID:25208094

  7. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis based on fractal fitting: The long-range correlation detection method for highway volume data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Hou, Jie; Ye, Dandan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the traffic time series for volume data observed on the Guangshen highway. We introduce a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis based on fractal fitting (MFDFA-FF), which is one of the most effective methods to detect long-range correlations of time series. Through effective detecting of long-range correlations, highway volume can be predicted more accurately. In order to get a better detrend effect, we use fractal fitting to replace polynomial fitting in detrend process, the result shows that fractal fitting can get a better detrend effect than polynomial fitting and the MFDFA-FF method can achieve a more accurate research result. Then we introduce the Legendre spectrum to detect the multifractal property characterized by the long-range correlation and multifractality of Guangshen highway volume data.

  8. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p??200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample. PMID:25908528

  9. Holographic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Verlinde, Erik

    2010-10-01

    We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the Chandrasekhar limit beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.

  10. Holographic subsonic flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, C J; Wiswall, C E; Schmiege, R A; Harris, R J; Dueker, J E

    1970-09-01

    A pulsed ruby laser holographic interferometer was used to detect density gradients in the airflow around an airfoil at subsonic speeds in a low speed wind tunnel. These experiments proved that vibration of the optical components or object between exposures of the interferometric hologram does not destroy the detection of density gradients but actually can aid in the flow visualization. The density gradients determined from the fringe pattern analysis are consistent with the anticipated flow pattern. PMID:20094197

  11. Baryons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2007-04-15

    We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8 holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and {rho} mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large N{sub c}, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and {rho}-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the {rho}-meson profile G-tilde(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without {rho} mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and {rho} mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant {rho}-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.

  12. Investigation of Holographic Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Lian Qin

    Holographic scanners are capable of challenging both the speed and resolution of polygon scanners. This work investigates, in detail, the design and operation of a holographic scanner with an aspherical reflector. The characteristics of this holographic scanner are presented through theoretical analyses and computer simulation. The calculated data and the experimental results show that this system has excellent scan line straightness and scan linearity. The influence of the eccentricity and wobble of the hologram on the quality of the scan lines can be minimized by proper choice of system parameters. This unique system can readily perform 1-D, 2 -D, 3-D and selective scans. These features make suitable applications for robot vision, part inspection, high speed printing, and input/output devices for computers. If the hologram is operating in the reflective mode, there are no transmissive components in this scanner. It can be used with acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves with longer wavelengths, such as infrared, microwaves, millimeter waves. Since it is difficult to find a suitable recording material for these waves, a technique for making computer -generated holograms has also been developed here. The practical considerations for making quality holograms are summarized. An improved coating process for photoresist and a novel anti-reflection setup for the hologram plate are developed. The detailed experimental processes are included. The planar grating scanner for one dimensional, two-dimensional and cross-scanning patterns is analyzed and demonstrated. A comparison is made with two other two-dimensional scanners.

  13. Ultra-High Density Holographic Memory Module with Solid-State Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, Vladimir B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's terrestrial. space, and deep-space missions require technology that allows storing. retrieving, and processing a large volume of information. Holographic memory offers high-density data storage with parallel access and high throughput. Several methods exist for data multiplexing based on the fundamental principles of volume hologram selectivity. We recently demonstrated that a spatial (amplitude-phase) encoding of the reference wave (SERW) looks promising as a way to increase the storage density. The SERW hologram offers a method other than traditional methods of selectivity, such as spatial de-correlation between recorded and reconstruction fields, In this report we present the experimental results of the SERW-hologram memory module with solid-state architecture, which is of particular interest for space operations.

  14. Power-law correlations in finance-related Google searches, and their cross-correlations with volatility and traded volume: Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We study power-law correlations properties of the Google search queries for Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) component stocks. Examining the daily data of the searched terms with a combination of the rescaled range and rescaled variance tests together with the detrended fluctuation analysis, we show that the searches are in fact power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.8 and 1.1. The general interest in the DJIA stocks is thus strongly persistent. We further reinvestigate the cross-correlation structure between the searches, traded volume and volatility of the component stocks using the detrended cross-correlation and detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficients. Contrary to the universal power-law correlations structure of the related Google searches, the results suggest that there is no universal relationship between the online search queries and the analyzed financial measures. Even though we confirm positive correlation for a majority of pairs, there are several pairs with insignificant or even negative correlations. In addition, the correlations vary quite strongly across scales.

  15. Holographic contouring and its limitations in nearly specularly reflecting surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lédl, Vít.; Psota, Pavel; Vojtíšek, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Mokrý, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of the digital holography to grinded surfaces shape measurements is experimentally examined with regard to the surface micro-roughness of brittle materials (optical glass). Multi-wavelength phase shifted digital holographic interferometry (holographic contouring) is used and its performance is analyzed. Holographic contouring is a great candidate for the precise shape measurement technique, which can be applied to the iterative manufacture process of optical elements. Optical surface artifacts with different radii of the spherical (convex and concave) shapes were prepared with different micro-roughness. Their optical surfaces were then holographically recorded using a designed setup. Two different measures were selected to estimate the quality of the holographic recording: first, the intensity profile of the reconstructed surface deviation as a consequence of the micro-roughness decrease, where the shape of the intensity profile develops as the surface is altering from strongly diffusive to almost specular; second, the correlation of the phase fields (surfaces shapes), which were holographically recorded using two light beams of different wavelengths. In this situation, the correlation function decreases with an increase in the noise amount in data. The presented preliminary results indicate that the multi- wavelength holographic contouring can be used for surface measurements of high-quality polished and nearly specular surfaces. On the other hand, the application of holographic contouring to polished surface measurement still represents a challenging task and remains unresolved even with the multidirection illumination.

  16. Holographic in-line imaging setup for measuring the solid content of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaikkonen, Ville A.; Mkynen, Anssi J.

    2013-05-01

    Digital in-line holographic microscopy is a captivating imaging method for industrial applications where large volumes of fluids are to be imaged with microscopic resolution. The lensless holographic in-line imaging setup with a point light source, also known as the Gabor setup, can be built up with just a few, fairly low cost, components. In-line holography is well suited for imaging large volumes with a low concentration of scattering particles as most of the light emitted from the point source should pass through the image volume unscattered. The large depth of field of in-line holographic microscopy makes it possible to image larger volumes with comparable resolutions than what can be achieved with traditional light microscopy methods using low magnification objectives. Despite the many advantages gained over traditional microscopic methods by the use of holographic imaging for large volumes, so far it has only been widely utilized in biological and particle image velocimetry studies. The large depth of field of the holographic microscope permits simultaneous imaging of particles located at different depths without the need for mechanical scanning, and allows the use of large diameter fluidic channels which are not as prone to clogging and enable higher flow rates than smaller fluidic channels. In this paper, we present a digital in-line holographic microscope based measurement principle for measuring the solid particle content of fluids. The method proposed is demonstrated on bio-oil samples whose solid contents are less than 0.01 weight percentage.

  17. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  18. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  19. Entanglement entropy at holographic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutperle, Michael; Miller, John D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the holographic entanglement entropy in the presence of a conformal interface for a geometric configuration in which the entangling region A lies on one side of the interface. For the supersymmetric Janus solution we find exact agreement between the holographic and conformal field theory calculation of the entanglement entropy.

  20. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  1. SABER NO+(v) Volume Emission Rates and Magnetic Indices Correlation Comparisons for Magnetic Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2008-05-01

    The TIMED/SABER instrument is a broadband emission radiometer with ten channels that measure limb emission from the MLTI region. Of particular interest for this study is the use of nighttime auroral 4.3 um limb emission, which is primarily due to vibrationally excited NO+, caused by ion-neutral chemical reactions. From the SABER 4.3 um limb emission measurements, the NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER) is derived by removing the background CO2 radiance contribution using SABER-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. SABER observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms and can be used as a proxy to correct the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model E-region electron density for magnetic storm events. The correction procedure uses an impulse response function which is convolved with an appropriate geomagnetic driver index. The result in a correction factor that will scale the nominal IRI model E-region electron density. In order to determine the appropriate magnetic driver index, we study the cross correlations between SABER NO+(v) VER and different geomagnetic driver indices such as HP, Kp, Ap, AE, and Dst for different magnetic storm events.

  2. Initiation of the transcriptional response to hyperosmotic shock correlates with the potential for volume recovery.

    PubMed

    Geijer, Cecilia; Medrala-Klein, Dagmara; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Ericsson, Abraham; Smedh, Maria; Andersson, Mikael; Goksr, Mattias; Nadal-Ribelles, Mariona; Posas, Francesc; Krantz, Marcus; Nordlander, Bodil; Hohmann, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The control of activity and localization of transcription factors is critical for appropriate transcriptional responses. In eukaryotes, signal transduction components such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) shuttle into the nucleus to activate transcription. It is not known in detail how different amounts of nuclear MAPK over time affect the transcriptional response. In the present study, we aimed to address this issue by studying the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We employed a conditional osmotic system, which changes the period of the MAPK Hog1 signal independent of the initial stress level. We determined the dynamics of the Hog1 nuclear localization and cell volume by single-cell analysis in well-controlled microfluidics systems and compared the responses with the global transcriptional output of cell populations. We discovered that the onset of the initial transcriptional response correlates with the potential of cells for rapid adaptation; cells that are capable of recovering quickly initiate the transcriptional responses immediately, whereas cells that require longer time to adapt also respond later. This is reflected by Hog1 nuclear localization, Hog1 promoter association and the transcriptional response, but not Hog1 phosphorylation, suggesting that a presently uncharacterized rapid adaptive mechanism precedes the Hog1 nuclear response. Furthermore, we found that the period of Hog1 nuclear residence affects the amplitude of the transcriptional response rather than the spectrum of responsive genes. PMID:23758973

  3. Epicardial fat volume is correlated with coronary lesion and its severity

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Xiaohong; Ma, Likun; Fan, Jili; Jiang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuansong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) with the coronary artery lesion and its severity. Methods: Inpatients with suspicious stable angina of coronary heart lesion were recruited. For patients with coronary artery lesions in CTA, further coronary angiography (CAG) was performed to evaluate the coronary artery lesion. Gensini scoring system was employed to assess the severity of coronary artery lesions. Results: Patients were classified as coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n = 160). Results showed the mean EATV was 192.57 ± 30.32 cm3 in CHD group, which was significantly larger than that in control group (138.56 ± 23.18 cm3; P < 0.01). The coronary artery stenosis was classified as mild, moderate and severe stenosis according to the extent of coronary artery lesions, and results showed marked difference in the EATV among patients with different severities of coronary artery stenosis (P < 0.005). The Gensini score was positively related to EATV (r = 0.285, P = 0.000). The EATV increased with the increase in the number of affected coronary arteries. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed EATV was an independent risk factor of CHD after adjusting other confounding factors (OR = 1.023, P = 0.013). Conclusion: EATV is closely related to the severity of coronary artery lesions: the larger the EATV, the more severe the coronary artery lesions. Moreover, EATV is an independent risk factor of CHD. PMID:26064349

  4. Holographic entropy packing inside a black hole.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya

    2011-04-15

    If general relativity is spontaneously induced, the black hole limit is governed by a phase transition which occurs precisely at the would-have-been horizon. The exterior Schwarzschild solution then connects with a novel core of vanishing spatial volume. The Kruskal structure, admitting the exact Hawking imaginary time periodicity, is recovered, with the conic defect defused at the origin, rather than at the horizon. The entropy stored inside any interior sphere is universal, equal to a quarter of its surface area, thus locally saturating the 't Hooft-Susskind holographic bound. The associated Komar mass and material energy functions are nonsingular. PMID:21568544

  5. Cosmological 3-point correlators from holography

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the non-Gaussianity of primordial cosmological perturbations using holographic methods. In particular, we derive holographic formulae that relate all cosmological 3-point correlation functions, including both scalar and tensor perturbations, to stress-energy correlation functions of a holographically dual three-dimensional quantum field theory. These results apply to general single scalar inflationary universes that at late times approach either de Sitter spacetime or accelerating power-law cosmologies. We further show that in Einstein gravity all 3-point functions involving tensors may be obtained from correlators containing only positive helicity gravitons, with the ratios of these to the correlators involving one negative helicity graviton being given by universal functions of momenta, irrespectively of the potential of the scalar field. As a by-product of this investigation, we obtain holographic formulae for the full 3-point function of the stress-energy tensor along general holographic RG flows. These results should have applications in a wider holographic context.

  6. Digital holographic video for studies of plankton dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, V. V.; Olshukov, A. S.; Dzyuba, E. V.

    2011-01-01

    The procedure, capabilities, and applicability limits of digital holographic video for the determination of the velocity and reconstruction of the trajectory of motion of plankton species in the habitat are considered. Results of experimental investigations of zooplankton in laboratory conditions are presented. Two species that differ by the morphology and sizes are examined, including Epischura baicalensis for the trajectory construction and Daphnia magna for an experiment on dual-view hologram recording. The position of a plankton species in the examined volume is suggested to be determined based on the coordinates of the center of gravity of its holographic image. Preliminary results of recording of a dual-view digital holographic video of plankton species are discussed.

  7. Application of holographic optical techniques to bulk memory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Current efforts to exploit the spatial redundancy and built-in imaging of holographic optical techniques to provide high information densities without critical alignment and tight mechanical tolerances are reviewed. Read-write-erase in situ operation is possible but is presently impractical because of limitations in available recording media. As these are overcome, it should prove feasible to build holographic bulk memories with mechanically replaceable hologram plates featuring very fast (less than 2 microsec) random access to large (greater than 100 million bit) data blocks and very high throughput (greater than 500 Mbit/sec). Using volume holographic storage it may eventually be possible to realize random-access mass memories which require no mechanical motion and yet provide very high capacity.

  8. Towards an incoherent off-axis digital holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monemhaghdoust, Z.; De Gol, P.; Montfort, F.; Emery, Y.; Depeursinge, C.; Moser, C.

    2015-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a system in which off-axis digital holographic microscopy is realized using a broadband illumination source. Single-shot holographic measurements are enabled, while the coherence noise is removed thanks to the broad bandwidth of the illuminating source. The proposed digital holographic camera is portable and can be attached to the camera port of a conventional optical microscope. This camera is capable of obtaining the complex wavefront i.e the intensity and phase information of the light transmitted or reflected from a sample. A combination of a thick transmission volume grating recorded holographically into thick photosensitive glass and thin transmission phase gratings recorded holographically into thin photopolymers, spatially filters the beam of light containing the sample information in two dimensions through diffraction. This filtered beam creates the reference arm of the interferometer. The untouched transmitted beam creates the sample arm of the interferometer. The spatial filtering performed by the combination of gratings above reduces the alignment spatial sensitivity which is an advantage over conventional spatial filtering done by pinholes. Besides, using a second thin grating, we introduce a desired coherence plane tilt in the reference beam which is sufficient to create high-visibility interference over the entire field of view in off-axis configuration. Full-field off-axis interferograms are thus created from which the phase information can be extracted.

  9. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity.

  10. Holographic interference filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  11. Early visual processing for low spatial frequency fearful face is correlated with cortical volume in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Gewnhi; Song, Myeong Ju; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present with dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway, which might impair their early visual processing. We explored the relationship between functional abnormality of early visual processing and brain volumetric changes in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients and 16 healthy controls underwent electroencephalographic recordings and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. During electroencephalographic recordings, participants passively viewed neutral or fearful faces with broad, high, or low spatial frequency characteristics. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate brain volume correlates of visual processing deficits. Event related potential analysis suggested that patients with schizophrenia had relatively impaired P100 processing of low spatial frequency fearful face stimuli compared with healthy controls; patients' gray-matter volumes in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices positively correlated with this amplitude. In addition, patients' gray-matter volume in the right cuneus positively correlated with the P100 amplitude in the left hemisphere for the high spatial frequency neutral face condition and that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex negatively correlated with the negative score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No significant correlations were observed in healthy controls. This study suggests that the cuneus and prefrontal cortex are significantly involved with the early visual processing of magnocellular input in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26730192

  12. Detrended cross-correlations between returns, volatility, trading activity, and volume traded for the stock market companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Rafał; Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł

    2015-11-01

    We consider a few quantities that characterize trading on a stock market in a fixed time interval: logarithmic returns, volatility, trading activity (i.e., the number of transactions), and volume traded. We search for the power-law cross-correlations among these quantities aggregated over different time units from 1 min to 10 min. Our study is based on empirical data from the American stock market consisting of tick-by-tick recordings of 31 stocks listed in Dow Jones Industrial Average during the years 2008–2011. Since all the considered quantities except the returns show strong daily patterns related to the variable trading activity in different parts of a day, which are the most evident in the autocorrelation function, we remove these patterns by detrending before we proceed further with our study. We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis with sign preserving (MFCCA) and show that the strongest power-law cross-correlations exist between trading activity and volume traded, while the weakest ones exist (or even do not exist) between the returns and the remaining quantities. We also show that the strongest cross-correlations are carried by those parts of the signals that are characterized by large and medium variance. Our observation that the most convincing power-law cross-correlations occur between trading activity and volume traded reveals the existence of strong fractal-like coupling between these quantities.

  13. Early visual processing for low spatial frequency fearful face is correlated with cortical volume in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Gewnhi; Song, Myeong Ju; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present with dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway, which might impair their early visual processing. We explored the relationship between functional abnormality of early visual processing and brain volumetric changes in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients and 16 healthy controls underwent electroencephalographic recordings and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. During electroencephalographic recordings, participants passively viewed neutral or fearful faces with broad, high, or low spatial frequency characteristics. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate brain volume correlates of visual processing deficits. Event related potential analysis suggested that patients with schizophrenia had relatively impaired P100 processing of low spatial frequency fearful face stimuli compared with healthy controls; patients’ gray-matter volumes in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices positively correlated with this amplitude. In addition, patients’ gray-matter volume in the right cuneus positively correlated with the P100 amplitude in the left hemisphere for the high spatial frequency neutral face condition and that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex negatively correlated with the negative score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No significant correlations were observed in healthy controls. This study suggests that the cuneus and prefrontal cortex are significantly involved with the early visual processing of magnocellular input in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26730192

  14. Electromagnetically induced holographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Xia, Lixin; Ma, Hongyang; Zheng, Chunhong; Chen, Libo

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect offers a nondestructive and lensless way to image ultracold atoms or molecules (Wen et al., 2011 [12]). In this paper, we propose another atomic imaging scheme based on the holographic imaging principle, in which three types of light source are employed as the imaging light to perform spatial interference. Compared to the previous self-imaging scheme, in the present one both the amplitude and phase information of the object can be imaged with the characteristic of arbitrarily controllable image variation in size, and the object to be imaged is no longer subject to the periodic structure.

  15. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  16. Holographic model of hadronization.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well. PMID:18518189

  17. Holographic Model of Hadronization

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew

    2008-04-25

    We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.

  18. Holographic superconductor with disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aren, D.; Farahi, A.; Pando Zayas, L. A.; Landea, I. Salazar; Scardicchio, A.

    2014-05-01

    We study the effects of disorder on a holographic superconductor by introducing a random chemical potential on the boundary. We consider various realizations of disorder and find that the critical temperature for superconductivity is enhanced. We also present evidence for a precise form of renormalization in this system. Namely, when the random chemical potential is characterized by a Fourier spectrum of the form k-2? we find that the spectra of the condensate and the charge density are again power laws, whose exponents are accurately and universally governed by linear functions of ?.

  19. Biopolymer holographic diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi? evi?, Svetlana; Panteli?, Dejan

    2008-03-01

    Surface-relief diffraction gratings are holographically recorded in dextran sensitized with ammonium dichromate (DCD). DCD was exposed with single-frequency 200 mW diode pumped ND-YAG laser, at 532 nm. The diffraction grating profiles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that different surface profiles could be obtained. Gratings with 330 lines/mm spatial frequencies were made. Existence of higher harmonics in Fourier Transform of non-sinusoidal profiles shows that DCD is capable of recording spatial frequencies up to 1320 lines/mm (four times fundamental frequency). The measured maximum relief depth of the DCD grating is 402 nm.

  20. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    PubMed

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160

  1. Digital holographic confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Psaltis, Demetri

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a scanning confocal microscopy technique based on digital holographic recording of the scanned spot. The data collected in this way contains all the information to produce three-dimensional images. Several methods to treat the data are presented, such as the dynamic placement of the pinhole. Examples of reflection and transmission images of epithelial cells and mouse brain tissue are shown. The computations can be performed in real time, the speed being limited only by the frame rate of the camera. This method enables a convenient implementation of confocal microscopy, especially in transmission as no de-scan device is required.

  2. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small. PMID:22772106

  3. Characteristics of a dynamic holographic sensor for shape control of a large reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Cox, David E.

    1991-01-01

    Design of a distributed holographic interferometric sensor for measuring the surface displacement of a large segmented reflector is proposed. The reflector's surface is illuminated by laser light of two wavelengths and volume holographic gratings are formed in photorefractive crystals of the wavefront returned from the surface. The sensor is based on holographic contouring with a multiple frequency source. It is shown that the most stringent requirement of temporal stability affects both the temporal resolution and the dynamic range. Principal factor which limit the sensor performance include the response time of photorefractive crystal, laser power required to write a hologram, and the size of photorefractive crystal.

  4. Two-step phase-shifting fluorescence incoherent holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Yao, Hai; Qu, Xinghua; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence holographic microscope (FINCHSCOPE) is a motionless fluorescence holographic imaging technique based on Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) that shows promise in reconstructing three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens with three holograms. We report a developing two-step phase-shifting method that reduces the required number of holograms from three to two. Using this method, we resolved microscopic fluorescent beads that were three-dimensionally distributed at different depths with two interferograms captured by a CCD camera. The method enables the FINCHSCOPE to work in conjunction with the frame-straddling technique and significantly enhance imaging speed. PMID:24972355

  5. Son-Yamamoto relation and holographic renormalization group flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinkin, O.; Gorsky, A.; Milekhin, A.

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the Son-Yamamoto (SY) relation, which connects the three-point and two-point correlators, we consider the holographic renormalization group (RG) flows in the bottom-up approach to holographic QCD via the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with respect to the radial coordinate. It is shown that the SY relation is diagonal with respect to the RG flow in the 5D Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons model, while the RG equation acquires an inhomogeneous term in the model with an additional scalar field, which encodes the chiral condensate.

  6. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Digital particle holographic system for measurements of spray field characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Kang, Bo-seon

    2011-11-01

    A digital particle holographic system for measurements of spray fields is presented. A double exposure hologram recording system with a synchronization system for time control is established, resulting in digital holograms that can be quickly recorded. To process recorded holograms, the correlation coefficient method is used for focal plane determination of particles. To remove noise and improve the quality of holograms and reconstructed images, a Wiener filter is adopted. The two-threshold and image segmentation methods are used for binary image transformation. For particle pairing, the match probability method is adopted. The proposed system is applied to a spray field, and three-dimensional velocities and sizes of spray droplets are measured. Measurement results from the digital holographic system are compared to those made by laser instruments, which prove the feasibility of the proposed in-line digital particle holographic system as a good measurement tool for spray droplets.

  8. Holographic Labeling And Reading Machine For Authentication And Security Appications

    DOEpatents

    Weber, David C.; Trolinger, James D.

