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1

Image scale measurement with correlation filters in a volume holographic optical correlator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search engine containing various target images or different part of a large scene area is of great use for many applications, including object detection, biometric recognition, and image registration. The input image captured in realtime is compared with all the template images in the search engine. A volume holographic correlator is one type of these search engines. It performs thousands of comparisons among the images at a super high speed, with the correlation task accomplishing mainly in optics. However, the inputted target image always contains scale variation to the filtering template images. At the time, the correlation values cannot properly reflect the similarity of the images. It is essential to estimate and eliminate the scale variation of the inputted target image. There are three domains for performing the scale measurement, as spatial, spectral and time domains. Most methods dealing with the scale factor are based on the spatial or the spectral domains. In this paper, a method with the time domain is proposed to measure the scale factor of the input image. It is called a time-sequential scaled method. The method utilizes the relationship between the scale variation and the correlation value of two images. It sends a few artificially scaled input images to compare with the template images. The correlation value increases and decreases with the increasing of the scale factor at the intervals of 0.8~1 and 1~1.2, respectively. The original scale of the input image can be measured by estimating the largest correlation value through correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images. The measurement range for the scale can be 0.8~4.8. Scale factor beyond 1.2 is measured by scaling the input image at the factor of 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images, and estimating the new corresponding scale factor inside 0.8~1.2.

Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

2013-08-01

2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume holographic correlator (VHC) can be employed as a multichannel inner product calculator and has the potential in parallel and massive computing applications. The inner product calculation accuracy of the VHC varies with the optical illumination field in the plane of the spatial light modulator during readout. A theoretical model of the VHC is presented to study the influence of the optical field variations. The simulation results are shown to examine the cases of illumination angle deviation and wavelength deviation. The influences of hologram thickness on the calculation are also discussed. Experiments are carried out to investigate illumination angle deviation of the VHC. The presented method is helpful to improve the inner product calculation accuracy in the VHC for parallel optical image processing.

Zhao, Tian; Cao, Liangcai; Qin, Shuang; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

2013-07-01

3

Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.

Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

4

MSFC holographic correlation techniques facility study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theory of the holographic correlation system is illustrated. The effect of translating the object distribution in the object plane when the hologram is illuminated is investigated. The effect of translating the object along the optical axis is discussed and preliminary results presented.

Foreman, J. W., Jr.; Cardone, J. M.

1977-01-01

5

Volume holographic grating stabilized 780nm VECSEL

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser diode coupled by a high reflectance volume holographic grating (VHG). The major feature of such a system is very narrow linewidth and high degree of power scalability, required for pumping upper energy levels of a gain medium. The cavity design lends itself to scaling to 2D VECSEL arrays suitable for low cost, high brightness pump sources.

West, Gavin N.; Sills, Alec C.; Leisher, Paul O.

2014-05-01

6

Monopole correlations in holographically flavored liquids

Many-body systems with a conserved U(1) current in (2+1) dimensions may be probed by weakly gauging this current and studying correlation functions of magnetic monopole operators in the resulting dynamical gauge theory. We study such monopole correlations in holographic liquids with fundamental flavor, where the monopole operator is dual to a magnetically charged particle in the bulk. In charge-gapped phases the monopole operator is expected to condense. We show that this condensation is holographically dual to the capping off of the bulk flavor brane and compute the monopole condensate. We argue that from the lower-dimensional point of view this may be understood as a simple example of confinement of a gauge field in the bulk. In a compressible finite-density phase we present a novel calculation of the monopole correlation in space and time: the correlation is power law in time but is Gaussian in space due to interaction with the background charge density.

Nabil Iqbal

2014-09-18

7

Temperature characteristics of volume phase holographic wavelength division demultiplexers

The temperature-dependent insertion-loss of volume phase holographic wavelength-division demultiplexers (WDDM) is analyzed using Bragg diffraction theory in this paper. We demonstrate that most of the temperature-induced insertion-loss results from the diffraction deflection. Finally, we propose a new way to improve the temperature characteristics of volume phase holographic demultiplexers if we have a suitable choice between the thermal expansion coefficients of

Pinghe Wang; Li Zhan; Qinghao Ye; S. Y. Luo; YuXing Xia

2002-01-01

8

Transport of intensity phase imaging in a volume holographic microscope.

We demonstrate a method for single-shot quantitative phase imaging based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE) in a volume holographic microscope (VHM). The VHM system uses a multiplexed volume hologram to laterally separate images from different focal planes. This axial intensity information is then used to solve the TIE and recover object phase quantitatively. Further, we show improved phase recovery by using five multiplexed gratings in one hologram. PMID:20808383

Waller, Laura; Luo, Yuan; Yang, Se Young; Barbastathis, George

2010-09-01

9

Volume-phase holographic spectrograph for the Magellan telescopes

We present the design for an optical spectrograph for the 6.5-meter Magellan II Telescope. The spectrograph covers the full visible spectrum in a single exposure at very high efficiency through a dual-channel design and the use of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings in lieu of traditional surface gratings. A pair of symmetric fold mirrors about the grating keep the spectrograph

Gary M. Bernstein; Alex E. Athey; Rebecca Bernstein; Steven M. Gunnels; Douglas O. Richstone; Stephen A. Shectman

2002-01-01

10

Design optimization of volume holographic gratings for wavelength filters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volume holography is promising for devices such as wavelength filters. However, in previously reported work with these holographic devices the diffraction efficiency and wavelength selectivity were not so satisfactory, which affected the insertion loss and channel spacing of the device respectively. In order to investigate the performances for most of the volume holographic devices which are of finite size and with 90 degree geometry, two-dimensional (2-D) coupled-wave theory is more accurate than that based on the well-known Kogelnik"s coupled-wave theory. In this paper a close-form analytical solution to 2-D coupled wave theory for 2-D restricted gratings is presented firstly. Then in order to achieve the optimum insertion loss and channel spacing for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filters, diffraction properties, especially effects of the grating strength and grating size ratio on the peak diffraction efficiency and wavelength selectivity are researched based on the 2-D coupled-wave theory and its solution. The results show that this solution is capable of design optimization of volume holographic gratings for various devices, including wavelength filters. And the design optimization is given in order to gain the optimum peak diffraction efficiency and wavelength selectivity. Finally, some experimental results showing the angular selectivity for different grating size ratio are given, which agree well with the 2-D coupled-wave theory.

Wang, Bo; Chang, Liang; Tao, Shiquan

2005-02-01

11

Analytical treatment of the polychromatic spatially multiplexed volume holographic grating.

An alternative model to N-coupled wave theory of the spatially multiplexed finite thickness volume holographic reflection grating is developed from the parallel stacked mirrors (PSM) model in terms of N infinite arrays of parallel stacked mirrors each characterized by a different grating vector. A plane reference wave interacts with each of the N sets of stacked mirrors, producing N signal waves. First-order coupled partial differential equations describing the detailed process of Fresnel reflection within the grating are derived for the reference and N signal waves. These equations can be solved analytically at Bragg resonance where agreement with conventional N-coupled wave theory is exact. The new model is compared for the case of some simple multiplexed volume phase reflection gratings at and away from Bragg resonance with a rigorous coupled-wave solution of the Helmholtz equation. Good agreement is attained for even rather high values of index modulation. For lower modulations more characteristic of modern holographic materials, agreement appears extremely good at and around Bragg resonance, although differences inevitably appear in the higher-order diffractive sideband structure. The analytic model is extended to cover polychromatic spatially multiplexed volume phase gratings at Bragg resonance, where once again agreement with rigorous coupled-wave calculations is very good for index modulations typical for modern holographic gratings. Finally, the model is extended to cover the case of the lossless multicolor phase-reflection hologram, where analytic and graphical results are presented concerning diffractive efficiency. PMID:23089771

Brotherton-Ratcliffe, David

2012-10-20

12

Three-dimensional display based on volume holographic kinoform in photopolymer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic three-dimensional (3D) display is a promising technique since it can present a 3D scene with all characteristics of real-world objects. Volume holography provides big data capacity for high resolution 3D display. It has the advantages of good wavelength and angular multiplexing properties over planar holography because of the Bragg condition. 3D display can be realized by recording holographic kinoforms into a volume holographic polymer. The purephase wavefront of a 3D object is generated and uploaded by a phase-only spatial light modulator. The phase-modulated data page is recorded in the volume holographic photopolymer. The 3D object can be reconstructed at a designed distance behind the volume holographic polymer by illuminating with the reference beam. Volume holographic kinoform can realize high-resolution 3D display without any lens or glasses by improving the space-bandwidth product of the display system.

Wang, Zheng; Cao, Liangcai; Liu, Fanglin; Li, Chengmingyue; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Guofan

2014-09-01

13

Polymer-based volume holographic grating couplers for optical interconnects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volume holographic grating couplers (VHGCs) are become increasingly attractive devices for the application of optical interconnects because of their higher preferential coupling, dry fabrication processing, and low cost. Moreover, for many practical cases for high-data rate interconnects, the needed gratings have limited spatial apertures and are usually illuminated by finite-width beams, such as Gaussian beams. In order to design and characterize the performance of finite-size volume holographic gratings, a rigorous method of analysis is needed. In this work, the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method is applied to analyze rigorously both unslanted and slanted finite-number-of-periods gratings and is compared to the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Furthermore, the FDFD method is adapted for the analysis of VHGCs and is compared to the RCW A/leak-mode approach. Both output and input grating couplers, which are placed either in the waveguide film region or in the waveguide cover region, are investigated in this research. On the other hand, the DuPont OmniDex613 photopolymers are used to fabricate VHGCs in the experiment. In order to obtain a holographic grating with higher refractive-index modulation and thus higher diffraction efficiency, both the theoretical analysis of a nonlocal diffusion model solved rigorously by use of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the experimental techniques of real-time diffraction-monitoring and angular-selectivity measurements are applied to study the optimization of holographic recording process. Finally, a VHGC in the waveguide cover region is designed, fabricated, and tested.

Wu, Shun-Der

14

Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics

We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707

Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

2013-01-01

15

Volume holographic reflection endoscope for in-vivo ovarian cancer clinical studies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design for an endoscopic system capable of imaging tissues of the ovary at two selected imaging depths simultaneously. The method utilizes a multiplexed volume hologram to select wavefronts from different depths within the tissue. It is the first demonstration of an endoscopic volume holographic imaging system. The endoscope uses both gradient index (GRIN) optical components and off the shelf singlet lenses to relay an image from the distal tip to the proximal end. The endoscope has a minimum diameter of 3.75 mm. The system length is 30 cm which is connected to a handle that includes the holographic components and optics that relay the image to a camera. Preliminary evaluation of the endoscope was performed with tissue phantoms and calibrated targets, which shows lateral resolution ? 4 ?m at an operating wavelength of 660 nm. The hologram is recorded in phenanthraquinone doped poly methacrylate and is designed to produce images from two tissue depths. One image is obtained at the tissue surface and the second 70 ?m below the surface. This method requires no mechanical scanning and acquires an image at the camera frame rate. The preliminary ex-vivo results show good correlation with histology sections of the same tissue sections.

Howlett, I. D.; Gordon, M.; Brownlee, J. W.; Barton, J. K.; Kostuk, R. K.

2014-03-01

16

Polarization-based all-optical logic operations in volume holographic photopolymer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization-based all-optical logic operations were realized with dual-channel polarization holographic recording system. The polarization property of 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone-doped poly-methyl methacrylate (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer is investigated experimentally. To accurately represent the optical operations, the diffraction efficiency of parallel and orthogonal polarization recording in PQ/PMMA with the thickness of 1 mm are characterized for holographic recording and reconstruction process. A dual-channel polarization holographic recording system is set up for simultaneously recording two input pages. By changing the polarization state of the diffraction beam, all-optical logic OR and NAND operations are realized in the volume holograms. The polarization-based all-optical logic operations in the volume holographic photopolymer may pave a way for practical all-optical logic devices with high speed and large information capacity.

Li, Chengmingyue; Cao, Liangcai; Li, Jingming; Wang, Zheng; Jin, Guofan

2014-11-01

17

This paper discusses the different analysis methods used in holographic particle image velocimetry to measure particle displacement and compares their relative performance. A digital holographic microscope is described and is used to record the light scattered by particles deposited on cover slides that are displaced between exposures. In this way, particle position and displacement are controlled and a numerical data set is generated. Data extraction using nearest neighbor analysis and correlation of either the reconstructed complex amplitude or intensity fields is then investigated.

Wormald, S. Andrew; Coupland, Jeremy

2009-11-20

18

We present a new passive depth detection method for quasi-monochromatic and spatially incoherent objects. We utilize the wavefront discrimination properties of a volume holographic pupil combined with a measurement of the degree of coherence of the diffracted field. Depth detection is posed as the Bayesian hypothesis testing on the outcome of the coherence measurement. We present the analysis of our

Se Baek Oh; George Barbastathis

2008-01-01

19

A new methodology describing the effects of aperiodic and multiplexed gratings in volume holographic imaging systems (VHIS) is presented. The aperiodic gratings are treated as an ensemble of localized planar gratings using coupled wave methods in conjunction with sequential and non-sequential ray-tracing techniques to accurately predict volumetric diffraction effects in VHIS. Our approach can be applied to aperiodic, multiplexed gratings and used to theoretically predict the performance of multiplexed volume holographic gratings within a volume hologram for VHIS. We present simulation and experimental results for the aperiodic and multiplexed imaging gratings formed in PQ-PMMA at 488 nm and probed with a spherical wave at 633 nm. Simulation results based on our approach that can be easily implemented in ray-tracing packages such as Zemax® are confirmed with experiments and show proof of consistency and usefulness of the proposed models. PMID:20940823

Luo, Yuan; Castro, Jose; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K; Barbastathis, George

2010-08-30

20

Position feedback system for volume holographic storage media

A method of holographic recording in a photorefractive medium wherein stored holograms may be retrieved with maximum signal-to noise ratio (SNR) is disclosed. A plurality of servo blocks containing position feedback information is recorded in the crystal and made non-erasable by heating the crystal. The servo blocks are recorded at specific increments, either angular or frequency, depending whether wavelength or angular multiplexing is applied, and each servo block is defined by one of five patterns. Data pages are then recorded at positions or wavelengths enabling each data page to be subsequently reconstructed with servo patterns which provide position feedback information. The method of recording data pages and servo blocks is consistent with conventional practices. In addition, the recording system also includes components (e.g. voice coil motor) which respond to position feedback information and adjust the angular position of the reference angle of a reference beam to maximize SNR by reducing crosstalk, thereby improving storage capacity.

Hays, Nathan J. (San Francisco, CA); Henson, James A. (Morgan Hill, CA); Carpenter, Christopher M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Akin, Jr.. William R. (Morgan Hill, CA); Ehrlich, Richard M. (Saratoga, CA); Beazley, Lance D. (San Jose, CA)

1998-07-07

21

Generation of tunable-volume transmission-holographic gratings at low light levels

By utilizing giant Kerr nonlinearity obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), tunable volume transmission holographic gratings for a weak probe field can be generated by means of a standing-wave signal field at low light levels in a four-level N-type ultracold atomic ensemble. The induced grating can be characterized as a mixed volume holographic grating with a strong phase modulation accompanied by a weak amplitude modulation. Based on Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory in optical holography, we find that high diffraction efficiency (up to 85%) and sensitive angular selectivity (up to {+-}0.000149 rad) can be achieved for the induced grating in the Bragg diffraction regime. And, both of them can be dynamically controlled by tuning the weak standing-wave signal field and the coupling field. Our study not only develops a fundamental understanding of volume diffraction effects in EIT media, but also provides a practical prototype of EIT-based holographic devices for all-optical classical and quantum information processing.

Zhao, L.; Duan, Wenhui [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yelin, S. F. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-09-15

22

Four-point correlator of vector currents and electric current susceptibility in holographic QCD

In this work we calculate the four-point correlation function of vector quark currents of QCD via holographic QCD model. Computing the correlator we take into account the exchange of vector and axial vector bosons and dilaton in the bulk. The result is used for calculation of the two-point correlator of electromagnetic currents in external magnetic field at zero momentum, related to RHIC experiments, chiral magnetic effect and lattice study. At zero temperature we find this quantity to be loosely connected with chiral symmetry breaking and strongly dependent on the confinement properties. Some features of the AdS/QCD models are also discussed.

Alexander Krikun

2010-03-04

23

Volume Bragg gratings serve an important role in laser development as devices that are able to manipulate both the wavelength and angular spectrum of light. A common method for producing gratings is holographic recording of a two collimated beam interference pattern in a photosensitive material. This process requires stability of the recording system at a level of a fraction of the recording wavelength. A new method for measuring and stabilizing the phase of the recording beams is presented that is extremely flexible and simple to integrate into an existing holographic recording setup and independent of the type of recording media. It is shown that the presented method increases visibility of an interference pattern and for photo-thermo-refractive glass enables enhancement of the spatial refractive index modulation. The use of this technique allows for longer recording times that can lead to the use of expanded recording beams for large aperture gratings. PMID:24663299

Ott, Daniel B; Divliansky, Ivan B; Segall, Marc A; Glebov, Leonid B

2014-02-20

24

Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.

This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope. PMID:22660099

Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David

2012-06-01

25

Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy

Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH) enables holograms and 3D images to be created from incoherent light with just a camera and spatial light modulator (SLM). We previously described its application to microscopic incoherent fluorescence wherein one complex hologram contains all the 3D information in the microscope field, obviating the need for scanning or serial sectioning. We now report experiments which have led to the optimal optical, electro-optic, and computational conditions necessary to produce holograms which yield high quality 3D images from fluorescent microscopic specimens. An important improvement from our previous FINCH configurations capitalizes on the polarization sensitivity of the SLM so that the same SLM pixels which create the spherical wave simulating the microscope tube lens, also pass the plane waves from the infinity corrected microscope objective, so that interference between the two wave types at the camera creates a hologram. This advance dramatically improves the resolution of the FINCH system. Results from imaging a fluorescent USAF pattern and a pollen grain slide reveal resolution which approaches the Rayleigh limit by this simple method for 3D fluorescent microscopic imaging. PMID:21445140

Brooker, Gary; Siegel, Nisan; Wang, Victor; Rosen, Joseph

2011-01-01

26

A scheme to generate individually modulated femtosecond pulse string by multilayer volume holographic grating (MVHG) is proposed. Based on Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory and matrix optics, temporal and spectral expressions of diffracted field are given when a femtosecond pulse is diffracted by a MVHG. It is shown that the number of diffracted sub-pulses in the pulse string equals to the number of grating layers of the MVHG, peak intensity and duration of each diffracted sub-pulse depend on thickness of the corresponding grating layer, whereas pulse interval between adjacent sub-pulses is related to thickness of the corresponding buffer layer. Thus by modulating parameters of the MVHG, individually modulated femtosecond pulse string can be acquired. Based on Bragg selectivity of the volume grating and phase shift provided by the buffer layers, we give an explanation on these phenomena. The result is useful to design MVHG-based devices employed in optical communications, pulse shaping and processing. PMID:25401645

Yan, Xiaona; Gao, Lirun; Yang, Xihua; Dai, Ye; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Guohong

2014-10-20

27

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a holographic disc memory on which a huge amount of data can be stored, we constructed an ultra-high-speed, all-optical correlation system. In this method, multiplex recording is, however, restricted to "one page" on "one spot." In addition, signal information must be normalized as data of the same size, even if the object data size is smaller. Therefore, this system is difficult to apply to part of the object data scene (i.e., partial scene searching and template matching), while maintaining high accessibility and programmability. In this paper, we develop a holographic correlation system by a time division recording method that increases the number of multiplex recordings on the same spot. Assuming that a four-channel detector is utilized, 15 parallel correlations are achieved by a time-division recording method. Preliminary correlation experiments with the holographic optical disc setup are carried out by high correlation peaks at a rotational speed of 300 rpm. We also describe the combination of an optical correlation system for copyright content management that searches the Internet and detects illegal contents on video sharing websites.

Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko

2012-10-01

28

Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical, and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasi-particles. Two systems that have recently attracted a great deal of interest are the quark-gluon plasma, a plasma of strongly interacting quarks and gluons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and ultracold atomic Fermi gases, very dilute clouds of atomic gases confined in optical or magnetic traps. These systems differ by more than 20 orders of magnitude in temperature, but they were shown to exhibit very similar hydrodynamic flow. In particular, both fluids exhibit a robustly low shear viscosity to entropy density ratio which is characteristic of quantum fluids described by holographic duality, a mapping from strongly correlated quantum field theories to weakly curved higher dimensional classical gravity. This review explores the connection between these fields, and it also serves as an introduction to the Focus Issue of New Journal of Physics on Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: from Ultracold Quantum Gases to QCD Plasmas. The presentation is made accessible to the general physics reader and includes discussions of the latest research developments in all three areas.

Allan Adams; Lincoln D. Carr; Thomas Schaefer; Peter Steinberg; John E. Thomas

2012-05-23

29

This paper reports a significant step forward in holographic velocimetry, which provides simultaneous displacement measurements in fluid and solid mechanics. Known as object conjugate reconstruction (OCR), this new approach unifies the disciplines of holographic velocimetry and holographic interferometry and provides a single measurement technique for the study of surface-flow interactions throughout a volume. Using complex-correlation processing, it enables sub-wavelength displacement

D. H. Barnhart; N. A. Halliwell; J. M. Coupland

2004-01-01

30

Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 < ? (nm) < 550. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

2014-07-01

31

Design of optical system for spectrometer involving a volume phase holographic transmission grating

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, spectrometer has popularly being used into varieties of fields including environment, food, medical health monitoring and metal industry because it has the advantages of noninvasive, high efficient and convenient etc. The performance of the spectrometer is determined by its optical system. Normally, according to the apparatus and principle of splitting-light, optical system of spectrometer can be classified into several categories, for example, filter-typed, dispersion typed, Fourier transform typed and acousto-optic tunable typed. The grating typed optical system has been popularly used into the spectrometer due to the features of higher diffraction efficiency, resolution and dispersion rate etc. In the grating-typed optical system, although the traditional plane and concave grating have usually been used into some spectrometers, some disadvantages of them still limit their applications, such as, large aberration, worse spectral flatness and low deficiency, etc. In this paper, to overcome these disadvantages of the traditional plane and concave grating, a novel optical system for spectrometer (OSS) based on volume phase holographic transmission (VPHT) grating was designed. For this novel grating, its manufacture and theories were investigated, and its diffraction efficiency was firstly numerically simulated according to different parameters. In order to prove the feasibility of this designed OSS, the spectral calibration experiment was performed and the spectral resolution reached 2nm.

Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

2014-08-01

32

New GRISMs for AFOSC based on volume phase holographic gratings in photopolymers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHG) can provide an improvement of diffraction efficiency and function- ality in already available astronomical instrumentation. Here, we present the design, manufacturing and testing of two GRISMs mounted on the AFOSC camera (at the 1.8 m Asiago telescope) based on VPHGs. Such diffrac- tion gratings have been written on a new solid and green sensitive photopolymer material produced by Bayer MaterialScience AG that show interesting performances (refractive index modulation, homogeneity, stability). The GRISMs have been designed according to the specific requests of astronomers. One GRISM consists in a very low dispersion VPHG (285 l/mm) that covers the range 500 - 1000 nm and suitable for observations of supernovae. The second one is a 600 l/mm VPHG for the Ha region. Both gratings show peak efficiency close to 90% and same diffraction efficiency is shown by the corresponding GRISMs. This high device's performances means that the coupling losses are very low, also thanks to the matching of the refractive index between sub- strates and prisms. Some observations have been finally carried out and the gain in terms of efficiency and signal to noise ratio have been calculated in order to compare the photopolymeric VPHGs with the classic GRISMs already mounted and used in the AFOSC spectrometer.

Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Landoni, Marco; Tomasella, Lina; Benetti, Stefano; Giro, Enrico

2014-07-01

33

Multistage adaptive filtering for identification of page-oriented volume holographic memories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Page-oriented volume holographic memories (POVHM) is a quadratically nonlinear channel because of the intensity detection at its output. To combat the two-dimensional intersymbol interference in a high-capacity POVHM, equalization of the output intensity array requires identification of the quadratic and possibly spatially varying impulse response of the channel. Although conventional adaptive filtering schemes are devised for identification of linear channels, they also require the length of the impulse response to be known in advance. In this work, we develop multistage quadratic normalized least mean square (LMS) (MS-QNLMS) adaptive filtering and multistage Volterra normalized LMS (MS-VNLMS) filtering to estimate the channel under quadratic nonlinearity, which do not require the support or length of the impulse response to be known a priori. By employing extensive numerical experiments, we provide performance and convergence comparisons of the proposed schemes with respect to a true-order quadratic estimator. We also show that MS-QNLMS filtering has less computational complexity and converges faster and more robust to various channel parameters as compared to MS-VNLMS.

Karahanoglu, Nazim Burak; Keskinoz, Mehmet

2010-02-01

34

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic optical correlator (HOC) is applicable in occasion where the instant search throughout a huge database is demanded. The primary advantage of the HOC is its inherent parallel processing ability and large storage capacity. The HOC's searching speed is proportional to the storage density. This paper proposes a phase-encoding method in the object beam to increase the storage density. A random phase plate (RPP) is used to encode the phase of the object beam before uploading the data pages to the object beam. By shifting the RPP at a designed interval, the object beam is modulated into an orthogonal object beam to the previous one and a new group of database can be stored. Experimental results verify the proposed method. The maximum storage number of the data pages with a RPP at a fixed position can be as large as 7,500. The crosstalk among different groups of the databases can be unnoticeable. The increase in the storage density of the HOC depends on the number of the orthogonal positions from the different portions of a same RPP.

Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

2013-09-01

35

Combined volume phase holographic gratings used as a beam splitter in near-infrared waveband

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intrinsic advantages of high diffraction efficiency, signal to noise ratio, wavelength and angle selectivity, and low scattering and absorption, volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) have been widely used for spectroscopy, telecommunications, astronomy and ultra-fast sciences. In this paper, a novel kind of beam splitter which is consisted of a transmission VPHG and a reflection VPHG as core components and used in near-infrared waveband is proposed. The design idea of the device is described in detail. Based on the Bragg condition and the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), diffraction properties in near-infrared waveband of the transmission and reflection VPHGs recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) are studied theoretically. As an example, two wavebands that need to be separated in near infrared spectrum region are taken into account. One that from 1.574?m to 1.617?m centered at 1.596?m will be diffracted by the reflection grating, and the other that from 1.636?m to 1.682?m centered at 1.659?m will be diffracted by the transmission grating. The diffraction efficiencies of the gratings are calculated and optimized by applying Kogelnik's coupled wave theory and G-solver software, respectively. The recording setup is also designed for further experiments. The effects of the recording and reconstruction setup parameters, the amplitude of the index modulation (?n) and the thickness of the gelatin layer (d), and the polarization state of reconstruction beams on the diffraction efficiency properties of the gratings are calculated and analyzed. This kind of beam splitter is prospected to be used in spectrometers for greenhouse gases monitoring.

Zhang, Xizhao; Mei, Qijing; Tang, Minxue

2014-11-01

36

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82?m (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19-1.37?m (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000. The center wavelengths for each grating are 1.629?m and 1.27?m, and the groove densities are 177l/mm and 440l/mm for H-band R=4000 and J-band R=8000, respectively. We directly measure the efficiencies in the lab and find that the peak efficiencies of these two types of gratings are quite good with a peak efficiency of ~88% at the Bragg angle in both TM and TE modes at H-band, and 90.23% in TM mode, 79.91% in TE mode at J-band for the best vendor. We determine the drop in efficiency off the Bragg angle, with a 20-23% decrease in efficiency at H-band when 2.5° deviation from the Bragg angle, and 25%-28% decrease at J-band when 5° deviation from the Bragg angle.

Chen, Shaojie; Meyer, Elliot; Wright, Shelley A.; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

2014-07-01

37

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volume holography is currently the subject of widespread interest as a fast-readout-rate, high-capacity digital data-storage technology. However, due to the effect of cross-talk noise, scattering noise, noise gratings formed during a multiple exposure schedule, it brings a lot of burst errors and random errors in the system. Reed-Solomon error-correction codes have been widely used to defend digital data against errors, but the speed of Reed-Solomon decoder for volume holographic storage system application is a challenge. This paper presents a high-speed VLSI decoder architecture implementation for decoding (255,223) Reed-Solomon codes with the Modified Berlekamp-Massey algorithm for volume holographic storage. In contrast to conventional Berlekamp-Massey architectures, the speed bottleneck is eliminated via a series of algorithmic transformations that result in a fully systolic architecture in which a single array of processors computes both the error-locator and the error-evaluator polynomials. The proposed architecture requirs approximately 25% fewer multipliers and a simpler control structure than the architectures based on the popular extended Euclidean algorithm. By adopting high speed CPLD, a data processing rate over 200 Mbit/s is realized. Moreover, for block-interleaved Reed-Solomon codes, embedding the interleaver memory into the decoder results in a further increase of the throughput.

Hu, Diqing; Xie, Changsheng

2003-04-01

38

Optical memory development. Volume 2: Gain-assisted holographic storage media

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin deformable films were investigated for use as the storage medium in a holographic optical memory. The research was directed toward solving the problems of material fatigue, selective heat addressing, electrical charging of the film surface and charge patterning by light. A number of solutions to these problems were found but the main conclusion to be drawn from the work is that deformable media which employ heat in the recording process are not satisfactory for use in a high-speed random-access read/write holographic memory. They are, however, a viable approach in applications where either high speed or random-access is not required.

Gange, R. A.; Mezrich, R. S.

1972-01-01

39

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development, construction and sea testing of An underwater holographic camera (HoloCam) for in situ recording of marine organisms and particles in large volumes of sea water. HoloCam comprises a laser, power supply, holographic recording optics, and plate holders, a water- tight housing and a support frame. Added to this are control electronics such that the entire camera is remotely operable and controllable from ship or dock-side. Uniquely the camera can simultaneously record both in-line and off-axis holograms using a pulsed frequency double Nd:YAG laser. In- line holography is capable of producing images of organisms with a resolution of better than 10 micrometers . Off-axis holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50,000 cm3 volume, have been recorded. Following initial laboratory testing, the holo-camera was evaluated in an observation tank and ultimately was tested in Loch Etive, Scotland. In-line and off-axis holograms were recorded to a depth of 100 m. We will present result on the ste dives and evaluation of the camera performance.

Watson, John; Alexander, Stephen J.; Craig, Gary; Hendry, David C.; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Marteau, J.-M.; Nareid, Helge; Nebrensky, J. J.; Player, Michael A.; Saw, Kevin; Tipping, Keith

2002-06-01

40

Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

2011-03-01

41

We describe a method for measuring three dimensional (3D) velocity fields of a fluid at high speed, by combining a correlation-based approach with in-line holography. While this method utilizes tracer particles contained within the flow, our method does not require the holographic reconstruction of 3D images. The direct flow reconstruction approach developed here allows for measurements at seeding densities in excess of the allowable levels for techniques based on image or particle reconstruction, thus making it suited for biological flow measurement, such as the flow in bioreactor. We outline the theory behind our method, which we term Holographic Correlation Velocimetry (HCV), and subsequently apply it to both synthetic and laboratory data. Moreover, because the system is based on in-line holography, it is very efficient with regard to the use of light, as it does not rely on side scattering. This efficiency could be utilized to create a very high quality system at a modest cost. Alternatively, this efficiency makes the system appropriate for high-speed flows and low exposure times, which is essential for imaging dynamic systems. PMID:23776534

Ismadi, Mohd-Zulhilmi; Higgins, Simon; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Paganin, David; Hourigan, Kerry; Fouras, Andreas

2013-01-01

42

Optical Design for a Spatial-Spectral Volume Holographic Imaging System

Spatial Spectral Holographic imaging system (S2-VHIS) is a promising alternative to confocal microscopy due to its capabilities to simultaneously image several sample depths with high resolution. However, the field of view of previously presented S2-VHIS prototypes has been restricted to less than 200?m. This paper presents experimental results of an improved S2-VHIS design which have a field of view of ~1mm while maintaining high resolution and dynamic range. PMID:20664803

Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J.; Luo, Yuan; Watson, Jonathan M.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K.; Castro, Jose M.

2010-01-01

43

Correlations between elastic moduli and molar volume in metallic glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report clear correlations between bulk modulus (K) and average molar volume Vm, and between Poisson's ratio ? and Vm for various bulk metallic glasses. The origin for the correlations between elastic moduli and Vm are discussed. The established correlation, associated with Poisson's ratio ?, and since the ? correlates with plasticity of metallic glasses, indicates that the average molar volume is important factor to be considered for plastic metallic glasses searching. The found correlations also suggest a close relation between the mechanical properties and the short-range atomic bonding, and assist in understanding deformation behavior in metallic glasses.

Wang, J. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Yu, H. B.; Bai, H. Y.

2009-03-01

44

Correlations between elastic moduli and molar volume in metallic glasses

We report clear correlations between bulk modulus (K) and average molar volume V{sub m}, and between Poisson's ratio {nu} and V{sub m} for various bulk metallic glasses. The origin for the correlations between elastic moduli and V{sub m} are discussed. The established correlation, associated with Poisson's ratio {nu}, and since the {nu} correlates with plasticity of metallic glasses, indicates that the average molar volume is important factor to be considered for plastic metallic glasses searching. The found correlations also suggest a close relation between the mechanical properties and the short-range atomic bonding, and assist in understanding deformation behavior in metallic glasses.

Wang, J. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Yu, H. B.; Bai, H. Y. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-03-23

45

Better understanding of bacteria environment interactions in the context of biofilm formation requires accurate 3-dimentional measurements of bacteria motility. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) has demonstrated its capability in resolving 3D distribution and mobility of particulates in a dense suspension. Due to their low scattering efficiency, bacteria are substantially difficult to be imaged by DHM. In this paper, we introduce a novel correlation-based de-noising algorithm to remove the background noise and enhance the quality of the hologram. Implemented in conjunction with DHM, we demonstrate that the method allows DHM to resolve 3-D E. coli bacteria locations of a dense suspension (>10^{7} cells/ml) with submicron resolutions (<0.5 µm) over substantial depth and to obtain thousands of 3D cell trajectories. PMID:25607177

Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

2014-12-29

46

APPLIEDPHYSICAL Cross-correlations between volume change

-correlations between |R| and | ~R| by using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). We introduce a joint to the variance of the daily price change. The cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the absolute logarithmic law"), outside the range analysis of Q

47

Infinite Volume Limit for Correlation functions in the Dipole Gas

We study a classical lattice dipole gas with low activity in dimension $d \\geq 3$. We investigate long distance properties by a renormalization group analysis. We prove that various correlation functions have an infinite volume limit. We also get estimates on the decay of correlation functions.

Tuan Minh Le

2013-05-08

48

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic method for measuring linear displacements based on the use of a highly stable volume scale hologram recorded in an additively colored calcium fluoride crystal with photochromic color centers is proposed and experimentally approved. The essence of this method lies in measuring and analyzing harmonic signals formed during linear displacement of crystal with a volume hologram in an external interference field. A physical model of the formation of harmonic signals in photodetectors when measuring displacements is considered, and a mathematical method for calculating linear displacements by plotting a Lissajous figure is substantiated. A laboratory breadboard of a device for measuring linear displacements in a range of 10 mm, limited by the aperture of crystal with a recorded 8.7-mm-thick hologram, is designed. When using a scale hologram with a period of 2.18 ?m and a 632.8-nm He-Ne laser for reading this hologram, the error in measuring displacements by this method is 9 nm at a resolution of 3 nm.

Shcheulin, A. S.; Angervaks, A. E.; Kupchikov, A. K.; Verkhovskii, E. B.; Ryskin, A. I.

2014-12-01

49

High-speed holographic correlation system for video identification on the internet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic video identification is important for indexing, search purposes, and removing illegal material on the Internet. By combining a high-speed correlation engine and web-scanning technology, we developed the Fast Recognition Correlation system (FReCs), a video identification system for the Internet. FReCs is an application thatsearches through a number of websites with user-generated content (UGC) and detects video content that violates copyright law. In this paper, we describe the FReCs configuration and an approach to investigating UGC websites using FReCs. The paper also illustrates the combination of FReCs with an optical correlation system, which is capable of easily replacing a digital authorization sever in FReCs with optical correlation.

Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko

2013-12-01

50

Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasiparticles. Two systems that have recently ...

Adams, Allan

51

Holographic Calculations of Euclidean Wilson Loop Correlator in Euclidean anti-de Sitter Space

The correlation functions of two or more Euclidean Wilson loops of various shapes in Euclidean anti-de Sitter space are computed by considering the minimal area surfaces connecting the loops. The surfaces are parametrized by Riemann theta functions associated with genus three hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces. In the case of two loops, the distance $L$ by which they are separated can be adjusted by continuously varying a specific branch point of the auxiliary Riemann surface. When $L$ is much larger than the characteristic size of the loops, then the loops are approximately regarded as local operators and their correlator as the correlator of two local operators. Similarly, when a loop is very small compared to the size of another loop, the small loop is considered as a local operator corresponding to a light supergravity mode.

Ziama, Sannah

2015-01-01

52

Weak correlation of starch and volume in synchronized photosynthetic cells.

In cultures of unicellular algae, features of single cells, such as cellular volume and starch content, are thought to be the result of carefully balanced growth and division processes. Single-cell analyses of synchronized photoautotrophic cultures of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal, however, that the cellular volume and starch content are only weakly correlated. Likewise, other cell parameters, e.g., the chlorophyll content per cell, are only weakly correlated with cell size. We derive the cell size distributions at the beginning of each synchronization cycle considering growth, timing of cell division and daughter cell release, and the uneven division of cell volume. Furthermore, we investigate the link between cell volume growth and starch accumulation. This work presents evidence that, under the experimental conditions of light-dark synchronized cultures, the weak correlation between both cell features is a result of a cumulative process rather than due to asymmetric partition of biomolecules during cell division. This cumulative process necessarily limits cellular similarities within a synchronized cell population. PMID:25679646

Rading, M Michael; Sandmann, Michael; Steup, Martin; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

2015-01-01

53

Weak correlation of starch and volume in synchronized photosynthetic cells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cultures of unicellular algae, features of single cells, such as cellular volume and starch content, are thought to be the result of carefully balanced growth and division processes. Single-cell analyses of synchronized photoautotrophic cultures of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal, however, that the cellular volume and starch content are only weakly correlated. Likewise, other cell parameters, e.g., the chlorophyll content per cell, are only weakly correlated with cell size. We derive the cell size distributions at the beginning of each synchronization cycle considering growth, timing of cell division and daughter cell release, and the uneven division of cell volume. Furthermore, we investigate the link between cell volume growth and starch accumulation. This work presents evidence that, under the experimental conditions of light-dark synchronized cultures, the weak correlation between both cell features is a result of a cumulative process rather than due to asymmetric partition of biomolecules during cell division. This cumulative process necessarily limits cellular similarities within a synchronized cell population.

Rading, M. Michael; Sandmann, Michael; Steup, Martin; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

2015-01-01

54

Cell volume regulation monitored with combined epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy.

Quantitative phase imaging emerged recently as a valuable tool for cell observation, by enabling label-free imaging through the intrinsic phase-contrast provided by transparent living cells, thus greatly simplifying observation protocols. The quantitative phase signal, unlike the one provided by the widely used phase-contrast microscope, can be related to relevant biological indicators including dry mass, cell volume regulation or transmembrane water movements. Here, we present quantitative phase imaging coupled with live fluorescence, making it possible to follow the phase signal in time to monitor the cell volume regulation, an early indicator of cell viability, along with specific information such as intracellular Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2 ratiometric fluorescence. PMID:25431054

Pavillon, Nicolas; Marquet, Pierre

2015-01-01

55

PurposeTo evaluate the correlation of subretinal fluid volume with choroidal thickness and macular volume in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral treatment-naive idiopathic CSC and 20 age-matched normal eyes were included in this prospective cross-sectional study. Subretinal fluid volume (SRFV) of study eyes was estimated using a built-in segmentation-modifying tool of Spectralis spectral-domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) (measured with enhanced depth imaging-OCT) and macular volume (MV) were also determined. The correlation of SRFV with SCT and MV was analyzed statistically.ResultsThere was no significant correlation of SRFV with SCT and MV in the study eyes (r=0.062, P=0.796 and r= -0.061, P=0.798, respectively). The mean SCT of the study eyes, the fellow eyes and the control eyes were 461.4±101.4, 375.3±103.7, 287.6±62.5??m, respectively (P<0.001). The mean modified MV (determined excluding SRF volume) of the study eyes, the macular volume of the fellow and the control eyes was 8.57±0.59?mm(3), 8.75±0.4?mm(3) and 8.73±0.38?mm(3), respectively (P>0.05).ConclusionsThe current study shows that subretinal fluid volume does not correlate with subfoveal choroidal thickness. This novel finding suggests that formation of subretinal fluid is not solely associated with choroidal vasculature in acute CSC. PMID:25233823

Goktas, A

2014-12-01

56

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent work carried out, we introduced the developments made to the Non-local Photo-polymerization Driven Diffusion model, and illustrate some of the useful trends, which the model predicts and then analyse their implications on photopolymer improvement. The model was improved in its physicality through the inclusion of viscosity effects (changes in fractional free volume), multiple components and their photo-kinetic and photo-physical behaviour, and free space vacuoles. In this paper, we further explore this model to provide a more rigorous and informed basis for predicting the behaviours of photopolymer materials in both photo-chemical and photo-physical sides. Such improvements include a) the analysis of the effects of viscosity on the refractive index modulation, b) the effects of the introduction of free space holes, e.g. the volumetric changes, and c) an examination of the effects of local temperatures and various concentration ratios to optimise material performance.

Guo, Jinxin; Gleeson, Michael R.; Sheridan, John T.

2013-05-01

57

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea. Four identical, fixed spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55 m fiber optic cable feeds light into the spectrographs from a robotic fiber positioner mounted at the telescope prime focus, behind the wide field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3 degree hexagonal field of view. Each spectrograph module will be capable of simultaneously acquiring 600 spectra. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to separate the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual- corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275 mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380 nm to 1.26 µm, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.1 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and cover the bandpasses 380-650 nm (blue), 630-970 nm (red), and 0.94-1.26 µm (NIR). A mosaic of two Hamamatsu 2k×4k, 15 µm pixel CCDs records the spectra in the blue and red channels, while the NIR channel employs a 4k×4k, substrate-removed HAWAII-4RG array from Teledyne, with 15 µm pixels and a 1.7 µm wavelength cutoff. VPH gratings have become the dispersing element of choice for moderate-resolution astronomical spectro- graphs due their potential for very high diffraction efficiency, low scattered light, and the more compact instru- ment designs offered by transmissive dispersers. High quality VPH gratings are now routinely being produced in the sizes required for instruments on large telescopes. These factors made VPH gratings an obvious choice for PFS. In order to reduce risk to the project, as well as fully exploit the performance potential of this technology, a set of three prototype VPH gratings (one each of the blue, red, and NIR designs) was ordered and has been recently delivered. The goal for these prototype units, but not a requirement, was to meet the specifications for the final gratings in order to serve as spares and also as early demonstration and integration articles. In this paper we present the design and specifications for the PFS gratings, the plan and setups used for testing both the prototype and final gratings, and results from recent optical testing of the prototype grating set.

Barkhouser, Robert H.; Arns, James; Gunn, James E.

2014-08-01

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons.

Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

2013-03-01

59

A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons. PMID:23487181

Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

2013-03-01

60

Optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs) have been developed as a type of multi-context field programmable gate array to realize fast reconfiguration and numerous reconfiguration contexts. Along with such advantages, ORGAs have high defect tolerance. They consist simply of a holographic memory, a laser diode array, and a gate array VLSI. Even if a gate array VLSI includes defective areas, the

Takayuki Mabuchi; Kenji Miyashiro; M. Watanabe; A. Ogiwara

2009-01-01

61

We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS[subscript 4] spacetime by numerically solving Einstein’s equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry ...

Adams, Allan

62

A holographic sundial, to our knowledge the first sundial that does not use a gnomen or shadow-casting device, is designed and demonstrated. The accuracy of the device is measured and analyzed. PMID:19770955

Penland, R; Cormack, R; Carsten, J; Sayhun, S; Johnson, K M

1990-09-01

63

The plasma phase at high temperatures of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an AdS black hole. Matter in the fundamental representation and in the quenched approximation is introduced through embedding D7-branes in the AdS-Schwarzschild background. Low spin mesons correspond to the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume. As is well known by now, there are

Carlos Hoyos; Karl Landsteiner; Sergio Montero

2007-01-01

64

Does Center Volume Correlate with Survival from Breast Cancer?

Summary With its high incidence and long history of patient advocacy, breast cancer has generated the most concern about the quality of its care and the volume-outcome relationship. In breast cancer surgery, the risk of perioperative morbidity or mortality is low, but surgery is only one single piece in the mosaic of multidisciplinary care that eventually determines survival. Only a limited number of articles is available investigating the relationship between case volume of physicians and hospitals and specialization of surgeons and survival. In summary, there is evidence to support the hypothesis that specialization, research interest, and caseload of physicians and hospitals is positively correlated with providing state-of-the-art care and with survival. However, it is less clear what impact might be attributed to the surgical routine gained with increasing number of procedures compared to the deeper insight into the biology of breast cancer that comes with specialization in oncology and the weight of the multidisciplinary setting that is more easily established and maintained with a higher caseload. PMID:20877661

Scharl, Anton; Göhring, Uwe-Jochen

2009-01-01

65

Does Center Volume Correlate with Survival from Breast Cancer?

With its high incidence and long history of patient advocacy, breast cancer has generated the most concern about the quality of its care and the volume-outcome relationship. In breast cancer surgery, the risk of perioperative morbidity or mortality is low, but surgery is only one single piece in the mosaic of multidisciplinary care that eventually determines survival. Only a limited number of articles is available investigating the relationship between case volume of physicians and hospitals and specialization of surgeons and survival. In summary, there is evidence to support the hypothesis that specialization, research interest, and caseload of physicians and hospitals is positively correlated with providing state-of-the-art care and with survival. However, it is less clear what impact might be attributed to the surgical routine gained with increasing number of procedures compared to the deeper insight into the biology of breast cancer that comes with specialization in oncology and the weight of the multidisciplinary setting that is more easily established and maintained with a higher caseload. PMID:20877661

Scharl, Anton; Göhring, Uwe-Jochen

2009-01-01

66

To achieve the important aims of identifying and marking disease progression, cell counting is crucial for various biological and medical procedures, especially in a Point-Of-Care (POC) setting. In contrast to the conventional manual method of counting cells, a software-based approach provides improved reliability, faster speeds, and greater ease of use. We present a novel software-based approach to count in-line holographic cell images using the calculation of a normalized 2D cross-correlation. This enables fast, computationally-efficient pattern matching between a set of cell library images and the test image. Our evaluation results show that the proposed system is capable of quickly counting cells whilst reliably and accurately following human counting capability. Our novel approach is 5760 times faster than manual counting and provides at least 68% improved accuracy compared to other image processing algorithms. PMID:23839256

Ra, Ho-Kyeong; Kim, Hyungseok; Yoon, Hee Jung; Son, Sang Hyuk; Park, Taejoon; Moon, Sangjun

2013-09-01

67

Application of holographic particle image velocimetry in bubbly flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the velocity field of a bubbly flow is of major importance in many industrial applications like, bubble column reactors. Traditional PIV setup is limited to single plane measurements. The present study involved extension of the existing holographic PIV method to two-phase flow velocimetry. The objective of the present study was to conduct velocity measurements using in-line holographic microscopy arrangement to analyze a flow consisting of an air bubble rising through stagnant water in a rectangular column. Neutrally buoyant 8 microm sized hollow glass spheres are scattered uniformly in the continuous phase and are used as seed particles for image analysis. Double-pulsed hologram is taken with a 2K by 2K pixels CCD sensor with 200micros in between the two frames, which allows only a small movement of both the particles (in the continuous phase) and that of the dispersed phase itself. Holograms are reconstructed at different distances to produce images at every millimeter of the measurement volume. An averaging technique is developed to process the images to reduce the noise in reconstructed holographic images and make it useful for cross-correlation analysis. The image pairs are cross correlated and velocity vectors are obtained for the continuous phase. The dispersed phase velocity is measured using the shift in the center of the bubble. After analyses of all the image pairs throughout the measurement volume, a two component three dimensional velocity field is produced for the two-phase flow.

Banerjee, Atanu

68

Fast fluorescence holographic microscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FINCHSCOPE is a new technology of fluorescence holographic microscopy. It has been successfully applied to recording high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens without the need for scanning. In this study, we revealed and analyzed an intrinsic phenomenon, called ghost lens effect, on spatial light modulator which is the core element enabling the incoherent correlation in the FINCHSCOPE. The ghost lens effect can degrade the imaging quality by introducing multiple spherical waves with different focal lengths into the correlation and thus increasing the noise in the recorded holograms.

Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Qu, Xinghua; Yao, Hai; Gao, Bruce Z.

2014-03-01

69

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative Phase Imaging techniques including DHM have been applied recently in the field of cell imaging to monitor and quantify non-invasively dynamic cellular processes modifying cell morphology and/or content . Concretely, the DHM phase signal is highly sensitive to cell thickness and intracellular integral RI variations associated with transmembrane water movements. As net water flow across the cell membrane leads at the same time to changes in cell thickness and intracellular RI, the interpretation of phase signal variations remains difficult. To overcome this drawback, we have developed a Dual-wavelength Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) setup allowing to separately measure, with a single CCD camera acquisition, thickness and integral RI of living cells. The method is based on the use of an absorbing dye that enhances the refractive index dispersion of the extracellular medium. Practically, two significantly different phase signals can be obtained when measuring at two appropriate wavelengths. From the two phase measurements, both cell RI and thickness can be univocally determined.

Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

2012-06-01

70

The traveltime holographic principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes ?pq from exterior transmission traveltimes ?sp and ?sq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times ?pq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes ?pq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes ?pq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

2015-01-01

71

Holographic microrefractometer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-line holographic microscopy of micrometer-scale colloidal spheres yields heterodyne scattering patterns that may be interpreted with Lorenz-Mie theory to obtain precise time-resolved information on the refractive index of the suspending medium. We demonstrate this approach to spatially resolved refractometry with measurements on calibrated refractive index standards and use it to monitor chemical concentration in a microfluidic channel. Using commercially available colloidal spheres as probe particles and a standard video camera for detection yields values for the fluid's refractive index at the position of each probe particle in each holographic snapshot with a demonstrated resolution of 2×10-3 refractive index units (RIU) and a potential resolution surpassing 10-4 RIU. The combination of spatial resolution, temporal resolution, multi-point in situ access, and technical simplicity recommends this technique for cost-effective lab-on-a-chip applications.

Shpaisman, Hagay; Jyoti Krishnatreya, Bhaskar; Grier, David G.