    1999-07-06

    A holographic security label and automated reading machine for marking and subsequently authenticating any object such as an identification badge, a pass, a ticket, a manufactured part, or a package is described. The security label is extremely difficult to copy or even to read by unauthorized persons. The system comprises a holographic security label that has been created with a coded reference wave, whose specification can be kept secret. The label contains information that can be extracted only with the coded reference wave, which is derived from a holographic key, which restricts access of the information to only the possessor of the key. A reading machine accesses the information contained in the label and compares it with data stored in the machine through the application of a joint transform correlator, which is also equipped with a reference hologram that adds additional security to the procedure.

  9. Neuroanatomical correlates of the sense of control: Gray and white matter volumes associated with an internal locus of control.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-10-01

    A belief that effort is rewarded can develop incentive, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy. Individuals with such a belief attribute causes of events to themselves, not to external, uncontrollable factors, and are thus said to have an internal locus of control. An internal locus of control is a positive personality trait and has been thoroughly studied in applied psychology, but has not been widely examined in neuroscience. In the present study, correlations between locus of control assessment scores and brain volumes were examined in 777 healthy young adults using magnetic resonance imaging. A whole-brain multiple regression analysis with corrections for the effects of age, gender, and intelligence was conducted. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and anterior insula positively correlated with higher scores, which indicate an internal LOC. In addition, white matter volumes in the striatum showed significant correlations with an internal locus of control. These results suggest that cognitive, socioemotional, self-regulatory, and reward systems might be associated with internal control orientation. The finding of greater volumes in several brain regions in individuals with a stronger internal locus of control indicates that there is a neuroanatomical basis for the belief that one's efforts are rewarded. PMID:26123375

  10. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  11. Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Sayan; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Nandi, Poulami; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-02-01

    We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2 + 1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic setup, through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a (3 + 1) dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a massive charged scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2 + 1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature are then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.

  12. Intellectual property in holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of patents and patent applications on holographic interferometry, and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic interferometry were uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and Korean Patent Office for the time frame from 1971 through May 2006. The patent analysis unveils trends in patent temporal distribution, patent families formation, significant technological coverage within the market of system that employ holographic interferometry and other interesting insights.

  13. Holographic Solar Photon Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to incorporate holographic optical elements into solar photon thrusters (SPTs). First suggested in 1990, SPTs would be systems of multiple reflective, emissive, and absorptive surfaces (solar sails) that would be attached to spacecraft orbiting the Earth to derive small propulsive forces from radiation pressures. An SPT according to the proposal would include, among other things, a main sail. One side of the sail would be highly emissive and would normally face away from the Earth. The other side would be reflective and would be covered by white-light holographic images that would alternately become reflective, transmissive, and absorptive with small changes in the viewing angle. When the spacecraft was at a favorable orbital position, the main sail would be oriented to reflect sunlight in a direction to maximize the solar thrust; when not in a favorable position, the main sail would be oriented to present a substantially absorptive/emissive aspect to minimize the solar drag. By turning the main sail slightly to alternate between the reflective and absorptive/ emissive extremes, one could achieve nearly a doubling or halving of the radiational momentum transfer and, hence, of the solar thrust.

  14. Engineering holographic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2012-09-24

    We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.

  15. Antisymmetric tensors in holographic approaches to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, Luigi; Cata, Oscar; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo

    2010-11-01

    We study real (massive) antisymmetric tensors of rank two in holographic models of QCD based on the gauge/string duality. Our aim is to understand in detail how the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence describes correlators with tensor currents in QCD. To this end we study a set of bootstrapped correlators with spin-1 vector and tensor currents, imposing matching to QCD at the partonic level. We show that a consistent description of this set of correlators yields a very predictive picture. For instance, it imposes strong constraints on infrared boundary conditions and precludes the introduction of dilatonic backgrounds as a mechanism to achieve linear confinement. Additionally, correlators with tensor currents turn out to be especially sensitive to chiral symmetry breaking, thus offering an ideal testing ground for genuine QCD effects. Several phenomenological consequences are explored, such as the nontrivial interplay between 1{sup +-} states and conventional 1{sup --} vector mesons.

  16. Correcting Correlations When Predicting Success in College. IR Applications. Volume 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, Joe L.; Eimers, Mardy T.

    2011-01-01

    Critics of testing for admission purposes cite the moderate correlations of admissions test scores with success in college. In response, this study applies formulas from classical measurement theory to observed correlations to correct for restricted variances in predictor and success variables. Estimates of the correlations in the population of

  17. Novel Aspects of Holographic Technologies and Applications Based on New Stationary and Dynamic Holographic Recording Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Irina

    2002-06-01

    This report results from a contract tasking of the Ioffe Institute as follows: Historically Russian holographic research laboratories developed many unique materials having no analogs in other countries. This effort leverages that expertise and investigates two aspects related to correction of distortion of laser communications signals: 1. Development of the technique for compensation of atmospheric distortions in laser communication systems by means of dynamic holograms. We expect that depending upon the chosen holographic medium the following operational characteristics are attainable: Duration of a write/read/erase cycle - 1.0 msecond; Quality of correction - 80%; Improvement of the signal to noise ratio - 90%. The device will be automatic, real-time and reliable. 2. Development of a new holographic material based on self-developing dichromated colloids, for recording of stationary volume holograms. This task will include measurement of the optical effects caused by photo induced structural changes and hopes to achieve a resolution of up to 5000 l/mm and sensitivity down to 100 mJ/cm2.

  18. Determination of correlation between backflow volume and mitral valve leaflet young modulus from two dimensional echocardiogram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Osman, Kahar; Adib, M. Azrul Hisham M.

    2012-06-01

    Mitral valve prolapse without proper monitoring might lead to a severe mitral valve failure which eventually leads to a sudden death. Additional information on the mitral valve leaflet condition against the backflow volume would be an added advantage to the medical practitioner for their decision on the patients' treatment. A study on two dimensional echocardiography images has been conducted and the correlations between the backflow volume of the mitral regurgitation and mitral valve leaflet Young modulus have been obtained. Echocardiogram images were analyzed on the aspect of backflow volume percentage and mitral valve leaflet dimensions on different rates of backflow volume. Young modulus values for the mitral valve leaflet were obtained by using the principle of elastic deflection and deformation on the mitral valve leaflet. The results show that the backflow volume increased with the decrease of the mitral valve leaflet Young modulus which also indicate the condition of the mitral valve leaflet approaching failure at high backflow volumes. Mitral valve leaflet Young modulus values obtained in this study agreed with the healthy mitral valve leaflet Young modulus from the literature. This is an initial overview of the trend on the prediction of the behaviour between the fluid and the structure of the blood and the mitral valve which is extendable to a larger system of prediction on the mitral valve leaflet condition based on the available echocardiogram images.

  19. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  20. Holographic microscopy studies of emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic microscopy system that records and observes the dynamic properties of separation of dispersed immiscible fluids is described. The holographic construction system and reconstruction system that were used to obtain particle size and distribution information from the holograms are discussed. The holographic microscopy system is used to observed the phase separating processes in immiscible fluids that were isothermally cooled into the two phase region. Nucleation, growth rates, coalescence, and particle motion are successfully demonstrated with this system. Thus a holographic particle sizing system with a resolution of 2 micrometers and a field of view of 100 cu cm was developed that provides the capability of testing the theories of separating immiscible fluids for particle number densities in the range of 10 to 10 to the 7th power particles.

  1. Adventures in holographic dimer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  2. Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  3. Holographic Superconductivity in M Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Sonner, Julian; Wiseman, Toby

    2009-10-09

    Using seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces we construct solutions of D=11 supergravity that are holographically dual to superconductors in three spacetime dimensions. Our numerical results indicate a new zero temperature solution dual to a quantum critical point.

  4. Correlation of the Peach Springs Tuff, a large-volume Miocene ignimbrite sheet in California and Arizona ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glazner, A.F.; Nielson, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Miller, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Peach Springs Tuff is a distinctive early Miocene ignimbrite deposit that was first recognized in western Arizona. Recent field studies and phenocryst analyses indicate that adjacent outcrops of similar tuff in the central and eastern Mojave Desert may be correlative. This proposed correlation implies that outcrops of the tuff are scattered over an area of at least 35 000 km2 from the western Colorado Plateau to Barstow, California, and that the erupted volume, allowing for posteruption crustal extension, was at least several hundred cubic kilometres. Thus, the Peach Springs Tuff may be a regional stratigraphic marker, useful for determining regional paleogeography and the time and extent of Tertiary crustal extension. -Authors

  5. Stability of holographic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2010-10-15

    We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.

  6. Causality & holographic entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Lawrence, Albion; Rangamani, Mukund

    2014-12-01

    We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.

  7. Holographic Recording Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.

  8. Mach's holographic principle

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-10-15

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  9. Holographic Vortex Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palacios, David

    2010-01-01

    A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.

  10. Holographic tunneling wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Gabriele; Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Hartle-Hawking wave function in cosmology can be viewed as a decaying wave function with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions. We show that the growing wave function in AdS familiar from Euclidean AdS/CFT is equivalent, semiclassically and up to surface terms, to the tunneling wave function in cosmology. The cosmological measure in the tunneling state is given by the partition function of certain relevant deformations of CFTs on a locally AdS boundary. We compute the partition function of finite constant mass deformations of the O( N ) vector model on the round three sphere and show this qualitatively reproduces the behaviour of the tunneling wave function in Einstein gravity coupled to a positive cosmological constant and a massive scalar. We find the amplitudes of inhomogeneities are not damped in the holographic tunneling state.

  11. A Holographic Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    In the Fall of '87 Rudie Berkhout and myself started a very intense and fruitful collaboration producing a series of holographic art pieces that were experimental but that reflected our different artistic sensibilities. The masters were made in my portrait studio in the Museum of Holography in New York using a pulse laser and later transferred in my Long Island City Studio. These pieces were shown at the Holocenter in 2009 and poignantly, it was the last show that Rudie had while he was alive. My paper details the process of an artistic collaboration, its pitfalls and advantages, its conflicts and compromises. It will illuminate the creative process that from two separate and very different streams melded into beautiful and evocative art.

  12. Dissecting holographic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Richard A.; Goutraux, Blaise

    2015-09-01

    The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.

  13. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Modelflow Estimates of Stroke Volume Do Not Correlate With Doppler Ultrasound Estimates During Upright Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Laurie, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance affects 60-80% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions, representing a significant risk to completing mission-critical tasks. While likely multifactorial, a reduction in stroke volume (SV) represents one factor contributing to orthostatic intolerance during stand and head up tilt (HUT) tests. Current measures of SV during stand or HUT tests use Doppler ultrasound and require a trained operator and specialized equipment, restricting its use in the field. BeatScope (Finapres Medical Systems BV, The Netherlands) uses a modelflow algorithm to estimate SV from continuous blood pressure waveforms in supine subjects; however, evidence supporting the use of Modelflow to estimate SV in subjects completing stand or HUT tests remain scarce. Furthermore, because the blood pressure device is held extended at heart level during HUT tests, but allowed to rest at the side during stand tests, changes in the finger arterial pressure waveform resulting from arm positioning could alter modelflow estimated SV. The purpose of this project was to compare Doppler ultrasound and BeatScope estimations of SV to determine if BeatScope can be used during stand or HUT tests. Finger photoplethysmography was used to acquire arterial pressure waveforms corrected for hydrostatic finger-to-heart height using the Finometer (FM) and Portapres (PP) arterial pressure devices in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) during a stand test while simultaneous estimates of SV were collected using Doppler ultrasound. Measures were made after 5 minutes of supine rest and while subjects stood for 5 minutes. Next, SV estimates were reacquired while each arm was independently raised to heart level, a position similar to tilt testing. Supine SV estimates were not significantly different between all three devices (FM: 68+/-20, PP: 71+/-21, US: 73+/-21 ml/beat). Upon standing, the change in SV estimated by FM (-18+/-8 ml) was not different from PP (-21+/-12), but both were significantly less than US (-37+/-16 ml, p<.05). Raising finger BP devices to heart level caused no significant change in SV measured with any of the devices (FM: 1.5+/-19, PP: 1.7+/-26, US: 0.5+/-6), although variability was 3-6x greater as assessed by both blood pressure devices compared to US. Retrospective analysis of blood pressure data to assess SV in 11 supine subjects revealed significantly different estimates between methods (FM: 95+/-17, US: 75+/-32, p<.05), but the change in SV resulting from HUT was similar between methods (FM: -37+/-9, US: -40+/-18 ml). However, the correlation coefficient determined from pairs of SV estimated by US and FM was weak (r2=0.03). These data suggest Modelflow cannot be used in lieu of Doppler ultrasound to estimate SV during stand or HUT tests. Further investigation should focus on identifying factors contributing to differences between these measurement techniques in order to make use of a simple method for assessing beat-by-beat changes in SV during postural changes, especially during field testing.

  15. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 4: Correlation analysis software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software utilized for image correction accuracy measurement is described. The correlation analysis program is written to allow the user various tools to analyze different correlation algorithms. The algorithms were tested using LANDSAT imagery in two different spectral bands. Three classification algorithms are implemented.

  16. Sub-50nm extreme ultraviolet holographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, P. W.; Marconi, M. C.; Bartels, R. A.; Menoni, C. S.; Rocca, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    Imaging tools for nanoscicence involving sub-100-nm scale objects have been dominated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). These imaging techniques have contributed substantially to the development of nanoscience, providing a very powerful diagnostic tool capable of obtaining images with atomic resolution or as a subsidiary mechanism to arrange or modify surfaces also at the atomic scale [1,2]. However, some important problems have persisted traditional nanoscale imaging techniques. For example when scanning a nanometer size object that is not attached rigidly to a surface the interaction with the tip significantly perturbs the specimen degrading or eventually precluding the image acquisition. Electron microscopy often requires surface preparation, consisting of metallization of the sample to avoid surface charging. Additionally the metallization of the sample may alter its characteristics and also limits the resolution. In both cases, if the sample is large (millimeters in size) due to the limited field of view, the image obtained with these conventional methods is only representative of a very small portion of the object. Wavelength-limited holographic imaging using carbon nanotubes as the test object with a table-top extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser operating at 46.9 nm will be discussed. The resolution achieved in this imaging is evaluated with a rigorous correlation image analysis and confirmed with the conventional knife-edge test. The nano-holography presented requires no optics or critical beam alignment; thus the hologram recording scheme is very simple and does not need special sample preparation. In holography, image contrast requires absorption to provide scattering by the illuminating beam. The EUV laser wavelength employed in this experiment (46.9nm) is advantageous because carbon based materials typically exhibit very small attenuation lengths, around 25 nm. The high absorption of even small object volumes produces high optical contrasts. The short attenuation length thus enables nearly full contrast for most objects without applying forces to the imaged objects, no charge buildup, and without the need for complicated sample preparation. Additionally this simple technique allows to image macroscopic size objects, several millimeters square with arbitrary shape while simultaneously sustaining across the image sub-50 nm spatial resolution. This characteristic is equivalent to storing data at a density rate of ~0.3 Tbit per square inch over large areas, and represents a simple demonstration of a method that allows permanently dense storage of a large amount of data.

  17. Volume flow calculations on gas leaks imaged with infrared gas-correlation.

    PubMed

    Sandsten, Jonas; Andersson, Martin

    2012-08-27

    Two methods for volume flow calculation from images of methane leakages to the atmosphere are presented. The images contain calibrated gas concentration path length pixel information, and are processed with a block matching method and a theoretical velocity field method. Results from known methane flow in two laboratory setups and one unknown real leakage from a gas processing plant are compared with the image processing methods. The methods are generic and can be implemented in common infrared systems for gas visualization. This work provides a new tool for estimating and reporting volume flow emissions from gas processing plants to the authorities. PMID:23037083

  18. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  19. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min

  20. Neural correlates of the good life: eudaimonic well-being is associated with insular cortex volume

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint; Bates, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Eudaimonic well-being reflects traits concerned with personal growth, self-acceptance, purpose in life and autonomy (among others) and is a substantial predictor of life events, including health. Although interest in the aetiology of eudaimonic well-being has blossomed in recent years, little is known of the underlying neural substrates of this construct. To address this gap in our knowledge, here we examined whether regional gray matter (GM) volume was associated with eudaimonic well-being. Structural magnetic resonance images from 70 young, healthy adults who also completed Ryffs 42-item measure of the six core facets of eudaimonia, were analysed with voxel-based morphometry techniques. We found that eudaimonic well-being was positively associated with right insular cortex GM volume. This association was also reflected in three of the sub-scales of eudaimonia: personal growth, positive relations and purpose in life. Positive relations also showed a significant association with left insula volume. No other significant associations were observed, although personal growth was marginally associated with left insula, and purpose in life exhibited a marginally significant negative association with middle temporal gyrus GM volume. These findings are the first to our knowledge linking eudaimonic well-being with regional brain structure. PMID:23512932

  1. Reusable holographic velocimetry system based on polarization multiplexing in bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koek, W. D.; Chan, V. S. S.; Ooms, T. A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Westerweel, J.; Braat, J. J. M.

    2005-04-01

    We present a novel holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) system using a reversible holographic material as the recording medium. In HPIV the three-dimensional flow field throughout a volume is detected by adding small tracer particles to a normally transparent medium. By recording the particle distribution twice with a known time shift the displacement and the velocity of the tracer particles can be retrieved. From this information the instantaneous three-dimensional flow field can be found. Our measurement system records double exposure particle holograms in a film based on the photo-chromic protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Polarization multiplexing is used to separate the two constituent holograms. We believe it is the first time that this type of multiplexing is used in (particle) velocimetry measurements. By using a polarization sensitive material we are able to simplify our setup and increase the storage capacity of our holographic medium. BR is a fully reversible recording material that does not require any chemical processing. This allows for fast experiments that require minimal operator involvement. A full measurement cycle can typically be completed within several minutes. We present our experimental system in detail and we will discuss how the material and optical properties of BR affect the holographic recording system. We will point out the advantages, disadvantages, and practical issues involved when working with BR.

  2. Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.

  3. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anes, Mauricio; Kohmann, Andre de Moura; Souza, Ana Claudia Mércio Loredo; Brun, Juliana Basso; Peters, Roberta; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Kapczinski, Flavio; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Zeni, Cristian Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder). We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD. PMID:26075097

  4. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mlder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Hrknen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjrloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. PMID:25637284

  5. Is decreased ventricular volume a correlate of positive clinical outcome following shunt placement in cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus?

    PubMed

    Meier, U; Paris, S; Grwe, A; Stockheim, D; Hajdukova, A; Mutze, S

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that in patients with communicating hydrocephalus or normal pressure hydrocephalus, ventricular volume decreases following implantation of differential pressure valved shunts. Hydrostatic valves (Miethke dual-switch valves) were implanted in 60 normal pressure hydrocephalus patients at Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin between September 1997 and September 2001. One year postoperatively, these patients underwent CT scan, and their ventricular size was ascertained using the Evans index. Although 77% of these patients showed no postoperative change in ventricular volume, 65% nonetheless showed good to excellent clinical improvement, 13% satisfactory improvement and 22% no improvement. A moderate reduction in ventricular size was observed in 17% of the patients in our cohort. 40% of these patients showed good to excellent clinical improvement, 20% satisfactory improvement, and 40% unsatisfactory improvement. A marked reduction in ventricular size was observed in 6% of our patients. Of these latter patients, 50% showed good to excellent outcomes, while 50% had unsatisfactory outcomes. The favorable outcomes following implantation of a hydrostatic shunt in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus did not correlate with decreased ventricular volume one year after operation. Better clinical outcomes were observed in patients with little or no alteration in ventricular size than in patients with a marked decrease in ventricular size. Postoperative change in ventricular volume should be assessed differently for patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus than in patients with hypertensive hydrocephalus. PMID:14753501

  6. Holographic lithography for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.

    2012-06-01

    Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels

  7. Holographic framework for eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2006-10-15

    In this paper we provide some circumstantial evidence for a holographic duality between bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating universe and a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT). The holographic correspondence (which is different than Strominger's de Sitter (dS)/CFT duality) relates the decay of (3+1)-dimensional de Sitter space to a two-dimensional CFT. It is not associated with pure de Sitter space, but rather with Coleman-De Luccia bubble nucleation. Alternatively, it can be thought of as a holographic description of the open, infinite, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology that results from such a bubble. The conjectured holographic representation is of a new type that combines holography with the Wheeler-DeWitt formalism to produce a Wheeler-DeWitt theory that lives on the spatial boundary of a k=-1 FRW cosmology. We also argue for a more ambitious interpretation of the Wheeler-DeWitt CFT as a holographic dual of the entire Landscape.

  8. Structure and Dimensions of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Comparable to the Confocal Volume Studied by Means of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gapinski, Jacek; Jarzębski, Maciej; Buitenhuis, Johan; Deptula, Tobiasz; Mazuryk, Jaroslaw; Patkowski, Adam

    2016-03-15

    In some applications the dye distribution within fluorescently labeled nanoparticles and its stability over long periods of time are important issues. In this article we study numerically and experimentally the applicability of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to resolve such questions. When the size of fluorescently labeled particles is comparable to or larger than the confocal volume, the effective confocal volume seen in FCS experiments is increasing. Such an effect has already been studied for uniformly labeled spherical particles. In this work we analyze the form of the FCS correlation functions (CFs) for core-labeled and shell-labeled core-shell particles. For shell-labeled particles an additional fast decay was found both in simulations and in experiments on custom-made surface-labeled particles. Universal scaling of FCS correlation times based on the squared ratio of the labeled part radius of gyration to the Gaussian radius of the beam profile was found. Recipes based on the analysis of simulated CFs, proposed for interpretation of experimental results, were successfully applied to the FCS results on suspensions of large core-labeled and surface-labeled particles. PMID:26894549

  9. Mechanical durability of polymeric coatings studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy: correlation between cyclic loading and free volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Peng, Q.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, R.; Mallon, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Richardson, J. R.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Jean, Y. C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.

    2002-06-01

    The mechanical durability of seven commercially polymeric coatings is investigated using slow positron beam techniques to monitor changes in sub-nanometer defects during the process of cyclic loading. Doppler broadened energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were performed as a function of the slow positron energy at different periods of cycling loading. The positron annihilation dada show that both S-defect parameter and o-positronium (Ps) lifetime decrease as the loading cycle increases. The results indicate a loss of free volumes due to the loss of mechanical durability by cyclic loading. A direct correlation between the loss of S-defect parameter and the period of loading cycle is observed. This is interpreted as that durability of polymeric coatings is controlled by the atomic level free volumes. It is shown that the slow positron beam is a very successful probe in detecting the very early stages of coating degradation due to mechanical processes.