2012-08-01

72

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Components of a Holographic Interferometer Light Source Optical Table Shutter Beam Splitter Attenuation Filter Beam Expander Mirrors, Lenses Recording Materials Piezo Mirror Test Facility Evaluation of Interferograms Theoretical Principles Conclusions Calculation of Temperature and Concentration Distributions Determination of the Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Examples Determination of the Temperature Distribution in a Compact Plate - Heat Exchanger with Plain Fins Description of the Test Section Description of the Interferograms

Tauscher, Robert

73

Holographic Optical Data Storage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising, and security medium as well. The evolution of holographic optical memories has followed a path not altogether different from holography itself, with several cycles of alternating interest over the past four decades. P. J. van Heerden is widely credited for being the first to elucidate the principles behind holographic data storage in a 1963 paper, predicting bit storage densities on the order of 1/lambda(sup 3) with source wavelength lambda - a fantastic capacity of nearly 1 TB/cu cm for visible light! The science and engineering of such a storage paradigm was heavily pursued thereafter, resulting in many novel hologram multiplexing techniques for dense data storage, as well as important advances in holographic recording materials. Ultimately, however, the lack of such enabling technologies as compact laser sources and high performance optical data I/O devices dampened the hopes for the development of a commercial product. After a period of relative dormancy, successful applications of holography in other arenas sparked a renewed interest in holographic data storage in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Currently, with most of the critical optoelectronic device technologies in place and the quest for an ideal holographic recording medium intensified, holography is once again considered as one of several future data storage paradigms that may answer our constantly growing need for higher-capacity and faster-access memories.

Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

74

Purpose To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET-CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET-CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results Multiple MTV's were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p=0.0005) and tumor grade (p=0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R2 = 0.63). Conclusions Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET-CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV. PMID:21665308

Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andre; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

2011-01-01

75

Three voluminous rhyolitic ignimbrites have been identified along the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain. As\\u000a a result of wide-scale correlations, new volume estimates can be made for these deposits: ~350 km3 for the Steer Basin Tuff and Cougar Point Tuff XI, and ~1,000 km3 for Cougar Point Tuff XIII. These volumes exclude any associated regional ashfalls and correlation across

Ben S. Ellis; M. J. Branney; T. L. Barry; D. Barfod; I. Bindeman; J. A. Wolff; B. Bonnichsen

76

Coherence concepts in holographic particle image velocimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special holographic configuration has been introduced for the sheet-wise reconstruction of sample areas in a particle image field that is reconstructed for particle image velocimetry analysis. A distinct feature is the suppression of light from most of the out-of-focus region of the flow volume. This is realised by light-in-flight holography, where the illuminating laser light of short coherence length allows the discrimination of depth regions by selection of the position of the reconstruction aperture on the hologram. The basic features of the method are outlined, and results are given for flow visualisation in a free nozzle stream and for velocimetry in a wind tunnel vortex street and free nozzle jets. The method is supplemented by electro-optic switching for separate images and cross-correlation evaluation.

Herrmann, S.; Hinrichs, H.; Hinsch, K. D.; Surmann, C.

77

Coherence concepts in holographic particle image velocimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special holographic configuration has been introduced for the sheet-wise reconstruction of sample areas in a particle image field that is reconstructed for particle image velocimetry analysis. A distinct feature is the suppression of light from most of the out-of-focus region of the flow volume. This is realised by light-in-flight holography, where the illuminating laser light of short coherence length allows the discrimination of depth regions by selection of the position of the reconstruction aperture on the hologram. The basic features of the method are outlined, and results are given for flow visualisation in a free nozzle stream and for velocimetry in a wind tunnel vortex street and free nozzle jets. The method is supplemented by electro-optic switching for separate images and cross-correlation evaluation.

Herrmann, S.; Hinrichs, H.; Hinsch, K. D.; Surmann, C.

2000-12-01

78

Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…

Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

2008-01-01

79

We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028

Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong

2014-04-18

80

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly modified correlation equation between defect-related positron lifetime determined within two-state trapping model and radius of corresponding free-volume-type defects was proposed to describe compositional variations in atomic-deficient structure of covalent-bonded chalcogenides like binary As-S/Se glasses. Specific chemical environment of free-volume voids around neighboring network-forming polyhedrons was shown to play a decisive role in this correlation, leading to systematically enhanced volumes in comparison with typical molecular substrates, such as polymers.

Shpotyuk, O.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Filipecki, J.

2014-11-01

81

Primordial perturbation spectra in a holographic phase of the Universe

In this paper, I suppose that the Universe begins in a holographic thermal equilibrium phase with the diverged correlation length, and the phase transition to the radiation phase of standard cosmology goes with the abrupt reduction of correlation length. In this case, the primordial perturbations may be induced by thermal fluctuations in this holographic phase. I calculate the spectra of

Piao Yunsong

2007-01-01

82

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of a volume hologram converting a reference speckle field into a plane wave is considered. The angular distribution and the total intensity of a plane wave are calculated for distortions which appear because of the amplitude inhomogeneity of cross gratings and which propagate close to the plane wave direction. The total intensity is found to be proportional to the product of the angle between the signal and reference waves and the divergence of the reference speckle wave.

Zel'dovich, Boris Ya; Nemkova, E. A.

1987-07-01

83

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

2013-12-01

84

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An appropriately oriented D3-D7-brane system is the holographic dual of relativistic Fermions occupying a 2+1-dimensional defect embedded in 3+1-dimensional spacetime. The Fermions interact via fields of N=4 Yang-Mills theory in the 3+1-dimensional bulk. Recently, using internal flux to stabilize the system in the probe N7<

Omid, Hamid; Semenoff, Gordon

2013-03-01

85

Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)

1978-01-01

86

We propose a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) composed of two Josephson junctions connected each other in a circle with the magnetic flux penetrating the circuit of the SQUID and the supercurrents flowing in both Josephson junction. The gravity in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar field model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry in which one space direction is compactified into a circle, and we arrange the profile of the coefficient of the time component of the gauge field having the role for the chemical potential of the cooper pair. The magnetic flux is involved by the rewriting of the surface integral of the magnetic field to the contour integral of the gauge field.

Takeuchi, Shingo

2013-01-01

87

P-wave morphology correlation with left atrial volumes assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography

To correlate prespecified P-wave morphologies with echocardiographically derived left atrial volumes (LAVs), we studied a convenience sample of 71 patients with predominantly normal left ventricular systolic function (mean ejection fraction = 58.2% ± 6.6%) who underwent concurrent 2-dimensional echocardiogram and 12-lead electrocardiogram. Left atrial volume was calculated from apical end-systolic images by the biplane method of disks and was indexed

James P. Birkbeck; David B. Wilson; Matthew A. Hall; David G. Meyers

2006-01-01

88

Interactive Holographic Cinema

INTERACTIVE HOLOGRAPHIC CINEMA A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ALBERT PORTALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 2012 Major Subject: Visualization Interactive Holographic Cinema Copyright 2012 Christopher Albert Portales INTERACTIVE HOLOGRAPHIC CINEMA A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ALBERT PORTALES...

Portales, Christopher

2012-07-16

89

Holographic duality in nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials

According to the holographic principle, the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on its boundary. Holographic principle establishes equivalence, or duality, between theoretical description of volume physics, which involves gravity, and the gravity-free field theory, which describes physics on its surface. While generally accepted as a theoretical framework, so far there was no known experimental system which would exhibit explicit holographic duality and be amenable to direct experimental testing. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear optics of hyperbolic metamaterials admits such a dual holographic description. Wave equation which describes propagation of extraordinary light through the volume of metamaterial exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the material. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational interaction between extraordinary photons. On the other hand, a holographic dual theory may be formulated on the metamaterial surface, which describes its nonlinear optics via interaction of cylindrical surface plasmons possessing conserved charges proportional to their angular momenta. Potential implications of this duality for superconductivity of hyperbolic metamaterials are discussed.

Igor I. Smolyaninov

2014-05-13

90

It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

Clifford V. Johnson

2014-09-04

91

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

Johnson, Clifford V.

2014-10-01

92

It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

Johnson, Clifford V

2014-01-01

93

RELAP5/MOD3 code manual. Volume 4, Models and correlations

The RELAP5 code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I presents modeling theory and associated numerical schemes; Volume II details instructions for code application and input data preparation; Volume III presents the results of developmental assessment cases that demonstrate and verify the models used in the code; Volume IV discusses in detail RELAP5 models and correlations; Volume V presents guidelines that have evolved over the past several years through the use of the RELAP5 code; Volume VI discusses the numerical scheme used in RELAP5; and Volume VII presents a collection of independent assessment calculations.

NONE

1995-08-01

94

Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

95

Correlation between olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function in children and adolescents.

The olfactory bulb (OB) is considered to be the most important relay station in odor processing. The present study aimed to investigate the volumetric development of the human bulb and the olfactory function during childhood and youth. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between OB volume and specific olfactory functions including odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification. A total of 87 subjects (46 boys, 41 girls), aged 1-17 years (mean age 8 years), participated in this study. None of them reported olfactory dysfunction or had signs of a dysfunctional sense of smell. Whenever possible, participants received a volumetric scan of the brain and lateralized olfactory tests. Volumetric measurements of the right and left OB were taken by manual segmentation of the coronal slices through the OB. Significant correlations between OB volumes and olfactory function were observed. Both, OB volumes and olfactory function increased with age, although the correlation between structure and function was not mediated by the subjects' age. In conclusion, for the first time, the present study showed a correlation between OB volume and olfactory functions in children. PMID:21842188

Hummel, T; Smitka, M; Puschmann, S; Gerber, J C; Schaal, B; Buschhüter, D

2011-10-01

96

Analyses of the macroevolutionary correlates of brain structure volumes allow pinpointing of selective pressures influencing specific structures. Here we use a multiple regression framework, including phylogenetic information, to analyze brain structure evolution in 43 Tanganyikan cichlid species. We analyzed the effect of ecological and sexually selected traits for species averages, the effect of ecological traits for each sex separately and the influence of sexual selection on structure dimorphism. Our results indicate that both ecological and sexually selected traits have influenced brain structure evolution. The patterns observed in males and females generally followed those observed at the species level. Interestingly, our results suggest that strong sexual selection is associated with reduced structure volumes, since all correlations between sexually selected traits and structure volumes were negative and the only statistically significant association between sexual selection and structure dimorphism was also negative. Finally, we previously found that monoparental female care was associated with increased brain size. However, here cerebellum and hypothalamus volumes, after controlling for brain size, associated negatively with female-only care. Thus, in accord with the mosaic model of brain evolution, brain structure volumes may not respond proportionately to changes in brain size. Indeed selection favoring larger brains can simultaneously lead to a reduction in relative structure volumes. PMID:21179407

Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

2010-01-01

97

VISUAL OUTCOME CORRELATES WITH INNER MACULAR VOLUME IN EYES WITH SURGICALLY CLOSED MACULAR HOLE

Purpose To determine the macular morphologic features that correlate best with visual outcome in eyes with surgically closed idiopathic macular hole. Methods Transversal observational case series of 24 eyes (22 subjects) imaged postoperatively using high-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Total and inner macular volume for central 3 mm area, central foveal thickness, and size of foveal inner segment–outer segment junction abnormality were correlated with best-corrected visual acuity. Microperimetry (MP-1) test was performed in a subset of 18 eyes. Results Mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 20/36 (range, 20/25–20/70). Postoperative follow-up mean was 32.97 ± 24.68 months (range, 5–96 months). Eighteen eyes underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Among FD-OCT parameters, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity and mean total microperimetry-1 sensitivity correlated best with inner macular volume in all eyes and ILM-peeled eyes (P < 0.05). Macular surface irregularities were noted in 12 eyes (66.7%) with ILM peeling but in none of the non–ILM-peeled eyes (P = 0.02). No significant correlation was found between microperimetry-1 sensitivity and other FD-OCT parameters. Conclusion Because inner macular volume strongly correlated with visual outcome in eyes with surgically closed macular hole, the possible effect of ILM peeling on visual outcome needs to be further investigated. PMID:23095727

PILLI, SUMAN; ZAWADZKI, ROBERT J.; WERNER, JOHN S.; PARK, SUSANNA S.

2013-01-01

98

Förster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Förster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.

Yang, Mino, E-mail: MinoYang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-14

99

KTN as a holographic storage material

The holographic storage properties of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) single crystals have been deduced from photoelectric measurements employing incoherent light. The light energy density necessary to record an elementary volume phase grating with a 1% read-out efficiency was found to be of the order of 100 ?J\\/cm for KTN in either the ferroelectric or nonferroelectric phase. These results compare favorably

L. A. Boatner; E. Krätzig; R. Orlowski

1980-01-01

100

Profilometry with volume holographic imaging

High resolution, non-contact object profile measurement (profilometry) at long working distance is important in a number of application areas, such as precise parts manufacturing, optical element grounding and polishing, ...

Sun, Wenyang

2006-01-01

101

The correlation between emotional intelligence and gray matter volume in university students.

A number of recent studies have investigated the neurological substrates of emotional intelligence (EI), but none of them have considered the neural correlates of EI that are measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale (SSREIS). This scale was developed based on the EI model of Salovey and Mayer (1990). In the present study, SSREIS was adopted to estimate EI. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) of 328 university students. Results found positive correlations between Monitor of Emotions and VBM measurements in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, Utilization of Emotions was positively correlated with the GMV in the parahippocampal gyrus, but was negatively correlated with the VBM measurements in the fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, Social Ability had volume correlates in the vermis. These findings indicate that the neural correlates of the EI model, which primarily focuses on the abilities of individuals to appraise and express emotions, can also regulate and utilize emotions to solve problems. PMID:25282329

Tan, Yafei; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun

2014-11-01

102

Finite volume corrections and decay of correlations in the canonical ensemble

We consider a classical system of $N$ particles confined in a box $\\Lambda\\subset\\R^d$ interacting via a finite range pair potential. Given the validity of the cluster expansion in the canonical ensemble we compute the error between the finite and the infinite volume free energy and estimate it to be bounded by the area of the surface of the box's boundary over its volume. We also compute the truncated two-point correlation function and find that the contribution from the ideal gas case is of the order $1/N$ while the contribution of the interactions is exponentially small with the distance.

Elena Pulvirenti; Dimitrios Tsagkarogiannis

2015-02-02

103

Finite volume corrections and decay of correlations in the canonical ensemble

We consider a classical system of $N$ particles confined in a box $\\Lambda\\subset\\R^d$ interacting via a finite range pair potential. Given the validity of the cluster expansion in the canonical ensemble we compute the error between the finite and the infinite volume free energy and estimate it to be bounded by the area of the surface of the box's boundary over its volume. We also compute the truncated two-point correlation function and find that the contribution from the ideal gas case is of the order $1/N$ while the contribution of the interactions is exponentially small with the distance.

Elena Pulvirenti; Dimitrios Tsagkarogiannis

2014-09-09

104

Holographic entropy production

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.

Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

2014-10-01

105

The plasma phase at high temperatures of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an AdS black hole. Matter in the fundamental representation and in the quenched approximation is introduced through embedding D7-branes in the AdS-Schwarzschild background. Low spin mesons correspond to the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume. As is well known by now, there are two different kinds of embeddings, either reaching down to the black hole horizon or staying outside of it. In the latter case the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume represent stable low spin mesons. In the plasma phase we do not expect mesons to be stable but to melt at sufficiently high temperature. We model this meson melting by the quasinormal modes of D7-brane fluctuations for the embeddings that do reach down to the horizon. The inverse of the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequency gives the lifetime of the meson in the hot plasma. We briefly comment on the possible application of our model to quarkonium s...

Hoyos, C; Montero, S; Hoyos, Carlos; Landsteiner, Karl; Montero, Sergio

2007-01-01

106

The plasma phase at high temperatures of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an AdS black hole. Matter in the fundamental representation and in the quenched approximation is introduced through embedding D7-branes in the AdS-Schwarzschild background. Low spin mesons correspond to the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume. As is well known by now, there are two different kinds of embeddings, either reaching down to the black hole horizon or staying outside of it. In the latter case the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume represent stable low spin mesons. In the plasma phase we do not expect mesons to be stable but to melt at sufficiently high temperature. We model the late stages of this meson melting by the quasinormal modes of D7-brane fluctuations for the embeddings that do reach down to the horizon. The inverse of the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequency gives the typical relaxation time back to equilibrium of the meson perturbation in the hot plasma. We briefly comment on the possible application of our model to quarkonium suppression.

Carlos Hoyos; Karl Landsteiner; Sergio Montero

2006-12-18

107

Dynamical holographic QCD model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a dynamical holographic QCD model, which resembles the renormalization group from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR). The dynamical holographic model is constructed in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework with the dilaton background field ? and scalar field X responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. We summarize the results on hadron spectra, QCD phase transition and transport properties including the jet quenching parameter and the shear/bulk viscosity in the framework of the dynamical holographic QCD model.

Li, Danning; Huang, Mei

2014-11-01

108

Multiwavefront digital holographic television.

This paper presents the full technology chain supporting wide angle digital holographic television from holographic capture of real world objects/scenes to holographic display with an extended viewing angle. The data are captured with multiple CCD cameras located around an object. The display system is based on multiple tilted spatial light modulators (SLMs) arranged in a circular configuration. The capture-display system is linked by a holographic data processing module, which allows for significant decoupling of the capture and display systems. The presented experimental results, based on the reconstruction of real world, variable in time scenes, illustrates imaging dynamics, viewing angle and quality. PMID:24663525

Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Kozacki, Tomasz; Falldorf, Claas; Meeser, Thomas; Hennelly, Bryan M; Garbat, Piotr; Zaperty, Weronika; Niemelä, Mikko; Finke, Grzegorz; Kowiel, Marcin; Naughton, Thomas

2014-02-10

109

Beam shaping for holographic techniques

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform intensity of laser radiation is very important in holographic and interferometry technologies, therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Holography and interferometry have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam, most important of them are flatness of phase front and extended depth of field. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers piShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. This approach is used in SLM-based technologies of Computer Generated Holography, Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms, holographic data storage, holographic projection, lithography, interferometric recording of Volume Bragg Gratings. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to vary beam size and shape, thus adapting an optical system to requirements of a particular application. This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

2014-09-01

110

GENERALIZED CORRELATIONS TO ESTIMATE OIL RECOVERY AND PORE VOLUMES INJECTED IN WATERFLOODING PROJECTS A Dissertation by ARNALDO LEOPOLDO ESPINEL DIAZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... A Dissertation by ARNALDO LEOPOLDO ESPINEL DIAZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Maria...

Espinel Diaz, Arnaldo Leopoldo

2012-02-14

111

Three Dimensional Holographic Archival Memory

To address the DOE need for the storage and handling of terabyte of nuclear physics data, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed a new multi-terabit, 90° recording geometry 3D holographic archival optical memory storage and search system. In contrast to state-of-the-art memory approaches, 3DHAM handles the data through highly parallel optical processing in conjunction with highly redundant hologram multiplexing. The 3DHAM system advantages also stem from its unique 3D volume-recording medium, which theoretically has a significantly greater data density than diskbased systems.

Gibbard, Bruce

2006-11-09

112

Although hippocampal atrophy and altered functional brain responses to emotional stimuli have been found in major depressive disorder (MDD), the relationship between the two is not yet well understood. The present study focused on children with and without a history of preschool onset MDD (PO-MDD) and directly examined the relations between hippocampal volume and functional brain activation to affect-eliciting stimuli. Children completed annual diagnostic assessments starting at preschool. When children were school-aged, high-resolution structural MRI and task-related functional MRI data were acquired from N = 64 nonmedicated children. During fMRI, subjects were shown emotional faces. Results from the total sample indicated that smaller bilateral hippocampal volumes were associated with greater cortico-limbic (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex) activation to sad or negative faces versus neutral faces. Left hippocampal volume was negatively associated with the cortico-limbic activation in both the PO-MDD and healthy children. Right hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with amygdala responses in the PO-MDD group, but not in the healthy comparison group. These findings suggest that there may be important interrelationships between reduced hippocampal volume and hyperactivation of brain responses in children, both those with and those without a history of PO-MDD. PMID:23055092

Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Babb, Casey M.; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Barch, Deanna M.

2012-01-01

113

This letter presents the theory and experimental results of an athermal holographic filter design employing a thermally actuated microelectromechanical system mirror to compensate for the drift of Bragg wavelength due to changes of temperature. The center wavelength of our holographic filter is shown to remain constant from 21°C to 60°C.

Hung-Te Hsieh; G. Panotopoulos; M. Liger; Yu-Chong Tai; D. Psaltis

2004-01-01

114

Hydrodynamics of holographic superconductors

We study the poles of the retarded Green functions of a holographic superconductor. The model shows a second order phase transition where a charged scalar operator condenses and a U(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken. The poles of the holographic Green functions are the quasinormal modes in an AdS black hole background. We study the spectrum of quasinormal frequencies in the

Irene Amado; Matthias Kaminski; Karl Landsteiner

2009-01-01

115

Improved scattering screen for a multiplanar volumetric holographic display

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a technique for displaying holographic three-dimensional (3D) images in the wide region with a wide viewing angle, spatial projecting technique onto the mist screen is well-known. For such purposes, other various techniques have been studied, however, it has been difficult to take a side view of 3D images. In order to overcome this problem, we have been challenged to improve a holographic 3D displaying system employing a mist screen. In this paper, we shall report a new display system which has an improved jetting mechanism compensating the characteristics of the mist screen and gives volumeful 3D images by combining the reconstructed waves from two ways. It is also shown that by the use of this system, we can better observe 3D images in the wider viewing region than before. From this, we confirmed the possibility of a holographic projecting process adopted mist screen displaying volumeful 3D holographic images.

Takano, Kunihiko; Sato, Koki; Ohki, Makoto

2011-09-01

116

Brain tissue volume changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlation with lesion load.

The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure in vivo volumes of gray matter (GM), normal white matter (WM), abnormal white matter (aWM), and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and to assess their relationship in 50 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) (age range, 21-59; mean EDSS, 2.5; mean disease duration, 9.9 years), using an unsupervised multiparametric segmentation procedure applied to brain MR studies. Tissue volumes were normalized to total intracranial volume providing corresponding fractional volumes (fGM, faWM, fWM, and fCSF), subsequently corrected for aWM-related segmentation inaccuracies and adjusted to mean patients' age according to age-related changes measured in 54 normal volunteers (NV) (age range 16-70). In MS patients aWM was 23.8 +/- 29.8 ml (range 0.4-138.8). A significant decrease in fGM was present in MS patients as compared to NV (49.5 +/- 3.2% vs 53.3 +/- 2.1%; P < 0.0001), with a corresponding increase in fCSF (13.0 +/- 3.8% vs 9.1 +/- 2.4%; P < 0.0001). No difference could be detected between the two groups for fWM (37.5 +/- 2.6% vs 37.6 +/- 2.2%). faWM correlated inversely with fGM (R = -0.434, P < 0.001 at regression analysis), and directly with fCSF (R = 0.473, P < 0.001), but not with fWM. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and EDSS, while no relationship was found between EDSS or disease duration and fractional volumes. Brain atrophy in RR-MS is mainly related to GM loss, which correlates with faWM. Both measures do not appear to significantly affect EDSS, which correlates to disease duration. PMID:12595189

Quarantelli, Mario; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Orefice, Giuseppe; Larobina, Michele; Lanzillo, Roberta; Schiavone, Vittorio; Salvatore, Elena; Alfano, Bruno; Brunetti, Arturo

2003-02-01

117

Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the function of the primate rhinal cortex, comprising the entorhinal (ErC) and perirhinal (PrC) cortices. However, translating animal models to human memory has been limited by the technological problems associated with characterizing neural structures in vivo. Functional correlates of hippocampal and rhinal cortex volume changes were examined in a sample of 61 temporal lobe epilepsy patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS; 33 left, 28 right). Patients were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (revised or third edition), the Wechsler Memory Scale (revised or third edition), and a spatial maze task. Neuropsychological data, together with rhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes, collected in our earlier study (O'Brien CE, Bowden SC, Whelan G, Cook MJ, unpublished observations), were analyzed using multiple regression. The only significant predictor of verbal memory function was the difference score between the volume of left hippocampus and the left PrC. Spatial maze scores were predicted by the bilateral sum of ErC volume. The difference score between the left hippocampus and left PrC volumes was the most powerful predictor of verbal episodic memory. Right hippocampal volume was not a significant predictor of nonverbal episodic memory. Verbal and nonverbal semantic memory were not significantly predicted by any combination of rhinal cortex structures. This quantitative study suggests a lateralized or material-specific memory function for the left hippocampus and left PrC, in contrast to the bilateral role of the ErC. The left hippocampus and left PrC appear to act on verbal memory function through an opposing relationship. Finally, differentiation between hippocampal and subhippocampal components in terms of episodic and semantic memory, respectively, could not be supported by the current data. PMID:14750652

O'Brien, Catherine E; Bowden, Stephen C; Bardenhagen, Fiona J; Cook, Mark J

2003-01-01

118

Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

2013-02-01

119

Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure.

The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization, and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection. In this paper, we have studied whether digital holographic microscopy (DHM) may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique with high-power digitally enhanced Nomarski optics. The main advantage of digital holography is that high-resolution three-dimensional quantitative sample imaging may be automatically produced by numerical refocusing of a two-dimensional image at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DHM generates useful information on the dimensions and structure of human sperm, not revealed by conventional phase-contrast microscopy, in particular the volume of vacuoles, and suggest its use as an additional prognostic tool in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:23469807

Coppola, G; Di Caprio, G; Wilding, M; Ferraro, P; Esposito, G; Di Matteo, L; Dale, R; Coppola, G; Dale, B

2014-11-01

120

Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

2002-04-01

121

Intracranial pressure pulse waveform correlates with aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid stroke volume

This study identifies a novel relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume through the cerebral aqueduct and the characteristic peaks of the intracranial pulse (ICP) waveform. ICP waveform analysis has become much more advanced in recent years; however, clinical practice remains restricted to mean ICP, mainly due to the lack of physiological understanding of the ICP waveform. Therefore, the present study set out to shed some light on the physiological meaning of ICP morphological metrics derived by the morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm by investigating their relationships with a well defined physiological variable, i.e., the stroke volume of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct. Seven patients received both overnight ICP monitoring along with a phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) of the cerebral aqueduct to quantify aqueductal stroke volume (ASV). Waveform morphological analysis of the ICP signal was performed by the MOCAIP algorithm. Following extraction of morphological metrics from the ICP signal, nine temporal ICP metrics and two amplitude-based metrics were compared with the ASV via Spearman's rank correlation. Of the nine temporal metrics correlated with the ASV, only the width of the P2 region (ICP-Wi2) reached significance. Furthermore, both ICP pulse pressure amplitude and mean ICP did not reach significance. In this study, we showed the width of the second peak (ICP-Wi2) of an ICP pulse wave is positively related to the volume of CSF movement through the cerebral aqueduct. This finding is an initial step in bridging the gap between ICP waveform morphology research and clinical practice. PMID:22995390

Hamilton, Robert; Baldwin, Kevin; Fuller, Jennifer; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

2012-01-01

122

We investigate the local fluctuations in dense granular media subjected to athermal, quasistatic shearing, based on three-dimensional discrete element method simulations. By shearing granular assemblies of different polydispersities under constant-volume constraint, we quantify the characteristics of local structures (in terms of local volume and local anisotropy) and local deformation (using local shear strain and nonaffine displacement). The distribution of the local volume in a granular medium is found unchanged during the entire shearing process, which indicates a constant temperaturelike compactivity for the material. The compactivity is not, however, equilibrated among different particle groups in a polydisperse assembly. The local structures of a disordered granular assembly are inherently anisotropic. The fluctuations in local anisotropy can be well captured by a gamma or mixed-gamma distribution function, which is also unchanged during the shear. The local anisotropic orientation evolves towards the coaxial direction of the stress anisotropy with shear. The deformation characteristics of a jammed granular medium have their origins in the structural amorphousness. The local shear strain field depicts clear shear transformation zones which act as plasticity carriers. The spatial correlation of the local shear strains exhibits a fourfold pattern which is stronger in the stress deviatoric planes than in the stress isotropic plane. The fluctuations of nonaffine displacement suggest an isotropic granular temperature and an isotropic spatial correlation independent of the stress state. Both the local strain and the nonaffine displacement exhibit a power-law decayed distribution with a long-range correlation. We further modify the shear-transformation-zone theory to predict the pressure-dependent constitutive behavior of a sheared granular material and compare its prediction with our simulation data. PMID:24827242

Guo, Ning; Zhao, Jidong

2014-04-01

123

Fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges in an excluded-volume hadron resonance gas model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present temperature and baryonic chemical potential dependence of higher-order fluctuations and the correlation between conserved charges in an excluded-volume hadron resonance gas model. Products of moments, such as the ratio of variance to mean, product of skewness and standard deviation, product of kurtosis and variance, for the net proton, net kaon, and net charge have been evaluated on the phenomenologically determined freeze-out curve. Further, products of moments for net proton and net charge have been compared with the experimental data measured by the STAR experiment. The dependence of the model result on the hadronic radius parameter has also been discussed.

Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Das, Supriya; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Ray, Rajarshi; Samanta, Subhasis

2014-09-01

124

THE ACCURATE ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENT OF THE VOLUME FLOW OF BLOOD BY TIME DOMAIN CORRELATION

THE ACCURATE ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENT OF THE VOLUME FLOW OF BLOOD BY TIME DOMAIN CORRELATION P. M. E pairs of echoes h a s been developed. The time s h i f t between a pair of range g a t e d echoes s s i v e echoes a t a p a r t i c u l a r range d i s t a n c e from t h e t r a n s d u c e r . The p

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

125

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first application of three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation microstructure reconstruction implemented for a representative volume element (RVE) to facilitate the microstructure engineering of materials. This has been accomplished by developing a new methodology for reconstructing 3D microstructure using experimental two-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The proposed methodology is based on the analytical representation of the generalized form of the two-point correlation function—the distance-disorientation function (DDF). Microstructure reconstruction is accomplished by extending the simulated annealing techniques to perform three term reconstruction with a minimization of the DDF. The new 3D microstructure reconstruction algorithm is employed to determine the 3D RVE containing all of the relevant microstructure information for accurately computing the mechanical response of solids, especially when local microstructural variations influence the global response of the material as in the case of fracture initiation.

Staraselski, Y.; Brahme, A.; Mishra, R. K.; Inal, K.

2015-01-01

126

Towards Holographic Spintronics

We study transport phenomena of total angular momentum in holography, as a first step toward holographic understanding of spin transport phenomena. Spin current, which has both the local Lorentz index for spins and the space-time vector index for current, couples naturally to the bulk spin connection. Therefore the bulk spin connection becomes the source for the boundary spin current. This allows us to evaluate the spin current holographically, with a relation to the stress tensor and metric fluctuations in the bulk. We examine the spin transport coefficients and the thermal spin Hall conductivity in a simple holographic setup.

Hashimoto, Koji; Kimura, Taro

2013-01-01

127

Towards Holographic Spintronics

We study transport phenomena of total angular momentum in holography, as a first step toward holographic understanding of spin transport phenomena. Spin current, which has both the local Lorentz index for spins and the space-time vector index for current, couples naturally to the bulk spin connection. Therefore the bulk spin connection becomes the source for the boundary spin current. This allows us to evaluate the spin current holographically, with a relation to the stress tensor and metric fluctuations in the bulk. We examine the spin transport coefficients and the thermal spin Hall conductivity in a simple holographic setup.

Koji Hashimoto; Norihiro Iizuka; Taro Kimura

2013-04-10

128

Holographic and polarization methods for optical field analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses two issues in analyzing complex optical fields: spatial and time domain holographic recording of optical fields and devices for polarization field sensing (PFS). For the first issue, a rigorous method is used to calculate the diffraction of spatial holographic gratings and to understand the diffraction properties of the holographic gratings of any thickness. Holographic gratings are recorded in amorphous As2S3 material and the photo- induced effect is characterized at the specific wavelength. Deep volume holographic gratings and holographic movies are also recorded in the As2S3 material in a longer wavelength. Regarding the time domain holography, a tunable modelocked fiber laser near 1.55 ?m has been built and characterized. A time domain holographic technique for recording and retrieving time-domain fields in frequency selective medium is discussed. Polarization field refers to the spatial distribution of the polarization state of light. Polarization field sensing is to map the spatial distribution of the polarization state of the light in space. With regard to this issue, the effort is focused on fabricating a novel micro-optical device called micropolarizer array. A micropolarizer array is a polarization filter array which consists of a large number of micron size thin film polarizers with different polarization orientations. High resolution multiaxis thin film micropolarizer arrays are fabricated. A three-state polarization imager in the visible wavelength range has been demonstrated. Polarization field sensing by using multistate polarization imager is analyzed and presented.

Guo, Junpeng

129

Holographic particle image velocimetry measurements in a four-valve combustion engine

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a feasibility study to show that the nonreacting three-dimensional flow in the cylinder of a four-valve internal combustion engine at 160° after top dead center (atdc) at 1,500 rpm can be accurately measured by holographic particle image velocimetry. The results evidence the quality of holographic PIV measurements in engine flows and the capability of the holographic method to instantaneously capture the complete three-dimensional flow field in a large area of the highly intricate cylinder flow. The resolved measurement volume has a diameter of about 60 mm and a height of 80 mm with a vector spacing of 0.75 mm per vector. To validate the measurements, the flow structure as well as the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow field is compared with planar two-component/two-dimensional (2C/2D-PIV) measurements performed in the same engine (Dannemann et al., in Exp Fluids 2010). Furthermore, the spatial propagation of the flow field as well as the vortical structures is visualized by 3D streamlines and ? 2-contours. The current results confirm the existence of several large-scale flow structures, such as a counter-rotating ring-vortex pair below the inlet valve and the tumble vortex. The latter possesses a U-shaped propagation of the vortex core. The analysis of the two-point correlation shows the integral length scale to be in the range 2.5-6.1 mm, which is in agreement with literature data.

van Overbrüggen, Timo; Dannemann, Jan; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

130

A Simple Holographic Insulator

We present a simple holographic model of an insulator. Unlike most previous holographic insulators, the zero temperature infrared geometry is completely nonsingular. Both the low temperature DC conductivity and the optical conductivity at zero temperature satisfy power laws with the same exponent, given by the scaling dimension of an operator in the IR. Changing a parameter in the model converts it from an insulator to a conductor with a standard Drude peak.

Eric Mefford; Gary T. Horowitz

2014-07-11

131

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple holographic model of an insulator. Unlike most previous holographic insulators, the zero temperature infrared geometry is completely nonsingular. Both the low temperature DC conductivity and the optical conductivity at zero temperature satisfy power laws with the same exponent, given by the scaling dimension of an operator in the IR. Changing a parameter in the model converts it from an insulator to a conductor with a standard Drude peak.

Mefford, Eric; Horowitz, Gary T.

2014-10-01

132

Epicardial and Pericardial Fat Volume Correlate with the Severity of Coronary Artery Stenosis

Introduction: Epicardial fat volume (EFV) has been reported to correlate with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Pericardial fat volume (PFV) has recently been reported to be strongly associated with CAD severity and presence. We aimed to investigate the relationship between EFV and PFV with severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients undergoing 64-slice multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). Methods: One hundred and fifty one patients undergoing MSCT for suspected CAD were enrolled. Non-enhanced images were acquired to assess calcium score. Contrast enhanced images were used to quantify EFV, PFV and severity of luminal stenosis. Results: Coronary artery stenosis was mild in 25 cases (16.6%), moderate in 58 cases (38.4%) and severe in 68 cases (45%). With increase in severity of coronary artery stenosis, there was significant increase in PFV, EFV as well as epicardial fat thickness in right ventricle free wall in basal view and epicardial fat thickness in left ventricle posterior wall in mid and apical view. There was significant linear correlation between PFV with coronary calcification score (r=0.18, P=0.02), between coronary artery stenosis severity and PFV (r=0.75, P<0.001), EFV (r=0.79, P<0.001), apical epicardial fat thickness in right ventricle free wall (r=0.29, P<0.001), Mid (r=0.28, P<0.001) and basal (r=0.23, P=0.004) epicardial fat thickness in left ventricle posterior wall. Conclusion: PFV, EFV and regional epicardial thickness are correlated with severity of CAD and could be used as a reliable marker in predicting CAD severity. PMID:25610555

Aslanabadi, Nasser; Salehi, Rezvanyeh; Javadrashid, Alireza; Tarzamni, Mohammadkazem; Khodadad, Behrouz; Enamzadeh, Elgar; Montazerghaem, Hossein

2014-01-01

133

Polycystic liver disease is a common manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. However, factors that regulate hepatic cystogenesis have not been defined, and the effect of cyst formation on hepatic parenchymal mass has not been studied. We validated computed tomographic methods for measuring volumes from computed tomographic images using plastic-agar models and demonstrated that measured volumes were within 10% of actual volumes. The validated methods were used to measure hepatic parenchymal, hepatic cyst and kidney volumes in 25 subjects with polycystic liver disease and nine controls without autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Hepatic cyst volume varied considerably in the 25 subjects with polycystic liver disease (20 to 7,148 ml), but hepatic parenchymal volume was not altered by hepatic cysts and was similar to that of controls (polycystic liver disease vs. controls: 1,357 +/- 185 vs. 1,319 + 340 ml). Total liver volume increased linearly as cyst volume increased (slope = 1.02 +/- 0.05, r = 0.994). Nine of 18 women with polycystic liver disease had massive hepatic cysts (cyst: parenchymal volume greater than 1; range of cyst volumes from 1,354 to 7,148 ml), and the other nine had cyst volumes (20 to 399 ml) similar to men with polycystic liver disease (25 to 1,107 ml). Total kidney volume, a measure of renal cystic disease, did not correlate with either total liver volume or the volume of hepatic cysts. The data indicate that hepatic parenchymal volume is preserved in polycystic liver disease despite massive cystic involvement and that women are uniquely susceptible to massive hepatic cystic disease. PMID:3192176

Everson, G T; Scherzinger, A; Berger-Leff, N; Reichen, J; Lezotte, D; Manco-Johnson, M; Gabow, P

1988-01-01

134

Grey matter volume correlates with virtual water maze task performance in boys with androgen excess.

Major questions remain about the specific role of testosterone in human spatial navigation. We tested 10 boys (mean age 11.65 years) with an extremely rare disorder of androgen excess (Familial Male Precocious Puberty, FMPP) and 40 healthy boys (mean age 12.81 years) on a virtual version of the Morris Water Maze task. In addition, anatomical magnetic resonance images were collected for all patients and a subsample of the controls (n=21) after task completion. Behaviourally, no significant differences were found between both groups. However, in the MRI analyses, grey matter volume (GMV) was correlated with performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Group differences in correlations of performance with GMV were apparent in medial regions of the prefrontal cortex as well as the middle occipital gyrus and the cuneus. By comparison, similar correlations for both groups were found in the inferior parietal lobule. These data provide novel insight into the relation between testosterone and brain development and suggest that morphological differences in a spatial navigation network covary with performance in spatial ability. PMID:21964472

Mueller, S C; Merke, D P; Leschek, E W; Fromm, S; Grillon, C; Cornwell, B R; Vanryzin, C; Ernst, M

2011-12-01

135

Ventricular enlargement is one of the most consistent abnormal structural brain findings in schizophrenia and has been used to infer brain shrinkage. However, whether ventricular enlargement is related to local overlying cortex and/or adjacent subcortical structures or whether it is related to brain volume change globally has not been assessed. We systematically assessed interrelations of ventricular volumes with gray and white matter volumes of 40 Brodmann areas (BAs), the thalamus and its medial dorsal nucleus and pulvinar, the internal capsule, caudate and putamen. We acquired structural MRI ( patients with schizophrenia (n = 64) and healthy controls (n = 56)) and diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) (untreated schizophrenia n = 19, controls n = 32). Volumes were assessed by manual tracing of central structures and a semi-automated parcellation of BAs. Patients with schizophrenia had increased ventricular size associated with decreased cortical gray matter volumes widely across the brain; a similar but less pronounced pattern was seen in normal controls; local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with temporal lobe volume) were not appreciably higher than non-local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with prefrontal volume). White matter regions adjacent to the ventricles similarly did not reveal strong regional relationships. FA and center of mass of the anterior limb of the internal capsule also appeared differentially influenced by ventricular volume but findings were similarly not regional. Taken together, these findings indicate that ventricular enlargement is globally interrelated with gray matter volume diminution but not directly correlated with volume loss in the immediately adjacent caudate, putamen, or internal capsule. PMID:21431919

Horga, Guillermo; Bernacer, Javier; Dusi, Nicola; Entis, Jonathan; Chu, Kingwai; Hazlett, Erin A; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Kemether, Eileen; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S

2011-10-01

136

Dynamic volume vs respiratory correlated 4DCT for motion assessment in radiation therapy simulation

Purpose: Conventional (i.e., respiratory-correlated) 4DCT exploits the repetitive nature of breathing to provide an estimate of motion; however, it has limitations due to binning artifacts and irregular breathing in actual patient breathing patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and image quality of a dynamic volume, CT approach (4D{sub vol}) using a 320-slice CT scanner to minimize these limitations, wherein entire image volumes are acquired dynamically without couch movement. This will be compared to the conventional respiratory-correlated 4DCT approach (RCCT). Methods: 4D{sub vol} CT was performed and characterized on an in-house, programmable respiratory motion phantom containing multiple geometric and morphological ''tumor'' objects over a range of regular and irregular patient breathing traces obtained from 3D fluoroscopy and compared to RCCT. The accuracy of volumetric capture and breathing displacement were evaluated and compared with the ground truth values and with the results reported using RCCT. A motion model was investigated to validate the number of motion samples needed to obtain accurate motion probability density functions (PDF). The impact of 4D image quality on this accuracy was then investigated. Dose measurements using volumetric and conventional scan techniques were also performed and compared. Results: Both conventional and dynamic volume 4DCT methods were capable of estimating the programmed displacement of sinusoidal motion, but patient breathing is known to not be regular, and obvious differences were seen for realistic, irregular motion. The mean RCCT amplitude error averaged at 4 mm (max. 7.8 mm) whereas the 4D{sub vol} CT error stayed below 0.5 mm. Similarly, the average absolute volume error was lower with 4D{sub vol} CT. Under irregular breathing, the 4D{sub vol} CT method provides a close description of the motion PDF (cross-correlation 0.99) and is able to track each object, whereas the RCCT method results in a significantly different PDF from the ground truth, especially for smaller tumors (cross-correlation ranging between 0.04 and 0.69). For the protocols studied, the dose measurements were higher in the 4D{sub vol} CT method (40%), but it was shown that significant mAs reductions can be achieved by a factor of 4-5 while maintaining image quality and accuracy. Conclusions: 4D{sub vol} CT using a scanner with a large cone-angle is a promising alternative for improving the accuracy with which respiration-induced motion can be characterized, particularly for patients with irregular breathing motion. This approach also generates 4DCT image data with a reduced total scan time compared to a RCCT scan, without the need for image binning or external respiration signals within the 16 cm scan length. Scan dose can be made comparable to RCCT by optimization of the scan parameters. In addition, it provides the possibility of measuring breathing motion for more than one breathing cycle to assess stability and obtain a more accurate motion PDF, which is currently not feasible with the conventional RCCT approach.

Coolens, Catherine; Bracken, John; Driscoll, Brandon; Hope, Andrew; Jaffray, David [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

2012-05-15

137

Digital Holographic Microscopy for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Cell Cycle Arrest in L929 Cells

Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has emerged as a powerful non-invasive tool for cell analysis. It has the capacity to analyse multiple parameters simultaneously, such as cell- number, confluence and phase volume. This is done while cells are still adhered and growing in their culture flask. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHM was able to monitor drug-induced cell cycle arrest in cultured cells and thus provide a non-disruptive alternative to flow cytometry. DHM parameters from G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrested L929 mouse fibroblast cells were collected. Cell cycle arrest was verified with flow cytometry. This study shows that DHM is able to monitor phase volume changes corresponding to either a G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest. G1-phase arrest with staurosporine correlated with a decrease in the average cell phase volume and G2/M-phase arrest with colcemid and etoposide correlated with an increase in the average cell phase volume. Importantly, DHM analysis of average cell phase volume was of comparable accuracy to flow cytometric measurement of cell cycle phase distribution as recorded following dose-dependent treatment with etoposide. Average cell phase volume changes in response to treatment with cell cycle arresting compounds could therefore be used as a DHM marker for monitoring cell cycle arrest in cultured mammalian cells. PMID:25208094

Falck Miniotis, Maria; Mukwaya, Anthonny; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

2014-01-01

138

Social support refers to interpersonal exchanges that include the combinations of aid, affirmation and affection. Perceived social support is a kind of subjective judgment of one's availability of social support. In spite of the importance of perceived social support to health, however, its neural substrate remains unknown. To address this question, voxel-based morphometry was employed to investigate the neural bases of individual differences in responses to the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) in healthy volunteers (144 men and 203 women; mean age = 19.9; SD = 1.33, age range : 17-27). As a result, multiple regression analysis revealed that the PSSS scores were significantly and positively correlated with gray matter volume in a cluster that mainly included areas in posterior parts of posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lingual cortex, left occipital lobe and cuneus. Highly-supported individuals had larger gray matter volume in these brain regions, implying a relatively high level of ability to engage in self-referential processes and social cognition. Our results provide a biological basis for exploring perceived social support particularly in relationship to various health parameters and outcomes. PMID:24397344

Che, XianWei; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, QingLin; Liu, YiJun

2014-01-01

139

Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers

Despite the well-documented benefits afforded the children of invested fathers in modern Western societies, some fathers choose not to invest in their children. Why do some men make this choice? Life History Theory offers an explanation for variation in parental investment by positing a trade-off between mating and parenting effort, which may explain some of the observed variance in human fathers’ parenting behavior. We tested this hypothesis by measuring aspects of reproductive biology related to mating effort, as well as paternal nurturing behavior and the brain activity related to it. Both plasma testosterone levels and testes volume were independently inversely correlated with paternal caregiving. In response to viewing pictures of one’s own child, activity in the ventral tegmental area—a key component of the mesolimbic dopamine reward and motivation system—predicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume. Our results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort, as indexed by testicular size and nurturing-related brain function, respectively. PMID:24019499

Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

2013-01-01

140

This study aimed to explore the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion volume and patient mortality in massive blood transfusion. A multicenter retrospective study was carried out on 1,601 surgical inpatients who received massive blood transfusion in 20 large comprehensive hospitals in China. According to RBC transfusion volume and duration, the patients were divided into groups as follows: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-39 and ?40 units within 24 or 72 h. Mortality in patients with different RBC transfusion volumes was analyzed. It was found that patient mortality increased with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion when the total RBC transfusion volume was ?10 units within 24 or 72 h. Survival analysis revealed significant differences in mortality according to the RBC transfusion volume (?(2)=72.857, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that RBC transfusion volume is an independent risk factor [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52; confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.64; P<0.01] for the mortality of patients undergoing a massive blood transfusion. When RBCs were transfused at a volume of 5-9 units within 24 and 72 h, the mortality rate was the lowest, at 3.7 and 2.3% respectively. It is concluded that during massive blood transfusion in surgical inpatients, there is a correlation between RBC transfusion volume within 24 or 72 h and the mortality of the patients. Patient mortality increases with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion. RBC transfusion volume, the length of stay at hospital and intensive care unit stay constitute the independent risk factors for patient mortality. PMID:25452789

Yang, Jiang-Cun; Sun, Yang; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Dang, Qian-Li; Li, Ling; Xu, Yong-Gang; Song, Yao-Jun; Yan, Hong

2015-01-01

141

This study aimed to explore the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion volume and patient mortality in massive blood transfusion. A multicenter retrospective study was carried out on 1,601 surgical inpatients who received massive blood transfusion in 20 large comprehensive hospitals in China. According to RBC transfusion volume and duration, the patients were divided into groups as follows: 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24, 25–29, 30–39 and ?40 units within 24 or 72 h. Mortality in patients with different RBC transfusion volumes was analyzed. It was found that patient mortality increased with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion when the total RBC transfusion volume was ?10 units within 24 or 72 h. Survival analysis revealed significant differences in mortality according to the RBC transfusion volume (?2=72.857, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that RBC transfusion volume is an independent risk factor [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52; confidence interval (CI): 0.43–0.64; P<0.01] for the mortality of patients undergoing a massive blood transfusion. When RBCs were transfused at a volume of 5–9 units within 24 and 72 h, the mortality rate was the lowest, at 3.7 and 2.3% respectively. It is concluded that during massive blood transfusion in surgical inpatients, there is a correlation between RBC transfusion volume within 24 or 72 h and the mortality of the patients. Patient mortality increases with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion. RBC transfusion volume, the length of stay at hospital and intensive care unit stay constitute the independent risk factors for patient mortality. PMID:25452789

YANG, JIANG-CUN; SUN, YANG; XU, CUI-XIANG; DANG, QIAN-LI; LI, LING; XU, YONG-GANG; SONG, YAO-JUN; YAN, HONG

2015-01-01

142

The effects of three artifacts (reconstruction, beam hardening and temperature of the X-ray tube) associated with the use\\u000a of a lab tomograph are analyzed in terms of their induced biases for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) from a series of reconstructed\\u000a volumes acquired successively. The most detrimental effect is due to spurious dilatational strains induced by temperature\\u000a variations in the tomograph.

N. Limodin; J. Réthoré; J. Adrien; J.-Y. Buffière; F. Hild; S. Roux

2011-01-01

143

Full-color holographic 3D printer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (?=633nm), green (?=533nm), and blue (?=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

2003-05-01

144

Holographic non-Fermi-liquid fixed points.

Techniques arising from string theory can be used to study assemblies of strongly interacting fermions. Via this 'holographic duality', various strongly coupled many-body systems are solved using an auxiliary theory of gravity. Simple holographic realizations of finite density exhibit single-particle spectral functions with sharp Fermi surfaces, of a form distinct from those of the Landau theory. The self-energy is given by a correlation function in an infrared (IR) fixed-point theory that is represented by a two-dimensional anti de Sitter space (AdS(2)) region in the dual gravitational description. Here, we describe in detail the gravity calculation of this IR correlation function. PMID:21422019

Faulkner, Tom; Iqbal, Nabil; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David

2011-04-28

145

Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease of ageing men worldwide. Though transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is the standard in most parts of the world in evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), it is rarely done in some less developed countries because of non availability of appropriate probes and or specialists. Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) remains the mainstay in these areas. Some controversies still exist in literature about the accuracy of TAUS evaluation of prostatic volume in patients with BPH. This study aimed at comparing the transition zone volume estimation of the prostate on transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound with post-operative enucleated adenoma volume in Nigeria patients with BPH and to suggest better predictor of prostate volume in evaluation of BPH. Methods Forty-six (46) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to BPH attending the urologic clinic were evaluated ultrasonographically and eventually managed with open surgery (prostatectomy) after due counselling. The post operative samples were weighted using a sensitive top loading weighing balance and converted to volume. Since the specific gravity of the prostate is equivalent to that of water,the weight is the same as volume. Results Patients’ ages ranged between 59 and 90 years with a peak age incidence at seventh decade. Transition Zone (TZ) volume estimation on both transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound showed positive correlation with the post operative enucleated adenoma(r = 0.594, p < 0.001) but the transrectal method was more accurate. There was no significant relationship between the TZ volume and patients’ symptoms(r = 0.491, p = 0.007). Conclusion Both TRUS and TAUS are comparable at TZ volume estimation and therefore TAUS can be utilized in regions where intracavitary probes and or the expertise is/are not available. PMID:24876907

Ajayi, Idowu; Aremu, Ademola; Olajide, Abimbola; Bello, Tope; Olajide, Folake; Adetiloye, Victor

2013-01-01

146

Computer generated holographic microtags

A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

147

We overview a holographic QCD based on the D4-D8 string theory model, with emphasis on baryons and nucleon-meson interactions thereof. Baryons are realized as holographic images of Skyrmions, but with much qualitative changes. This allows us to derive, without adjustable parameters, couplings of baryons to the entire tower of spin one mesons and also to pseudoscalar mesons. We find some surprisingly good match against empirical values for nucleons, in particular. Tensor couplings to all axial-vectors and iso-singlet vectors all vanish, while, for {rho} mesons, tensor couplings are found to be dominant. We close with various cautionary comments and speculations.