  10. Correlation between target volume and electron transport effects affecting heterogeneity corrections in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akino, Yuichi; Das, Indra J.; Cardenes, Higinia R.; Desrosiers, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer is conducted with heterogeneity-corrected treatment plans, as the correction greatly affects the dose delivery to the lung tumor. In this study, the correlation between the planning target volume (PTV) and the dose delivery is investigated by separation of the heterogeneity correction effects into photon attenuation and electron transport. Under Institutional Review Board exemption status, 74 patients with lung cancer who were treated with SBRT were retrospectively evaluated. All treatment plans were generated using an anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) of an Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) treatment planning system. Two additional plans were created using the same treatment parameters (monitor units, beam angles and energy): a plan with no heterogeneity correction (NC), and a plan calculated with a pencil beam convolution algorithm (PBC). Compared with NC, AAA and PBC isocenter doses were on average 13.4% and 21.8% higher, respectively. The differences in the isocenter dose and the dose coverage for 95% of the PTV (D95%) between PBC and AAA were correlated logarithmically (ρ = 0.78 and ρ = 0.46, respectively) with PTV. Although D95% calculated with AAA was in general 2.9% larger than that for NC, patients with a small PTV showed a negative ΔD95% for AAA due to the significant effect of electron transport. The PTV volume shows logarithmic correlation with the effects of the lateral electron transport. These findings indicate that the dosimetric metrics and prescription, especially in clinical trials, should be clearly evaluated in the context of target volume characteristics and with proper heterogeneity correction. PMID:24522269

  11. Holographic thought experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marolf, Donald

    2009-01-15

    The Hamiltonian of classical anti-de Sitter gravity is a pure boundary term on-shell. If this remains true in nonperturbative quantum gravity then (i) boundary observables will evolve unitarily in time and (ii) the algebra of boundary observables is the same at all times. In particular, information available at the boundary at any one time t{sub 1} remains available at any other time t{sub 2}. Since there is also a sense in which the equations of motion propagate information into the bulk, these observations raise what may appear to be potential paradoxes concerning simultaneous (or spacelike separated) measurements of noncommuting observables, one at the asymptotic boundary and one in the interior. We argue that such potentially paradoxical settings always involve a breakdown of semiclassical gravity. In particular, we present evidence that making accurate holographic measurements over short time scales radically alters the familiar notion of causality. We also describe certain less intrinsically paradoxical settings which illustrate the above boundary unitarity and render the notion more concrete.

  12. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K.; Peet, Amanda W.

    2015-08-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D =4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS4 , a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parametrized by a disorder strength V and a characteristic scale k0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged dc conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k0 . We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged dc conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for holographic lattices.

  13. Holographic thought experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of classical anti-de Sitter gravity is a pure boundary term on-shell. If this remains true in nonperturbative quantum gravity then (i) boundary observables will evolve unitarily in time and (ii) the algebra of boundary observables is the same at all times. In particular, information available at the boundary at any one time t1 remains available at any other time t2. Since there is also a sense in which the equations of motion propagate information into the bulk, these observations raise what may appear to be potential paradoxes concerning simultaneous (or spacelike separated) measurements of noncommuting observables, one at the asymptotic boundary and one in the interior. We argue that such potentially paradoxical settings always involve a breakdown of semiclassical gravity. In particular, we present evidence that making accurate holographic measurements over short time scales radically alters the familiar notion of causality. We also describe certain less intrinsically paradoxical settings which illustrate the above boundary unitarity and render the notion more concrete.

  14. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lpez, S.; Lecona-Snchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vzquez, C.; Olivares-Prez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  15. Holographic Characterization of Protein Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David B; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura A; Ward, Michael D; Grier, David G

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how holographic video microscopy can be used to detect, count, and characterize individual micrometer-scale protein aggregates as they flow down a microfluidic channel in their native buffer. Holographic characterization directly measures the radius and refractive index of subvisible protein aggregates and offers insights into their morphologies. The measurement proceeds fast enough to build up population averages for time-resolved studies and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. Information on individual particle's refractive indexes can be used to differentiate protein aggregates from such contaminants as silicone droplets. These capabilities are demonstrated through measurements on samples of bovine pancreas insulin aggregated through centrifugation and of bovine serum albumin aggregated by complexation with a polyelectrolyte. Differentiation is demonstrated with samples that have been spiked with separately characterized silicone spheres. Holographic characterization measurements are compared with results obtained with microflow imaging and dynamic light scattering. PMID:26886303

  16. Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: Raphael.Flauger@yale.edu E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl

    2011-09-01

    In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ?CDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ?CDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ?CDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.

  17. Holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Buchel, Alex; Yarom, Amos

    2005-09-15

    We perform a holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories. Specifically, we find the counterterms that need to be added to the gravitational action of the backgrounds dual to the cascading theory of Klebanov and Tseytlin, compactified on an arbitrary four-manifold, in order to obtain finite correlation functions (with a limited set of sources). We show that it is possible to truncate the action for deformations of this background to a five-dimensional system coupling together the metric and four scalar fields. Somewhat surprisingly, despite the fact that these theories involve an infinite number of high-energy degrees of freedom, we find finite answers for all one-point functions (including the conformal anomaly). We compute explicitly the renormalized stress tensor for the cascading gauge theories at high temperature and show how our finite answers are consistent with the infinite number of degrees of freedom. Finally, we discuss ambiguities appearing in the holographic renormalization we propose for the cascading gauge theories; our finite results for the one-point functions have some ambiguities in curved space (including the conformal anomaly) but not in flat space.

  18. Diabetes screening by telecentric digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Doblas, A; Roche, E; Ampudia-Blasco, F J; Martnez-Corral, M; Saavedra, G; Garcia-Sucerquia, J

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is currently the world's fastest growing chronic disease and it is caused by deficient production of insulin by the endocrine pancreas or by abnormal insulin action in peripheral tissues. This results in persistent hyperglycaemia that over time may produce chronic diabetic complications. Determination of glycated haemoglobin level is currently the gold standard method to evaluate and control sustained hyperglycaemia in diabetic people. This measurement is currently made by high-performance liquid chromatography, which is a complex chemical process that requires the extraction of blood from the antecubital vein. To reduce the complexity of that measurement, we propose a fully-optical technique that is based in the fact that there are changes in the optical properties of erythrocytes due to the presence of glucose-derived adducts in the haemoglobin molecule. To evaluate these changes, we propose to perform quantitative phase maps of erythrocytes by using telecentric digital holographic microscopy. Our experiments show that telecentric digital holographic microscopy allows detecting, almost in real time and from a single drop of blood, significant differences between erythrocytes of diabetic patients and healthy patients. Besides, our phase measurements are well correlated with the values of glycated haemoglobin and the blood glucose values. PMID:26501512

  19. Applying holographic particle image velocimetry to sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Khushwant

    2010-12-01

    Measuring the velocity field of dispersed flows is of major importance in many applications, such as sprays and particle-laden jets. Traditional particle image velocimetry (PIV) setup is common in laboratories but it is limited to planar measurements. The objective of the present study was to conduct velocity measurements for sprays using HPIV. The present study involved extension of present holographic PIV method to spray fields. The present optical setup is based on inline digital holographic microscopy. Double-pulsed holograms were recorded and reconstructed to yield many two-dimensional slices (planes) of the flow field at two time instances. A large number of focused and unfocused drops appeared in each slice resulting in a lot of noise. Thus it was required to develop new image processing subroutines which could bypass the noise and consider only the focused droplets present in each plane while rejecting the shadow of non focused droplets not present in plane. Threshold subroutines help user to decide the signal to noise ratio in final processed images from hologram. The PIV correlation was used to calculate velocity from images processed with subroutines.

  20. Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepp, Andreas; G?adysz, Szymon; Stein, Karin

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric effects significantly influence the propagation of light. Conventional adaptive optics systems, based on Shack-Hartmann sensors (SHS), work well for vertical-path propagation. However, for more challenging scenarios like horizontal-path imaging or free-space laser communications through extended-volume turbulence and strong scintillation, the bandwidth of SHS is insufficient. A promising alternative is the holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS). Our paper deals with some dependencies and limitations of the HWFS. First, we show that the sensitivity of the HWFS is highly dependent on the detector size. The smaller the detector, the more sensitive is the sensor. This has consequences in the photon-starved regime, which would naturally occur when the sensor is operated at the intended MHz speed. Second, we show that uncorrected (or residual) tip/tilt has a large impact on the accuracy of the measurement. We present experimental results of measuring an important and also easily correctable aberration, defocus, with the HWFS.

  1. Holographic Photolysis for Multiple Cell Stimulation in Mouse Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Ventalon, Cathie; Angulo, Mara Cecilia; Emiliani, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced light microscopy offers sensitive and non-invasive means to image neural activity and to control signaling with photolysable molecules and, recently, light-gated channels. These approaches require precise and yet flexible light excitation patterns. For synchronous stimulation of subsets of cells, they also require large excitation areas with millisecond and micrometric resolution. We have recently developed a new method for such optical control using a phase holographic modulation of optical wave-fronts, which minimizes power loss, enables rapid switching between excitation patterns, and allows a true 3D sculpting of the excitation volumes. In previous studies we have used holographic photololysis to control glutamate uncaging on single neuronal cells. Here, we extend the use of holographic photolysis for the excitation of multiple neurons and of glial cells. Methods/Principal Findings The system combines a liquid crystal device for holographic patterned photostimulation, high-resolution optical imaging, the HiLo microscopy, to define the stimulated regions and a conventional Ca2+ imaging system to detect neural activity. By means of electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in acute hippocampal slices, we show that the use of excitation patterns precisely tailored to the shape of multiple neuronal somata represents a very efficient way for the simultaneous excitation of a group of neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that fast shaped illumination patterns also induce reliable responses in single glial cells. Conclusions/Significance We show that the main advantage of holographic illumination is that it allows for an efficient excitation of multiple cells with a spatiotemporal resolution unachievable with other existing approaches. Although this paper focuses on the photoactivation of caged molecules, our approach will surely prove very efficient for other probes, such as light-gated channels, genetically encoded photoactivatable proteins, photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, and voltage-sensitive dyes. PMID:20195547

  2. Dentin ablation by Ho: YAG laser: correlation of energy versus volume using stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Stevens, B H; Trowbridge, H O; Harrison, G; Silverton, S F

    1994-05-01

    The future use of lasers in endodontics is dependent upon predictable and consistent ablation of dentin. In this pilot study we used an Ho:YAG laser fiberoptic delivery system to apply laser energy to prepared tooth sections in vitro. Longitudinally sectioned single-rooted human teeth were subjected to single-energy pulses varying from 25 to 1750 mJ at a focal length of 1 mm. At different energy levels we observed changes in the dentin surface ranging from minute surface pitting to the formation of large craters. Scanning electron microscopy and stereophotogrammetry were used to determine the relationship between the amount of energy applied to dentin and the extent of dentin ablation. Dentin crater formation was quantified by determining surface area, depth, and volume of craters produced. Increases in laser energy were compared with increases in surface area, depth, and volume of craters produced within the range of 150 to 1200 mJ. The Ho:YAG laser fiberoptic delivery system used in this study provides an effective means of ablating dentin. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry may prove to be a useful method for further studies on the effects of laser energy on mineralized tissues. PMID:7931017

  3. Hadron physics in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, A. B.; Lombardo, U.; Bonanno, A.

    2012-07-01

    Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting subatomic particles such as neutrons, protons, pions and others, collectively known as baryons and mesons. Physics of strong interaction is difficult. There are several approaches to understand it. However, in the recent years, an approach called, holographic QCD, based on string theory (or gauge-gravity duality) is becoming popular providing an alternative description of strong interaction physics. In this article, we aim to discuss development of strong interaction physics through QCD and string theory, leading to holographic QCD.

  4. Holographic 3D fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David C.; Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an indispensable imaging tool in modern biomedical research. Holography is well-known to have many interesting and useful imaging capabilities. But the requirement of coherent illumination has all but precluded holography as a means for fluorescence imaging, which is inherently incoherent. Recent developments in digital holography, however, including self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH), provide highly effective and versatile capabilities for 3D holographic imaging with incoherent light, that can remove the barrier between fluorescence and holography. Recent progress in holographic fluorescence microscopy is presented.

  5. Talbot multi-focal holographic fluorescence endoscopy for optically sectioned imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen Yen; Lin, Wei-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Wong, Jau-Min; Singh, Vijay Raj; Luo, Yuan

    2016-01-15

    A wide-field multi-plane endoscopic system incorporating multiplexed volume holographic gratings and Talbot illumination to simultaneously acquire optically sectioned fluorescence images of tissue structures from different depths is presented. The proposed endoscopic system is configured such that multiple Talbot-illumination planes occur inside a volumetric sample and serve as the input focal planes for the subsequent multiplexed volume holographic imaging gratings. We describe the design, implementation, and experimental data demonstrating this endoscopic system's ability to obtain optically sectioned multi-plane fluorescent images of tissue samples in wide-field fashion without scanning in lateral and axial directions. PMID:26766710

  6. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Noha M.; El-Gendy, Heba A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  7. A Critical Examination of Relative Concentrations of Volume-correlated and Surface-correlated Submicron Globules of Pure Fe-0 in Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Impacts on lunar soils produce melt and vapor in an approximate proportion of 7:1. The melt scavenges soil grains of diverse size, quenches and forms agglutinates, thereby converting surface correlated components of soil grains as volume correlated components; simultaneously, parts of the vapor may condense or escape. Cumulative small impacts increase the maturity of the soils, increase the abundance of agglutinates, and increase the concentration of vapor condensated material. Since the discovery of vapor deposited crystalline Fe-0 in vugs of regolith breccias and the theoretical anticipation of amorphous vapor deposits of diverse composition coating lunar soils grains, empirical evidence is gathering in support of such deposits, now commonly called vapor deposited patina (VDP). In addition, submicron globules of Fe-0 are seen to be ubiquitous in VDP. The amorphous VDP lowers the albedo of lunar soils, affects magnetic properties of soils, changes the slopes of uv-vis-ir reflectance spectra, and potentially also alters the gamma and x-ray spectra of lunar soils, compromising compositional inferences from remote sensing.

  8. Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms

    PubMed Central

    D'Mello, Anila M.; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical differences in the cerebellum are among the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and core ASD symptoms. The newly-emerging existence of cerebellar sensorimotor and cognitive subregions provides a new framework for interpreting the functional significance of cerebellar findings in ASD. Here we use two complementary analyses — whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the SUIT cerebellar atlas — to investigate cerebellar regional gray matter (GM) and volumetric lobular measurements in 35 children with ASD and 35 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6 years; range 8–13 years). To examine the relationships between cerebellar structure and core ASD symptoms, correlations were calculated between scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the VBM and volumetric data. Both VBM and the SUIT analyses revealed reduced GM in ASD children in cerebellar lobule VII (Crus I/II). The degree of regional and lobular gray matter reductions in different cerebellar subregions correlated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Structural differences and behavioral correlations converged on right cerebellar Crus I/II, a region which shows structural and functional connectivity with fronto-parietal and default mode networks. These results emphasize the importance of the location within the cerebellum to the potential functional impact of structural differences in ASD, and suggest that GM differences in cerebellar right Crus I/II are associated with the core ASD profile. PMID:25844317

  9. Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Anila M; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Stoodley, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical differences in the cerebellum are among the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and core ASD symptoms. The newly-emerging existence of cerebellar sensorimotor and cognitive subregions provides a new framework for interpreting the functional significance of cerebellar findings in ASD. Here we use two complementary analyses - whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the SUIT cerebellar atlas - to investigate cerebellar regional gray matter (GM) and volumetric lobular measurements in 35 children with ASD and 35 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6 years; range 8-13 years). To examine the relationships between cerebellar structure and core ASD symptoms, correlations were calculated between scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the VBM and volumetric data. Both VBM and the SUIT analyses revealed reduced GM in ASD children in cerebellar lobule VII (Crus I/II). The degree of regional and lobular gray matter reductions in different cerebellar subregions correlated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Structural differences and behavioral correlations converged on right cerebellar Crus I/II, a region which shows structural and functional connectivity with fronto-parietal and default mode networks. These results emphasize the importance of the location within the cerebellum to the potential functional impact of structural differences in ASD, and suggest that GM differences in cerebellar right Crus I/II are associated with the core ASD profile. PMID:25844317

  10. Silver Nanostructures for Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Reduced Volumes and Increased Signal Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Ray, Krishanu; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a widely used technique to investigate the interactions and dynamics of molecules, below micromolar concentrations. Silver nanostructure (AgNS) substrates can extend the applicability of FCS to higher concentrations, which is useful for many biologically relevant reactions. Additionally, these substrates can improve detection efficiency by increasing fluorescence signal intensities. The ease of preparation of the AgNS substrates in comparison to previously investigated materials prepared by top-down nanofabrication is expected to make them readily available and suitable for various FCS applications.

  11. The cosmic X-ray background-IRAS galaxy correlation and the local X-ray volume emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Lahav, Ofer; Jahoda, Keith; Boldt, Elihu

    1994-01-01

    We have cross-correlated the galaxies from the IRAS 2 Jy redshift survey sample and the 0.7 Jy projected sample with the all-sky cosmic X-ray background (CXB) map obtained from the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 A-2 experiment. We have detected a significant correlation signal between surface density of IRAS galaxies and the X-ray background intensity, with W(sub xg) = (mean value of ((delta I)(delta N)))/(mean value of I)(mean value of N)) of several times 10(exp -3). While this correlation signal has a significant implication for the contribution of the local universe to the hard (E greater than 2 keV) X-ray background, its interpretation is model-dependent. We have developed a formulation to model the cross-correlation between CXB surface brightness and galaxy counts. This includes the effects of source clustering and the X-ray-far-infrared luminosity correlation. Using an X-ray flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which has IRAS 60 micrometer measurements, we have estimated the contribution of the AGN component to the observed CXB-IRAS galaxy count correlations in order to see whether there is an excess component, i.e., contribution from low X-ray luminosity sources. We have applied both the analytical approach and Monte Carlo simulations for the estimations. Our estimate of the local X-ray volume emissivity in the 2-10 keV band is rho(sub x) approximately = (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc, consistent with the value expected from the luminosity function of AGNs alone. This sets a limit to the local volume emissivity from lower luminosity sources (e.g., star-forming galaxies, low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs)) to rho(sub x) less than or approximately = 2 x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc.

  12. LCTV Holographic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopp, Jerome

    1996-01-01

    Astronauts are required to interface with complex systems that require sophisticated displays to communicate effectively. Lightweight, head-mounted real-time displays that present holographic images for comfortable viewing may be the ideal solution. We describe an implementation of a liquid crystal television (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the display of holograms. The implementation required the solution of a complex set of problems. These include field calculations, determination of the LCTV-SLM complex transmittance characteristics and a precise knowledge of the signal mapping between the LCTV and frame grabbing board that controls it. Realizing the hologram is further complicated by the coupling that occurs between the phase and amplitude in the LCTV transmittance. A single drive signal (a gray level signal from a framegrabber) determines both amplitude and phase. Since they are not independently controllable (as is true in the ideal SLM) one must deal with the problem of optimizing (in some sense) the hologram based on this constraint. Solutions for the above problems have been found. An algorithm has been for field calculations that uses an efficient outer product formulation. Juday's MEDOF 7 (Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter) algorithm used for originally for filter calculations has been successfully adapted to handle metrics appropriate for holography. This has solved the problem of optimizing the hologram to the constraints imposed by coupling. Two laboratory methods have been developed for determining an accurate mapping of framegrabber pixels to LCTV pixels. A friendly software system has been developed that integrates the hologram calculation and realization process using a simple set of instructions. The computer code and all the laboratory measurement techniques determining SLM parameters have been proven with the production of a high quality test image.

  13. Microwave holographic imaging of aircraft with spaceborne illuminating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, R. S.; Dzekov, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual development of a method for the high angular resolution and accurate angular position estimates for the surveillance and traffic control of aircraft is considered. A target volume several hundred kilometers in diameter is illuminated by a CW microwave source located on a satellite in geosynchronous orbit. Signals are received by a large array of random, conformally located receiving elements. Each element receives the direct signal from the satellite plus signals reflected from aircraft in the illuminated volume. Coherent combination of the signals received from the individual elements permits the equivalent of holographic imaging or multiple beam formation from which the useful target data can be obtained.

  14. Right Anterior Cingulate Cortical Thickness and Bilateral Striatal Volume Correlate with CBCL Aggressive Behavior Scores in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2011-01-01

    Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Methods Data from 193 representative 618 year-old healthy children were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control (1). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site and total brain volume. Gender by AGG interactions were analyzed. Results There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r=0.238, p=0.001; left: r=0.188, p=0.01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p<0.05, corrected). High AGG scores were associated with a relatively thin right ACC cortex. An AGG by gender interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. Conclusion This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC grey matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. PMID:21531391

  15. Dynamic holographic imaging of the beating human heart

    PubMed

    Hunziker; Smith; Scherrer-Crosbie; Liel-Cohen; Levine; Nesbitt; Benton; Picard

    1999-02-01

    Background--Currently, the reporting and archiving of echocardiographic data suffer from the difficulty of representing heart motion on printable 2-dimensional (2D) media. Methods and Results--We studied the capability of holography to integrate motion into 2D echocardiographic prints. Images of normal human hearts and of a variety of mitral valve function abnormalities (mitral valve prolapse, systolic anterior motion of the mitral leaflets, and obstruction of the mitral valve by a myxoma) were acquired digitally on standard echocardiographic machines. Images were processed into a data format suitable for holographic printing. Angularly multiplexed holograms were then printed on a prototype holographic "laser" printer, with integration of time in vertical parallax, so that heart motion became visible when the hologram was tilted up and down. The resulting holograms displayed the anatomy with the same resolution as the original acquisition and allowed detailed study of valve motion with side-by-side comparison of normal and abnormal findings. Comparison of standard echocardiographic measurements in original echo frames and corresponding hologram views showed an excellent correlation of both methods (P<0.0001, r2=0.979, mean bias=2.76 mm). In this feasibility study, both 2D and 3D holographic images were produced. The equipment needed to view these holograms consists of only a simple point-light source. Conclusions--Holographic representation of myocardial and valve motion from echocardiographic data is feasible and allows the printing on a 2D medium of the complete heart cycle. Combined with the recent development of online holographic printing, this novel technique has the potential to improve reporting, visualization, and archiving of echocardiographic imaging. PMID:9950651

  16. Design of a multiplexing grating for color holographic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing; Tu, Yan; Yang, Lanlan; Wang, Lili; Wang, Baoping

    2015-12-01

    Volume holographic gratings have been used in waveguide displays to implement full-color three-dimensional imaging. Among these, multiplexing gratings are advanced in low energy losses and simple manufacture technologies when used as couplers of color hologram waveguides. A multiplexing holographic grating is designed to realize a uniform red, green, and blue diffraction efficiency and eliminate stray light to the largest extent. Results indicate that the red, green, and blue light incident normal to the grating could be successfully in-coupled into the planar waveguide for total internal reflection with high peak diffraction efficiency, similar energy output, and little stray light. We also analyze the effect of the technical tolerance, including gating thickness, index modulation, grating period, slanted angle, and incident angle. This analysis could help to minimize the optical system and improve the color image quality of waveguide displays.

  17. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% {+-} 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p <.05). When the TVRR was categorized into three groups (<60%, 60-80%, and >80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of {>=}60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  18. Holographic nondestructive testing of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckenberg, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Very small differences in laminate thickness result in interference fringes in holograph image. These indicate presence of unbonded area. Theoretical knowledge of membrane deflection may be used in conjunction with reduced number of pretest experiments to determine number of optical fringes that should appear for given laminate.

  19. Automating Digital Holographic Spray Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, David; Sallam, Khaled

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the breakup of liquid jets are of interest in many disciplines. Primary breakup along the liquid jet surface and the secondary breakup in the dense spray region drive the droplets' size and velocity distributions. Experimental techniques, such as shadowgraphy and Phase Doppler Interferometry, can be inadequate due to the limited depth of field or the restriction to spherical droplets. Holographic diagnostics have been successful in probing this dense region, providing 3D size and velocity measurements. Current digital holographic reconstruction has solved most of the problems associated with chemical development of holographic plates; however, the current methods of holographic data reduction using visual focusing is time consuming and subject to human error. The objective of the present research is to automate the process of identifying, locating, and measuring liquid droplets in the dense spray region near the liquid core. Edge detection and dynamic filtering are tested on droplets in ``cluttered'' holograms in the near injector region of an aerated liquid jet in subsonic crossflow. The results include automatic identification of the droplets' locations and velocities using particle tracking techniques.

  20. Holographic diagnostics of biological microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, Victor V.; Sokolov, Vladimir V.

    1996-05-01

    Problem of studies of biological microojects is actual one for ecology, medicine, biology. Holographic techniques are useful to solve the problem. The above microojects are transparent or semitransparent ones in a visible light rather often. The case of an optically soft particle, (that is of a particle whose substance has the refractive index close to that of the surrounding medium) is quite probable in biological water suspensions. Some peculiarities of holographing optically soft microparticles are analyzed in this paper. We propose a technique to calculate a light intensity distribution in the plane of a hologram and in the plane of a holographic image of a particle of an arbitrary shape at an arbitrary distance from the latter plane. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated by calculational results obtained analytically for some simple cases. In a more complicated cases the technique can make a basis for numerical computations. The method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles is proposed. We also present in this paper some experimental results on holographic detection of the water drops and such optically soft particles as ovums of helmints in human jaundice.

  1. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  2. Holographic superconductivity in M theory.

    PubMed

    Gauntlett, Jerome P; Sonner, Julian; Wiseman, Toby

    2009-10-01

    Using seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces we construct solutions of D=11 supergravity that are holographically dual to superconductors in three spacetime dimensions. Our numerical results indicate a new zero temperature solution dual to a quantum critical point. PMID:19905619

  3. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 5; Analytical and Experimental Data Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, W. E.; Kraft, R. E.; Syed, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study presented in this volume is to present the results and data analysis of in-duct transmission loss measurements. Transmission loss testing was performed on full-scale, 1/2-scale, and 115-scale treatment panel samples. The objective of the study was to compare predicted and measured transmission loss for full-scale and subscale panels in an attempt to evaluate the variations in suppression between full- and subscale panels which were ostensibly of equivalent design. Generally, the results indicated an unsatisfactory agreement between measurement and prediction, even for full-scale. This was attributable to difficulties encountered in obtaining sufficiently accurate test results, even with extraordinary care in calibrating the instrumentation and performing the test. Test difficulties precluded the ability to make measurements at frequencies high enough to be representative of subscale liners. It is concluded that transmission loss measurements without ducts and data acquisition facilities specifically designed to operate with the precision and complexity required for high subscale frequency ranges are inadequate for evaluation of subscale treatment effects.

  4. Holographic gratings implemented in a photopolymerizable glass: application to femtosecond laser pulses shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez-Garay, M. P.; Martnez-Matos, O.; Izquierdo, J. G.; Calvo, M. L.; Cheben, P.; Baares, L.

    2011-09-01

    We present the capability of the holographic gratings implemented in photopolymerizable glasses to be applied in spatial and spectral manipulation of femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose we used volume phase holographic gratings recorded by the interference of two monochromatic and coherent beams coming from a Nd-YAG continuous laser. We carried out experiments to determine the main features of the diffracted beams originated by the interaction of volume holographic phase grating structures with femtosecond pulses arising from the fundamental emission of an amplified Ti: sapphire laser system and its second harmonic. Meanwhile we have performed experiments to determine its damage threshold indicating that this material is an excellent candidate for intense-fields and ultrashort laser pulse applications.

  5. Correlation properties of tidal volume and end-tidal O2 and CO2 concentrations in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Cernelc, Mateja; Suki, Bla; Reinmann, Benjamin; Hall, Graham L; Frey, Urs

    2002-05-01

    We investigated whether breath-to-breath fluctuations in tidal volume (VT) and end-tidal O2 and CO2 exhibit long-range correlations and whether parameters describing the correlations can be used as noninvasive descriptors of control of breathing. We measured VT and end-tidal O2 and CO2 over n = 352 +/- 104 breaths in 26 term, healthy, unsedated infants (mean age +/- SD: 36 +/- 6 days) and calculated the detrended fluctuation function [F(n)]. The F(n) of the breath-to-breath time series of VT, O2, and CO2 revealed a linear increase with a breath number on log-log plots with a slope that was significantly different from 0.5 (random) and thus consistent with scale-invariant behavior. Long-range correlations were stronger for O2 than for VT and CO2. The F(n) of many individual signals exhibited a crossover behavior indicating that control mechanisms regulating fluctuations of VT, O2, and CO2 may be different on different time scales. Thus breathing has a memory up to at least 400 breaths that can be characterized by the simple indicator alpha. PMID:11960929

  6. Stromal-Derived Factor-1? Correlates With Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and With Acute Lesion Volume in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Spatz, Maria; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Maric, Dragan; Luby, Marie; Frank, Joseph; Warach, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are important participants of neovascularization and are mobilized through signaling with stromal-derived factor (SDF-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and stem cell factor. The association between EPC levels and these growth factors (GF) in acute stroke has not been previously established. We aimed to determine the association between EPC and these GF, and to elucidate a relationship between these GF and stroke severity in acute stroke patients. Methods Seventeen patients were selected from 175 patients with imaging-confirmed acute ischemic stroke. EPC were quantified using CD34, CD133, and VEGF-R2 markers. Plasma VEGF, SDF-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and stem cell factor were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 1 and 3, and brain MRI was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 5 after the stroke onset. Results Levels of SDF-1? strongly (r=0.6) correlated with the numbers of EPC subsets CD133+VEFG-R2+ (P<0.004), CD34+VEGF-R2+ (P<0.01), and CD34+CD133+VEGF-R2+ (P<0.01) on day 1. Stem cell factor strongly (r=0.5) correlated with CD133+VEGF-R2+ (P<0.05). SDF-1? moderately inversely (rcorrelated with baseline diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volumes (P<0.04). Median levels of SDF-1? (1561 pg/mL) increased (P<0.04) on day 3 compared to day 1 (1379 pg/mL). Similarly, VEGF at day 3 (95 pg/mL) increased (P<0.03) compared to day 1 (64 pg/mL). Conclusions These results indicate that SDF-1? and stem cell factor correlate with an increase in EPC early in ischemic stroke patients. PMID:21257825

  7. Quantifying uncertainty in soot volume fraction estimates using Bayesian inference of auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwin, Paul J.; Sipkens, T. A.; Thomson, K. A.; Liu, F.; Daun, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) infers the soot volume fraction (SVF) of soot particles by comparing the spectral incandescence from laser-energized particles to the pyrometrically inferred peak soot temperature. This calculation requires detailed knowledge of model parameters such as the absorption function of soot, which may vary with combustion chemistry, soot age, and the internal structure of the soot. This work presents a Bayesian methodology to quantify such uncertainties. This technique treats the additional "nuisance" model parameters, including the soot absorption function, as stochastic variables and incorporates the current state of knowledge of these parameters into the inference process through maximum entropy priors. While standard AC-LII analysis provides a point estimate of the SVF, Bayesian techniques infer the posterior probability density, which will allow scientists and engineers to better assess the reliability of AC-LII inferred SVFs in the context of environmental regulations and competing diagnostics.

  8. Serum YKL-40 Levels Correlate with Infarct Volume, Stroke Severity, and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Young; Jun, Chang-Duk; Jeon, Se-Jeong; Choi, See-Sung; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Choi, Dan-Bee; Kwak, Seongae; Lee, Hak-Seung; Cheong, Jin Sung; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Jin; Park, Do-Sim

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose YKL-40 is associated with various neurological disorders. However, circulatory YKL-40 levels early after onset of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to identify the temporal changes and clinical usefulness of measuring serum YKL-40 immediately following AIS. Methods Serum YKL-40 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were monitored over time in AIS patients (n?=?105) and compared with those of stroke-free controls (n?=?34). Infarct volume and stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; NIHSS) were measured within 48 hours of symptom onset, and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale; mRS) was measured 3 months after AIS. Results Within 12 hours of symptom onset, levels of YKL-40 (251 vs. 41 ng/mL) and CRP (1.50 vs. 0.96 g/mL) were elevated in AIS patients compared to controls. The power of YKL-40 for discriminating AIS patients from controls was superior to that of CRP (area under the curve 0.84 vs. 0.64) and YKL-40 (r?=?0.26, P<0.001) but not CRP levels were correlated with mRS. On day 2 of admission (D2), YKL-40 levels correlated with infarct volume and NIHSS. High YKL-40 levels predicted poor functional outcome (odds ratio 5.73, P?=?0.03). YKL-40 levels peaked on D2 and declined on D3, whereas CRP levels were highest on D3. Conclusions Our results demonstrate serial changes in serum YKL-40 levels immediately following AIS and provide the first evidence that it is a valid indicator of AIS extent and an early predictor of functional outcome. PMID:23272150

  9. Ion-ion correlation, solvent excluded volume and pH effects on physicochemical properties of spherical oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Aljzmi, Amal; Almusaynid, Manal; Khan, Asrar; Valderrama, Esteban; Nash, Kelly L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-15

    One major source of complexity in the implementation of nanoparticles in aqueous electrolytes arises from the strong influence that biological environments has on their physicochemical properties. A key parameter for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles is the formation of the surface charge density. In this article, we present an efficient and accurate approach that combines a recently introduced classical solvation density functional theory for spherical electrical double layers with a surface complexation model to account for ion-ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical nanoparticles. We apply the proposed computational approach to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms on the surface chemistry of spherical silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, as well as pH level and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge density and Zeta potential. We validate our predictions for 580Å and 200Å nanoparticles immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline mono-valent aqueous electrolyte solutions against experimental data. Our results on mono-valent electrolyte show that the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations contribute significantly to the surface charge density and Zeta potential of the nanoparticle at high electrolyte concentration and pH levels, where the solvent crowding effects and electrostatic screening have shown a profound influence on the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the liquid/solute interface. The success of this approach in describing physicochemical properties of silica nanoparticles supports its broader application to study other spherical metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:26476201

  10. Multilayered poly(vinylidene fluoride) composite membranes with improved interfacial compatibility: correlating pervaporation performance with free volume properties.

    PubMed

    An, Quanfu; Chen, Jung-Tsai; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2011-09-01

    A spin-coating process integrated with an ozone-induced graft polymerization technique was applied in this study. The purpose was to improve the poor interfacial compatibility between a selective layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and the surface of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) substrate. The composite membranes thus fabricated were tested for their pervaporation performance in dehydrating an ethyl acetate/water mixture. Furthermore, the composite membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for morphological change observation and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy equipped with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) for surface chemical composition analysis. Effects of grafting density and spin-coating speed on pervaporation performance were examined. The composite membrane pervaporation performance was elucidated by means of free volume and depth profile data obtained with the use of a variable monoenergy slow positron beam (VMSPB). Results indicated that a smaller free volume was correlated with a higher pervaporation performance of a composite membrane consisting of a selective layer of spin-coated PHEMA on a PHEMA-grafted PVDF substrate (S-PHEMA/PHEMA-g-PVDF). The composite membrane depth profile illustrated that an S-PHEMA layer spin-coated at a higher revolutions per minute (rpm) was thinner and denser than that at a lower rpm. PMID:21740064

  11. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  12. Progress in the printing techniques of the holographic stereogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Changqing; Yan, Xingpeng; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Zhiqiang

    2015-10-01

    Holographic stereogram display technology is one of the research focuses in three-dimensional (3D) holographic display. Holographic stereogram is essentially to infinitely approach the true 3D object using a sequence of 2D perspective images. In this paper, several holographic printing methods are summarized firstly, including two-steps transfer hologram printing technique, horizontal parallax only (HPO) stereogram with laser direct writing and holographic elements based full-parallax holographic stereogram method. Also the principles of printing, method of recording, and the various factors that affect the printing quality of the holographic stereogram are discussed and analyzed in detail. Then, after designing the matching relationship between full-parallax holographic stereogram and holographic elements, a new method to print holographic stereogram is proposed. With this method, image distortions can be decreased to improve the printing quality because this method has less impact factors and easier operations in experiment. Finally, it points out the recent development state of holographic stereogram.

  13. Measuring local volume fraction, long-wavelength correlations, and fractionation in a phase-separating polydisperse fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2014-10-01

    We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to 40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.

  14. Measuring local volume fraction, long-wavelength correlations, and fractionation in a phase-separating polydisperse fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2014-10-28

    We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to ∼40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.

  15. Dynamic holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birabassov, Rouslan

    2001-10-01

    The work presented in this thesis is divided into two related areas. The first area of research was a study of photoanisotropic materials to record dynamic gratings. The second area was a study of stimulated diffusion backscattering in photorefractive crystals. The two areas are related by the fact that in the two cases we studied dynamic gratings. We studied reversible photochemical mechanisms using dye molecules suspended in polymer hosts that could record dynamic holograms. The self-developing refractive index changes in dye-doped or dye-attached polymer materials, in particularly azo-dye-doped polymer systems make them promising candidates for many applications (because of the large photoinduced birefringence). The mechanism of photoanisotropic recording in azo-dye-doped polymer materials is based on orientationally dependent photoisomerization of dye molecules that may be macroscopically described in terms of photoinduced linear dichroism and linear birefringence. We proposed a technique for the fabrication of thick photosensitized polymer materials for real-time (self- developing) holographic applications. Cross modulation experiments to study the photoinduced dichroism are then described and the discussion of photophysical mechanisms involved is given. We used azo-dye doped polymer materials to record thin and thick holograms (scalar and vector). We theoretically and experimentally demonstrated that one could successfully store (using a linearly and an elliptically polarized beams) and reconstruct an elliptical polarization state of light using photoanisotropic materials, even if a plane polarized reference beam is used for the recording and readout. Using photoanisotropic materials, we demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that macroscopic optical chirality may be generated in such systems with a proper choice of excitation beam polarization state. Linear diffraction gratings, that provide strongly asymmetric diffraction without surface modulation were also created and studied. Asymmetric diffraction may be achieved using blazed gratings. But in our case the spatial phase shift of the refractive index grating relative to the absorption grating is the origin of asymmetric behaviour. Experimental results made with thin mixed phase and absorption gratings in azo-dye-doped polymer films are in agreement with our theoretical results. In the second part of the thesis we analysed the stimulated diffusion backscattering (SDS) in photorefractive crystals based on the advantages of the reflection photorefractive gratings. The material research, which is the most acute direction, was studied. We believe that optimal crystal (its processing procedure and doping density) is still unknown even for visible range. We discussed the general analysis of the stimulated diffusion backscattering. We studied the relevant parameters for the sample, which demonstrated the most interesting stimulated diffusion backscattering response: measurements of gain, reflectivity, response rate, dark conductivity and grating decay. We clarified the principal possibilities to obtain self-phase conjugation at backward SDS in steady-state conditions. We also made the comparison of sensitivities of different geometries with respect to pump energy. Finally, we experimentally studied double-phase-conjugation geometry at double-loop reflection gratings.

  16. Holographic Jet Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based on these results, we develop a phenomenological model of light quark energy loss and use it compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of light quarks in an expanding plasma. Comparison with the LHC pion suppression data shows that, although RAA has the right qualitative structure, the overall magnitude is too low, indicating that the predicted jet quenching is too strong. In the last part of the thesis we consider a novel idea of introducing finite momentum at endpoints of classical (bosonic and supersymmetric) strings, and the phenomenological consequences of this proposal on the energy loss of light quarks. We show that in a general curved background, finite momentum endpoints must propagate along null geodesics and that the distance they travel in an AdS5-Schwarzschild background is greater than in the previous treatments of falling strings. We also argue that this leads to a more realistic description of energetic quarks, allowing for an unambiguous way of distinguishing between the energy in the dual hard probe and the energy in the color fields surrounding it. This proposal also naturally allows for a clear and simple definition of the instantaneous energy loss. Using this definition and the "shooting string" initial conditions, we develope a new formula for light quark energy loss. Finally, we apply this formula to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC, which, after the inclusion of the Gauss-Bonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry, shows a reasonably good agreement with the recent data.

  17. Adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate undesirable light in holographic projection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Li, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate the undesirable light in a holographic projection. The aperture is based on hydrodynamic actuation. A chamber is formed with a cylindrical tube. A black droplet is filled in the sidewall of the cylinder tube and the outside space is the transparent oil which is immiscible with the black droplet. An ultrathin glass sheet is attached on the bottom substrate of the device and a black shading film is secured to the central area of the glass sheet. By changing the volume of the black droplet, the black droplet will move to the middle or sidewall due to hydrodynamic actuation, so the device can be used as an adjustable aperture. A divergent spherical wave and a solid lens are used to separate the focus planes of the reconstructed image and diffraction beams induced by the liquid crystal on silicon in the holographic projection. Then the aperture is used to eliminate the diffraction beams by adjusting the size of the liquid aperture and the holographic projection does not have undesirable light. PMID:26906784

  18. Holographic PDLC for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.; Crawford, Gregory P.; Ashmead, Allan C.; Smith, Ronald T.; Popovich, Milan M.; Storey, John

    2000-10-01

    Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal, a new class of composite electro-optic materials, has rapidly matured as a technology for electronically switchable Bragg gratings. Recent progress in H-PDLC materials science has improved basic understanding of the mechanisms of diffusion, nanodroplet formation, and the morphology underlying switchable holograms, leading to practical improvements in key parameters such as the switching ratio, speed and operating voltage and an ability to optimize formulations for varied device functions such a switchable lenses and switchable waveguide Bragg gratings. Combining lens, filter or holographic optical functions with switchability leads to reduced parts count and simplified designs for projection displays and compact wearable microdisplays. H-PDLC technology is now approaching the performance and stability requirements that will enable photonic applications such as low cost WDM switches for optical networks.

  19. Holographic lattices, dimers, and glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho

    2010-01-15

    We holographically engineer a periodic lattice of localized fermionic impurities within a plasma medium by putting an array of probe D5-branes in the background produced by N D3-branes. Thermodynamic quantities are computed in the large N limit via the holographic dictionary. We then dope the lattice by replacing some of the D5-branes by anti-D5-branes. In the large N limit, we determine the critical temperature below which the system dimerizes with bond ordering. Finally, we argue that for the special case of a square lattice our system is glassy at large but finite N, with the low temperature physics dominated by a huge collection of metastable dimerized configurations without long-range order, connected only through tunneling events.

  20. Pattern-Recognition Processor Using Holographic Photopolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Cammack, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    proposed joint-transform optical correlator (JTOC) would be capable of operating as a real-time pattern-recognition processor. The key correlation-filter reading/writing medium of this JTOC would be an updateable holographic photopolymer. The high-resolution, high-speed characteristics of this photopolymer would enable pattern-recognition processing to occur at a speed three orders of magnitude greater than that of state-of-the-art digital pattern-recognition processors. There are many potential applications in biometric personal identification (e.g., using images of fingerprints and faces) and nondestructive industrial inspection. In order to appreciate the advantages of the proposed JTOC, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of a conventional JTOC. In a conventional JTOC (shown in the upper part of the figure), a collimated laser beam passes through two side-by-side spatial light modulators (SLMs). One SLM displays a real-time input image to be recognized. The other SLM displays a reference image from a digital memory. A Fourier-transform lens is placed at its focal distance from the SLM plane, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector is placed at the back focal plane of the lens for use as a square-law recorder. Processing takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the CCD records the interference pattern between the Fourier transforms of the input and reference images, and the pattern is then digitized and saved in a buffer memory. In the second stage, the reference SLM is turned off and the interference pattern is fed back to the input SLM. The interference pattern thus becomes Fourier-transformed, yielding at the CCD an image representing the joint-transform correlation between the input and reference images. This image contains a sharp correlation peak when the input and reference images are matched. The drawbacks of a conventional JTOC are the following: The CCD has low spatial resolution and is not an ideal square-law detector for the purpose of holographic recording of interference fringes. A typical state-of-the-art CCD has a pixel-pitch limited resolution of about 100 lines/mm. In contrast, the holographic photopolymer to be used in the proposed JTOC offers a resolution > 2,000 lines/mm. In addition to being disadvantageous in itself, the low resolution of the CCD causes overlap of a DC term and the desired correlation term in the output image. This overlap severely limits the correlation signal-to-noise ratio. The two-stage nature of the process limits the achievable throughput rate. A further limit is imposed by the low frame rate (typical video rates) of low- and medium-cost commercial CCDs.

  1. Electromagnetically Induced Quantum Holographic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min; Ma, Hong-Yang; Zheng, Chun-Hong; Chen, Li-Bo

    2015-11-01

    We study the quantum holographic imaging of one-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating created by a strong standing wave in an atomic medium. Entangled photon pairs, generated in a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, are employed as the imaging light to realize coincidence recording. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, we find that both the amplitude and phase information of the object can be imaged with the characteristic of imaging nonlocally and of arbitrarily controllable image variation in size.

  2. Advances in holographic particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Scott; Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle; Liu, David

    1993-12-01

    Holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) is a promising technique for 3D flow velocity and hence vorticity measurements to study turbulence, coherent structures and vortex interactions. We discuss various aspects in the development of this technique ranging from hologram recording configurations such as in-line, off-axis and multibeam to data processing. Difficulties in implementation are analyzed and solutions are discussed. We also present preliminary measurement results in a 3D vortex flow using one of our prototype HPV systems.

  3. Holographic recording materials - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.

  4. Holographic system for nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.

  5. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  6. Pion condensation in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.

  7. Sound modes in holographic superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos

    2009-11-15

    Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

  8. RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2μm size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.

  9. Thermalization of causal holographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Tonni, Erik

    2013-05-01

    We study causal wedges associated with a given sub-region in the boundary of asymptotically AdS spacetimes. Part of our motivation is to better understand the recently proposed holographic observable, causal holographic information, ?, which is given by the area of a bulk co-dimension two surface lying on the boundary of the causal wedge. It has been suggested that ? captures the basic amount of information contained in the reduced density matrix about the bulk geometry. To explore its properties further we examine its behaviour in time-dependent situations. As a simple model we focus on null dust collapse in an asymptotically AdS spacetime, modeled by the Vaidya-AdS geometry. We argue that while ? is generically quasi-telelogical in time-dependent backgrounds, for suitable choice of sub-regions in conformal field theories, the temporal evolution of ? is entirely causal. We comment on the implications of this observation and more generally on features of causal constructions and contrast our results with the behaviour of holographic entanglement entropy. Along the way we also derive the rate of early time growth and late time saturation (to the thermal value) of both ? and entanglement entropy in these backgrounds.

  10. Holographic storage characteristics of red-sensitive photopolymer sensitized by Azure II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianbin; Cheng, Jianqun; Wang, Sulian; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingju

    2010-11-01

    A red-sensitive photopolymer material sensitized by azure II is fabricated and its holographic storage characteristics are studied. The experimental results show that this kind of material has high diffraction efficiency (the maximum value 56%), high exposure sensitivity (5.210-3 cm2/mJ) and large refractive index modulation (1.610-3). The analog image generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM) is stored in this medium, the transmission and reconstruction images have a good fidelity. It shows that this photopolymer material has the potential for high-density volume holographic storage.

  11. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with Thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton TI-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

  12. Monitoring by holographic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to Commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the Invention of Holography, Springfield, Massachusetts USA, October 27-29, pp. 183-197, 2008. [2] I. Catapano, L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, "Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci bridge investigation", Nondestructive testing and evaluation, vol. 27, pp. 229-237, 2012.