Yi Piljin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-21

148

Computer generated holographic microtags

A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.

Sweatt, W.C.

1998-03-17

149

AND NONRIGID THREE-BODY SYSTEMS Michael E. KELLMAN and R. Stephen BERRY Department of Chemistry and The James E to the simplest nontrivial case, the three-body problem. The Hartree-Fock model obviously describesVolume 42, number 2 CHEMICAL PIIYSKS LETTERS 1 September 1976 CORRELATION DIAGRAM FOR RIGID

Berry, R. Stephen

150

The Nucleon as a Holographic Cheshire Cat

The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit.

Ismail Zahed

2014-03-13

151

Chidi holographic video system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holo-Chidi is a holographic video processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time computation of Computer Generated Holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. It's processing engine is adapted from Chidi which is reconfigurable multimedia processing system used for real-time synthesis and analysis of digital video frames. Holo-Chidi is made of two main components: the sets of Chidi processor cards and the display video concentrator card. The processor cards are used for hologram computation while the display video concentrator card acts as frame buffer for the system. The display video concentrator also formats the computed holographic data and converts them to analog form for feeding the acousto-optic modulators of the Media Lab's Mark-II holographic display system. The display video concentrator card can display the computed holograms from the Chidi cards loaded from its high-speed I/O interface port or precomputed holograms loaded from a PC through the United Serial Bus port of its communications processor at above video refresh rates. This paper discusses the design of the display video concentrator used to display holographic video in the Mark-II system.

Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Benton, Stephen A.

2000-03-01

152

Holographic fractional topological insulators

We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low-energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.

Hoyos, Carlos; Jensen, Kristan; Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2010-10-15

153

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting volume fraction ( fg) is calculated from the data of real and imaginary components ( ??, ??) of ac susceptibility measurements versus temperature based on EuBCO and BSCCO systems. It is found that the values of fg decrease with increasing ac field amplitude ( Hm) for both systems and it is higher in EuBCO system than in BSCCO system. Further, fg shows much steeper decrease in EuBCO system than in BSCCO system. Moreover, the values of fg are found to be more sensitive to the values [ Tm/ Tc( ?)] rather than Tm values ( Tm is the temperature at the peak of ?? and Tc( ?) is the onset temperature of diamagnetism). The same behavior for fg is obtained for both systems by using Ravi expression [Physica C 295 (1998) 277]. Another various parameters such as decoupling field, London penetration depth and average grain size are also calculated and discussed for both systems. On the other hand, our results show a reverse correlation between both fg and critical current density Jc, and indicate that the values of Jc are controlled by fg variation in this class of materials.

Sedky, A.; Youssif, M. I.

2004-04-01

154

Reviews 7 studies in the area of interpretation of correlation from the psychological point of view. The limitations and meanings of correlation methods have also been given. The statistical methods of calculating correlation, as given by 8 psychologists have been reported. Presents 22 reports, given by various psychologists, who have evaluated the tests using various correlation methods. Six studies were

James Burt Miner

1919-01-01

155

Accurate assessment of patient bladder capacity is important in determining the proper initial treatment for lower urinary tract dysfunctions and as well as for monitoring therapeutic outcomes. However, urodynamic study is an invasive procedure. Thus, it is important to find a surrogate for invasive urodynamic study, and the aim of this study is to identify the parameter from patient-recorded bladder diary that is best correlated to the volume at strong desire to void (VSD) derived from urodynamic studies. A total of 900 women who underwent urodynamic studies at a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2011. Correlation between bladder diary parameters and VSD was investigated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficient. Days 1 to 3 average maximum daytime voided volumes excluding the first morning void (DVVmaxavg) (mean 263 ml) had the highest correlation with VSD (mean 261 ml; ??=?0.51, p<0.001). The predictive value of VSD was 146+0.44 × DVVmaxavg. The days 1, 2, and 3 daytime maximum voided volumes excluding the first morning void (DVVmax) were all significantly associated with VSD and had similar mean volumes (??=?0.43–0.46, all p<0.001). DVVmaxavg had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.75; 95% confidence interval?=?0.72–0.78) for predicting bladder oversensitivity. The threshold of DVVmaxavg <250 ml had good predictive value for detecting bladder oversensitivity (sensitivity 70.9%; specificity 65.8%), and day 1 DVVmax <250 ml had similar sensitivity (70.6%) and specificity (59.1%). Besides, the correlation coefficients (?) between day 1, day 2 and day 3 DVVmax and DVVmaxavg were good with a range of 0.70–0.89. In conclusion, DVVmaxavg was the bladder diary parameter best correlated with VSD. DVVmaxavg and day 1 DVVmax may be useful in screening for bladder oversensitivity. PMID:23922866

Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chang, Ting-Chen; Wu, Wen-Yih; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

2013-01-01

156

Holographic quantum criticality and strange metal transport

A holographic model of a quantum critical theory at a finite but low temperature, and finite density is studied. The model exhibits non-relativistic z=2 Schr\\"odinger symmetry and is realized by the Anti-de-Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole in light-cone coordinates. Our approach addresses the electrical conductivities in the presence or absence of an applied magnetic field and contains a control parameter that can be associated to quantum tuning via charge carrier doping or an external field in correlated electron systems. The Ohmic resistivity, the inverse Hall angle, the Hall coefficient and the magnetoresistance are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results of strange metals at very low temperature. The holographic model also predicts new scaling relations in the presence of a magnetic field.

Bom Soo Kim; Elias Kiritsis; Christos Panagopoulos

2012-02-17

157

Studies were undertaken to examine the relationship between water deficit effects on photosynthesis and the extent of protoplast volume reduction which occurs in leaves at low water potential (?w). This relationship was monitored in two cultivars (`Condor' and `Capelle Desprez') of cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum) that differed in sensitivity to drought, and in a wild relative of cultivated wheat (Triticum kotschyi) that has been previously found to be `drought resistant.' When subjected to periods of water stress, Condor and T. kotschyi plants underwent osmotic adjustment; Capelle plants did not. Photosynthetic capacity was maintained to different extents in the three genotypes as leaf ?w declined during stress; Capelle plants were most severely affected. Calculations of internal leaf [CO2] and stomatal conductance from gas exchange measurements indicated that differences in photosynthetic inhibition at low ?w among the genotypes were primarily due to nonstomatal effects. The extent of protoplast volume reduction that occurred in leaves at low ?w was also found to be different in the three genotypes; maintenance of protoplast volume and photosynthetic capacity in stressed plants of the genotypes appeared to be correlated. When the extent of water stress-induced inhibition of photosynthesis was plotted as a function of declining protoplast volume, this relationship appeared identical for the three genotypes. It was concluded that there is a correlative association between protoplast volume and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of wheat plants subjected to periods of water stress. PMID:16667342

Santakumari, Mane; Berkowitz, Gerald A.

1990-01-01

158

Holographic principle and dark energy

We discuss the relationship between holographic entropy bounds and gravitating systems. In order to obtain a holographic energy density, we introduce the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S_{\\rm BH}$ and its corresponding energy $E_{\\rm BH}$ using the Friedman equation. We show that the holographic energy bound proposed by Cohen {\\it et al} comes from the Bekenstein-Hawking bound for a weakly gravitating system. Also we find that the holographic energy density with the future event horizon deriving an accelerating universe could be given by vacuum fluctuations of the energy density.

Yun Soo Myung

2004-12-20

159

Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

Schwemmer, Geary K.

1998-01-01

160

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter will discuss the concept of correlation , which is used in later chapters that will explain the concepts of validity and reliability. Here, the authors introduce the Pearson correlation coefficient, a statistic that is used with ratio

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

161

KTN as a holographic storage material

The holographic storage properties of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) single crystals have been deduced from photoelectric measurements employing incoherent light. The light energy density necessary to record an elementary volume phase grating with a 1% read-out efficiency was found to be of the order of 100 ..mu..J/cm/sup 2/ for KTN is either the ferroelectric or nonferroelectric phase. These results compare favorably with those reported for other electro-optic materials. Dark storage times of up to one year were found for the most sensitive KTN crystals.

Boatner, L.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Kratzig, E.; Orlowski, R.

1980-01-01

162

Holographic p -wave superfluid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the probe limit, we numerically construct a holographic p -wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional (5D) anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We find that, for the condensate with the fixed superfluid velocity, the results are similar to the s -wave cases in both 4D and 5D spacetimes. In particular, the Cave of Winds and the phase transition, always being of second order, take place in the 5D case. Moreover, we find that the translating superfluid velocity from second order to first order S/y? increases with the mass squared. Furthermore, for the supercurrent with fixed temperature, the results agree with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction near the critical temperature. In addition, this complex vector superfluid model is still a generalization of the SU(2) superfluid model, and it also provides a holographic realization of the H e3 superfluid system.

Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Yu, Fang

2014-12-01

163

Worldline holographic Schwinger effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay of the vacuum due to the presence of an electric field is expected to be delayed by a confining force. We demonstrate that this feature is captured by our model for hadrons based on the worldline formalism. Our model, while based entirely in four-dimensional quantum field theory, shares many features with holographic approaches: it appears intrinsically quantum mechanical; as an auxiliary fifth dimension Schwinger's proper time combines with the physical four spacetime dimensions into an AdS5 geometry; conformal-symmetry breaking contributions lead to warping; hidden local symmetry emerges; four-dimensional sources are extended to five-dimensional fields by a Wilson flow (gradient flow); and a variational principle for this flow reproduces the corresponding holographic calculation. The approach also yields the higher-dimensional description in the nonrelativistic case.

Dietrich, Dennis D.

2014-08-01

164

Transport in holographic superfluids

We construct a slowly varying space-time dependent holographic superfluid and compute its transport coefficients. Our solution is presented as a series expansion in inverse powers of the charge of the order parameter. We find that the shear viscosity associated with the motion of the condensate vanishes. The diffusion coefficient of the superfluid is continuous across the phase transition while its third bulk viscosity is found to diverge at the critical temperature. As was previously shown, the ratio of the shear viscosity of the normal component to the entropy density is 1/(4 pi). As a consequence of our analysis we obtain an analytic expression for the backreacted metric near the phase transition for a particular type of holographic superfluid.

Christopher P. Herzog; Nir Lisker; Piotr Surowka; Amos Yarom

2011-01-17

165

The Peach Springs Tuff is a distinctive early Miocene ignimbrite deposit that was first recognized in western Arizona. Recent field studies and phenocryst analyses indicate that adjacent outcrops of similar tuff in the central and eastern Mojave Desert may be correlative. This proposed correlation implies that outcrops of the tuff are scattered over an area of at least 35 000 km2 from the western Colorado Plateau to Barstow, California, and that the erupted volume, allowing for posteruption crustal extension, was at least several hundred cubic kilometres. Thus, the Peach Springs Tuff may be a regional stratigraphic marker, useful for determining regional paleogeography and the time and extent of Tertiary crustal extension. -Authors

Glazner, A.F.; Nielson, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Miller, D.M.

1986-01-01

166

Hydrodynamics of Holographic Superconductors

We study the poles of the retarded Green functions of a holographic superconductor. The model shows a second order phase transition where a charged scalar operator condenses and a U(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken. The poles of the holographic Green functions are the quasinormal modes in an AdS black hole background. We study the spectrum of quasinormal frequencies in the broken phase, where we establish the appearance of a massless or hydrodynamic mode at the critical temperature as expected for a second order phase transition. In the broken phase we find the pole representing second sound. We compute the speed of second sound and its attenuation length as function of the temperature. In addition we find a pseudo diffusion mode, whose frequencies are purely imaginary but with a non-zero gap at zero momentum. This gap goes to zero at the critical temperature. As a technical side result we explain how to calculate holographic Green functions and their quasinormal modes for a set of operators that mix under...

Amado, Irene; Landsteiner, Karl

2009-01-01

167

Hydrodynamics of Holographic Superconductors

We study the poles of the retarded Green functions of a holographic superconductor. The model shows a second order phase transition where a charged scalar operator condenses and a U(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken. The poles of the holographic Green functions are the quasinormal modes in an AdS black hole background. We study the spectrum of quasinormal frequencies in the broken phase, where we establish the appearance of a massless or hydrodynamic mode at the critical temperature as expected for a second order phase transition. In the broken phase we find the pole representing second sound. We compute the speed of second sound and its attenuation length as function of the temperature. In addition we find a pseudo diffusion mode, whose frequencies are purely imaginary but with a non-zero gap at zero momentum. This gap goes to zero at the critical temperature. As a technical side result we explain how to calculate holographic Green functions and their quasinormal modes for a set of operators that mix under the RG flow.

Irene Amado; Matthias Kaminski; Karl Landsteiner

2009-03-12

168

Do Changes in Relative Blood Volume Monitoring Correlate to Hemodialysis-Associated Hypotension?

Introduction: Intradialytic hypotension remains the most common complication for outpatient hemodialysis, and relative blood volume monitoring was designed to reduce hypotension. Reports of the usefulness of this technology, however, have been variable. Methods: We audited the usefulness of relative blood volume monitoring recorded throughout the mid-week dialysis in 72 stable adult outpatients who had multifrequency bioimpedance measurements. Results: The blood

John Booth; Jennifer Pinney; Andrew Davenport

2011-01-01

169

Correcting Correlations When Predicting Success in College. IR Applications. Volume 31

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critics of testing for admission purposes cite the moderate correlations of admissions test scores with success in college. In response, this study applies formulas from classical measurement theory to observed correlations to correct for restricted variances in predictor and success variables. Estimates of the correlations in the population of…

Saupe, Joe L.; Eimers, Mardy T.

2011-01-01

170

Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ?E=13.19 is fairly small. PMID:22772106

Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

2012-07-01

171

Holographic interaction effects on transport in Dirac semimetals

Strongly interacting Dirac semimetals are investigated using a holographic model especially geared to compute the single-particle correlation function for this case, including both interaction effects and non-zero temperature. We calculate the (homogeneous) optical conductivity at zero chemical potential, and show that it scales as a power law either in frequency or in temperature for low frequency. The precise power is related to a critical exponent of the dual holographic theory, which is a parameter in the model. The behavior for Coulomb interactions is obtained as a special limiting case.

Jacobs, V P J; Stoof, H T C

2014-01-01

172

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet demonstrates volume as the number of unit cubes needed to fill a rectangular solid. The learner sees an animation and answers questions about the capacity of a box. The student can then ask for other problems where just the 3D dimensions are given and the volume is requested.

2011-01-01

173

Holographic models for undoped Weyl semimetals

We continue our recently proposed holographic description of single-particle correlation functions for four-dimensional chiral fermions with Lifshitz scaling at zero chemical potential, paying particular attention to the dynamical exponent z = 2. We present new results for the spectral densities and dispersion relations at non-zero momenta and temperature. In contrast to the relativistic case with z = 1, we find the existence of a quantum phase transition from a non-Fermi liquid into a Fermi liquid in which two Fermi surfaces spontaneously form, even at zero chemical potential. Our findings show that the boundary system behaves like an undoped Weyl semimetal.

Gursoy, Umut; Plauschinn, Erik; Stoof, Henk; Vandoren, Stefan

2013-01-01

174

Holographic models for undoped Weyl semimetals

We continue our recently proposed holographic description of single-particle correlation functions for four-dimensional chiral fermions with Lifshitz scaling at zero chemical potential, paying particular attention to the dynamical exponent z = 2. We present new results for the spectral densities and dispersion relations at non-zero momenta and temperature. In contrast to the relativistic case with z = 1, we find the existence of a quantum phase transition from a non-Fermi liquid into a Fermi liquid in which two Fermi surfaces spontaneously form, even at zero chemical potential. Our findings show that the boundary system behaves like an undoped Weyl semimetal.

Umut Gursoy; Vivian Jacobs; Erik Plauschinn; Henk Stoof; Stefan Vandoren

2013-04-03

175

Due to quantum fluctuations, probed at small scales, spacetime is very complicated -- something akin in complexity to a turbulent froth which the late John Wheeler dubbed quantum foam, aka spacetime foam. Our recent work suggests that (1) we may be close to being able to detect quantum foam with extragalactic sources once the Very Large Telescope Interferometers (VLTI) are fully operational; (2) dark energy is arguably a cosmological manifestation of quantum foam, the constituents of which obey infinite statistics; (3) in the gravitational context, turbulence is closely related to holographic quantum foam, partly validating Wheeler's picture of a turbulent spacetime.

Y. Jack Ng

2010-01-03

176

Models of Holographic superconductivity

We construct general models for holographic superconductivity parametrized by three couplings which are functions of a real scalar field and show that under general assumptions they describe superconducting phase transitions. While some features are universal and model independent, important aspects of the quantum critical behavior strongly depend on the choice of couplings, such as the order of the phase transition and critical exponents of second-order phase transitions. In particular, we study a one-parameter model where the phase transition changes from second to first order above some critical value of the parameter and a model with tunable critical exponents.

Francesco Aprile; Jorge G. Russo

2009-12-02

177

Holographic isotropization linearized

The holographic isotropization of a highly anisotropic, homogeneous, strongly coupled, non-Abelian plasma was simplified in arXiv:1202.0981 by linearizing Einstein's equations around the final, equilibrium state. This approximation reproduces the expectation value of the boundary stress tensor with a 20% accuracy. Here we elaborate on these results and extend them to observables that are directly sensitive to the bulk interior, focusing for simplicity on the entropy production on the event horizon. We also consider next-to-leading-order corrections and show that the leading terms alone provide a better description of the isotropization process for the states that are furthest from equilibrium.

Michal P. Heller; David Mateos; Wilke van der Schee; Miquel Triana

2013-09-10

178

Holographic quantum computing.

We propose to use a single mesoscopic ensemble of trapped polar molecules for quantum computing. A "holographic quantum register" with hundreds of qubits is encoded in collective excitations with definite spatial phase variations. Each phase pattern is uniquely addressed by optical Raman processes with classical optical fields, while one- and two-qubit gates and qubit readout are accomplished by transferring the qubit states to a stripline microwave cavity field and a Cooper pair box where controllable two-level unitary dynamics and detection is governed by classical microwave fields. PMID:18764313

Tordrup, Karl; Negretti, Antonio; Mølmer, Klaus

2008-07-25

179

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance affects 60-80% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions, representing a significant risk to completing mission-critical tasks. While likely multifactorial, a reduction in stroke volume (SV) represents one factor contributing to orthostatic intolerance during stand and head up tilt (HUT) tests. Current measures of SV during stand or HUT tests use Doppler ultrasound and require a trained operator and specialized equipment, restricting its use in the field. BeatScope (Finapres Medical Systems BV, The Netherlands) uses a modelflow algorithm to estimate SV from continuous blood pressure waveforms in supine subjects; however, evidence supporting the use of Modelflow to estimate SV in subjects completing stand or HUT tests remain scarce. Furthermore, because the blood pressure device is held extended at heart level during HUT tests, but allowed to rest at the side during stand tests, changes in the finger arterial pressure waveform resulting from arm positioning could alter modelflow estimated SV. The purpose of this project was to compare Doppler ultrasound and BeatScope estimations of SV to determine if BeatScope can be used during stand or HUT tests. Finger photoplethysmography was used to acquire arterial pressure waveforms corrected for hydrostatic finger-to-heart height using the Finometer (FM) and Portapres (PP) arterial pressure devices in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) during a stand test while simultaneous estimates of SV were collected using Doppler ultrasound. Measures were made after 5 minutes of supine rest and while subjects stood for 5 minutes. Next, SV estimates were reacquired while each arm was independently raised to heart level, a position similar to tilt testing. Supine SV estimates were not significantly different between all three devices (FM: 68+/-20, PP: 71+/-21, US: 73+/-21 ml/beat). Upon standing, the change in SV estimated by FM (-18+/-8 ml) was not different from PP (-21+/-12), but both were significantly less than US (-37+/-16 ml, p<.05). Raising finger BP devices to heart level caused no significant change in SV measured with any of the devices (FM: 1.5+/-19, PP: 1.7+/-26, US: 0.5+/-6), although variability was 3-6x greater as assessed by both blood pressure devices compared to US. Retrospective analysis of blood pressure data to assess SV in 11 supine subjects revealed significantly different estimates between methods (FM: 95+/-17, US: 75+/-32, p<.05), but the change in SV resulting from HUT was similar between methods (FM: -37+/-9, US: -40+/-18 ml). However, the correlation coefficient determined from pairs of SV estimated by US and FM was weak (r2=0.03). These data suggest Modelflow cannot be used in lieu of Doppler ultrasound to estimate SV during stand or HUT tests. Further investigation should focus on identifying factors contributing to differences between these measurement techniques in order to make use of a simple method for assessing beat-by-beat changes in SV during postural changes, especially during field testing.

Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Laurie, Steven S.

2014-01-01

180

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The software utilized for image correction accuracy measurement is described. The correlation analysis program is written to allow the user various tools to analyze different correlation algorithms. The algorithms were tested using LANDSAT imagery in two different spectral bands. Three classification algorithms are implemented.

1981-01-01

181

Interactions between the intercalant and the host have been studied in homogeneous amorphous Li(x)WO3 prepared by electron beam evaporation, using electrochemical experiments with films of different thickness (100-400 nm). We have related the intercalation thermodynamics, described previously by us [Solid State Ionics 2005, 176, 1701] with other models that take into account film volume dilatation along the intercalation. A distinct behavior of cell voltage variation with composition and volume change is observed for the thinnest (100 nm) films: cell voltage follows ideal insertion thermodynamics and no deformation was detected using profilometry techniques. In contrast, thicker films exhibited both volume changes and, correspondingly, cell voltage departs from ideality due to contributions to the chemical potential arising from elastic distortions of the host matrix. PMID:16526675

Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; García-Cañadas, Jorge; Bisquert, Juan

2006-03-16

182

Photopolymerizable thiol-ene nanocomposite materials for holographic applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental investigation of the photopolymerization kinetics and volume holographic recording characteristics of silica nanoparticle-polymer nanocomposites using thiol-ene monomers capable of step-growth polymerization. We characterize the visible light curing kinetics of a thiol-ene monomer system consisting of secondary dithiol with high self-life stability and low odor and triene with rigid structure and high electron density by using real-time Fourier transform spectroscopy and photocalorimetry. In plane-wave volume holographic recording at a wavelength of 532 nm it is shown that while volume holograms recorded in the nanocomposites exhibit high transparency, their saturated refractive index modulation (?nsat) and material sensitivity (S) are as large as 1x10-2 and 1615 cm/J, respectively. The polymerization shrinkage is reduced as low as 0.4% as a result of the late gelation in conversion. These values meet the acceptable values for holographic data storage media (i.e., 5x10-3, 500 cm/J and 0.5% for ?nsat, S and shrinkage, respectively). The improved thermal stability of volume holograms recorded in the nanocomposites is also confirmed experimentally.

Tomita, Yasuo; Hata, Eiji; Yasui, Satoru; Mitsube, Ken

2011-06-01

183

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical durability of seven commercially polymeric coatings is investigated using slow positron beam techniques to monitor changes in sub-nanometer defects during the process of cyclic loading. Doppler broadened energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were performed as a function of the slow positron energy at different periods of cycling loading. The positron annihilation dada show that both S-defect parameter and o-positronium (Ps) lifetime decrease as the loading cycle increases. The results indicate a loss of free volumes due to the loss of mechanical durability by cyclic loading. A direct correlation between the loss of S-defect parameter and the period of loading cycle is observed. This is interpreted as that durability of polymeric coatings is controlled by the atomic level free volumes. It is shown that the slow positron beam is a very successful probe in detecting the very early stages of coating degradation due to mechanical processes.

Chen, H.; Peng, Q.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, R.; Mallon, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Richardson, J. R.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Jean, Y. C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.

2002-06-01

184

The trends in glass formation among bulk metallic glass-forming alloys are investigated within the framework of viscosity and specific volume measurements. This investigation was carried out using four alloys (Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10Nb5, Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 and Ni59.5Nb40.5) that have widely different glass forming abilities (GFAs). This study shows that the viscosity at the melting temperature is correlated with volume change upon crystallization in

S Mukherjee; J Schroers; Z Zhou; W. L Johnson; W.-K Rhim

2004-01-01

185

Baryonic matter in holographic QCD

We study baryons and baryonic matter in holographic QCD with $D4/D8/\\bar{D8}$ multi-$D$ brane system. In large-$N_c$ holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically non-trivial chiral soliton, which is called ``brane-induced Skyrmion''. We also analyze the features of the baryonic matter in holographic QCD by investigating the system of single brane-induced Skyrmion on a three-dimensional closed manifold $S^3$. We propose a new interesting picture of ``pion dominance'' near the critical density.

Kanabu Nawa; Hideo Suganuma; Toru Kojo

2008-06-18

186

Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

Schwemmer, Geary (inventor)

1993-01-01

187

Engineering holographic graphene

We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.

Semenoff, Gordon W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-09-24

188

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

2012-01-01

189

Neural correlates of the ‘good life’: eudaimonic well-being is associated with insular cortex volume

Eudaimonic well-being reflects traits concerned with personal growth, self-acceptance, purpose in life and autonomy (among others) and is a substantial predictor of life events, including health. Although interest in the aetiology of eudaimonic well-being has blossomed in recent years, little is known of the underlying neural substrates of this construct. To address this gap in our knowledge, here we examined whether regional gray matter (GM) volume was associated with eudaimonic well-being. Structural magnetic resonance images from 70 young, healthy adults who also completed Ryff’s 42-item measure of the six core facets of eudaimonia, were analysed with voxel-based morphometry techniques. We found that eudaimonic well-being was positively associated with right insular cortex GM volume. This association was also reflected in three of the sub-scales of eudaimonia: personal growth, positive relations and purpose in life. Positive relations also showed a significant association with left insula volume. No other significant associations were observed, although personal growth was marginally associated with left insula, and purpose in life exhibited a marginally significant negative association with middle temporal gyrus GM volume. These findings are the first to our knowledge linking eudaimonic well-being with regional brain structure. PMID:23512932

Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint; Bates, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

190

Relative Wulst volume is correlated with orbit orientation and binocular visual field in birds

In mammals, species with more frontally oriented orbits have broader binocular visual fields and relatively larger visual\\u000a regions in the brain. Here, we test whether a similar pattern of correlated evolution is present in birds. Using both conventional\\u000a statistics and modern comparative methods, we tested whether the relative size of the Wulst and optic tectum (TeO) were significantly\\u000a correlated with

Andrew N. Iwaniuk; Christopher P. Heesy; Margaret I. Hall; Douglas R. W. Wylie

2008-01-01

191

Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Karch, Andreas; /Washington U., Seattle; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2011-08-12

192

Holographic microscopy studies of emulsions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A holographic microscopy system that records and observes the dynamic properties of separation of dispersed immiscible fluids is described. The holographic construction system and reconstruction system that were used to obtain particle size and distribution information from the holograms are discussed. The holographic microscopy system is used to observed the phase separating processes in immiscible fluids that were isothermally cooled into the two phase region. Nucleation, growth rates, coalescence, and particle motion are successfully demonstrated with this system. Thus a holographic particle sizing system with a resolution of 2 micrometers and a field of view of 100 cu cm was developed that provides the capability of testing the theories of separating immiscible fluids for particle number densities in the range of 10 to 10 to the 7th power particles.

Witherow, W. K.

1981-01-01

193

Digital holographic imaging of microorganisms

Imaging aquatic microorganisms in 3D space is of interest to biologists and ocean scientists seeking to understand the behavior of these organisms in their natural environments. In this research, digital holographic imaging ...

Wolf, Michael Trevor

2006-01-01

194

In conventional approaches to the homogenization of random particulate\\u000acomposites, both the distribution and size of the component phase particles are\\u000aoften inadequately taken into account. Commonly, the spatial distributions are\\u000acharacterized by volume fraction alone, while the electromagnetic response of\\u000aeach component particle is represented as a vanishingly small depolarization\\u000avolume. The strong-permittivity-fluctuation theory (SPFT) provides an\\u000aalternative approach

Tom G. Mackay; James Clerk

2004-01-01

195

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impacts on lunar soils produce melt and vapor in an approximate proportion of 7:1. The melt scavenges soil grains of diverse size, quenches and forms agglutinates, thereby converting surface correlated components of soil grains as volume correlated components; simultaneously, parts of the vapor may condense or escape. Cumulative small impacts increase the maturity of the soils, increase the abundance of agglutinates, and increase the concentration of vapor condensated material. Since the discovery of vapor deposited crystalline Fe-0 in vugs of regolith breccias and the theoretical anticipation of amorphous vapor deposits of diverse composition coating lunar soils grains, empirical evidence is gathering in support of such deposits, now commonly called vapor deposited patina (VDP). In addition, submicron globules of Fe-0 are seen to be ubiquitous in VDP. The amorphous VDP lowers the albedo of lunar soils, affects magnetic properties of soils, changes the slopes of uv-vis-ir reflectance spectra, and potentially also alters the gamma and x-ray spectra of lunar soils, compromising compositional inferences from remote sensing.

Basu, A.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

2003-01-01

196

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic sight was successfully recorded and observed. All necessary properties of recorded sight were confirmed. Optimal parameters for holographic sight recording were calculated. Were shown advantages of PTR glass application as a holographic medium for holographic gun sights. Obtained holograms have high visibility, diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity and transparency.

Ivanov, S. A.; Angervaks, A. E.; Shcheulin, A. S.

2014-05-01

197

Causality & holographic entanglement entropy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.

Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Lawrence, Albion; Rangamani, Mukund

2014-12-01

198

Modified Holographic Dark Energy

In this work, motivated by the energy bound suggested by Cohen {\\it et al.}, we propose the modified holographic dark energy (MHDE) model. Choosing the IR cut-off $L=R_{\\rm CC}$ and considering the parameterizations $n^2=2-\\lambda a$, $n^2=2-3\\lambda a^2/(1+3a^2)$ and $n^2=2-\\lambda a^2/(\\beta+a^2)$, we derive all the physical quantities of the non-saturated MHDE model analytically. We find that the non-saturated MHDE models with the parameterizations $n^2=2-\\lambda a$ and $n^2=2-3\\lambda a^2/(1+3a^2)$ are single-parameter models in practice. Also, we consider the cosmological constraints on the non-saturated MHDE, and find that it is well consistent with the observational data.

Hao Wei

2009-05-31

199

Digital holographic reflectometry.

Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is an interferometric technique that allows real-time imaging of the entire complex optical wavefront (amplitude and phase) reflected by or transmitted through a sample. To our knowledge, only the quantitative phase is exploited to measure topography, assuming homogeneous material sample and a single reflection on the surface of the sample. In this paper, dual-wavelength DHM measurements are interpreted using a model of reflected wave propagation through a three-interfaces specimen (2 layers deposited on a semi-infinite layer), to measure simultaneously topography, layer thicknesses and refractive indices of micro-structures. We demonstrate this DHM reflectometry technique by comparing DHM and profilometer measurement of home-made SiO(2)/Si targets and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) sputter craters on specimen including different multiple layers. PMID:20389382

Colomb, Tristan; Krivec, Stefan; Hutter, Herbert; Akatay, Ahmet Ata; Pavillon, Nicolas; Montfort, Frédéric; Cuche, Etienne; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Emery, Yves

2010-02-15

200

We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

John Estes; Kristan Jensen; Andy O'Bannon; Efstratios Tsatis; Timm Wrase

2014-03-25

201

Stability of holographic superconductors

We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.

Kanno, Sugumi [Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

2010-10-15

202

Three dimensional analysis of a tensile test on a propellant with digital volume correlation

;Abstract: A full three dimensional study of a tensile test on a sample made of polymer- bonded propellant- ated chemical energy is released either very quickly in explosives, or more slowly in rocket propulsion of mechanical tests on explosives was already carried out by using 2D Digital Image Correlation (DIC

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

203

Compact Holographic Data Storage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

2001-01-01

204

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three hypothetical rock sections along an East-West transect are provided. Students correlate the three sections using the biostratigraphy of planktic forams (as a proxy for age), benthic forams (as a proxy of depth), and lithology (as a proxy of environment). Students are asked to provide an interpretation of the history of this depositional basin. An ash bed of known age is added and students are asked to determine if this new information affects their interpretation. Finally, an interesting lithologic feature is added, and students are asked to provide a geological explanation.

Pennilyn Higgins

205

The correlation between the Trendelenburg position and the stroke volume variation

Background The stroke volume variation (SVV), based on lung-heart interaction during mechanical ventilation, is a useful dynamic parameter for fluid responsiveness. However, it is affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SVV on Trendelenburg (T) and reverse Trendelenburg (RT) position and to further elaborate on the patterns of the SVV with position. Methods Forty-two patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled in this study. Fifteen minutes after standardized induction of anesthesia with propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium with volume controlled ventilation (tidal volume of 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight, inspiration : expiration ratio of 1 : 2, and respiratory rate of 10-13 breaths/min), the patients underwent posture changes as follows: supine, T position at slopes of operating table of -5°, -10°, and -15°, and RT position at slopes of operating table of 5°, 10°, and 15°. At each point, SVV, cardiac output (CO), peak airway pressure (PAP), mean blood pressure, and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Results The SVV was significant decreased with decreased slopes of operating table in T position, and increased with increased slopes of operating table in RT position (P = 0.000). Schematically, it was increased by 1% when the slope of operating table was increased by 5°. But, the CO and PAP were significant increased with decreased slopes of operating table in T position, and decreased with increased slopes of operating table in RT position (P = 0.045, 0.027). Conclusions SVV is subjected to the posture, and we should take these findings into account on reading SVV for fluid therapy. PMID:25558337

Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Hong Sik; Chae, Young Keun; Lee, Yong Kyung; Kang, Yoo; Je, Ui Jin

2014-01-01

206

Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Methods Data from 193 representative 6–18 year-old healthy children were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control (1). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site and total brain volume. ‘Gender by AGG’ interactions were analyzed. Results There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r=0.238, p=0.001; left: r=0.188, p=0.01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p<0.05, corrected). High AGG scores were associated with a relatively thin right ACC cortex. An ‘AGG by gender’ interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. Conclusion This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC grey matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. PMID:21531391

Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

2011-01-01

207

Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% {+-} 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p <.05). When the TVRR was categorized into three groups (<60%, 60-80%, and >80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of {>=}60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soon Chun Hyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.ne [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyun [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyo Seong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-01

208

We investigated structural brain damage in subjects who had suffered severe and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI), and examined its relationship with declarative memory impairment. Cortical thickness, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and volumetric and shape data of the hippocampus were assessed in a group of 26 adults with severe TBI in the chronic stage and 22 healthy matched controls. Declarative memory was evaluated by Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). TBI patients performed significantly worse than controls on all RAVLT measures. The group comparison for cortical thickness and DTI revealed a pattern of widespread atrophy in TBI patients. In the TBI group DTI measures correlated with cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal regions, including the precuneus. Declarative memory correlated with both cortical thickness and DTI measures. However, although hippocampal volume was significantly decreased in TBI patients, no correlations were found. Multiple regression analysis of all the structural measures revealed that decreases in Fractional anisotropy (FA) and thinning of the left parietal region were the best predictors of memory impairment. In conclusion, cortical thickness reductions in the left hemisphere and a lack of white matter integrity are the main contributors to long-term impairment in declarative memory among patients suffering from severe and diffuse TBI. In this study the hippocampus did not make a significant contribution to memory dysfunctions, suggesting that damage to this structure is compensated for by other regions, with the definitive sequelae being mainly explained by alterations in cortico-subcortical connectivity. PMID:22482692

Palacios, Eva M; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junque, Carme; Fernandez-Espejo, Davinia; Roig, Teresa; Tormos, Jose M; Bargallo, Nuria; Vendrell, Pere

2013-03-01

209

Research on pulse wave acoustical holographic imaging

In order to improve the resolution of acoustical holographic imaging, a new method, i.e. pulse wave holographic imaging has been discussed in the article. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the pulse wave holographic imaging has a better resolution than the continuous wave one. In addition, picking up the phase information of reconstructed waves and using deconvolution technology in

Jianzheng Cheng; Dejun Zhang

2010-01-01

210

Holographic Information Storage and Retrieval. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-month investigation was made of holographic information storage and retrieval. After an extensive review of the state of the art of various holographic systems, it was concluded that digital holographic storage techniques hold the greatest promise for commercial development, especially since they are particularly well suited to computer…

Spencer, J. R.

211

Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

2012-01-01

212

Holograph in noncommutative geometry: Part 1

In this paper, we consider the holograph principle emergent from noncommutative geometry, based on the spectral action principle. We show that under some appropriate conditions, the gravity theory on a manifold with boundary could be equivalent to a gauge theory $SU(N)$ on the boundary. Then an expression for $N$ with the geometrical quantities of the manifold is given. Based on this result, we find that the volume of the manifold and the boundary have some discrete structure. Applying the result to the black hole, we get that the radium of the Schwarzschild black hole is quantized. We also find an explanation why the extremal RN-black hole has zero temperature but with finite entropy.

Jingbo Wang

2010-07-18

213

Micro-Holographic Storage and Threshold Holographic Recording Materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new injection-molded holographic recording media with a threshold optical response that is specifically designed for single-bit holographic data storage. The concept of a threshold response in a holographic recording material is discussed and the benefits of such a material relative to standard linear materials are evaluated. Micro-holograms are recorded in the new material and the performance is compared to similar measurements in a linear material. The results show that the material has a threshold recording energy of approximately 1 µJ/pulse in a low-numerical-aperture (NA) test system, corresponding to 50 nJ/pulse in a high-NA system. In addition, the threshold material shows a 1000-fold improvement in continuous-wave (CW) read-out stability and a 25% reduction in hologram size as compared to the linear material.

Ostroverkhov, Victor; Lawrence, Brian L.; Shi, Xiaolei; Boden, Eugene P.; Erben, Christoph

2009-03-01

214

Holographic Lovelock Gravities and Black Holes

We study holographic implications of Lovelock gravities in AdS spacetimes. For a generic Lovelock gravity in arbitrary spacetime dimensions we formulate the existence condition for asymptotically AdS black holes. We consider small fluctuations around these black holes and determine the constraint on Lovelock parameters by demanding causality of the boundary theory. For the case of cubic Lovelock gravity in seven spacetime dimensions we compute the holographic Weyl anomaly and determine the three point functions of the stress energy tensor in the boundary CFT. Remarkably, these correlators happen to satisfy the same relation as the one imposed by supersymmetry. We then compute the energy flux; requiring it to be positive is shown to be completely equivalent to requiring causality of the finite temperature CFT dual to the black hole. These constraints are not stringent enough to place any positive lower bound on the value of viscosity. Finally, we conjecture an expression for the energy flux valid for any Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions.

Jan de Boer; Manuela Kulaxizi; Andrei Parnachev

2010-04-15

215

The data obtained through the application of nanosecond laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy (LIOAS) to several electron donor-acceptor pairs in aqueous solution were analyzed together with the respective experimentally determined Marcus reorganization energy. Acceptors were the flavin mononucleotide and flavin-adenine dinucleotide triplet states (3FMN and 3FAD) and donors were tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine, triethanolamine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The respective calculated Gibbs energy for electron transfer, Delta(ET)G degrees , was used together with the enthalpy change for the formation of free radicals, Delta(FR)H, obtained from the LIOAS data, to derive the entropy change for the formation of the radicals, Delta(FR)S. In all cases, variation of the monovalent cations, i.e., [CH3(CH2)3]4N+, Li+, NH4+, K+, and Cs+, resulted in variation of the enthalpy change, Delta(FR)H, and in the structural volume change, Delta(FR)V, for the free-radical production, both derived from LIOAS. Delta(FR)H and Delta(FR)V linearly correlated with each other within the cation series. From this correlation the respective entropic term TDelta(FR)S was derived as well as the ratio X = TDelta(FR)S/Delta(FR)V for each of the pairs. X linearly correlated with the respective total Marcus reorganization energy, lambda, for all systems analyzed. This observation underlines the concept that both lambda and Delta(FR)V respond to the same phenomena. The correlation also offers an experimental approach for the understanding at a molecular level of the origin of the lambda values as well as for their evaluation. PMID:16759118

Crovetto, Luis; Braslavsky, Silvia E

2006-06-15

216

Holographic framework for eternal inflation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we provide some circumstantial evidence for a holographic duality between bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating universe and a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT). The holographic correspondence (which is different than Strominger’s de Sitter (dS)/CFT duality) relates the decay of (3+1)-dimensional de Sitter space to a two-dimensional CFT. It is not associated with pure de Sitter space, but rather with Coleman-De Luccia bubble nucleation. Alternatively, it can be thought of as a holographic description of the open, infinite, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology that results from such a bubble. The conjectured holographic representation is of a new type that combines holography with the Wheeler-DeWitt formalism to produce a Wheeler-DeWitt theory that lives on the spatial boundary of a k=-1 FRW cosmology. We also argue for a more ambitious interpretation of the Wheeler-DeWitt CFT as a holographic dual of the entire Landscape.

Freivogel, Ben; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard; Yeh, Chen-Pin

2006-10-01

217

Holographic lithography for biomedical applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels

Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.

2012-06-01

218

Holographic Photolysis for Multiple Cell Stimulation in Mouse Hippocampal Slices

Background Advanced light microscopy offers sensitive and non-invasive means to image neural activity and to control signaling with photolysable molecules and, recently, light-gated channels. These approaches require precise and yet flexible light excitation patterns. For synchronous stimulation of subsets of cells, they also require large excitation areas with millisecond and micrometric resolution. We have recently developed a new method for such optical control using a phase holographic modulation of optical wave-fronts, which minimizes power loss, enables rapid switching between excitation patterns, and allows a true 3D sculpting of the excitation volumes. In previous studies we have used holographic photololysis to control glutamate uncaging on single neuronal cells. Here, we extend the use of holographic photolysis for the excitation of multiple neurons and of glial cells. Methods/Principal Findings The system combines a liquid crystal device for holographic patterned photostimulation, high-resolution optical imaging, the HiLo microscopy, to define the stimulated regions and a conventional Ca2+ imaging system to detect neural activity. By means of electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in acute hippocampal slices, we show that the use of excitation patterns precisely tailored to the shape of multiple neuronal somata represents a very efficient way for the simultaneous excitation of a group of neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that fast shaped illumination patterns also induce reliable responses in single glial cells. Conclusions/Significance We show that the main advantage of holographic illumination is that it allows for an efficient excitation of multiple cells with a spatiotemporal resolution unachievable with other existing approaches. Although this paper focuses on the photoactivation of caged molecules, our approach will surely prove very efficient for other probes, such as light-gated channels, genetically encoded photoactivatable proteins, photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, and voltage-sensitive dyes. PMID:20195547

Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Ventalon, Cathie; Angulo, María Cecilia; Emiliani, Valentina

2010-01-01

219

A spin-coating process integrated with an ozone-induced graft polymerization technique was applied in this study. The purpose was to improve the poor interfacial compatibility between a selective layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and the surface of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) substrate. The composite membranes thus fabricated were tested for their pervaporation performance in dehydrating an ethyl acetate/water mixture. Furthermore, the composite membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for morphological change observation and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy equipped with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) for surface chemical composition analysis. Effects of grafting density and spin-coating speed on pervaporation performance were examined. The composite membrane pervaporation performance was elucidated by means of free volume and depth profile data obtained with the use of a variable monoenergy slow positron beam (VMSPB). Results indicated that a smaller free volume was correlated with a higher pervaporation performance of a composite membrane consisting of a selective layer of spin-coated PHEMA on a PHEMA-grafted PVDF substrate (S-PHEMA/PHEMA-g-PVDF). The composite membrane depth profile illustrated that an S-PHEMA layer spin-coated at a higher revolutions per minute (rpm) was thinner and denser than that at a lower rpm. PMID:21740064

An, Quanfu; Chen, Jung-Tsai; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

2011-09-01

220

Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 5; Analytical and Experimental Data Correlation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of the study presented in this volume is to present the results and data analysis of in-duct transmission loss measurements. Transmission loss testing was performed on full-scale, 1/2-scale, and 115-scale treatment panel samples. The objective of the study was to compare predicted and measured transmission loss for full-scale and subscale panels in an attempt to evaluate the variations in suppression between full- and subscale panels which were ostensibly of equivalent design. Generally, the results indicated an unsatisfactory agreement between measurement and prediction, even for full-scale. This was attributable to difficulties encountered in obtaining sufficiently accurate test results, even with extraordinary care in calibrating the instrumentation and performing the test. Test difficulties precluded the ability to make measurements at frequencies high enough to be representative of subscale liners. It is concluded that transmission loss measurements without ducts and data acquisition facilities specifically designed to operate with the precision and complexity required for high subscale frequency ranges are inadequate for evaluation of subscale treatment effects.

Chien, W. E.; Kraft, R. E.; Syed, A. A.

1999-01-01

221

Digital holographic display for a single user

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though digital holography was invented a number of decades ago, many people think there are still several problems for holographic display to be commercialized. The main problem results from the small space-bandwidth product of the spatial light modulators, since the holographic displays generally need enormous data capacity in comparison with other traditional display. But, if we define our target as a holographic display for a single user, it is feasible to build a holographic display with a reasonable screen size. In this paper, we introduce two kinds of digital holographic displays recently studied.

Hahn, Joonku; Kim, Hwi

2012-11-01

222

Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton TI-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.

1984-01-01

223

Holographic Technidilaton and LHC Searches

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic techni-dilaton is a parametrically light composite scalar appearing in the spectrum of certain strongly-coupled models of electroweak symmetry breaking built within the context of gauge-gravity dualities. I focus on particular subclasses of such models, both in the rigorous top-down approach to holography, as well as in the phenomenological bottom-up approach. I review the calculation of the mass of such a light scalar state. I briefly discuss some phenomenological features emerging in bottom-up models, and the implications for these models of the current LHC measurements of the couplings of the recently discovered scalar with mass of approximately 125-126 GeV. I summarize the present status of development of top-down holographic models of holographic walking technicolor related to the truncation of Type-IIB supergravity on T1,1.

Piai, Maurizio

224

Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ?CDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ?CDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ?CDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.

Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

2011-09-01

225

Universality in holographic entropy production

We consider the time evolution of two entropy-like quantities, the holographic entanglement entropy and causal holographic information, in a model of holographic thermalization dual to the gravitational collapse of a thin planar shell. Unlike earlier calculations valid in different limits, we perform a full treatment of the dynamics of the system, varying both the shell's equation of state and initial position. In all cases considered, we find that between an early period related to the acceleration of the shell and a late epoch of saturation towards the thermal limit, the entanglement entropy exhibits universal linear growth in time in accordance with the prediction of Liu and Suh. As intermediate steps of our analysis, we explicitly construct a coordinate system continuous at the location of an infinitely thin shell and derive matching conditions for geodesics and extremal surfaces traversing this region.

Ville Keranen; Hiromichi Nishimura; Stefan Stricker; Olli Taanila; Aleksi Vuorinen

2014-05-27

226

Holographic holes in higher dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the holographic construction of [1] from AdS3 to higher dimensions. In particular, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of codimension-two surfaces in the bulk with planar symmetry can be evaluated in terms of the `differential entropy' in the boundary theory. The differential entropy is a certain quantity constructed from the entanglement entropies associated with a family of regions covering a Cauchy surface in the boundary geometry. We demonstrate that a similar construction based on causal holographic information fails in higher dimensions, as it typically yields divergent results. We also show that our construction extends to holographic backgrounds other than AdS spacetime and can accommodate Lovelock theories of higher curvature gravity.

Myers, Robert C.; Rao, Junjie; Sugishita, Sotaro

2014-06-01

227

Holographic anatomy of fuzzballs

We present a comprehensive analysis of 2-charge fuzzball solutions, that is, horizon-free non-singular solutions of IIB supergravity characterized by a curve on R^4. We propose a precise map that relates any given curve to a specific superposition of R ground states of the D1-D5 system. To test this proposal we compute the holographic 1-point functions associated with these solutions, namely the conserved charges and the vacuum expectation values of chiral primary operators of the boundary theory, and find perfect agreement within the approximations used. In particular, all kinematical constraints are satisfied and the proposal is compatible with dynamical constraints although detailed quantitative tests would require going beyond the leading supergravity approximation. We also discuss which geometries may be dual to a given R ground state. We present the general asymptotic form that such solutions must have and present exact solutions which have such asymptotics and therefore pass all kinematical constraints. Dynamical constraints would again require going beyond the leading supergravity approximation.

I. Kanitscheider; K. Skenderis; M. Taylor

2007-09-12

228

Scanning holographic lidar telescope

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

1993-01-01

229

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated recording of holographic volume and surface-relief gratings in photorefractive crystal and in a photo-thermoplastic (PTP) holographic camera. Holographic recording with an image-bearing signal beam leads to the appearance of two Bragg and two or more non-Bragg diffracted beams that shows the transformed images in each beam (rotation and angular amplification of images). Using this real-time mode of interferometry, the hologram is retrieved with a deformed object beam, resulting in the appearance of fringes with a proper phase shift in each of four diffracted beams. Retrieval with a time-modulated single-pixel object beam lead of time-modulated response in all diffraction orders. This one-shot (one-exposure) phase-shifting interferometry results in clarifying the object wave-front information (as an example, from the surface deformation) and solving the sign ambiguity problem. This procedure demonstrates that high-resolution holographic imaging of the PTP holographic camera static deformations in the order of ~0.1mm can be revealed on the diffusion reflection surface. In addition, it was demonstrated, that using the PTP materials could achieve holographic recording and imaging through phase aberration, with the image appearing in the non-Bragg diffraction order.

Kukhtarev, Nickolai; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Chirita, Arcadi

2012-10-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to ˜40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.

Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.

2014-10-01

231

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer electrolyte membranes using an ionic liquid as electrolyte with an ionic conductivity anisotropy of ?5000 have been fabricated using a holographic polymerization nanomanufacturing technique. The resultant structure is referred to as holographic polymer electrolyte membranes (hPEMs), which are comprised of alternating nanolayers of a room temperature ionic liquid and crosslinked polymer resin, confirmed under TEM imaging. These hPEMs also show no reduction in room temperature conductivity with respect to the loaded ionic liquid when characterized in the plane of ionic liquid nanolayers. At elevated temperatures with the optimal electrolyte volume loading, calculation shows that the free ion concentration is higher than the pure ionic liquid, suggesting that the photopolymer dual-functionalizes as a loadbearing scaffold and an ion-complexing agent, allowing for more ions to participate in charge transfer. These hPEMs provide a promising solution to decoupling mechanical enhancement and ion transport in polymer electrolyte membranes.

Smith, Derrick M.; Cheng, Shan; Wang, Wenda; Bunning, Timothy J.; Li, Christopher Y.

2014-12-01

232

Holographic particle-streak velocimetry.