  13. Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra

    2015-10-01

    Digital speckle pattern lateral shear interferometry (DSPSI) based on volume phase holographic grating for the measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in candle flames is presented. The DSPSI setup uses the volume phase holographic grating combined with ground glass to shear the wavefronts. The shear of the two wavefronts is controlled by the distance between volume phase holographic grating and the ground glass. The sheared wavefronts on the ground glass are imaged onto the CMOS detector by an imaging lens. Two specklegrams are recorded corresponding to the absence of the flame and the presence of the flame. The fringe pattern is observed by subtracting these two specklegrams. A single fringe pattern was used to extract phase by the application of Riesz transform and the monogenic signal. The measured values of the temperature of the candle flame by DSPSI is compared with that of R-type Platinum-Platinum Rhodium thermocouple and the results are well within experimental limits.

  14. Microbial population dynamics by digital in-line holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Frentz, Zak; Kuehn, Seppe; Hekstra, Doeke; Leibler, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of population dynamics are ubiquitous in experiments with microorganisms. Studies with microbes elucidating adaptation, selection, and competition rely on measurements of changing populations in time. Despite this importance, quantitative methods for measuring population dynamics microscopically, with high time resolution, across many replicates remain limited. Here we present a new noninvasive method to precisely measure microbial spatiotemporal population dynamics based on digital in-line holographic (DIH) microscopy. Our inexpensive, replicate DIH microscopes imaged hundreds of swimming algae in three dimensions within a volume of several microliters on a time scale of minutes over periods of weeks. PMID:20815617

  15. High efficiency panchromatic photopolymer recording material for holographic data storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramitha, Vayalamkuzhi; Das, Bhargab; Joseph, Joby; Joseph, Rani; Sreekumar, Krishnapillai; Kartha, Cheranellore Sudha

    2016-02-01

    Studies carried out to gauge the potential of a metal-ion doped panchromatic photopolymer recording material for application in real-time holographic data storage is presented. The photopolymer films are spin coated on glass plates to ensure better surface uniformity. Volume holographic transmission gratings with peak diffraction efficiency of 80% could be stored in the photopolymer films of 100 μm thickness. An efficiency of 70% is achievable even for gratings recorded with exposure energy as low as 10 mJ/cm2. A checkerboard pattern data page recorded in the photopolymer film using a defocused 4-f recording geometry could be reconstructed with good image quality. The experimental results illustrate the competency of the developed photopolymer for holographic data storage applications.

  16. Nonlinear bivariate dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets: A perspective from Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear dependency between characteristic financial and commodity market quantities (variables) is crucially important, especially between trading volume and market price. Studies on nonlinear dependency between price and volume can provide practical insights into market trading characteristics, as well as the theoretical understanding of market dynamics. Actually, nonlinear dependency and its underlying dynamical mechanisms between price and volume can help researchers and technical analysts in understanding the market dynamics by integrating the market variables, instead of investigating them in the current literature. Therefore, for investigating nonlinear dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets in China and the US, we perform a new statistical test to detect cross-correlations and apply a new methodology called Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA), which is an efficient algorithm to analyze two spatially or temporally correlated time series. We discuss theoretically the relationship between the bivariate cross-correlation exponent and the generalized Hurst exponents for time series of respective variables. We also perform an empirical study and find that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the analyzed agricultural commodity futures markets.

  17. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models. PMID:25494770

  18. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-Garca, Guillermo Ivn; Olvera de la Cruz, Mnica; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

  19. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Marucho, Marcelo; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica

    2014-12-14

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

  20. Comparison of the results of refractometric measurements in the process of diffusion, obtained by means of the backgroundoriented schlieren method and the holographic interferometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiskii, A. V.; Mironova, T. V.

    2015-08-01

    The results of the study of interdiffusion of two liquids, obtained using the holographic recording scheme with a nonstationary reference wave with the frequency linearly varying in space and time are compared with the results of correlation processing of digital photographs, made with a random background screen. The spatio-temporal behaviour of the signal in four basic representations ('space - temporal frequency', 'space - time', 'spatial frequency - temporal frequency' and 'spatial frequency - time') is found in the holographic experiment and calculated (in the appropriate coordinates) based on the background-oriented schlieren method. Practical coincidence of the results of the correlation analysis and the holographic double-exposure interferometry is demonstrated.

  1. f ( R) gravity and Maxwell equations from the holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, RongXin; Meng, Jun; Li, Miao

    2012-03-01

    Extending the holographic program of our previous work, we derive f ( R) gravity and the Maxwell equations from the holographic principle, using time-like holographic screens. We find that to derive the Einstein equations and f( R) gravity by a natural holographic approach, the quasi-static condition is necessary. We also find the surface stress tensor and the surface electric current, surface magnetic current on a holographic screen for f( R) gravity and Maxwell's theory, respectively.

  2. Experimental correlation of nitroxide recollision spin exchange with free volume and compressibility in alkane and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kurban, Mark R

    2009-03-14

    Diffusion of perdeuterated tempone (PDT) in various nonpolar hydrocarbon solvents on both the large and microscopic scales is examined through electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectral line broadening and hyperfine spacing are measured in order to extract both the Heisenberg spin-exchange rate as well as the average recollision times between spin-probe pairs. Probe recollision is responsible for a linear component to the dependence of the line shift on spectral broadening which has been identified in recent years. The present study extends the work of a previous paper by Kurban et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064501 (2008)], in which it was reported that recollision rates for PDT formed a common curve across n-alkanes when plotted with respect to free volume and to isothermal compressibility. It is now found that such common curves occur within distinct chemical families, in particular, the alkane and aromatic groups. Within each chemical family, the spin probe recollision rate correlates with free volume and compressibility independently of the geometry of the particular solvent. All solvents show significantly enhanced recollisional diffusion over the Stokes-Einstein (SE) prediction at high temperatures. The spin-exchange rate forms a common curve with respect to T/eta for all alkanes except cyclohexane and another common curve in all three aromatic compounds. It is reasoned that although all spin-exchange rates are near to the SE prediction, the semblance of hydrodynamic behavior is superficial and arises incidentally from mathematical cancellation of terms in a generalized diffusion coefficient. As a collision pair coexists for a time within a solvation shell, the recollision time places a lower limit on the lifetime of the solvent cage. Although molecular dynamics simulations conducted thus far have yielded cage lifetimes lower than the measured recollision times, this is attributable to the fact that such simulations have mostly examined cage configurations too small to harbor a spin-exchange encounter, and is also likely due to restrictive mathematical definitions of cage lifetimes that are employed in such simulations. PMID:19292536

  3. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  4. Holographic bounds and finite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel; Scacco, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.

  5. On holographic insulators and supersolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritsis, Elias; Ren, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We obtain holographic realizations for systems that have strong similarities to Mott insulators and supersolids, after examining the ground states of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar systems. The real part of the AC conductivity has a hard gap and a discrete spectrum only. We add momentum dissipation to resolve the ?-function in the conductivity due to translational invariance. We develop tools to directly calculate the Drude weight for a large class of solutions and to support our claims. Numerical RG flows are also constructed to verify that such saddle points are IR fixed points of asymptotically AdS4 geometries.

  6. Universality of abrupt holographic quenches.

    PubMed

    Buchel, Alex; Myers, Robert C; van Niekerk, Anton

    2013-11-15

    We make an analytic investigation of rapid quenches of relevant operators in d-dimensional holographic conformal field theories, which admit a dual gravity description. We uncover a universal scaling behavior in the response of the system, which depends only on the conformal dimension of the quenched operator in the vicinity of the ultraviolet fixed point of the theory. Unless the amplitude of the quench is scaled appropriately, the work done on a system during the quench diverges in the limit of abrupt quenches for operators with dimension (d/2)??

  7. Holographic Storage of Biphoton Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Han-Ning; Zhang, Han; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Rui, Jun; Deng, You-Jin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Shuai; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Jin, Xian-Min; Zhao, Bo; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Coherent and reversible storage of multiphoton entanglement with a multimode quantum memory is essential for scalable all-optical quantum information processing. Although a single photon has been successfully stored in different quantum systems, storage of multiphoton entanglement remains challenging because of the critical requirement for coherent control of the photonic entanglement source, multimode quantum memory, and quantum interface between them. Here we demonstrate a coherent and reversible storage of biphoton Bell-type entanglement with a holographic multimode atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory. The retrieved biphoton entanglement violates the Bell inequality for 1?s storage time and a memory-process fidelity of 98% is demonstrated by quantum state tomography.

  8. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.; Kramer, D.M.; Geisinger, M.; Chilcote, W.; George, C.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Moodie, D.S.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton Tl-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

  9. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues. PMID:26698993

  10. Holographic Quantum States

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens; Verstraete, Frank

    2010-12-31

    We show how continuous matrix product states of quantum fields can be described in terms of the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics of a lower-dimensional auxiliary boundary field by demonstrating that the spatial correlation functions of the bulk field correspond to the temporal statistics of the boundary field. This equivalence (1) illustrates an intimate connection between the theory of continuous quantum measurement and quantum field theory, (2) gives an explicit construction of the boundary field allowing the extension of real-space renormalization group methods to arbitrary dimensional quantum field theories without the introduction of a lattice parameter, and (3) yields a novel interpretation of recent cavity QED experiments in terms of quantum field theory, and hence paves the way toward observing genuine quantum phase transitions in such zero-dimensional driven quantum systems.

  11. Time-dependent speckle in holographic optical coherence imaging and the health of tumor tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Peng, L.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.

    2004-01-01

    Holographic optical coherence imaging acquires en face images from successive depths inside scattering tissue. In a study of multicellular tumor spheroids the holographic features recorded from a fixed depth are observed to be time dependent, and they may be classified as variable or persistent. The ratio of variable to persistent features, as well as speckle correlation times, provides quantitative measures of the health of the tissue. Studies of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids that have been subjected to metabolic and cross-polymerizing poisons provide quantitative differentiation among healthy, necrotic, and poisoned tissue. Organelle motility in healthy tissue appears as super-Brownian laser speckle, whereas chemically fixed tissue exhibits static speckle.

  12. Digital holographic microscopy combined with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-02-01

    While optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and organization of microscopic objects in three dimensions, observing the manipulated objects along axial direction has been quite challenging. In order to visualize organization and orientation of objects along axial direction, we report development of a Digital holographic microscopy combined with optical tweezers. Digital holography is achieved by use of a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer with digital recording of interference pattern of the reference and sample laser beams by use of a single CCD camera. In this method, quantitative phase information is retrieved dynamically with high temporal resolution, only limited by frame rate of the CCD. Digital focusing, phase-unwrapping as well as online analysis and display of the quantitative phase images was performed on a software developed on LabView platform. Since phase changes observed in DHOT is very sensitive to optical thickness of trapped volume, estimation of number of particles trapped in the axial direction as well as orientation of non-spherical objects could be achieved with high precision. Since in diseases such as malaria and diabetics, change in refractive index of red blood cells occurs, this system can be employed to map such disease-specific changes in biological samples upon immobilization with optical tweezers.

  13. Digital holographic microscopy for microalgae biovolume assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaldi, Andrea C.; Romero, Gladis G.; Alanís, Elvio E.; Cabrera, Carlos M.

    2015-02-01

    The relative amount of biomass in a body of water is one of the various indicators widely used in water quality evaluation. This implies complex tasks such as identification and characterization of microorganisms and measurement of their biovolume. Particularly, the latter is estimated by assuming simple geometrical shapes for the microorganism and by calculating its dimensions from images taken with a conventional microscope. In order to have a more precise and automatic method for biovolume evaluation, a hybrid methodology based on digital holographic microscopy and image processing is proposed. The whole volume of a specimen under study is obtained combining the phase contrast image of an off-axis hologram with the thickness-profile data of the specimen extracted from the cell silhouette. This technique has been used for determining the biovolume of Ceratium Hirundinella cells in water samples. The methodology proposed also shows that it is possible to estimate accurately an effective refractive index of the microorganism. Experimental results have shown that this technique is not only an efficient and fast alternative, but also suitable for automatizing the entire process.

  14. Method and apparatus for holographic processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, William H. (Inventor); James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Strahan, Virgil H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for holographically processing optical signals in a fiber-optic sensor system. In the present invention, holographic processors are utilized in various combinations with light sources, fiber-optic transmission means, sensors and detectors to provide low cost, compact, sensitive and accurate sensor systems. By means of the holographic processors of the present invention, the aforementioned sensor systems are used to monitor such physical parameters as temperature, pressure, flow-rate, and the like, and to provide output signal indications thereof that are compatible with digital receiving stations and immune to electro-magnetic interference, hazardous atmosphere, and the inimical effects of inadvertent intensity variation due to equipment vibration and the like. In one typical embodiment, a pair of holographic processors are employed in a color multiplex-demultiplex sensor system in which a first holographic processor is employed to color multiplex a sensor signal and a second holographic processor is employed to decode the color-multiplexed signal into a binary pattern that is then transmitted onto a set of photodetectors. In each of the embodiments of the invention disclosed, a unique geometrical orientation of a hologram is utilized to minimize spurious signal interference that would otherwise hamper or totally preclude the holographic processing.

  15. Correlations of Metabolic Components with Prostate Volume in Middle-Aged Men Receiving Health Check-Up

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Ju; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Huang, Kuo-How

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of metabolic components and body composition indices on prostate volume (PV) in a population of middle-aged men receiving health check-ups. Methods Six hundred and sixteen men receiving health assessments were stratified to large and small prostates based on the cut-off of median PV. Their demographic data, health history, and international prostate symptoms scores (IPSS) were collected. Metabolic components and body composition indices were compared between subjects with large and small prostates. Moreover, the correlations between these parameters and PV were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results The median PV was 27 mL and mean age was 54.8 years. Subjects with large PV were older (56.5 vs. 52.7 years) and had higher serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (1.73 vs. 0.96 ng/mL), higher IPSS score (8.37 vs. 6.16), and higher body fat, body mass, and waist circumference (all p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, age (OR, 2.45; 95%CI, 1.74–3.45), serum PSA (OR, 2.75; 95%CI, 1.96–3.86), waist circumference (OR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.02–2.07), fatness (OR, 1.47; 95%CI, 1.04–2.09), and body fat mass (OR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.00–2.03) were significantly correlated with PV of study subjects. In subgroup analysis, raised waist circumference (OR, 1.89; 95%CI, 1.00–3.59) was the independent predictor of PV in subjects with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. Conclusions Several metabolic components and body composition indices are significantly associated with PV of middle-aged men, including raised waist circumference, fatness, and body fat mass. Raised waist circumference is the only independent predictor of PV in middle-aged men with bothersome LUTS. PMID:26731481

  16. Three-dimensional local measurements of bone strain and displacement: comparison of three digital volume correlation approaches.

    PubMed

    Palanca, Marco; Tozzi, Gianluca; Cristofolini, Luca; Viceconti, Marco; Dall'Ara, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    Different digital volume correlation (DVC) approaches are currently available or under development for bone tissue micromechanics. The aim of this study was to compare accuracy and precision errors of three DVC approaches for a particular three-dimensional (3D) zero-strain condition. Trabecular and cortical bone specimens were repeatedly scanned with a micro-computed tomography (CT). The errors affecting computed displacements and strains were extracted for a known virtual translation, as well as for repeated scans. Three DVC strategies were tested: two local approaches, based on fast-Fourier-transform (DaVis-FFT) or direct-correlation (DaVis-DC), and a global approach based on elastic registration and a finite element (FE) solver (ShIRT-FE). Different computation subvolume sizes were tested. Much larger errors were found for the repeated scans than for the virtual translation test. For each algorithm, errors decreased asymptotically for larger subvolume sizes in the range explored. Considering this particular set of images, ShIRT-FE showed an overall better accuracy and precision (a few hundreds microstrain for a subvolume of 50 voxels). When the largest subvolume (50-52 voxels) was applied to cortical bone, the accuracy error obtained for repeated scans with ShIRT-FE was approximately half of that for the best local approach (DaVis-DC). The difference was lower (250 microstrain) in the case of trabecular bone. In terms of precision, the errors shown by DaVis-DC were closer to the ones computed by ShIRT-FE (differences of 131 microstrain and 157 microstrain for cortical and trabecular bone, respectively). The multipass computation available for DaVis software improved the accuracy and precision only for the DaVis-FFT in the virtual translation, particularly for trabecular bone. The better accuracy and precision of ShIRT-FE, followed by DaVis-DC, were obtained with a higher computational cost when compared to DaVis-FFT. The results underline the importance of performing a quantitative comparison of DVC methods on the same set of samples by using also repeated scans, other than virtual translation tests only. ShIRT-FE provides the most accurate and precise results for this set of images. However, both DaVis approaches show reasonable results for large nodal spacing, particularly for trabecular bone. Finally, this study highlights the importance of using sufficiently large subvolumes, in order to achieve better accuracy and precision. PMID:25807338

  17. Increasing the Accuracy of Volume and ADC Delineation for Heterogeneous Tumor on Diffusion-Weighted MRI: Correlation with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Nan-Jie; Wong, Chun-Sing; Chu, Yiu-Ching; Guo, Hua; Huang, Bingsheng; Chan, Queenie

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we proposed a method based on thresholding both the b0 images and the ADC maps. Methods and Materials: In 21 heterogeneous lesions from patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), gross lesion were manually contoured, and corresponding volumes and ADCs were denoted as gross tumor volume (GTV) and gross ADC (ADC{sub g}), respectively. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, the probable high-cellularity tumor tissues were selected based on b0 images and ADC maps. ADC and volume of the tissues selected using the proposed method were denoted as thresholded ADC (ADC{sub thr}) and high-cellularity tumor volume (HCTV), respectively. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was measured using 40% maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) as the lower threshold, and corresponding mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) was also measured. Results: HCTV had excellent concordance with MTV according to Pearson's correlation (r=0.984, P<.001) and linear regression (slope = 1.085, intercept = ?4.731). In contrast, GTV overestimated the volume and differed significantly from MTV (P=.005). ADC{sub thr} correlated significantly and strongly with SUV{sub mean} (r=?0.807, P<.001) and SUV{sub max} (r=?0.843, P<.001); both were stronger than those of ADC{sub g}. Conclusions: The proposed lesion-adaptive semiautomatic method can help segment high-cellularity tissues that match hypermetabolic tissues in PET/CT and enables more accurate volume and ADC delineation on diffusion-weighted MR images of GIST.

  18. Holographic recording characteristics and applications of single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Min; Chen, Ligong; Guo, Yongkang; Guo, Lurong

    2005-09-01

    A high-quality single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material is achieved successfully by employing new types of multi-color photosensitizers and photochemical promoters to conventional photo-crosslinking gelatin system. Its holographic recording characteristics such as spectral response, the photosensitivity of three primary colors, spectral selectivity of volume reflection hologram, angular and wavelength selectivity of volume transmission hologram, are studied in detail. Using red, green and blue lasers, namely three primary colors, the bright volume transmission and reflection holograms can be recorded on the panchromatic material at the exposure level of 30 mJ/cm2. Some preliminary results of space, angle and wavelength multiplexing holographic storage for storing multiple binary and grey-tone optical images, are also reported in this paper.

  19. a Realization of the Holographic Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yong; Yang, Guang

    2013-04-01

    The entropy bound for the conventional quantum field theory is known as A3/4. Thus, there is an entropy gap from A3/4 to the holographic entropy A. In this paper, we show that the entropy gap can be overcome by introducing internal degrees of freedom to the system. Using a state counting method, we show explicitly how the familiar holographic thermodynamics with area entropy can be realized. It may help in the understanding of the microscopic origin of the holographic entropy.

  20. Human Skull Analysis by Photorefractive Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroena, Glaura; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Gesualdi, Marcos R. R.; Boldrini, Silvia C.; Ferrara, Eduardo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2008-04-01

    The holographic interferometry is a powerful optical method for observation of the disturbance phenomena and in the analysis, being extremely useful in application basic, biomedical and technological research. In this work we have analyzed some strains that occur during the masticatory process, mainly studying the load concentration and the dissipation in this process, using the double-exposure holographic technique and the Bi12SiO20 (BSO) photorefractive sillenite crystals, as holographic recording medium. This study in dried skull have made by simulation of some mastication muscles and isolated contraction (SIC).

  1. Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-28

    The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more » we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less

  2. Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels. PMID:21197025

  3. Fast autonomous holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Ghebremichael, Fassil; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul; MacDonald, Ken; Gaddipati, Ravi; Gaddipati, Phani

    2013-12-01

    We present an adaptive optics system incorporating a holographic wavefront sensor with the autonomous closed-loop control of a MEMS deformable mirror. HALOS incorporates a multiplexed holographic recording of the response functions of each actuator in a deformable mirror. On reconstruction with an arbitrary input beam, multiple focal spots are produced. By measuring the relative intensities of these spots a full measurement of the absolute phase can be constructed. Using fast photodiodes, direct feedback correction can be applied to the actuators.In this talk we will present the results from an all-optical, ultra-compact system that runs in closed-loop without the need for a computer. The 32-actuator HALOS runs at a 100kHz bandwidth, but the speed is independent of the number of actuators and should run equally fast with 32 million. Additionally, the system is largely insensitive to obscuration unlike the more conventional Shack-Hartmann WFS. We will present information on how HALOS can be used for image correction and beam propagation as well as several other novel applications.

  4. Measurements of 3-D Flows with a Digital Holographic Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkiel, E.

    2005-11-01

    Rising interests in micro-scale dynamics, such as turbulence in a near wall region or flow around a microorganism require measurements at compatible scales. A Digital Holographic Microscope (DHM) records magnified in-line holographic images and the 3D volumes are reconstructed numerically. This method offers inherent advantages over both conventional microscopy and lens-less in-line holography. DHM extends the depth of field of a conventional microscope by two orders of magnitude, to about 1000 time the target object diameter. It also reduces the depth-of-focus to less than ten particle diameters, two orders of magnitude lower than lens-less holography. For example, using segmentation and volume averages, one can detect displacements of 2?m particles in the depth direction at a resolution of about 10 ?m. A single digital hologram can detect 5000 -- 10,000 particles. Examples of implementation of this method include near-wall velocity measurements of the channel flow at 0

  5. Holographic calculation for large interval Rnyi entropy at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the holographic Rnyi entropy of a large interval on a circle at high temperature for the two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) dual to pure AdS3 gravity. In the field theory, the Rnyi entropy is encoded in the CFT partition function on n -sheeted torus connected with each other by a large branch cut. As proposed by Chen and Wu [Large interval limit of Rnyi entropy at high temperature, arXiv:1412.0763], the effective way to read the entropy in the large interval limit is to insert a complete set of state bases of the twist sector at the branch cut. Then the calculation transforms into an expansion of four-point functions in the twist sector with respect to e-2/? T R n . By using the operator product expansion of the twist operators at the branch points, we read the first few terms of the Rnyi entropy, including the leading and next-to-leading contributions in the large central charge limit. Moreover, we show that the leading contribution is actually captured by the twist vacuum module. In this case by the Ward identity the four-point functions can be derived from the correlation function of four twist operators, which is related to double interval entanglement entropy. Holographically, we apply the recipe in [T. Faulkner, The entanglement Rnyi entropies of disjoint intervals in AdS/CFT, arXiv:1303.7221] and [T. Barrella et al., Holographic entanglement beyond classical gravity, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2013) 109] to compute the classical Rnyi entropy and its one-loop quantum correction, after imposing a new set of monodromy conditions. The holographic classical result matches exactly with the leading contribution in the field theory up to e-4 ? T R and l6, while the holographical one-loop contribution is in exact agreement with next-to-leading results in field theory up to e-6/? T R n and l4 as well.

  6. Linear and curvilinear correlations of brain gray matter volume and density with age using voxel-based morphometry with the Akaike information criterion in 291 healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-01

    We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure. PMID:22505237

  7. A Mach-Zender Holographic Microscope for Quantifying Bacterial Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, B.; Nadeau, J. L.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.; Graff, E.; Lindensmith, C.

    2014-12-01

    New microscopic techniques have revolutionized cell biology over the past two decades. However, there are still biological processes whose details elude us, especially those involving motility: e.g. feeding behavior of microorganisms in the ocean, or migration of cancer cells to form metastases. Imaging prokaryotes, which range in size from several hundred nm to a few microns, is especially challenging. An emerging technique to address these issues is Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). DHM is an imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional magnified images of objects. This approach has several advantages over ordinary brightfield microscopy for fieldwork: a larger depth of field, hands-off operation, robustness regarding environmental conditions, and large sampling volumes with quantitative 3D records of motility behavior. Despite these promising features, real-time DHM was thought to be impractical for technological and computational reasons until recently, and there has so far been very limited application of DHM to biology. Most existing instruments are limited in performance by their particular (e.g. in-line, lens-less, phase-shifting) approach to holography. These limitations can be mitigated with an off-axis dual-path configuration. Here we describe the design and implementation of a design for a Mach-Zehnder-type holographic microscope with diffraction-limited lateral resolution, with intended applications in environmental microbiology. We have achieved sub-micron resolution and three-dimensional tracking of prokaryotic and eukaryotic test strains designed to represent different modes and speeds of microbial motility. Prokaryotes are Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis. Each shows a characteristic motility pattern, as we illustrate in holographic videos in sample chambers 0.6 mm in depth. The ability to establish gradients of attractants with bacterial taxis towards the attractant is also established. The eukaryotic strains are Euglena gracilis, which demonstrates both phototaxis and geotaxis, and Paramecium micromultinucleatum. The challenges of optimizing resolution vs. field of view, and of handling the large volumes of data generated during holographic imaging, are discussed.

  8. The effect of tumor volume on radiotherapy outcome and correlation with other prognostic factors in patients with T2 supraglottic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Bogusław; Kołosza, Zofia; Wygoda, Andrzej; Składowski, Krzysztof; Hejduk, Beata; Rutkowski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The retrospective chart review of 110 patients with T2 supraglottic cancer who underwent radiotherapy was performed to correlate tumor volume with other prognostic factors and to analyze its impact on treatment results. Patients with involved nodes, poor histopathological tumor differentiation, or hemoglobin concentration ≤ 14.3 g/dl had significantly larger tumors. Patients with large tumors had significantly lower 5-year local control rate, overall survival rate and presented significantly higher risk of nodal involvement and the ratio of poor histopathological differentiation of the tumor. Tumor volume significantly impacts radiotherapy outcome and should be considered to optimize treatment strategy for patients with T2 supraglottic cancer. PMID:25784843

  9. Distinct structural neural patterns of trait physical and social anhedonia: evidence from cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and inter-regional correlations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Deng, Yi; Fung, Germaine; Liu, Wen-hua; Wei, Xin-hua; Jiang, Xin-qing; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is an enduring trait accounting for the reduced capacity to experience pleasure. Few studies have investigated the brain structural features associated with trait anhedonia. In this study, the relationships between cortical thickness, volume of subcortical structures and scores on the Chapman physical and social anhedonia scales were examined in a non-clinical sample (n=72, 35 males). FreeSurfer was used to examine the cortical thickness and the volume of six identified subcortical structures related to trait anhedonia. We found that the cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and the volume of the pallidum in the left hemisphere were correlated with anhedonia scores in both physical and social aspects. Specifically, positive correlations were found between levels of social anhedonia and the thickness of the postcentral and the inferior parietal gyri. Cortico-subcortical inter-correlations between these clusters were also observed. Our findings revealed distinct correlation patterns of neural substrates with trait physical and social anhedonia in a non-clinical sample. These findings contribute to the understanding of the pathologies underlying the anhedonia phenotype in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:25288478

  10. Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

  11. Unitarity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary O{sub {Delta},{ell}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.

  12. G-corrected holographic dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekjani, M.; Honari-Jafarpour, M.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of G, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of G. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of G-corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of G on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for G-corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in s- r plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

  13. Holographic Interferometry--A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Frutos, A. M.; de la Rosa, M. I.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the problem of analyzing a phase object, separating the contribution due to thickness variations and that due to refractive index variations. Discusses the design of an interferometer and some applications. Provides diagrams and pictures of holographic images. (YP)

  14. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  15. Optimum Design Of Holographic Optical Scanning Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig, H. P.; Dandliker, R.

    1987-01-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOE) can serve as deflecting and focussing elements in laser scanners. They have been incorporated into supermarket point of sale systems [1], laser-beam printers [2] and are foreseen for far wider applications.

  16. Noncontact dimensional measurement system using holographic scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Stephen F.; Rosso, Robert S.; Rowe, David M.

    1997-07-01

    Holographic scanning systems have been used for years in point-of-sale bar code scanners and other low resolution applications. These simple scanning systems could not successfully provide the accuracy and precision required to measure, inspect and control the production of today's high tech optical fibers, medical extrusions and electrical cables. A new class of instruments for the precision measurement of industrial processes has been created by the development of systems with a unique combination of holographic optical elements that can compensate for the wavelength drift in laser diodes, the application of proprietary post-processing algorithms, and the advancements in replication methods to fabricate low cost holographic scanning discs. These systems have improved upon the performance of traditional polygon mirror scanners. This paper presents the optical configuration and design features that have been incorporated into a holographic scanning inspection system that provides higher productivity, increased product quality and lower production costs for many manufacturers.

  17. Right Atrial Volume is Increased in Corrected Tetralogy of Fallot and Correlates with the Incidence of Supraventricular Arrhythmia: A CMR Study.

    PubMed

    Sohns, Jan M; Rosenberg, Christina; Zapf, Antonia; Unterberg-Buchwald, Christina; Staab, Wieland; Schuster, Andreas; Kowallick, Johannes T; Hsch, Olga; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Fasshauer, Martin; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate right atrial (RA) volume in corrected Tetralogy of Fallot (cTOF) and assess its correlation with the occurrence of supraventricular (SV) arrhythmia. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and 24-h Holter were performed in n = 67 consecutive cTOF patients (age 30 11.3 years). The CMR protocol included standard HASTE, SSFP cine, and blood flow measurements. Correlations between arrhythmia in ECG, heart volume, and functional parameters were investigated by negative binominal regression. Patients' characteristics (mean SD) included mean RA volume of 49 19 ml/m(2) (HASTE sequence), mean right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume of 98 27 ml/m(2), mean pulmonary valve regurgitation fraction (PR) of 21 19 %, BMI of 25 kg/m(2), and heart rate of 75/min. Twenty-eight out of 67 patients experienced SV arrhythmia including SV couplets or bigeminus or longer non-sustained SV tachycardia (SVT) episodes. RA volume index was identified as an independent risk factor for different degrees of SV arrhythmia (SV couplets/bigeminus p < 0.001, SVT p < 0.001). Further risk factors for SV arrhythmia were male gender (p = 0.023) and decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (LV EF p < 0.001). RA volume is increased in adult patients with cTOF with larger RA volumes relating to higher incidence of SV arrhythmia. SV arrhythmia also appeared more often in male patients and those with decreased LV EF. Risk stratification according to these parameters could help to optimize early prevention and adjusted individual therapy to improve patient outcome and quality of life. PMID:25862665

  18. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; Bargall, N; Gass, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 ?M. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 ?M: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 ?M: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 ?M induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 ?M r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 ?M; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  19. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  20. A holographic realization of light dilatons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megas, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    We study a realization of light dilatons by considering Conformal Field Theories (CFT) deformed by a nearly marginal operator O. This is discussed in the holographic setup consisting of Renormalization Group (RG) flows that end on a soft wall. We obtain a mass formula for the dilaton as an average along the RG flow. Finally we discuss the holographic method to compute the condensate .

  1. Holographic NDT examination of welded structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, L. M.; Pivtorak, V. A.

    Results are presented from a holographic-interferometry study of welded structures' residual stresses and quality control, giving attention to the effect of explosion treatment on the value and distribution of residual stresses in plate and shell structures. Holographic interferometry possesses high sensitivity to surface displacements and allows visual monitoring of interference fringe patterns that characterize surface deformation and the presence of noncontact areas in objects of complex shape. Another area of unique applicability is the diagnosis of thin-sheet structural members.

  2. Influence of TFT-LCD pixel structure on holographic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhao; Tian, Ailing; Liu, Bingcai

    2008-09-01

    As a new holographic display device, TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays) is key technical component of holographic representation for easy controlled by computer. With the development of exquisite processing technology, that it instead of the traditional holographic plate become historical necessity and would be the development direction of holographic optics. Based on principles of holography and display character of LCD, the property which the LCD was used as a holographic plate was analyzed. The emphasis on discuss influence of LCD black matrix on holographic representation. First, analyzed on LCD pixel structure, the LCD pixel structure mathematical model was established. LCD was character representation by pixel structure parameters. Then, the influence of LCD pixels structure on holographic representation was analyzed by computer simulation. Meanwhile, the SONY LCX023 was chosen for holographic plate, the He-Ne laser which the wavelength is 0.6328um was holographic representation light source. The holographic representation system was established for test influence of LCD on holographic representation. Final, compared between computer simulations and optical experimental results, the mathematical model of LCD was proved to be true. When aperture ratio is 0.625, the holographic representation wouldn't be distinguished between representation images. At the same time, some useful results was acquired for improve application effects of LCD in holographic representation.

  3. Humidity and temperature response of photopolymer-based holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulchyk, Tatsiana; Walshe, James; Cody, Dervil; Martin, Suzanne; Naydenova, Izabela

    2015-05-01

    Holographic sensors have significant potential in various applications ranging from in vitro diagnostics to optical security. They are capable of providing fast, real-time, reversible or irreversible, visual colorimetric or optical readouts. The main challenge in the development of holographic sensors is to improve their selectivity by functionalizing the holographic recording material and achieve a response to a specific analyte. This material should be permeable to the analyte and its properties should change under exposure to the analyte. This work explores the humidity and temperature response of volume phase gratings recorded in photopolymers containing acrylamide and diacetone acrylamide as monomers, and triethanolamine and N-phenylglycine as photoinitiators. Characterization of the humidity response of photopolymer-based gratings in the relative humidity (RH) range of 20-90 % was carried out by measuring the diffraction efficiency of slanted transmission gratings and the position of the maximum intensity in the spectral response of reflection gratings. A strong humidity dependence of the diffraction efficiency of diacetone acrylamide-based transmission gratings was observed at RH=20-90%. The humidity dependence of the spectral response of the reflection gratings showed that photopolymers containing triethanolamine are more hydrophilic than photopolymers containing N-phenylglycine. The temperature response of slanted transmission gratings was investigated in the temperature (T) range of 20-60 C. Exposure of the photopolymer layers containing triethanolamine to elevated temperature showed that the observed Bragg angle shift was caused by layer shrinkage due to water evaporation. The application of a sealing technique allowed for the observation of the photopolymer layer swelling due to the layer's thermal expansion. The results demonstrate an effective approach to obtaining photopolymer-based gratings with tuneable temperature and humidity sensitivity.

  4. Soft Pomeron in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Carcassés Quevedo, Robert; Costa, Miguel S.; Djurić, Marko

    2016-02-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft-Pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J <2 , which includes the scattering domain of the negative Maldelstam variable t . The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV-2 for the slope of the soft Pomeron. The intercept of the secondary Pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  5. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  6. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Fiol, Bartomeu

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  7. Coherent Digital Holographic Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng

    A new type of adaptive optics (AO) based on the principles of digital holography (DH) is proposed and developed for the use in wide-field and confocal retinal imaging. Digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO) dispenses with the wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector of the conventional AO system. DH is an emergent imaging technology that gives direct numerical access to the phase of the optical field, thus allowing precise control and manipulation of the optical field. Incorporation of DH in an ophthalmic imaging system can lead to versatile imaging capabilities at substantially reduced complexity and cost of the instrument. A typical conventional AO system includes several critical hardware pieces: spatial light modulator, lenslet array, and a second CCD camera in addition to the camera for imaging. The proposed DHAO system replaces these hardware components with numerical processing for wavefront measurement and compensation of aberration through the principles of DH. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. Vector fields in holographic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Hartle, James; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The scalar and vector matter profiles in this region are complex from an AdS viewpoint, with universal asymptotic phases. The dual description of the semiclassical NBWF thus involves complex deformations of Euclidean CFTs.

  9. NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

  10. Impact of the radiotherapy technique on the correlation between dose-volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI imaging and dose-volume/surface histograms in prostate cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Perna, Lucia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro; Fiorino, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the true absolute and relative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose-wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose-volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose-volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80-0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66-0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001).

  11. String junctions and holographic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Gutperle, Michael; Hung, Ling-Yan; Krym, Darya

    2011-01-15

    In this paper we study half-BPS type IIB supergravity solutions with multiple AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xM{sub 4} asymptotic regions, where M{sub 4} is either T{sup 4} or K{sub 3}. These solutions were first constructed in [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] and have geometries given by the warped product of AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2}xM{sub 4} over {Sigma}, where {Sigma} is a Riemann surface. We show that the holographic boundary has the structure of a star graph, i.e. n half-lines joined at a point. The attractor mechanism and the relation of the solutions to junctions of self-dual strings in six-dimensional supergravity are discussed. The solutions of [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] are constructed introducing two meromorphic and two harmonic functions defined on {Sigma}. We focus our analysis on solutions corresponding to junctions of three different conformal field theories and show that the conditions for having a solution charged only under Ramond-Ramond three-form fields reduce to relations involving the positions of the poles and the residues of the relevant harmonic and meromorphic functions. The degeneration limit in which some of the poles collide is analyzed in detail. Finally, we calculate the holographic boundary entropy for a junction of three CFTs and obtain a simple expression in terms of poles and residues.

  12. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  13. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs. PMID:26502322

  14. Position, scale, and rotation invariant holographic associative memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, K.H.; Rogers, S.K.; Kabrisky, M.; Mills, J.P. )

    1989-08-01

    An all-optical holographic memory was recently proposed. This paper details the investigation into the characteristics of that system and an extension to a position, scale, and rotation invariant (PSR) holographic associative memory. The PSRI feature space is the {ell}n-polar representation of the square magnitude of the Fourier transform, {vert bar}F(f{sub {ital l}nr}, f{sub {theta}}){vert bar}{sup 2}, of the objects. This representation is generated optically using a coordinate transform computer-generated hologram. Angularly multiplexed, diffuse Fourier transform holograms of the PSRI feature space are characterized as the memory unit. Distorted input objects are correlated with the hologram, and a nonlinear phase conjugate mirror, self-pumped BaTiO{sub 3}, reduces cross-correlation noise and provides object discrimination. The self-pumped phase conjugate mirror is characterized, and high diffraction efficiency bleached holograms are used in the place of thermoplastic film. Applications of the memory are also presented.

  15. Retro-Nasal Aroma Release Is Correlated with Variations in the In-Mouth Air Cavity Volume after Empty Deglutition

    PubMed Central

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labour, Hlne; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL 0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL 2.37 to 22.82 mL 3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition. PMID:22815986

  16. An experimental investigation of three-dimensional particle aggregation using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, K. F.; Rahmatullah, B.; Samuri, S. M.

    2015-05-01

    The tendency of particles to aggregate depends on particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions. These interactions can be characterized but it requires accurate 3D measurements of particle distributions. We introduce the application of an off-axis digital holographic microscopy for measuring distributions of dense micrometer (2 ?m) particles in a liquid solution. We demonstrate that digital holographic microscopy is capable of recording the instantaneous 3D position of particles in a flow volume. A new reconstruction method that aids identification of particle images was used in this work. About 62% of the expected number of particles within the interrogated flow volume was detected. Based on the 3D position of individual particles, the tendency of particle to aggregate is investigated. Results show that relatively few particles (around 5-10 of a cohort of 1500) were aggregates. This number did not change significantly with time.

  17. Cosmological constraints from the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski test and volume effect: galaxy two-point correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Park, Changbom; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Kim, Juhan

    2015-06-01

    We propose a method using the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test and volume effect to measure the cosmic expansion history. The galaxy two-point correlation function as a function of angle, ?(?), is measured at different redshifts. Assuming an incorrect cosmological model to convert galaxy redshifts to distances, the shape of ?(?) appears anisotropic due to the AP effect, and the amplitude is shifted by the change in comoving volume. Due to the redshift dependence of the AP and volume effect, both the shape and amplitude of ?(?) exhibit redshift dependence. Similar to Li et al. (2014), we find that the redshift-space distortions (RSD) caused by galaxy peculiar velocities, although significantly distorting ?(?), exhibit much less redshift evolution compared to the AP and volume effects. By focusing on the redshift dependence of ?(?), we can correctly recover the cosmological parameters despite the contamination of RSD. The method is tested by using the Horizon Run 3 N-body simulation, from which we made a series of 1/8-sky mock surveys having eight million physically self-bound haloes and sampled to have roughly a uniform number density in z = 0-1.5. We find the AP effect results in tight, unbiased constraints on the density parameter and dark energy equation of state, with 68.3% CL intervals ??m 0.03 and ?w 0.1, and the volume effect leads to much tighter constraints of ??m 0.007 and ?w 0.035.

  18. Hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, John A.; Lucente, Mark E.; Sparrell, Carlton J.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.; Tamitani, Ichiro

    1995-04-01

    This report describe the hardware architecture and software implementation of a hologram computing system developed at the MIT Media Laboratory. The hologram computing employs specialized stream-processing hardware embedded in the Cheops Image Processing system--a compact, block data-flow parallel processor. A superposition stream processor performs weighted summations of arbitrary 1D basis functions. A two-step holographic computation method--called Hogel-Vector encoding--utilizes the stream processor's computational power. An array of encoded hogel vectors, generated from a 3D scene description, is rapidly decoded using the processor. The resulting 36-megabyte holographic pattern is transferred to frame- buffers and then fed to a real-time electro-holographic display, producing 3D holographic images. System performance is sufficient to generate an image volume approximately 100 mm per side in 3 seconds. The architecture is scalable over a limited range in both display size and computational power. The limitations on system scalability will be identified and solutions proposed.

  19. Holographic optical element for head-mounted display application using photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Jing-Ai; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Eun-Seok; Kim, Nam

    2013-03-01

    In this paper an application of the Holographic Optical Element (HOE) which is designed by using the photopolymer is proposed. Using the HOE to replace two optic elements of the conventional HMD is possible to reduce the volume and weight. In order to implement the proposed system, we analyze the optical characteristics of the photopolymer and confirm the optimum recording condition of the HOE. The proposed system is verified experimentally.

  20. The Compact and Inexpensive "Arrowhead" Setup for Holographic Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that…

  1. The Compact and Inexpensive "Arrowhead" Setup for Holographic Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that

  2. Acquired cisplatin resistance in human ovarian A2780 cancer cells correlates with shift in taurine homeostasis and ability to volume regulate.

    PubMed

    Srensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-12-15

    Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor ETH 615-139, and the cysteine leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1) antagonist zafirlukast and impaired by the anion channel blocker DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate). Comparing WT and cisplatin-resistant (RES) A2780 cells we also find that evasion of cisplatin-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume-sensitive taurine release in RES A2780 cells correlates with reduced expression of the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 8A (LRRC8A). Furthermore, acute (18 h) exposure to cisplatin (5-10 ?M) increases taurine release and LRRC8A expression in WT A2780 cells whereas cisplatin has no effect on LRRC8A expression in RES A2780 cells. It is suggested that shift in LRRC8A activity can be used as biomarker for apoptotic progress and acquirement of drug resistance. PMID:25252947

  3. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  4. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics

  5. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self­interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  6. Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunazzi, Jos J.; Magalhes, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noem I. R.

    2008-04-01

    Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.

  7. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complexi.e., amplitude plus phasehologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media. PMID:26146767

  8. Dose-Volume Parameters of the Corpora Cavernosa Do Not Correlate With Erectile Dysfunction After External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From a Dose-Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Dohle, Gert R.; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Incrocci, Luca

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between dose-volume parameters of the corpora cavernosa and erectile dysfunction (ED) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, a randomized dose-escalation trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy was conducted. Patients at our institute were asked to participate in an additional part of the trial evaluating sexual function. After exclusion of patients with less than 2 years of follow-up, ED at baseline, or treatment with hormonal therapy, 96 patients were eligible. The proximal corpora cavernosa (crura), the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, and the penile bulb were contoured on the planning computed tomography scan and dose-volume parameters were calculated. Results: Two years after EBRT, 35 of the 96 patients had developed ED. No statistically significant correlations between ED 2 years after EBRT and dose-volume parameters of the crura, the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, or the penile bulb were found. The few patients using potency aids typically indicated to have ED. Conclusion: No correlation was found between ED after EBRT for prostate cancer and radiation dose to the crura or penile bulb. The present study is the largest study evaluating the correlation between ED and radiation dose to the corpora cavernosa after EBRT for prostate cancer. Until there is clear evidence that sparing the penile bulb or crura will reduce ED after EBRT, we advise to be careful in sparing these structures, especially when this involves reducing treatment margins.

  9. The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.

    1993-02-01

    We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.

  10. Corner contributions to holographic entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Myers, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    The entanglement entropy of three-dimensional conformal field theories contains a universal contribution coming from corners in the entangling surface. We study these contributions in a holographic framework and, in particular, we consider the effects of higher curvature interactions in the bulk gravity theory. We find that for all of our holographic models, the corner contribution is only modified by an overall factor but the functional dependence on the opening angle is not modified by the new gravitational interactions. We also compare the dependence of the corner term on the new gravitational couplings to that for a number of other physical quantities, and we show that the ratio of the corner contribution over the central charge appearing in the two-point function of the stress tensor is a universal function for all of the holographic theories studied here. Comparing this holographic result to the analogous functions for free CFT's, we find fairly good agreement across the full range of the opening angle. However, there is a precise match in the limit where the entangling surface becomes smooth, i.e., the angle approaches ?, and we conjecture the corresponding ratio is a universal constant for all three-dimensional conformal field theories. In this paper, we expand on the holographic calculations in our previous letter arXiv:1505.04804, where this conjecture was first introduced.

  11. Phase structures of holographic screen thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei-Jian; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Jian-Long

    2014-07-01

    Holographic screens are the generalization of the event horizon of a black hole in entropic force scheme, which are defined by setting Newton potential ϕ constant, i.e. e2ϕ = c = const. We demonstrate that the integrated first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to the (r-r) component of Einstein equations, so that we strengthen the correspondence between thermodynamics and gravity. We show that there are not only the first law of thermodynamics, but also kinds of phase transitions of holographic screens. These phase transitions are characterized by the discontinuity of their heat capacities. In (n+1)-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) spacetime, we analyze three kinds of phase transitions, which are of the holographic screens with Q = 0 (charge), constant Φ (electrostatic potential) and nonzero constant Q. In the Q = 0 case, only the holographic screens with 0≤c<1 can undergo phase transition. In the constant Φ case, the constraints become as 0<= c+16˜ {Γ }2Φ 2<1, where ˜ {Γ } is a dimensional-dependent parameter. By verifying the Ehrenfest equations, we show that the phase transitions in this case are all second order phase transitions. In the constant Q case, there might be two, or one, or no phase transitions of holographic screens, depending on the values of Q and c.