We present a way to measure the positions and instantaneous velocities of micrometer-scale colloidal spheres using a single holographic snapshot obtained through in-line holographic video microscopy. This method builds on previous quantitative analyses of colloidal holograms by accounting for blurring that occurs as a sphere moves during the camera's exposure time. The angular variance of a blurred hologram's radial intensity profile yields both the magnitude and direction of a sphere's in-plane velocity. At sufficiently low speeds, the same hologram also can be used to characterize other properties, such as the sphere's radius and refractive index. PMID:21369269

Dixon, Lisa; Cheong, Fook Chiong; Grier, David G

2011-02-28

233

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume fraction of silicon clusters in amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films has been investigated using specially designed quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) together with optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The optical emission intensities of Si* and SiH* and their intensity ratios are selected for comparison with the QCM results. We show that the volume fraction of silicon clusters strongly correlates with not only the electron temperature but also the SiH* intensity. This suggests that the ratios of Si*/SiH* and SiH* can be used to predict the volume fraction of Si clusters in a-Si:H films.

Kim, Yeonwon; Hatozaki, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Yuji; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Seo, Hyunwoong; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

2013-11-01

234

Purpose. To investigate the biomechanical response to IOP elevation of normal monkey eyes using eye-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) models of the ONH that incorporate lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitectural information. Methods. A serial sectioning and episcopic imaging technique was used to reconstruct the ONH and peripapillary sclera of four pairs of eyes fixed at 10 mm Hg. FE models were generated with local LC material properties representing the connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) and predominant LC beam orientation and used to simulate an increase in IOP from 10 to 45 mm Hg. An LC material stiffness constant was varied to assess its influence on biomechanical response. Results. Strains and stresses within contralateral eyes were remarkably similar in both magnitude and distribution. Strain correlated inversely, and nonlinearly, with CTVF (median, r 2 = 0.73), with tensile strains largest in the temporal region. Stress correlated linearly with CTVF (median r2 = 0.63), with the central and superior regions bearing the highest stresses. Net average LC displacement was either posterior or anterior, depending on whether the laminar material properties were compliant or stiff. Conclusions. The results show that contralateral eyes exhibit similar mechanical behavior and suggest that local mechanical stress and strain within the LC are correlate highly with local laminar CTVF. These simulations emphasize the importance of developing both high-resolution imaging of the LC microarchitecture and next-generation, deep-scanning OCT techniques to clarify the relationships between IOP-related LC displacement and CTVF-related stress and strain in the LC. Such imaging may predict sites of IOP-related damage in glaucoma. PMID:19696175

Roberts, Michael D.; Liang, Yi; Sigal, Ian A.; Grimm, Jonathan; Reynaud, Juan; Bellezza, Anthony; Burgoyne, Claude F.

2010-01-01

235

Background The anterior insula cortex is considered to be both the structural and functional link between experience, affect, and behaviour. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown changes in anterior insula gray matter volume (GMV) in psychosis, bipolar, depression and anxiety disorders in older patients, but few studies have investigated insula GMV changes in young people. This study examined the relationship between anterior insula GMV, clinical symptom severity and neuropsychological performance in a heterogeneous cohort of young people presenting for mental health care. Methods Participants with a primary diagnosis of depression (n?=?43), bipolar disorder (n?=?38), psychosis (n?=?32), anxiety disorder (n?=?12) or healthy controls (n?=?39) underwent structural MRI scanning, and volumetric segmentation of the bilateral anterior insula cortex was performed using the FreeSurfer application. Statistical analysis examined the linear and quadratic correlations between anterior insula GMV and participants’ performance in a battery of clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Results Compared to healthy participants, patients had significantly reduced GMV in the left anterior insula (t?=?2.05, p?=?.042) which correlated with reduced performance on a neuropsychological task of attentional set-shifting (??=?.32, p?=?.016). Changes in right anterior insula GMV was correlated with increased symptom severity (r?=?.29, p?=?.006) and more positive symptoms (r?=?.32, p?=?.002). Conclusions By using the novel approach of examining a heterogeneous cohort of young depression, anxiety, bipolar and psychosis patients together, this study has demonstrated that insula GMV changes are associated with neurocognitive deficits and clinical symptoms in such young patients. PMID:22607202

2012-01-01

236

Aims: This study was undertaken to establish correlation between intracholedochal cystic pressure (ICCP) with biochemical changes in bile, liver histology, cyst wall histology, length of common channel, and cyst volume. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ICCP was measured after surgical access before any mobilization by direct cyst cannulation. Bile was then aspirated for biochemical estimation (bilirubin, amylase, lipase, pH, and electrolytes). Common channel length and cyst volume were determined by preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Liver histology was assessed under parenchymal, bile duct, and portal parameters. Cyst wall was examined for ulceration, inflammation, fibrosis, and metaplasia. Results: ICCP was recorded in 31 patients; mean and median ICCP were 15.64 and 14 mmHg, respectively (range = 6-30 mmHg). Cases with median ICCP < 14 had median cyst volume of 48 cc (range = 36-115) and amylase 2052 IU/L (range = 190-5052) whereas those with ICCP ? 15 had volume of 20 cc (range = 10-100) (P = 0.004) and amylase 36 IU/L (range = 0-2806) (P = 0.0004) suggesting inverse correlation. No significant correlation was found with bilirubin and electrolytes. ICCP directly correlated with parenchymal changes like hepatocellular damage (P = 0.002) and cholestasis (P = 0.001). It also correlated with bile duct changes. ICCP inversely correlated with cyst wall changes (P = 0.003, 0.0001, 0.023, 0.0013, respectively). High pressure cysts had normal pancreaticobiliary junction. Conclusion: High-pressure cysts tend to be smaller but have more severe backpressure changes in liver parenchyma. Low-pressure cysts have high volume and higher levels of amylase and lipase and therefore have more severe cyst wall changes. PMID:24604978

Sharma, Nitin; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Srinivas, M.; Agarwala, Sandeep; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Raju

2014-01-01

237

Protecting the Holographic Principle: Inflation

A scenario where inflation emerges as a response to protect the holographic principle is described. A two fluid model in a closed universe inflation picture is assumed, and a possible explanation for secondary exponential expansion phases as those currently observed is given.

Victor H. Cardenas

2002-05-16

238

Integraf - Holographic Film and Supplies

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integraf is an international supplier of holographic film and materials. The instructional web site has a detailed index of links to other web sites with information on how to make holograms. You can also learn how to make holograms on-line.

Integraf

2003-10-10

239

Holographic diagnostics of biological microparticles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem of studies of biological microojects is actual one for ecology, medicine, biology. Holographic techniques are useful to solve the problem. The above microojects are transparent or semitransparent ones in a visible light rather often. The case of an optically soft particle, (that is of a particle whose substance has the refractive index close to that of the surrounding medium) is quite probable in biological water suspensions. Some peculiarities of holographing optically soft microparticles are analyzed in this paper. We propose a technique to calculate a light intensity distribution in the plane of a hologram and in the plane of a holographic image of a particle of an arbitrary shape at an arbitrary distance from the latter plane. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated by calculational results obtained analytically for some simple cases. In a more complicated cases the technique can make a basis for numerical computations. The method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles is proposed. We also present in this paper some experimental results on holographic detection of the water drops and such optically soft particles as ovums of helmints in human jaundice.

Dyomin, Victor V.; Sokolov, Vladimir V.

1996-05-01

240

Anamorphic imagery in holographic stereograms

Horizontal parallax only (HPO) holographic stereograms may exhibit anamorphic imagery in the reconstructed image. We calculated the anamorphic ratio, using geometrical optics, as a function of recording and viewing geometry. an experimental example verifying the calculated results is presented. Criteria for minimizing the distortion are suggested. This work has been submitted in partial fulfilment of the Degree of Ph.D. Sponsored

I. Glaser

1973-01-01

241

1 Influence of closure on the 3D propagation of fatigue cracks in a nodular cast iron investigated graphite cast iron. While direct image analysis allows to retrieve the successive positions of the crack front, and to detect local crack retardation, volume correlation enables for the measurement

242

Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton Tl-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.; Kramer, D.M.; Geisinger, M.; Chilcote, W.; George, C.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Moodie, D.S.; Meaney, T.F.

1984-01-01

243

Holographic Renormalization and Stress Tensors in New Massive Gravity

We obtain holographically renormalized boundary stress tensors with the emphasis on a special point in the parameter space of three dimensional new massive gravity, using the so-called Fefferman-Graham coordinates with relevant counter terms. Through the linearized equations of motion with a standard prescription, we also obtain correlators among these stress tensors. We argue that the self-consistency of holographic renormalization determines counter terms up to unphysical ambiguities. Using these renormalized stress tensors in Fefferman-Graham coordinates, we obtain the central charges of dual CFT, and mass and angular momentum of some $AdS$ black hole solutions. These results are consistent with the previous ones obtained by other methods. In this study on the Fefferman-Graham expansion of new massive gravity, some aspects of higher curvature gravity are revealed.

Yongjoon Kwon; Soonkeon Nam; Jong-Dae Park; Sang-Heon Yi

2011-06-23

244

Label-Free Cytotoxicity Screening Assay by Digital Holographic Microscopy

Abstract We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z?-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose–response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23062077

Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre

2013-01-01

245

Holographic interaction effects on transport in Dirac semimetals

Strongly interacting Dirac semimetals are investigated using a holographic model especially geared to compute the single-particle correlation function for this case, including both interaction effects and nonzero temperature. We calculate the (homogeneous) electrical conductivity at zero chemical potential, and show that it consists of two contributions. The interband contribution scales as a power law either in frequency or in temperature for low frequency. The precise power is related to a critical exponent of the dual holographic theory, which is a parameter in the model. On top of that we find for nonzero temperatures a Drude peak corresponding to intraband transitions. A behavior similar to Coulomb interactions is recovered as a special limiting case.

V. P. J. Jacobs; S. J. G. Vandoren; H. T. C. Stoof

2014-07-10

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivity and low field ac susceptibility measurements are made on R: 123 superconducting samples with different rare earth elements R. The order parameter dimensionality OPD is deduced from resistivity versus temperature plot using the Aslamazov and Larkin expression, while the analysis of the temperature dependence of ac susceptibility is done employing Beans' critical state model and with the help of the Ravi expression. With increasing R, the critical temperatures Tc are nearly kept constant (˜90 K), while the crossover temperatures To are shifted to lower values. Moreover, the superconducting order parameter OPD is shifted toward 2D behavior. On the other hand, the values of superconducting volume fraction fg decrease with increasing ac field amplitude Hm for all samples and it is higher in Er: 123 sample than in Nd: 123 sample. Although the values of critical current density Jc at the peak temperature Tm are nearly unchanged with increasing R, the values of Jc(T), at T

Sedky, A.; Youssif, M. I.; Khalil, S. M.; Sawalha, Ayman

2006-07-01

247

The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models. PMID:25494770

Ovanesyan, Zaven; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica; Marucho, Marcelo

2014-12-14

248

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

Ovanesyan, Zaven; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica; Marucho, Marcelo

2014-12-01

249

Purpose: To improve the accuracy of volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we proposed a method based on thresholding both the b0 images and the ADC maps. Methods and Materials: In 21 heterogeneous lesions from patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), gross lesion were manually contoured, and corresponding volumes and ADCs were denoted as gross tumor volume (GTV) and gross ADC (ADC{sub g}), respectively. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, the probable high-cellularity tumor tissues were selected based on b0 images and ADC maps. ADC and volume of the tissues selected using the proposed method were denoted as thresholded ADC (ADC{sub thr}) and high-cellularity tumor volume (HCTV), respectively. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was measured using 40% maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) as the lower threshold, and corresponding mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) was also measured. Results: HCTV had excellent concordance with MTV according to Pearson's correlation (r=0.984, P<.001) and linear regression (slope = 1.085, intercept = ?4.731). In contrast, GTV overestimated the volume and differed significantly from MTV (P=.005). ADC{sub thr} correlated significantly and strongly with SUV{sub mean} (r=?0.807, P<.001) and SUV{sub max} (r=?0.843, P<.001); both were stronger than those of ADC{sub g}. Conclusions: The proposed lesion-adaptive semiautomatic method can help segment high-cellularity tissues that match hypermetabolic tissues in PET/CT and enables more accurate volume and ADC delineation on diffusion-weighted MR images of GIST.

Gong, Nan-Jie [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Chun-Sing, E-mail: drcswong@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Yiu-Ching [Department of Radiology, Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Guo, Hua [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Huang, Bingsheng [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong (China)

2013-10-01

250

Holographic gravitational anomaly and chiral vortical effect

We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megías; Luis Melgar; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-01-01

251

Light collection from fluorescence-based biochips by holographic diffractive optical elements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fluorescence-based biochip with an integrated holographic diffractive optical element on its underside is presented. The diffractive element is a thick volume hologram written into a layer of photopolymer recording material. The element acts as a collector of the spatially anisotropic fluorescence light emitted from surface-bound fluorophores and redirects the light to a CCD detector. The holographic lithography setup used to fabricate the diffractive elements is described. The performance of the diffractive elements to enhance the light collection is demonstrated.

Macko, Peter; Whelan, Maurice P.

2009-07-01

252

Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

1973-01-01

253

Instability of holographic dark energy models

We investigate the difference between holographic dark energy, Chaplygin gas, and tachyon model with constant potential. For this purpose, we examine their squared speeds of sound which are evaluated to zeroth order in perturbation theory and hence depends only on time. We find that the squared speed for holographic dark energy is always negative when choosing the future event horizon as the IR cutoff, while those for Chaplygin gas and tachyon are non-negative. This means that the perfect fluid for holographic dark energy is classically unstable. Hence the holographic interpretation for Chaplygin gas and tachyon is problematic.

Yun Soo Myung

2007-07-20

254

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented in this thesis is divided into two related areas. The first area of research was a study of photoanisotropic materials to record dynamic gratings. The second area was a study of stimulated diffusion backscattering in photorefractive crystals. The two areas are related by the fact that in the two cases we studied dynamic gratings. We studied reversible photochemical mechanisms using dye molecules suspended in polymer hosts that could record dynamic holograms. The self-developing refractive index changes in dye-doped or dye-attached polymer materials, in particularly azo-dye-doped polymer systems make them promising candidates for many applications (because of the large photoinduced birefringence). The mechanism of photoanisotropic recording in azo-dye-doped polymer materials is based on orientationally dependent photoisomerization of dye molecules that may be macroscopically described in terms of photoinduced linear dichroism and linear birefringence. We proposed a technique for the fabrication of thick photosensitized polymer materials for real-time (self- developing) holographic applications. Cross modulation experiments to study the photoinduced dichroism are then described and the discussion of photophysical mechanisms involved is given. We used azo-dye doped polymer materials to record thin and thick holograms (scalar and vector). We theoretically and experimentally demonstrated that one could successfully store (using a linearly and an elliptically polarized beams) and reconstruct an elliptical polarization state of light using photoanisotropic materials, even if a plane polarized reference beam is used for the recording and readout. Using photoanisotropic materials, we demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that macroscopic optical chirality may be generated in such systems with a proper choice of excitation beam polarization state. Linear diffraction gratings, that provide strongly asymmetric diffraction without surface modulation were also created and studied. Asymmetric diffraction may be achieved using blazed gratings. But in our case the spatial phase shift of the refractive index grating relative to the absorption grating is the origin of asymmetric behaviour. Experimental results made with thin mixed phase and absorption gratings in azo-dye-doped polymer films are in agreement with our theoretical results. In the second part of the thesis we analysed the stimulated diffusion backscattering (SDS) in photorefractive crystals based on the advantages of the reflection photorefractive gratings. The material research, which is the most acute direction, was studied. We believe that optimal crystal (its processing procedure and doping density) is still unknown even for visible range. We discussed the general analysis of the stimulated diffusion backscattering. We studied the relevant parameters for the sample, which demonstrated the most interesting stimulated diffusion backscattering response: measurements of gain, reflectivity, response rate, dark conductivity and grating decay. We clarified the principal possibilities to obtain self-phase conjugation at backward SDS in steady-state conditions. We also made the comparison of sensitivities of different geometries with respect to pump energy. Finally, we experimentally studied double-phase-conjugation geometry at double-loop reflection gratings.

Birabassov, Rouslan

2001-10-01

255

Microbial population dynamics by digital in-line holographic microscopy.

Measurements of population dynamics are ubiquitous in experiments with microorganisms. Studies with microbes elucidating adaptation, selection, and competition rely on measurements of changing populations in time. Despite this importance, quantitative methods for measuring population dynamics microscopically, with high time resolution, across many replicates remain limited. Here we present a new noninvasive method to precisely measure microbial spatiotemporal population dynamics based on digital in-line holographic (DIH) microscopy. Our inexpensive, replicate DIH microscopes imaged hundreds of swimming algae in three dimensions within a volume of several microliters on a time scale of minutes over periods of weeks. PMID:20815617

Frentz, Zak; Kuehn, Seppe; Hekstra, Doeke; Leibler, Stanislas

2010-08-01

256

Collinear holographic data storage system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic data storage system is a promising candidate of the next-generation of storage equipment. However, conventional technologies (called 2-axis holography) still have essential issues for commercialization of products. In this paper, we introduce the collinear holography that can produce a small, practical data storage system more easily than conventional 2-axis holography. In this technology the information and reference beams are displayed co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be placed on one side of the recording media. The special media structure uses a pre-formatted reflective layer for the focus/tracking servo and for reading address information. It also uses a dichroic mirror interlayer for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density.

Tan, Xiaodi; Lin, Xiao; Wu, Anan

2013-08-01

257

Holographic Type II Goldstone bosons

The Goldstone theorem implies the appearance of an ungapped mode whenever a continuous global symmetry is spontaneously broken. In general it does not say anything about the precise form of the dispersion relation nor does it imply that there is one massless mode for each broken symmetry generator. It is a well-established fact that even for relativistic field theories in the presence of a chemical potential Goldstone modes with quadratic dispersion relation, the type II Goldstone bosons, appear in the spectrum. We develop two holographic models that feature type II Goldstone modes as part of the quasinormal mode spectrum. The models are based on simple generalizations with U(2) symmetry of the well-studied holographic s-wave superfluid. Our results include Goldstone modes without broken generators but with unusual realization of symmetries and a frequency dependent conductivity of striking resemblance to the one of Graphene.

Amado, Irene; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Landea, Ignacio Salazar

2013-01-01

258

Holographic Type II Goldstone bosons

The Goldstone theorem implies the appearance of an ungapped mode whenever a continuous global symmetry is spontaneously broken. In general it does not say anything about the precise form of the dispersion relation nor does it imply that there is one massless mode for each broken symmetry generator. It is a well-established fact that even for relativistic field theories in the presence of a chemical potential Goldstone modes with quadratic dispersion relation, the type II Goldstone bosons, appear in the spectrum. We develop two holographic models that feature type II Goldstone modes as part of the quasinormal mode spectrum. The models are based on simple generalizations with U(2) symmetry of the well-studied holographic s-wave superfluid. Our results include Goldstone modes without broken generators but with unusual realization of symmetries and a frequency dependent conductivity of striking resemblance to the one of Graphene.

Irene Amado; Daniel Arean; Amadeo Jimenez-Alba; Karl Landsteiner; Luis Melgar; Ignacio Salazar Landea

2013-02-22

259

Holographic Calculations of Renyi Entropy

We extend the approach of Casini, Huerta and Myers to a new calculation of the Renyi entropy of a general CFT in d dimensions with a spherical entangling surface, in terms of certain thermal partition functions. We apply this approach to calculate the Renyi entropy in various holographic models. Our results indicate that in general, the Renyi entropy will be a complicated nonlinear function of the central charges and other parameters which characterize the CFT. We also exhibit the relation between this new thermal calculation and a conventional calculation of the Renyi entropy where a twist operator is inserted on the spherical entangling surface. The latter insight also allows us to calculate the scaling dimension of the twist operators in the holographic models.

Janet Hung; Robert C. Myers; Michael Smolkin; Alexandre Yale

2011-10-05

260

Entropy balance in holographic superconductors

In systems undergoing second order phase transitions, the temperature integral of the specific heat over temperature from zero to the critical temperature is the same in both the normal and ordered phases. This entropy balance relates the critical temperature to the distribution of degrees of freedom in the normal and ordered states. Quantum criticality and fractionalization can imply an increased number of low energy degrees of freedom in both the normal and ordered states. We explore the role of entropy balance in holographic models of superconductivity, focussing on the interplay between quantum criticality and superconductivity. We consider models with and without a ground state entropy density in the normal phase; the latter models are a new class of holographic superconductors. We explain how a normal phase entropy density manifests itself in the stable superconducting phase.

Sean A. Hartnoll; Razieh Pourhasan

2012-05-07

261

Direct laser writing defects in holographic lithography-created photonic lattices.

As a well-established laser fabrication approach, holographic lithography, or multibeam interference patterning, is known for its capability to create long-range ordered large-volume photonic crystals (PhCs) rapidly. Its broad use is, however, hampered by difficulty in inducing artificially designed defects for device functions. We use pinpoint femtosecond laser ablation to remove and two-photon photopolymerization to add desired defective features to obtain photonic acceptors and photonic donors, respectively, in an otherwise complete PhC matrix produced by holographic lithography. The combined use of the two direct laser writing technologies would immediately make holographic lithography a promising industrial tool for PhC manufacture. PMID:15865386

Sun, Hong-Bo; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kaneko, Koshiro; Shoji, Satoru; Kawata, Satoshi

2005-04-15

262

Holographic recording materials - A review

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.

Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.

1975-01-01

263

Pion condensation in holographic QCD

We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.

Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua [Particle Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

2010-11-01

264

Holographic bound and protein linguistics

The holographic bound in physics constrains the complexity of life. The finite storage capability of information in the observable universe requires the protein linguistics in the evolution of life. We find that the evolution of genetic code determines the variance of amino acid frequencies and genomic GC content among species. The elegant linguistic mechanism is confirmed by the experimental observations based on all known entire proteomes.

Dirson Jian Li; Shengli Zhang

2007-04-10

265

Sound modes in holographic superfluids

Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2009-11-15

266

Advances in holographic particle velocimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) is a promising technique for 3D flow velocity and hence vorticity measurements to study turbulence, coherent structures and vortex interactions. We discuss various aspects in the development of this technique ranging from hologram recording configurations such as in-line, off-axis and multibeam to data processing. Difficulties in implementation are analyzed and solutions are discussed. We also present preliminary measurement results in a 3D vortex flow using one of our prototype HPV systems.

Simmons, Scott; Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle; Liu, David

1993-12-01

267

RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2?m size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.

Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

2013-11-01

268

Monitoring by holographic radar systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to Commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the Invention of Holography, Springfield, Massachusetts USA, October 27-29, pp. 183-197, 2008. [2] I. Catapano, L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, "Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci bridge investigation", Nondestructive testing and evaluation, vol. 27, pp. 229-237, 2012.

Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

2013-04-01

269

In-line FINCH super resolution digital holographic fluorescence microscopy using a high

In-line FINCH super resolution digital holographic fluorescence microscopy using a high efficiency-efficiency, high-quality Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) holograms using polarization sensitive (FINCH) [1] showed its potential for fluorescence microscopy [2], we have sought to perfect the technique

Rosen, Joseph

270

Universal Resistivity from Holographic Massive Gravity

Massive gravity provides a holographic model for theories exhibiting momentum dissipation. We provide an analytic expression for the DC conductivity. The result is universal, depending only on properties of the infra-red horizon, and holds at finite temperature and charge density. In addition, we provide a derivation of black hole thermodynamics in holographic massive gravity and show that the resulting physics is sensible.

Mike Blake; David Tong

2013-08-22

271

Microwave holographic imaging of underground objects

The resolving capability of underground imaging radar employing a multifrequency holographic approach is characterized in terms of controlling parameters such as the synthetic aperture length, soil conductivity and dielectric constant, and antenna beamwidth. The propagation velocity of electromagnetic wave in soil, which varies from soil to soil, is an essential parameter for reconstructing object images using the holographic approach. Hence,

N. Osumi; K. Ueno

1985-01-01

272

The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients

C. Veres; J. P. Garsi; C. Rubino; F. Pouzoulet; F. Bidault; J. Chavaudra; A. Bridier; M. Ricard; I. Ferreira; D. Lefkopoulos; F. de Vathaire; I. Diallo

2010-01-01

273

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose-wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose-volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose-volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80-0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66-0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001).

Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Perna, Lucia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro; Fiorino, Claudio

2013-04-01

274

The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the 'true' absolute and relative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose-wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose-volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose-volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80-0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66-0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001). PMID:23475338

Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Perna, Lucia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro; Fiorino, Claudio

2013-04-01

275

Holographic optical elements and grazing incidence mirrors in XUV region

A new approach to X-ray optics has been proposed, based on single-step holographic fabrication of highly-efficient X-ray diffraction elements. These elements include holographic gratings and mirrors, slanted (non-Snellian) mirrors, uniform and chirped gratings, holographic optical elements (HOE's), lenses, and beam splitters which effectively demonstrated the proof of concept of POC's holographic technologies. In our approach, the holographic recording of the

Tomasz P. Jannson

1988-01-01

276

Digital holographic microscopy for microalgae biovolume assessment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative amount of biomass in a body of water is one of the various indicators widely used in water quality evaluation. This implies complex tasks such as identification and characterization of microorganisms and measurement of their biovolume. Particularly, the latter is estimated by assuming simple geometrical shapes for the microorganism and by calculating its dimensions from images taken with a conventional microscope. In order to have a more precise and automatic method for biovolume evaluation, a hybrid methodology based on digital holographic microscopy and image processing is proposed. The whole volume of a specimen under study is obtained combining the phase contrast image of an off-axis hologram with the thickness-profile data of the specimen extracted from the cell silhouette. This technique has been used for determining the biovolume of Ceratium Hirundinella cells in water samples. The methodology proposed also shows that it is possible to estimate accurately an effective refractive index of the microorganism. Experimental results have shown that this technique is not only an efficient and fast alternative, but also suitable for automatizing the entire process.