  12. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Polli, Roberson S.; Malheiros, Jackeline M.; dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that these are not significantly correlated to the frequency of SRS. PMID:25071699

  13. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Polli, Roberson S; Malheiros, Jackeline M; Dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that these are not significantly correlated to the frequency of SRS. PMID:25071699

  14. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r=−0.90; P=0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r=−0.73; P=0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r=−0.76; P=0.002; STS 0.25 μM r=−0.62; P=0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P<0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  15. Correlation of Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measurements with Axial Length and Age Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods. A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12 mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). Results. The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F = 23.146, P < 0.001) followed by axial length (F = 4.902, P = 0.03). Refractive error was not statistically significant (F = 1.16, P = 0.28). Conclusions. SS-OCT is the first commercially available system that can automatically create choroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time. PMID:25013793

  16. Toward a Mathematical Holographic Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gra, Pawe?; Li, Zhenyang; Boyarsky, Abraham; Proppe, Harald

    2014-08-01

    In work started in [17] and continued in this paper our objective is to study selectors of multivalued functions which have interesting dynamical properties, such as possessing absolutely continuous invariant measures. We specify the graph of a multivalued function by means of lower and upper boundary maps and On these boundary maps we define a position dependent random map which, at each time step, moves the point to with probability and to with probability . Under general conditions, for each choice of , possesses an absolutely continuous invariant measure with invariant density Let be a selector which has invariant density function One of our objectives is to study conditions under which exists such that has as its invariant density function. When this is the case, the long term statistical dynamical behavior of a selector can be represented by the long term statistical behavior of a random map on the boundaries of We refer to such a result as a mathematical holographic principle. We present examples and study the relationship between the invariant densities attainable by classes of selectors and the random maps based on the boundaries and show that, under certain conditions, the extreme points of the invariant densities for selectors are achieved by bang-bang random maps, that is, random maps for which

  17. Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    The relation between the hadronic short-distance constituent quark and gluon particle limit and the long-range confining domain is yet one of the most challenging aspects of particle physics due to the strong coupling nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. The central question is how one can compute hadronic properties from first principles; i.e., directly from the QCD Lagrangian. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time. Lattice numerical results follow from computation of frame-dependent moments of distributions in Euclidean space and dynamical observables in Minkowski spacetime, such as the time-like hadronic form factors, are not amenable to Euclidean lattice computations. The Dyson-Schwinger methods have led to many important insights, such as the infrared fixed point behavior of the strong coupling constant, but in practice, the analyses are limited to ladder approximation in Landau gauge. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. New theoretical tools are thus of primary interest for the interpretation of the results expected at the new mass scale and kinematic regions accessible to the JLab 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gravity or string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and conformal field theories in physical space-time has led to a semiclassical approximation for strongly-coupled QCD, which provides physical insights into its nonperturbative dynamics. The correspondence is holographic in the sense that it determines a duality between theories in different number of space-time dimensions. This geometric approach leads in fact to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian 'Light-Front Holography'. Light-Front Holography is in fact one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The Hamiltonian equation of motion in the light-front (LF) is frame independent and has a structure similar to eigenmode equations in AdS space. This makes a direct connection of QCD with AdS/CFT methods possible. Remarkably, the AdS equations correspond to the kinetic energy terms of the partons inside a hadron, whereas the interaction terms build confinement and correspond to the truncation of AdS space in an effective dual gravity approximation. One can also study the gauge/gravity duality starting from the bound-state structure of hadrons in QCD quantized in the light-front. The LF Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian equation for the relativistic bound-state system is P{sub {mu}}P{sup {mu}}|{psi}(P)> = (P{sup +}P{sup -} - P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2})|{psi}(P)> = M{sup 2}|{psi}(P)>, P{sup {+-}} = P{sup 0} {+-} P{sup 3}, where the LF time evolution operator P{sup -} is determined canonically from the QCD Lagrangian. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this leads to a LF Hamiltonian equation which describes the bound-state dynamics of light hadrons in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the partons within the hadron at equal light-front time {tau} = x{sup 0} + x{sup 3}. This allows us to identify the holographic variable z in AdS space with an impact variable {zeta}. The resulting Lorentz-invariant Schroedinger equation for general spin incorporates color confinement and is systematically improvable. Light-front holographic methods were originally introduced by matching the electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding expression using LF theory in physical space time. It was also shown that one obtains identical holographic mapping using the matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor by perturbing the AdS metric around its static solution. A gravity dual to QCD is not known, but the mechanisms of confinement can be incorporated in the gauge/gravity correspondence by modifying the AdS geometry in the large infrared (IR) domain z {approx} 1 = {Lambda}{sub QCD}, which also sets the scale of the strong interactions. In this simplified approach we consider the propagation of hadronic modes in a fixed effective gravitational background asymptotic to AdS space, which encodes salient properties of the QCD dual theory, such as the ultraviolet (UV) conformal limit at the AdS boundary, as well as modifications of the background geometry in the large z IR region to describe confinement. The modified theory generates the point-like hard behavior expected from QCD, instead of the soft behavior characteristic of extended objects.

  18. Holographic entropy and Calabi's diastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The entanglement entropy for interfaces and junctions of two-dimensional CFTs is evaluated on holographically dual half-BPS solutions to six-dimensional Type 4b supergravity with m anti-symmetric tensor supermultiplets. It is shown that the moduli space for an N-junction solution projects to N points in the Khler manifold SO(2 , m) / (SO(2) SO( m)). For N =2 the interface entropy is expressed in terms of the central charge and Calabi's diastasis function on SO(2 , m) / (SO(2) SO( m)), thereby lending support from holography to a proposal of Bachas, Brunner, Douglas, and Rastelli. For N =3, the entanglement entropy for a 3-junction decomposes into a sum of diastasis functions between pairs, weighed by combinations of the three central charges, provided the flux charges are all parallel to one another or, more generally, provided the space of flux charges is orthogonal to the space of unattracted scalars. Under similar assumptions for N ?4, the entanglement entropy for the N -junction solves a variational problem whose data consist of the N central charges, and the diastasis function evaluated between pairs of N asymptotic AdS 3 S 3 regions.

  19. Holographic entanglement beyond classical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrella, Taylor; Dong, Xi; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Martin, Victoria L.

    2013-09-01

    The Rnyi entropies and entanglement entropy of 1+1 CFTs with gravity duals can be computed by explicit construction of the bulk spacetimes dual to branched covers of the boundary geometry. At the classical level in the bulk this has recently been shown to reproduce the conjectured Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy. We study the one-loop bulk corrections to this formula. The functional determinants in the bulk geometries are given by a sum over certain words of generators of the Schottky group of the branched cover. For the case of two disjoint intervals on a line we obtain analytic answers for the one-loop entanglement entropy in an expansion in small cross-ratio. These reproduce and go beyond anticipated universal terms that are not visible classically in the bulk. We also consider the case of a single interval on a circle at finite temperature. At high temperatures we show that the one-loop contributions introduce expected finite size corrections to the entanglement entropy that are not present classically. At low temperatures, the one-loop corrections capture the mixed nature of the density matrix, also not visible classically below the Hawking-Page temperature.

  20. Exact holographic mapping in free fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching Hua; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a detailed analysis of the exact holographic mapping first introduced in arXiv:1309.6282, which was proposed as an explicit example of holographic duality between quantum many-body systems and gravitational theories. We obtain analytic results for free fermion systems that not only confirm previous numerical results, but also elucidate the exact relationships between the various physical properties of the bulk and boundary systems. These analytic results allow us to study the asymptotic properties that are difficult to probe numerically, such as the near-horizon regime of the black-hole geometry. We shall also explore a few interesting but hitherto unexplored bulk geometries, such as that corresponding to a boundary critical fermion with a nontrivial dynamical critical exponent. Our analytic framework also allows us to study the holographic mapping of some of these boundary theories in dimensions 2+1 or higher.

  1. Holographic trace anomaly and local renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Stergiou, Andreas; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-11-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  2. The evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and mean platelet volume values and correlation with cardiac functions in obese children

    PubMed Central

    zkan, Esra Akyz; Khosroshahi, Hashem E; Serin, Halil ?brahim; zdemir, Zeynep Tuba; K?l?, Mahmut; Ekim, Meral; Geit, U Aliye; Domur, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with many risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension and leads to early atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) on cardiac functions among obese children. Materials and Methods: Sixty obese children, with body mass index percentile were >95% and forty eight healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), thyroid function tests, hemoglobin, white blood cell, MPV and insulin resistance were evaluated. CIMT was measured by using high-resolution ultrasound and echocardiography was performed to all individuals. Results: MPV and CIMT values were found significantly higher in obese children than controls. There was positive correlation between CIMT and age, body surface area (BSA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESWSm), myocardial fiber stress (MFS), stroke volume (SV) and insulin and negative correlation with left ventricle end-systolic elastance by single beat technique (Ees(sb)) and arterial elastance (Ea). There was no correlation between LVM, cardiac risk profiles and CIMT. Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that ESWSm (?=0.337, P=0.049) was only independent factor on CIMT. MPV values showed negative correlation with ALT, AST, Free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone and positive correlation with age and BSA. Conclusion: Current study showed that obesity has an independent impact on CIMT and MPV values in children. Increased CIMT in obese children leads significant increase in ESWSm and decrease in Ea and Ees(sb).

  3. Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, Reto; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, Steven E.; Rubin, Michael

    1994-09-01

    The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional `view' windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.

  4. Likelihood-based error correction for holographic storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neifeld, Mark A.; Chou, Wu-Chun

    1999-11-01

    We consider a volume holographic memory (VHM) system that is corrupted by interpixel interference (IPI) and detector noise. We compare hard-decision Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding with both hard- and soft-decision algorithms for 2D array decoding. RS codes are shown to provide larger VHM storage capacity and density as compared with array codes when hard-decision methods are employed. A new likelihood-based soft-decision algorithm for 2D array decoding is described. The new decoding algorithm is motivated by iterative turbo-decoding methods and is capable of incorporating a priori knowledge of the corrupting IPI channel during decoding. The new algorithm is shown to offer VHM capacity and density performance superior to hard-decision RS methods.

  5. Multiplexed holographic memory by use of fiber bundle referencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiasen; Aruga, Tadashi

    2005-04-01

    We propose a volume holographic storage technique, in which a fiber bundle is used to guide the reference beam. Multiplexing is implemented by changing the incident direction of the laser beam upon the fiber bundle in the reference arm. In the technique, we make the system more compact by using a wedge prism to change the direction of the laser beam. This method has a large accessible angular scanning range and a large geometric storage bandwidth. Multiple images are stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with an angular separation of 0.05° between successive holograms using a wedge prism with a deviation angle of 8°. This method is useful as a new image storage technique because of its compactness and simplicity.

  6. Holographic gravitational infall in the hard wall model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Lindgren, E. J.; Taliotis, Anastasios; Vanhoof, Joris; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-10-01

    An infalling shell in the hard wall model provides a simple holographic model for energy injection in a confining gauge theory. Depending on its parameters, a scalar shell either collapses into a large black brane, or scatters between the hard wall and the anti-de Sitter boundary. In the scattering regime, we find numerical solutions that keep oscillating for as long as we have followed their evolution, and we provide an analytic argument that shows that a black brane can never be formed. This provides examples of states in infinite-volume field theory that never thermalize. We find that the field theory expectation value of a scalar operator keeps oscillating, with an amplitude that undergoes modulation.

  7. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  8. Novel computational approach for studying ph effects, excluded volume and ion-ion correlations in electrical double layers around polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven

    Highly charged cylindrical and spherical objects (macroions) are probably the simplest structures for modeling nucleic acids, proteins and nanoparticles. Their ubiquitous presence within biophysical systems ensures that Coulomb forces are among the most important interactions that regulate the behavior of these systems. In these systems, ions position themselves in a strongly correlated manner near the surface of a macroion and form electrical double layers (EDLs). These EDLs play an important role in many biophysical and biochemical processes. For instance, the macroion's net charge can change due to the binding of many multivalent ions to its surface. Thus, proper description of EDLs near the surface of a macroion may reveal a counter-intuitive charge inversion behavior, which can generate attraction between like-charged objects. This is relevant for the variety of fields such as self-assembly of DNA and RNA folding, as well as for protein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases. Certainly, the key factors that contribute to these phenomena cannot be properly understood without an accurate solvation model. With recent advancements in computer technologies, the possibility to use computational tools for fundamental understanding of the role of EDLs around biomolecules and nanoparticles on their physical and chemical properties is becoming more feasible. Establishing the impact of the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations, ionic strength and pH of the electrolyte on the EDL around biomolecules and nanoparticles, and how changes in these properties consequently affect the Zeta potential and surface charge density are still not well understood. Thus, modeling and understanding the role of these properties on EDLs will provide more insights on the stability, adsorption, binding and function of biomolecules and nanoparticles. Existing mean-field theories such as Poisson Boltzmann (PB) often neglect the ion-ion correlations, solvent and ion excluded volume effects, which are important details for proper description of EDL properties. In this thesis, we implement an efficient and accurate classical solvation density functional theory (CDSFT) for EDLs of spherical macroions and cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes. This approach extends the capabilities of mean field approximations by taking into account electrostatic ion-ion correlations, size asymmetry and excluded volume effects without compromising the computational cost. We apply the computational tool to study the structural and thermodynamic properties of the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA and spherical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the presence of solvent molecules at experimental concentration and size values has a significant impact on the layering of ions. This layering directly influences the integrated charge and mean electrostatic potential in the diffuse region of the spherical electrical double layer (SEDL) and have a noticeable impact on the behavior of zeta potential (ZP). Recently, we have extended the aforementioned CSDFT to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms of the macroion surface on the structural and thermodynamic properties of spherical EDLs. In the approach, the CSDFT is combined with a surface complexation model to account for ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical macroions. We apply the proposed computational approach to describe the role that the ion size and solvent excluded volume play on the surface titration properties of silica nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, pH and salt concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge and zeta potential. The results reveal that surface charge density and zeta potential significantly depend on excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects as well as on pH for monovalent ion species at high salt concentrations. Overall, our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations and available experimental data. We discuss future directions of this work, which incl

  9. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-03-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, e.g., lenslet arrays for sensing or multi-acuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach to adaptive optics based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile is possible not only with the conventional coherent type of digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates complex - i.e. amplitude plus phase - hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using a guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. The adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  10. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  11. Holographic currents and Chern-Simons terms

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2010-11-15

    Holographic currents and their associated Ward identities are derived in the framework of gravity/gauge duality. Holographic improvements of the energy-momentum tensor and R-symmetry current which are consistent with the Ward identities are displayed. The effects of specific string loop corrections to the bulk action are included as four derivative effective Lagrangian terms and their contributions to the trace and R-symmetry anomalies of the boundary theory are determined. As an example, the construction is applied to the N=2 conformal supergravity which is taken to be dual to a boundary SU(N)xSU(N), N=1 superconformal field theory.

  12. Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-09-01

    Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.

  13. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); McMakin, Douglas L. (Richland, WA); Hall, Thomas E. (Kennewick, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  14. Holographic superconductors from the massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hua Bi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2014-08-01

    A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite dc conductivity, the ac conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power-law fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.

  15. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  16. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  17. Holographic interference method for studying residual stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Apal'kov, A A; Larkin, A I; Osintsev, A V; Odintsev, I N; Shchepinov, V P; Shchikanov, A Yu; Fontaine, J

    2007-06-30

    An original procedure is proposed for measuring residual stresses by combining the methods of holographic interferometry and probe holes. The difference of the orders of interference fringes for pairs of points on the surface of a body located on the directions of principal stresses is used as primary information. The results of the test experiment on measuring stresses in a plate deformed in the case of a simple shear and the results of measurement of residual welding stresses in two samples welded by a laser are presented. (holographic measurement methods)

  18. Shape of mesons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2009-10-15

    Based on the expectation that the constituent quark model may capture the right physics in the large N limit, we point out that the orbital angular momentum of the quark-antiquark pair inside light mesons of low spins in the constituent quark model may provide a clue for the holographic dual string model of large N QCD. Our discussion, relying on a few suggestive assumptions, leads to a necessity of world-sheet fermions in the bulk of dual strings that can incorporate intrinsic spins of fundamental QCD degrees of freedom. We also comment on the interesting issue of the size of mesons in holographic QCD.

  19. Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, D.

    1993-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.

  20. Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Umar Farooq, M.

    2010-03-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy.

  1. Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; French, P. M. W.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.

    2003-07-01

    We present depth-resolved coherence-domain images of living tissue using a dynamic holographic semiconductor film. An AlGaAs photorefractive quantum-well device is used in an adaptive interferometer that records coherent backscattered (image-bearing) light from inside rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids up to 1 mm in diameter in vitro. The data consist of sequential holographic image frames at successive depths through the tumor represented as a visual video "fly-through." The images from the tumor spheroids reveal heterogeneous structures presumably caused by necrosis and microcalcifications characteristic of human tumors in their early avascular growth.

  2. Tracking the Roots of Reading Ability: White Matter Volume and Integrity Correlate with Phonological Awareness in Prereading and Early-Reading Kindergarten Children

    PubMed Central

    Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

  3. Quantitative 3D strain analysis in analogue experiments simulating tectonic deformation: Integration of X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Klinkmüller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Wieneke, B.

    2013-10-01

    The combination of scaled analogue experiments, material mechanics, X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) and Digital Volume Correlation techniques (DVC) is a powerful new tool not only to examine the 3 dimensional structure and kinematic evolution of complex deformation structures in scaled analogue experiments, but also to fully quantify their spatial strain distribution and complete strain history. Digital image correlation (DIC) is an important advance in quantitative physical modelling and helps to understand non-linear deformation processes. Optical non-intrusive (DIC) techniques enable the quantification of localised and distributed deformation in analogue experiments based either on images taken through transparent sidewalls (2D DIC) or on surface views (3D DIC). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) analysis permits the non-destructive visualisation of the internal structure and kinematic evolution of scaled analogue experiments simulating tectonic evolution of complex geological structures. The combination of XRCT sectional image data of analogue experiments with 2D DIC only allows quantification of 2D displacement and strain components in section direction. This completely omits the potential of CT experiments for full 3D strain analysis of complex, non-cylindrical deformation structures. In this study, we apply digital volume correlation (DVC) techniques on XRCT scan data of "solid" analogue experiments to fully quantify the internal displacement and strain in 3 dimensions over time. Our first results indicate that the application of DVC techniques on XRCT volume data can successfully be used to quantify the 3D spatial and temporal strain patterns inside analogue experiments. We demonstrate the potential of combining DVC techniques and XRCT volume imaging for 3D strain analysis of a contractional experiment simulating the development of a non-cylindrical pop-up structure. Furthermore, we discuss various options for optimisation of granular materials, pattern generation, and data acquisition for increased resolution and accuracy of the strain results. Three-dimensional strain analysis of analogue models is of particular interest for geological and seismic interpretations of complex, non-cylindrical geological structures. The volume strain data enable the analysis of the large-scale and small-scale strain history of geological structures.

  4. Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for some dicyclic hydrocarbons having high thermal-energy release per unit volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, P H; Serijan, K T; Goodman, I A

    1951-01-01

    As part of a program to study the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, the net heats of combustion, melting points, boiling points, densities, and kinematic viscosities of some hydrocarbons in the 2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane, diphenylalkane, 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and dicyclohexylalkane series are presented.

  5. Correlation between single-slice muscle anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle volume in thigh extensors, flexors and adductors of perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cotofana, S; Hudelmaier, M; Wirth, W; Himmer, M; Ring-Dimitriou, S; Snger, A M; Eckstein, F

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative data on muscle volume (MV) are important for estimating maximal muscle power. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs) and the MV in thigh muscles (extensors, flexors, adductors, and sartorius) in perimenopausal women, and to identify at which proximal-to-distal level a single-slice ACSA measurement with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) displays the highest correlation in each of these. Axial MRIs of the thigh were acquired in 41 perimenopausal women aged 50.8 +/- 3.2 years. Segmentation of the extensors, flexors, adductors, and the sartorius was performed between the femoral neck (0%) and the distal end of the intermediate vastus (100%). MVs were determined by numerical integration, and the ACSA was calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions at 10% intervals from proximal to distal. The extensors contributed 50%, the flexors 19%, the adductors 28%, and the sartorius 3% of the total thigh MV. Maximal correlations between ACSA and MV were observed at the 20-40% proximal-to-distal level in the extensors (R (2) = 0.73), at 30% in the adductors (R (2) = 0.82), and at 70% in the flexors (R (2) = 0.72) and sartorius (R (2) = 0.85), respectively. ACSA at 50% displayed the highest overall correlations (R (2) >or= 0.69) with MV for all muscle groups. Single-slice ACSAs from MRI displayed high correlations with MVs. Although the (proximal to distal) measurement locations with the highest correlation varied between the muscle groups, a single slice at the 50% location achieved the best compromise in terms of correlation between ACSA and MV across extensors, flexors, adductors and the sartorius. PMID:20401666

  6. Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin E-mail: xiaodongli@kias.re.kr E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2013-09-01

    We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H{sub 0} = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms{sup −1}Mpc{sup −1}) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω{sub m}h{sup 3} and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP+HST}−χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP} is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ{sup 2} is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison, the Union2.1 data set is consistent with these three data sets, but the combination Union2.1+BAO+HST is in tension with Plank+WP+lensing, corresponding to a large Δχ{sup 2} that is equal to 8.6 (1.4% probability). Thus, combining internal inconsistent data sets (SNIa+BAO+HST with Plank+WP+lensing) can lead to ambiguous results, and it is necessary to perform the HDE data analysis for each independent data sets. Our tightest self-consistent constraint is c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Plank+WP+BAO+HST+lensing.

  7. PACER -- A fast running computer code for the calculation of short-term containment/confinement loads following coolant boundary failure. Volume 1: Code models and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. Flashing from coolant release, condensation heat transfer, intercompartment transport, and engineered safety features are described using best estimate models and correlations often based upon experiment analyses. Two notable capabilities of PACER that differ from most other containment loads codes are the modeling of the rates of steam and water formation accompanying coolant release as well as the correlations for steam condensation upon structure.

  8. Correlation between free-volume properties and pervaporative flux of polyurethane-zeolite composites on organic solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Su, I-Ming; Lee, Da-Tung; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Shih, Chao-Ming; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Jean, Y C; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2011-03-31

    Micron-sized zeolite particles were incorporated into a polyurethane (PU) matrix to prepare ethylbenzene-selective membranes. The resulting composite membranes were used in the pervaporation (PV) of ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/ST) mixtures. The sorption, diffusion, and PV permeation behaviors as a result of zeolite addition were elucidated. Zeolite is less chemically compatible with organic solvents than PU and the PU-zeolite composites, which exhibited suppressed solvent solubilities compared with pristine PU. However, these membranes favor EB transport by diffusion selectivity. The diffusivity and permeation flux increases in parallel with the enlarged radius of the free-volume hole size (R(4) increasing from 3.46 to 3.64 using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy analysis) by increasing the zeolite content from 0 to 23%. The enlarged free volume at a zeolite loading of 23% promoted pure solvent diffusivities by 10% higher than that of the unfilled film. During the PV operation on the EB/ST mixture, a significant diffusion-coupling was observed, and the permeant diffusion coefficients from the binary mixture exceeded the pure solvent diffusivity. The permeation flux was greatly improved (up to 0.72 kg/m(2)h) by zeolite addition without any detrimental effect on the separation efficiency. PMID:21375225

  9. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Catass, Carlos A.; Cabrera-Gomez, Jos; Almaguer Melin, William; Giroud Bentez, Jos Luis; Rodrguez Rojas, Rafael; Bayard, Jorge Bosch; Galn, Ldice; Snchez, Reinaldo Galvizu; Fuentes, Nancy Pavn; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO) is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV) and grey matter volumes (GMV) and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON) attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO. PMID:23824339

  10. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Heat transfer data measured in gaps typical of those under consideration for joints in space shuttle reusable surface insulation protection systems have been assimilated, analyzed and correlated. The data were obtained in four NASA facilities. Several types of gaps were investigated with emphasis on simple butt joints. Gap widths ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 cm and depths ranged from 1 to 6 cm. Laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layer flows over the gap opening were investigated. Three-dimensional heating variations were observed within gaps in the absence of external flow pressure gradients. Heat transfer correlation equations were obtained for several of the tests. Thermal protection system performance with and without gaps was compared for a representative shuttle entry trajectory.

  11. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps. Volume 2: Data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic heating created by gaps in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle. The effects of various parameters of the RSI on convective heating characteristics are described. The wind tunnel tests provided a data base for accurate assessment of gap heating. Analysis and correlation of the data provide methods for predicting heating in the RSI gaps on the space shuttle.

  12. Spherical roller bearing analysis. SKF computer program SPHERBEAN. Volume 3: Program correlation with full scale hardware tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Rosenlieb, J. W.; Dyba, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a series of full scale hardware tests comparing predictions of the SPHERBEAN computer program with measured data are presented. The SPHERBEAN program predicts the thermomechanical performance characteristics of high speed lubricated double row spherical roller bearings. The degree of correlation between performance predicted by SPHERBEAN and measured data is demonstrated. Experimental and calculated performance data is compared over a range in speed up to 19,400 rpm (0.8 MDN) under pure radial, pure axial, and combined loads.

  13. On the Son-Yamamoto relation in the soft-wall holographic model of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicotri, Stefano

    2012-10-01

    We study the vertex function of two vector and one axial-vector operators in the soft-wall holographic model of QCD. In particular, we discuss the possible relation, introduced by Son and Yamamoto, between one of the structure functions, wT, describing such a vertex when one of the two vector currents represents an on-shell soft photon and the two-point ??VV-??AA correlator.

  14. A holographic improvement to traditional Optical Array Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugal, Jacob; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Optical Array Probes have been used to measure cloud droplets and ice crystals in the size range of ~10 m up to ~1 cm for about the last four decades. In this type of instrument, particles are swept past a focused laser sheet imaged onto a linear diode array. The resulting image has a single spatial axis and a time axis and thereby has shadowgraphs of the particles swept through and can then infer their size and shape, and therefrom size distributions, liquid water content, ice water content, and so on. One weakness inherent in the method is the difficulty in measuring small particles (~10 to 200m in size) which appear out of focus or are not detected at all, depending on how far from the focus of the laser sheet they appear in the sensitive region. Out-of-focus small particles appear as a diffraction rings or doughnuts making the particles appear large than they actually are. Also the region in which the instrument is sensitive to small particles or depth-of-focus region is difficult to estimate making number concentrations and size distributions difficult to measure. On the other hand, holographic sample volumes are well defined as the sensitive region spans the entire area in which particles appear and the particles appearing in the holograms are reconstructed to their focus position. I.e. there is no depth-of-focus problem and the particles are sized in their focus position. Current holographic cloud particle probes use two-dimensional cameras that take snapshots of cloud particles having two spatial dimensions. These probes have also been high-resolution which requires high-performance servers to do the reconstruction and particle finding meaning the results of the measurements come long after the holograms are made. Of great advantage might be a low-resolution holographic probe with a spatial axis and a time axis with real-time results. Shown is that simple modifications to existing optical array probes such as a collimated laser sheet and a grayscale sensor, and a simple low-resolution holographic reconstruction technique can be used to remove the depth of focus and the over-sizing problem from an optical array probe of similar configuration. It is hypothesised that for low enough resolution and flight speeds, the hologram reconstruction and particle finding algorithm could be implemented realtime on an FPGA. It is shown that only a few grayscales are necessary to make holograms of sufficient quality. Discussed is the sensitivity of smallest detectable particle size and sample volume depth are to the detector size. Also discussed is that one would obtain a rough estimate of the third spatial position of small particles in the sample volume resulting in a better resolved view of the structure of the cloud.

  15. Effect of interfacial interaction on free volumes in phenol-formaldehyde resin-carbon nanotube composites: positron annihilation lifetime and age momentum correlation studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Prakash, J; Sudarshan, K; Maheshwari, P; Sathiyamoorthy, D; Pujari, P K

    2012-08-21

    The phenol-formaldehyde-carbon nanotube composites were characterized for their free volume properties and interfacial interactions between nanotubes and the polymer matrix. The base polymeric material was a novolac type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) condensation resin cross-linked with para-toluene sulfonic acid. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a catalytical chemical vapor deposition method and characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The PF resin-carbon nanotubes composites having 2, 5, 10 and 20% (w/w%) MWCNTs were prepared. The crystallinity and morphology of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The free volume size in the polymer nanocomposites was observed to increase with the increase in nanotube content. Positron age momentum correlation (AMOC) studies revealed the electronic environment around different positron annihilation sites. The studies showed that ortho-positronium principally annihilates from interfacial regions of polymer and nanotubes in the nanocomposite. The positron lifetime studies together with AMOC measurements indicate an increase in the free volumes at the interface of polymer and MWCNTs in the composite. The free positron intensities showed that the polymer and nanotubes are weakly interacting in this system. PMID:22688656

  16. Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erf, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

  17. The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R.

    Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain

  18. The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R.

    Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain…

  19. High sensitive materials in medical holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Snashall, E.; Osanlou, O.; Osanlou, R.; Mirlis, E.; Shi, Lishen; Bjelkhagen, H.

    2015-02-01

    High sensitivity is defined in relation to the energy required to perform holographic recording. High sensitivity in silver halide materials is their main advantage over other similarly high resolving power holographic recording materials. This work reports progress on the development of silver halide based 'true colour holographic imaging', under a microscope. A thin layer of ultrafine grains of silver halide crystals of around 10 nm average diameter, dispersed in a colloid and coated on a substrate is used as the recording media. The significance of this method so far, is in its ability to produce 'true colour' three-dimensional images of specimen. The recordings have an appreciable depth, permitting the observer to scan through the image under a microscope, as one might with a real specimen sample. Current methods could perform ' True colour holographic imaging' directly under a microscope. The recording methodology has the potential for deeper complex and scattering media imaging, using very small pulses of appropriate laser wavelengths. The methodology, using novel nanosize panchromatic recording media consisting of dispersed fine nano grain crystals, could potentially revolutionise related medical imaging techniques. Future development of digital media will allow it to be utilized in this manner.

  20. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Gertz, F.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Khitun, A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.

  1. Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

  2. Multifrequency laser beams for holographic contouring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflinger, L. O.; Wuerker, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pulsed ruby laser emits two optical frequencies simultaneously so holographic recordings of test object give images showing desired range contours. Process enables generation of contour maps for practical applications such as gaging size and shape of mechanical parts and other structures.

  3. Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for determining temperature and concentration in crystal growth experiments designed for space. The method measures refractive index changes within the fluid of an experimental test cell resulting from temperature and/or concentration changes. When the refractive index changes are caused by simultaneous temperature and concentration changes, the contributions of the two effects cannot be separated by single wavelength interferometry. By using two wavelengths, however, two independent interferograms can provide the additional independent equation required to determine the two unknowns. There is no other technique available that provides this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort were to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry (TCHI) and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. In the foregoing study, the theory of TCHI has been tested experimentally over a range of interest for materials processing in space where measurements of temperature and concentration in a solution are required. New techniques were developed and applied to stretch the limits beyond what could be done with existing procedures. The study resulted in the production of one of the most advanced, enhanced sensitivity holographic interferometers in existence. The interferometric measurements made at MSFC represent what is believed to be the most accurate holographic interferometric measurements made in a fluid to date. The tests have provided an understanding of the limitations of the technique in practical use.

  4. Gravitation from entanglement in holographic CFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Thomas; Guica, Monica; Hartman, Thomas; Myers, Robert C.; Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Entanglement entropy obeys a `first law', an exact quantum generalization of the ordinary first law of thermodynamics. In any CFT with a semiclassical holographic dual, this first law has an interpretation in the dual gravitational theory as a constraint on the spacetimes dual to CFT states. For small perturbations around the CFT vacuum state, we show that the set of such constraints for all ball-shaped spatial regions in the CFT is exactly equivalent to the requirement that the dual geometry satisfy the gravitational equations of motion, linearized about pure AdS. For theories with entanglement entropy computed by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula S = /(4 G N), we obtain the linearized Einstein equations. For theories in which the vacuum entanglement entropy for a ball is computed by more general Wald functionals, we obtain the linearized equations for the associated higher-curvature theories. Using the first law, we also derive the holographic dictionary for the stress tensor, given the holographic formula for entanglement entropy. This method provides a simple alternative to holographic renormalization for computing the stress tensor expectation value in arbitrary higher derivative gravitational theories.

  5. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Gertz, F.; Khitun, A.

    2015-04-06

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.

  6. Holographic flow visualization in rotating turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. J.; Reeves, M.

    1990-11-01

    Holographic flow visualization has found many applications in rotating turbomachinery. Applications in the design of aeroengine fans, automotive turbochargers, turbines, helicopter rotors, and advanced propfans are discussed. Work in ducted rotating flows and rotating free aerofoils is brought together and new developments in each field are revealed.

  7. Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yibo; Göröcs, Zoltán; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To achieve high-resolution and wide field-of-view, digital holographic imaging techniques need to tackle two major challenges: phase recovery and spatial undersampling. Previously, these challenges were separately addressed using phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution algorithms, which utilize the diversity of different imaging parameters. Although existing holographic imaging methods can achieve large space-bandwidth-products by performing pixel super-resolution and phase retrieval sequentially, they require large amounts of data, which might be a limitation in high-speed or cost-effective imaging applications. Here we report a propagation phasor approach, which for the first time combines phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution into a unified mathematical framework and enables the synthesis of new holographic image reconstruction methods with significantly improved data efficiency. In this approach, twin image and spatial aliasing signals, along with other digital artifacts, are interpreted as noise terms that are modulated by phasors that analytically depend on the lateral displacement between hologram and sensor planes, sample-to-sensor distance, wavelength, and the illumination angle. Compared to previous holographic reconstruction techniques, this new framework results in five- to seven-fold reduced number of raw measurements, while still achieving a competitive resolution and space-bandwidth-product. We also demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging biological specimens including Papanicolaou and blood smears. PMID:26964671

  8. Photorefractive phase-conjugation digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Huang-Tian; Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative method for digital holographic microscopy named as photorefractive phaseconjugation digital holographic microscopy (PPCDHM) technique based on the phase conjugation dynamic holographic process in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal and the retrieval of phase and amplitude of the object wave were performed by a reflection-type digital holographic method. Both amplitude and phase reconstruction benefit from the prior amplification by self-pumped conjugation (SPPC) as they have an increased SNR. The interest of the PPCDHM is great, because its hologram is created by interfered the amplified phase-conjugate wave field generated from a photorefractive phase conjugator (PPC) correcting the phase aberration of the imaging system and the reference wave onto the digital CCD camera. Therefore, a precise three-dimensional description of the object with high SNR can be obtained digitally with only one hologram acquisition. The method requires the acquisition of a single hologram from which the phase distribution can be obtained simultaneously with distribution of intensity at the surface of the object.

  9. The Stability of Holographic Dark Energy in Non-flat Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P.; Huang, Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of holographic dark energy with a non-flat background is investigated. By treating the perturbation globally, we find that the holographic dark energy model is stable, which is a support for the holographic dark energy model.

  10. Ultrasonographic evaluation of parathyroid hyperplasia in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Positive correlation between parathyroid volume and circulating parathyroid hormone concentration.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Takeshita, Akira; Miura, Daishu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    There are few reports on parathyroid ultrasonography of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This study investigated the ultrasonographic features of parathyroid glands in 10 patients with MEN1 who underwent preoperative neck ultrasonography and parathyroidectomy between 2006 and 2010 at Toranomon Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, laboratory and ultrasonographic data, and pathological diagnosis. A total of 38 parathyroid glands were surgically removed (three to five glands from each patient). All removed parathyroids were pathologically diagnosed as hyperplasia. Seven cases (70.0%) had adenomatous thyroid nodules. Twenty-five enlarged parathyroid glands (65.8%) were detected by preoperative ultrasonography with a detection rate of 81.8% (9/11) and 59.3% (16/27) for patients without and with adenomatous nodules, respectively. Total parathyroid gland weight and potentially predictable total parathyroid volume by preoperative ultrasonography were significantly correlated with preoperative serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentration (R=0.97, P<0.001 and R=0.96, P<0.001, respectively). The equation used for prediction of the total volume by ultrasonography was 15נiPTH (pg/ml)-1,000 and that for total weight was 20נiPTH (pg/ml)-1,400. Although adenomatous nodules often coexisted with MEN1 and made identification of enlarged parathyroid glands by ultrasonography difficult, the positive correlation between the predictable parathyroid volume by ultrasonography and serum iPTH suggests that their measurement is useful in the preoperative detection and localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with MEN1. Furthermore, the presence of parathyroid glands that should be resected can be predicted before surgery using the equation proposed here. PMID:25227285

  11. Correlation of {sup 18}F-FDG Avid Volumes on Pre–Radiation Therapy and Post–Radiation Therapy FDG PET Scans in Recurrent Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shusharina, Nadya Cho, Joseph; Sharp, Gregory C.; Choi, Noah C.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spatial correlation between high uptake regions of 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) before and after therapy in recurrent lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 106 patients with inoperable lung cancer into a prospective study whose primary objectives were to determine first, the earliest time point when the maximum decrease in FDG uptake representing the maximum metabolic response (MMR) is attainable and second, the optimum cutoff value of MMR based on its predicted tumor control probability, sensitivity, and specificity. Of those patients, 61 completed the required 4 serial {sup 18}F-FDG PET examinations after therapy. Nineteen of 61 patients experienced local recurrence at the primary tumor and underwent analysis. The volumes of interest (VOI) on pretherapy FDG-PET were defined by use of an isocontour at ≥50% of maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) (≥50% of SUV{sub max}) with correction for heterogeneity. The VOI on posttherapy images were defined at ≥80% of SUV{sub max}. The VOI of pretherapy and posttherapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. Results: The size of VOI at pretherapy images was on average 25.7% (range, 8.8%-56.3%) of the pretherapy primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and their overlap fractions were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-0.9), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.77), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19-0.57) of VOI of posttherapy FDG PET images at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The residual uptake originated from the pretherapy VOI in 15 of 17 cases. Conclusions: VOI defined by the SUV{sub max}-≥50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose.

  12. Correlation of 18F-FDG Avid Volumes on PreRadiation Therapy and PostRadiation Therapy FDG PET Scans in Recurrent Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shusharina, Nadya; Cho, Joseph; Sharp, Gregory C.; Choi, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the spatial correlation between high uptake regions of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) before and after therapy in recurrent lung cancer. Methods and Materials We enrolled 106 patients with inoperable lung cancer into a prospective study whose primary objectives were to determine first, the earliest time point when the maximum decrease in FDG uptake representing the maximum metabolic response (MMR) is attainable and second, the optimum cutoff value of MMR based on its predicted tumor control probability, sensitivity, and specificity. Of those patients, 61 completed the required 4 serial 18F-FDG PET examinations after therapy. Nineteen of 61 patients experienced local recurrence at the primary tumor and underwent analysis. The volumes of interest (VOI) on pretherapy FDG-PET were defined by use of an isocontour at ?50% of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) (?50% of SUVmax) with correction for heterogeneity. The VOI on posttherapy images were defined at ?80% of SUVmax. The VOI of pretherapy and posttherapy 18F-FDG PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. Results The size of VOI at pretherapy images was on average 25.7% (range, 8.8%-56.3%) of the pretherapy primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and their overlap fractions were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-0.9), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.77), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19-0.57) of VOI of posttherapy FDG PET images at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The residual uptake originated from the pretherapy VOI in 15 of 17 cases. Conclusions VOI defined by the SUVmax- ?50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose. PMID:24725696

  13. New facility for large-scale DCG transmission holographic gratings: status and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habraken, Serge L.; Lemaire, Philippe C.; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Jamar, Claude A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The recent interest of the astronomer community for volume phase holographic gratings is directly related to the enhancement of spectrograph throughput since the grating can rise higher diffraction efficiency. Indeed, dichromated gelatin technology has demonstrated capability for 70-90% efficiency. From the heritage of several diffractive and holographic projects and applications, the Centre Spatial de Liege has recently decided to invest in the large-scale DCG grating technology. This paper will present the new facility presently under construction. The goal is to be ready to respond to the market demand in 2002 with a capacity for producing 30 cm dia. holographic gratings. The challenge is not the size itself but the quality control in each process step. Thanks to the heritage of space instrumentation, CSL is trained to fulfill requirements on product and quality control. Large clean rooms are equipped with DCG coating machine, optical bench, development lab, and conditioning processes. The grating period may range from 325 to 3000 lp/mm. Low frequencies are especially hard to holographically record because it induces a cumbersome set-up. The working wavelength of DCG gratings is limited by the gelatin transmissivity (from 350 nm to 2 micrometers ). But the actual limitation factor in the IR is the refractive index modulation, equivalent to etching depth on ruled gratings: working wavelength of 1.5 micrometers means a need for 3 times the modulation of a visible grating. Large efforts are needed to insure that IR volume-phase gratings can reach efficiency higher than alternative grating technologies. In that field, this paper presents experimental results on small grating samples. A realistic performance goal is discussed to advise the astronomer community of our near-future products.

  14. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  15. Correlation between tumor size and blood volume in lung tumors: a prospective study on dual-energy gemstone spectral CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Masahiko; Takai, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yuichiro; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and blood volume for patients with lung tumors, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and a gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) viewer. During the period from March 2011 to March 2013, 50 patients with 57 medically inoperable lung tumors underwent DECT before stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of 5060 Gy in 56 fractions. DECT was taken for pretreatment evaluation. The region-of-interest for a given spatial placement of the tumors was set, and averages for CT value, water density and iodine density were compared with tumor size. The average values for iodine density in tumors of ?2 cm, 23 cm, and >3 cm maximum diameter were 24.7, 19.6 and 16.0 (100 g/cm3), respectively. The average value of the iodine density was significantly lower in larger tumors. No significant correlation was detected between tumor size and average CT value or between tumor size and average water density. Both the average water density and the average CT value were affected by the amount of air in the tumor, but the average iodine density was not affected by air in the tumor. The average water density and the average CT value were significantly correlated, but the average iodine density and the average CT value showed no significant correlation. The blood volume of tumors can be indicated by the average iodine density more accurately than it can by the average CT value. The average iodine density as assessed by DECT might be a non-invasive and quantitative assessment of the radio-resistance ascribable to the hypoxic cell population in a tumor. PMID:24829253

  16. Correlation between tumor size and blood volume in lung tumors: a prospective study on dual-energy gemstone spectral CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masahiko; Takai, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yuichiro; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and blood volume for patients with lung tumors, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and a gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) viewer. During the period from March 2011 to March 2013, 50 patients with 57 medically inoperable lung tumors underwent DECT before stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of 50-60 Gy in 5-6 fractions. DECT was taken for pretreatment evaluation. The region-of-interest for a given spatial placement of the tumors was set, and averages for CT value, water density and iodine density were compared with tumor size. The average values for iodine density in tumors of ? 2 cm, 2-3 cm, and >3 cm maximum diameter were 24.7, 19.6 and 16.0 (100 g/cm(3)), respectively. The average value of the iodine density was significantly lower in larger tumors. No significant correlation was detected between tumor size and average CT value or between tumor size and average water density. Both the average water density and the average CT value were affected by the amount of air in the tumor, but the average iodine density was not affected by air in the tumor. The average water density and the average CT value were significantly correlated, but the average iodine density and the average CT value showed no significant correlation. The blood volume of tumors can be indicated by the average iodine density more accurately than it can by the average CT value. The average iodine density as assessed by DECT might be a non-invasive and quantitative assessment of the radio-resistance ascribable to the hypoxic cell population in a tumor. PMID:24829253

  17. Right ventricular infarction: identification by hemodynamic measurements before and after volume loading and correlation with noninvasive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Italia, L.J.; Starling, M.R.; Crawford, M.H.; Boros, B.L.; Chaudhuri, T.K.; O'Rourke, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    To evaluate the potential occurrence of right ventricular infarction, 53 patients with acute inferior transmural myocardial infarction were studied within 36 hours of symptoms by right heart catheterization, equilibrium radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy was performed 3 days after the onset of symptoms. The hemodynamic standard for right ventricular infarction was defined as both a right atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and a right atrial/pulmonary artery wedge pressure ratio of 0.8 or more. Eight (15%) of the 53 patients had hemodynamic measurements at rest characteristic of right ventricular infarction, and 6 (11%) additional patients met these criteria after volume loading. Nineteen (37%) of the 51 patients who had radionuclide angiography had right ventricular dysfunction manifested by both a reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and right ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (akinesia or dyskinesia). An abnormal radionuclide angiogram was observed in 12 of 13 patients with hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction. In 12 patients with an abnormal radionuclide angiographic study, right ventricular ejection fraction improved 6 to 12 weeks after infarction. Twenty-two (49%) of the 45 patients with adequate two-dimensional echocardiograms had a right ventricular regional wall motion abnormality. An abnormal two-dimensional echocardiogram was seen in 9 of 11 patients with hemodynamic measurements characteristic of right ventricular infarction. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was positive for right ventricular infarction in 3 of 12 patients who had hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction.

  18. Volume Segmentation and Ghost Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziskin, Isaac; Adrian, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Volume Segmentation Tomographic PIV (VS-TPIV) is a type of tomographic PIV in which images of particles in a relatively thick volume are segmented into images on a set of much thinner volumes that may be approximated as planes, as in 2D planar PIV. The planes of images can be analysed by standard mono-PIV, and the volume of flow vectors can be recreated by assembling the planes of vectors. The interrogation process is similar to a Holographic PIV analysis, except that the planes of image data are extracted from two-dimensional camera images of the volume of particles instead of three-dimensional holographic images. Like the tomographic PIV method using the MART algorithm, Volume Segmentation requires at least two cameras and works best with three or four. Unlike the MART method, Volume Segmentation does not require reconstruction of individual particle images one pixel at a time and it does not require an iterative process, so it operates much faster. As in all tomographic reconstruction strategies, ambiguities known as ghost particles are produced in the segmentation process. The effect of these ghost particles on the PIV measurement is discussed. This research was supported by Contract 79419-001-09, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. Area laws in quantum systems: mutual information and correlations.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael M; Verstraete, Frank; Hastings, Matthew B; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2008-02-22

    The holographic principle states that on a fundamental level the information content of a region should depend on its surface area rather than on its volume. In this Letter we show that this phenomenon not only emerges in the search for new Planck-scale laws but also in lattice models of classical and quantum physics: the information contained in part of a system in thermal equilibrium obeys an area law. While the maximal information per unit area depends classically only on the number of degrees of freedom, it may diverge as the inverse temperature in quantum systems. It is shown that an area law is generally implied by a finite correlation length when measured in terms of the mutual information. PMID:18352531

  20. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Beuckelaer, Alain De; Guo, Jiahui; Ma, Feilong; Xu, Miao; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N?=?264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses. PMID:24923421