Monaldi, Andrea C.; Romero, Gladis G.; Alanís, Elvio E.; Cabrera, Carlos M.

2015-02-01

277

50 years of holographic interferometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

Stetson, Karl A.

2015-01-01

278

Holographic Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

We propose to present a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) in the external magnetic field. The model of the gravitational theory considered in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry, where one space direction is compacted into a circle and we arrange the coefficient of the time components profile so that we can model the SQUID, where the profile plays the role of the chemical potential for the cooper pair.

Shingo Takeuchi

2014-10-17

279

Holographic s+p Superconductors

We study the phase diagram of a holographic model realizing a U(2) global symmetry on the boundary and show that at low temperature a phase with both scalar s and vector p condensates exists. This is the s+p-wave phase where the global U(2) symmetry and also the spatial rotational symmetry are spontaneously broken. By studying the free energy we show that this phase is preferred when it exists. We also consider unbalanced configurations where a second chemical potential is turned on. They present a rich phase diagram characterized by the competition and coexistence of the s and p order parameters.

Irene Amado; Daniel Arean; Amadeo Jimenez-Alba; Luis Melgar; Ignacio Salazar Landea

2014-03-06

280

Holographic Viscosity of Fundamental Matter

A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(N_c) gauge theory with a small number of flavours N_f viscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s >= 1/4\\pi. The contribution of the fundamental matter eta_fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta_fund ~ lambda N_c N_f T^3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential.

David Mateos; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson

2006-10-16

281

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a holographic model of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar theory with a negative cosmological constant. The SQUID ring consists of two Josephson junctions which sit on two sides of a compactified spatial direction of a Schwarzschild-AdS black brane. These two junctions interfere with each other and then result in a total current depending on the magnetic flux, which can be deduced from the phase differences of the two Josephson junctions. The relation between the total current and the magnetic flux is obtained numerically.

Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hai-Qing

2014-01-01

282

We construct a holographic model of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar theory with a negative cosmological constant. The SQUID ring consists of two Josephson junctions which sit on two sides of a compactified spatial direction of a Schwarzschild-AdS black brane. These two junctions interfere with each other and then result in a total current depending on the magnetic flux, which can be deduced from the phase differences of the two Josephson junctions. The relation between the total current and the magnetic flux is obtained numerically.

Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Hai-Qing

2013-01-01

283

Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor ETH 615-139, and the cysteine leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1) antagonist zafirlukast and impaired by the anion channel blocker DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate). Comparing WT and cisplatin-resistant (RES) A2780 cells we also find that evasion of cisplatin-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume-sensitive taurine release in RES A2780 cells correlates with reduced expression of the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 8A (LRRC8A). Furthermore, acute (18 h) exposure to cisplatin (5-10 ?M) increases taurine release and LRRC8A expression in WT A2780 cells whereas cisplatin has no effect on LRRC8A expression in RES A2780 cells. It is suggested that shift in LRRC8A activity can be used as biomarker for apoptotic progress and acquirement of drug resistance. PMID:25252947

Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

2014-12-15

284

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

2010-11-01

285

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of La+3/Sr+2 ratios, which is varied from 0.08 to 5.09, on density, molar volume, packing fraction, free volume, thermal and electrical properties in strontium lanthanum aluminoborosilicate based glass sealants intended for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications is evaluated. The studies reveal expansion of the glass network evident from increasing molar volume and decreasing packing fraction of glasses with progressive La+3 substitutions. The molecular origin of these macroscopic structural features can be accounted for by the free volume parameters measured from positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The La+3 induced expanded glass networks show increased number of subnanoscopic voids with larger sizes, as revealed from the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity. A remarkably direct correspondence between the molar volume and fractional free volume trend is established with progressive La2O3 substitution in the glasses. The effect of these structural changes on the glass transition temperature, softening temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stability as well as electrical conductivity has been studied.

Ojha, Prasanta K.; Rath, Sangram K.; Sharma, Sandeep K.; Sudarshan, Kathi; Pujari, Pradeep K.; Chongdar, Tapas K.; Gokhale, Nitin M.

2015-01-01

286

Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2?T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9?months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3?months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6?months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9?months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that these are not significantly correlated to the frequency of SRS. PMID:25071699

Polli, Roberson S.; Malheiros, Jackeline M.; dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

2014-01-01

287

Holographic Foam, Dark Energy and Infinite Statistics

Quantum fluctuations of spacetime give rise to quantum foam, and black hole physics dictates that the foam is of holographic type. Applied to cosmology, the holographic model requires the existence of dark energy which, we argue, is composed of an enormous number of inert ``particles'' of extremely long wavelength. These "particles" necessarily obey infinite statistics in which all representations of the particle permutation group can occur. For every boson or fermion in the present observable universe there could be $\\sim 10^{31}$ such "particles". We also discuss the compatibility between the holographic principle and infinite statistics.

Y. Jack Ng

2007-09-30

288

AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) shear-wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency (RF) ablation. METHODS: RF ablation was performed in vivo in 10 rat livers using a 15-gauge expandable RF needle. 3D SWE as well as B-mode ultrasound (US) were performed 15 min after ablation. The acquired 3D volume data were rendered as multislice images (interslice distance: 1.10 mm), and the estimated ablation volumes were calculated. The 3D SWE findings were compared against digitized photographs of gross pathological and histopathological specimens of the livers obtained in the same sectional planes as the 3D SWE multislice images. The ablation volumes were also estimated by gross pathological examination of the livers, and the results were then compared with those obtained by 3D SWE. RESULTS: In B-mode US images, the ablation zone appeared as a hypoechoic area with a peripheral hyperechoic rim; however, the findings were too indistinct to be useful for estimating the ablation area. 3D SWE depicted the ablation area and volume more clearly. In the images showing the largest ablation area, the mean kPa values of the peripheral rim, central zone, and non-ablated zone were 13.1 ± 1.5 kPa, 59.1 ± 21.9 kPa, and 4.3 ± 0.8 kPa, respectively. The ablation volumes depicted by 3D SWE correlated well with those estimated from gross pathological examination (r2 = 0.9305, P = 0.00001). The congestion and diapedesis of red blood cells observed in histopathological examination were greater in the peripheral rim of the ablation zone than in the central zone. CONCLUSION: 3D SWE outperforms B-mode US in delineating ablated areas in the liver and is therefore more reliable for spatially delineating thermal lesions created by RF ablation. PMID:25206291

Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Ogawa, Saori; Honjo, Mitsuyoshi; Hara, Takeshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori

2014-01-01

289

Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-04-03

290

Walking technipions in a holographic model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate masses of the technipions in the walking technicolor model with the anomalous dimension ?m=1 , based on a holographic model which has a naturally light technidilaton ? as a composite Higgs with mass m??125 GeV . The one-family model (with four weak doublets) is taken as a concrete example in such a framework, with the inputs being F?=v /2 ?123 GeV and m??125 GeV as well as ?m=1 . It is shown that technipion masses are enhanced by the large anomalous dimension to typically O (1 ) TeV . We find a correlation between the technipion masses and S(TC ) , the S parameter arising only from the technicolor sector. The current LHC data on the technipion mass limit thus constrains S(TC ) to be not as large as O (1 ), giving a direct constraint on the technicolor model building. This is a new constraint on the technicolor sector alone, quite independent of other sectors connected by the extended-technicolor-type interactions—in sharp contrast to the conventional S parameter constraint from the precision electroweak measurements.

Kurachi, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi

2014-11-01

291

Unbalanced Holographic Superconductors and Spintronics

We present a minimal holographic model for s-wave superconductivity with unbalanced Fermi mixtures, in 2+1 dimensions at strong coupling. The breaking of a U(1)_A "charge" symmetry is driven by a non-trivial profile for a charged scalar field in a charged asymptotically AdS_4 black hole. The chemical potential imbalance is implemented by turning on the temporal component of a U(1)_B "spin" field under which the scalar field is uncharged. We study the phase diagram of the model and comment on the eventual (non) occurrence of LOFF-like inhomogeneous superconducting phases. Moreover, we study "charge" and "spin" transport, implementing a holographic realization (and a generalization thereof to superconducting setups) of Mott's two-current model which provides the theoretical basis of modern spintronics. Finally we comment on possible string or M-theory embeddings of our model and its higher dimensional generalizations, within consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations and brane-anti brane setups.

Bigazzi, Francesco; Musso, Daniele; Fokeeva, Natalia Pinzani; Seminara, Domenico

2011-01-01

292

Unbalanced Holographic Superconductors and Spintronics

We present a minimal holographic model for s-wave superconductivity with unbalanced Fermi mixtures, in 2+1 dimensions at strong coupling. The breaking of a U(1)_A "charge" symmetry is driven by a non-trivial profile for a charged scalar field in a charged asymptotically AdS_4 black hole. The chemical potential imbalance is implemented by turning on the temporal component of a U(1)_B "spin" field under which the scalar field is uncharged. We study the phase diagram of the model and comment on the eventual (non) occurrence of LOFF-like inhomogeneous superconducting phases. Moreover, we study "charge" and "spin" transport, implementing a holographic realization (and a generalization thereof to superconducting setups) of Mott's two-current model which provides the theoretical basis of modern spintronics. Finally we comment on possible string or M-theory embeddings of our model and its higher dimensional generalizations, within consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations and brane-anti brane setups.

Francesco Bigazzi; Aldo L. Cotrone; Daniele Musso; Natalia Pinzani Fokeeva; Domenico Seminara

2011-11-28

293

A Holographic Twin Higgs Model

We present a UV completion of the twin Higgs idea in the framework of holographic composite Higgs. The SM contribution to the Higgs potential is effectively cut off by the SM-singlet mirror partners at the sigma-model scale f, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. The bulk symmetry is SU(7) X SO(8), broken on the IR brane into SU(7) X SO(7) and on the UV brane into (SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1))^{SM} X (SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1))^{mirror} X Z2. The field content on the UV brane is the SM, extended by a sector transforming under the mirror gauge group, with the Z2 exchanging the two sectors. An additional Z2 breaking term is holographically generated to reproduce the Higgs mass and VEV, with a mild O(10%) tuning. This model has no trace at the LHC, but can by probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for KK excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

Michael Geller; Ofri Telem

2014-11-11

294

Purpose. To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods. A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12?mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). Results. The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F = 23.146, P < 0.001) followed by axial length (F = 4.902, P = 0.03). Refractive error was not statistically significant (F = 1.16, P = 0.28). Conclusions. SS-OCT is the first commercially available system that can automatically create choroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time. PMID:25013793

Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy

2014-01-01

295

Meson wave function from holographic approaches

We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.

Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-08-04

296

Holographic tachyon model of dark energy

In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and tachyon energy density in FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the tachyon field which describe tachyon cosmology.

M R Setare

2007-05-24

297

Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

1985-01-01

298

Black hole and holographic dark energy

We discuss the connection between black hole and holographic dark energy. We examine the issue of the equation of state (EOS) for holographic energy density as a candidate for the dark energy carefully. This is closely related to the EOS for black hole, because the holographic dark energy comes from the black hole energy density. In order to derive the EOS of a black hole, we may use its dual (quantum) systems. Finally, a regular black hole without the singularity is introduced to describe an accelerating universe inside the cosmological horizon. Inspired by this, we show that the holographic energy density with the cosmological horizon as the IR cutoff leads to the dark energy-dominated universe with $\\omega_{\\rm \\Lambda}=-1$.

Yun Soo Myung

2007-04-11

299

Sourced Friedmann equations with holographic energy density

We reexamine cosmological applications of the holographic energy density in the framework of sourced Friedmann equations. This framework is suitable because it can accommodate a macroscopic interaction between holographic and ordinary matter naturally. In the case that the holographic energy density decays into dust matter, we propose a microscopic mechanism to generate an accelerating phase. Actually, the cosmic anti-friction arisen from the decay process induces acceleration. For examples, we introduce two IR cutoffs of Hubble horizon and future event horizon to test this framework. As a result, it is shown that the equations of state for the holographic energy density are determined to be the same negative constants as those for the dust matter.

Yun Soo Myung

2005-09-05

300

Digital holographic imaging of aquatic species

The aim of this thesis is to design, develop and implement a digital holographic imaging (DHI) system, capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) images of aquatic species. The images produced by this system are used in ...

Domínguez-Caballero, José Antonio

2006-01-01

301

Holographic superconductivity in M-Theory

Using seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces we construct solutions of D=11 supergravity that are holographically dual to superconductors in three spacetime dimensions. Our numerical results indicate a new zero temperature solution dual to a quantum critical point.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Julian Sonner; Toby Wiseman

2009-07-22

302

The trial of the holographic principle

We present an introduction to ideas related to the holographic principle in the context of the well-established duality between classical gravity and conformal fluid dynamics. Foundations of relativistic hydrodynamics, ...

Musia?, Wojciech, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

303

Entanglement Tsunami: Universal Scaling in Holographic Thermalization

We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin ...

Liu, Hong

304

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.

2013-01-01

305

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Saygin, Zeynep M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Osher, David E; Beach, Sara D; Cyr, Abigail B; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E

2013-08-14

306

Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

2003-01-01

307

History Of Holographic Display In Japan

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first exhibition of holographic display was held at Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo in 1975 and played a role of opening of the holographic era in Japan. This exhibition and the next big exhibition of holography held at Isetan department store 3 years later in 1978 were really epoch-making facts on holographic display in Japan. Since these two exhibitions, holographic display in Japan has come to attract attention of a lot of people to the new display media, holography. At that time, mass production technology of holograms had not been fully developed yet, and the hologram was so expensive that they were found only at the big event. Some companies and universities still continued research and development to have holograms get into practical applications of display media. Few years later, people became interested in 3-D displays and sometimes many peoples took an interest in holographic display, mainly mass produced embossed type holograms applied to the field of publications, book and magazine, etc. 3-D display booms occurred in the year of Tsukuba Science Expo'85 in 1985 and embossed type hologram became much popular. History of holographic display of Japan in terms of technical development and practical use on laser reconstruction hologram, rainbow hologram, multiplex hologram and lippmann hologram will be introduced.

Iwata, Fujio

1987-06-01

308

A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. Flashing from coolant release, condensation heat transfer, intercompartment transport, and engineered safety features are described using best estimate models and correlations often based upon experiment analyses. Two notable capabilities of PACER that differ from most other containment loads codes are the modeling of the rates of steam and water formation accompanying coolant release as well as the correlations for steam condensation upon structure.

Sienicki, J.J.

1997-06-01

309

Influence of TFT-LCD pixel structure on holographic representation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new holographic display device, TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays) is key technical component of holographic representation for easy controlled by computer. With the development of exquisite processing technology, that it instead of the traditional holographic plate become historical necessity and would be the development direction of holographic optics. Based on principles of holography and display character of LCD, the property which the LCD was used as a holographic plate was analyzed. The emphasis on discuss influence of LCD black matrix on holographic representation. First, analyzed on LCD pixel structure, the LCD pixel structure mathematical model was established. LCD was character representation by pixel structure parameters. Then, the influence of LCD pixels structure on holographic representation was analyzed by computer simulation. Meanwhile, the SONY LCX023 was chosen for holographic plate, the He-Ne laser which the wavelength is 0.6328um was holographic representation light source. The holographic representation system was established for test influence of LCD on holographic representation. Final, compared between computer simulations and optical experimental results, the mathematical model of LCD was proved to be true. When aperture ratio is 0.625, the holographic representation wouldn't be distinguished between representation images. At the same time, some useful results was acquired for improve application effects of LCD in holographic representation.

Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhao; Tian, Ailing; Liu, Bingcai

2008-09-01

310

Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

2011-11-08

311

Holographic viscosity of fundamental matter.

A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(Nc) gauge theory with a small number of flavors Nf

Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M

2007-03-01

312

Electromagnetic instability in holographic QCD

Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the vacuum decay rate for the Schwinger effect in confining large $N_{c}$ gauge theories. The instability is induced by the quark antiquark pair creation triggered by strong electromagnetic fields. The decay rate is obtained as the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian evaluated from the D-brane action with a constant electromagnetic field in holographic QCD models such as the Sakai-Sugimoto model and the deformed Sakai-Sugimoto model. The decay rate is found to increase with the magnetic field parallel to the electric field, while it decreases with the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field. We discuss generic features of a critical electric field as a function of the magnetic field and the QCD string tension in the Sakai-Sugimoto model.

Hashimoto, Koji; Sonoda, Akihiko

2014-01-01

313

Casting Shadows on Holographic Reconstruction

In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study several holographic probes that relate information about the bulk spacetime to CFT data. The best-known example is the relation between minimal surfaces in the bulk and entanglement entropy of a subregion in the CFT. Building on earlier work, we identify "shadows" in the bulk: regions that are not illuminated by any of the bulk probes we consider, in the sense that the bulk surfaces do not pass through these regions. We quantify the size of the shadow in the near horizon region of a black hole and in the vicinity of a sufficiently dense star. The existence of shadows motivates further study of the bulk-boundary dictionary in order to identify CFT quantities that encode information about the shadow regions in the bulk. We speculate on the interpretation of our results from a dual field theory perspective.

Freivogel, Ben; Kabir, Laurens; Mosk, Benjamin; Yang, I-Sheng

2014-01-01

314

Holographic Dark Matter and Higgs

We identify possible dark matter candidates within the class of strongly interacting models where electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by a light composite Higgs boson. In these models, the Higgs boson emerges as a Holographic pseudo-goldstone boson, while dark matter can be identified as a fermionic composite state X^0, which is made stable through a conserved (``dark'') quantum number. An effective lagrangian description of both the Higgs and dark matter is proposed, that includes higher-dimensional operators suppressed by an scale \\Lambda_i. These operators will induce deviations from the standard Higgs properties that could be meassured at future colliders (LHC,ILC), and thus provide information on the dark matter scale. The dark matter X^0, is expected to have a mass of order O(TeV), which is in agreement with the values extracted from the cosmological bounds and the experimental searches for dark matter.

J. Lorenzo Diaz-Cruz

2007-11-04

315

Quantum quenches of holographic plasmas

We employ holographic techniques to study quantum quenches at finite temperature, where the quenches involve varying the coupling of the boundary theory to a relevant operator with an arbitrary conformal dimension $2\\leq\\D\\leq4$. The evolution of the system is studied by evaluating the expectation value of the quenched operator and the stress tensor throughout the process. The time dependence of the new coupling is characterized by a fixed timescale and the response of the observables depends on the ratio of the this timescale to the initial temperature. The observables exhibit universal scaling behaviours when the transitions are either fast or slow, i.e. when this ratio is very small or very large. The scaling exponents are smooth functions of the operator dimension. We find that in fast quenches, the relaxation time is set by the thermal timescale regardless of the operator dimension or the precise quenching rate.

Alex Buchel; Luis Lehner; Robert C. Myers; Anton van Niekerk

2013-02-12

316

Development of integral holographic motion pictures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1985 Anne-Marie Christakis selected me to make the first pulse holographic feature-fiction movie. Up to that time, the process had only been used for laboratory tests. The running time for the movie was to be 1 minute 20 seconds. Apparently quite long compared with previous tests, but an extremely short time in which to tell a story. I chose the characters of Beauty and the Beast. A lot of time was spent in preparatory work: triple distilling the scenario to get it down to 80 seconds; paintings and masks, and I extracted the music from a suite I had already written in medieval style. The movie was made in 1986 in the laboratory of Professeur Smigielsky, which was located in the Franco-German Defense Research Establishment, at St. Louis in France. Prof. Smigielsky's staff operated all the equipment and Anne-Marie Christakis coordinated everything, as she had done throughout the project. As soon as we arrived at the laboratory, we were told not to look beyond a certain angle towards the laser, otherwise we could be blinded for life. With all that dangerous power however, it was only possible to illuminate a volume for the set of half a meter wide by half a meter deep by one third of a meter high. Such a set gives real meaning to the expression `cramp one's style.' The layout used was, in principle, the same as for making a simple hologram. A pulsed YAG laser was used and each pulse was synchronized with a new frame to be exposed in the camera. When the movie was finished, it was not very bright, and one had to look through a small aperture to view it.

Alexander, P.

1995-02-01

317

The recently proposed baryon-strangeness correlation (C{sub BS}) is studied with a string-hadronic transport model (UrQMD) for various energies from E{sub lab}=4A GeV to {radical}(s)=200A GeV. It is shown that rescattering among secondaries cannot mimic the predicted correlation pattern expected for a quark-gluon-plasma. However, we find a strong increase of the C{sub BS} correlation function with decreasing collision energy for p+p and Au+Au and/or Pb+Pb reactions. For Au+Au reactions at the top BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy ({radical}(s)=200A GeV), the C{sub BS} correlation is constant for all centralities and compatible with the p+p result. With increasing width of the rapidity window, C{sub BS} follows roughly the shape of the baryon rapidity distribution. We suggest studying the energy and centrality dependence of C{sub BS} to gain information on the onset of the deconfinement transition in temperature and volume.

Haussler, Stephane [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Stoecker, Horst [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

2006-02-15

318

State of the Art in Holographic Displays: A Survey

True-3D imaging and display systems are based on physical duplication of light distribution. Holography is a true-3D technique. There are significant developments in electro-holographic displays in recent years. Liquid crystal, liquid crystal on silicon, optically addressed, mirror-based, holographic polymer-dispersed, and acousto-optic devices are used as holographic displays. There are complete electro-holographic display systems and some of them are already commercialized.

Fahri Yaras; Hoonjong Kang; Levent Onural

2010-01-01

319

Structural deficiencies within the medial prefrontal cortex have been shown in anxiety-related psychiatric disorders such as panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. In healthy subjects, trait anxiety as the individual's disposition to experience anxiety-relevant feelings or thoughts has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. We aimed at exploring the structural correlates of

Simone Kühn; Florian Schubert; Jürgen Gallinat

2011-01-01

320

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to study the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, the net heats of combustion, melting points, boiling points, densities, and kinematic viscosities of some hydrocarbons in the 2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane, diphenylalkane, 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and dicyclohexylalkane series are presented.

Wise, P H; Serijan, K T; Goodman, I A

1951-01-01

321

The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Larger hippocampal and frontal: Thalamus Orbital Hippocampus MRI Plasticity VBM Although the systematic study of meditation is still in its infancy, research has provided evidence for meditation-induced improvements in psychological

Gaser, Christian

322

Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

Faria, Sergio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: sergio.faria@muhc.mcgill.ca; Menard, Sonia [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Sirois, Christian [Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lisbona, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2008-03-15

323

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and blood volume for patients with lung tumors, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and a gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) viewer. During the period from March 2011 to March 2013, 50 patients with 57 medically inoperable lung tumors underwent DECT before stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of 50-60 Gy in 5-6 fractions. DECT was taken for pretreatment evaluation. The region-of-interest for a given spatial placement of the tumors was set, and averages for CT value, water density and iodine density were compared with tumor size. The average values for iodine density in tumors of ? 2 cm, 2-3 cm, and >3 cm maximum diameter were 24.7, 19.6 and 16.0 (100 µg/cm(3)), respectively. The average value of the iodine density was significantly lower in larger tumors. No significant correlation was detected between tumor size and average CT value or between tumor size and average water density. Both the average water density and the average CT value were affected by the amount of air in the tumor, but the average iodine density was not affected by air in the tumor. The average water density and the average CT value were significantly correlated, but the average iodine density and the average CT value showed no significant correlation. The blood volume of tumors can be indicated by the average iodine density more accurately than it can by the average CT value. The average iodine density as assessed by DECT might be a non-invasive and quantitative assessment of the radio-resistance ascribable to the hypoxic cell population in a tumor. PMID:24829253

Aoki, Masahiko; Takai, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yuichiro; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi

2014-09-01

324

Micron-sized zeolite particles were incorporated into a polyurethane (PU) matrix to prepare ethylbenzene-selective membranes. The resulting composite membranes were used in the pervaporation (PV) of ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/ST) mixtures. The sorption, diffusion, and PV permeation behaviors as a result of zeolite addition were elucidated. Zeolite is less chemically compatible with organic solvents than PU and the PU-zeolite composites, which exhibited suppressed solvent solubilities compared with pristine PU. However, these membranes favor EB transport by diffusion selectivity. The diffusivity and permeation flux increases in parallel with the enlarged radius of the free-volume hole size (R(4) increasing from 3.46 to 3.64 Å using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy analysis) by increasing the zeolite content from 0 to 23%. The enlarged free volume at a zeolite loading of 23% promoted pure solvent diffusivities by 10% higher than that of the unfilled film. During the PV operation on the EB/ST mixture, a significant diffusion-coupling was observed, and the permeant diffusion coefficients from the binary mixture exceeded the pure solvent diffusivity. The permeation flux was greatly improved (up to 0.72 kg/m(2)·h) by zeolite addition without any detrimental effect on the separation efficiency. PMID:21375225

Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Su, I-Ming; Lee, Da-Tung; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Shih, Chao-Ming; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Jean, Y C; Lai, Juin-Yih

2011-03-31

325

Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

1985-01-01

326

Holographic Operator Mixing and Quasinormal Modes on the Brane

We provide a framework for calculating holographic Green's functions from general bilinear actions and fields obeying coupled differential equations in the bulk. The matrix-valued spectral function is shown to be independent of the radial bulk coordinate. Applying this framework we improve the analysis of fluctuations in the D3/D7 system at finite baryon density, where the longitudinal perturbations of the world-volume gauge field couple to the scalar fluctuations of the brane embedding. We compute the spectral function and show how its properties are related to the quasinormal mode spectrum. We study the crossover from the hydrodynamic diffusive to the reactive regime and the movement of quasinormal modes as functions of temperature and density. We also compute their dispersion relations and find that they asymptote to the lightcone for large momenta.

Kaminski, Matthias; Mas, Javier; Shock, Jonathan P; Tarrio, Javier

2009-01-01

327

Holographic Operator Mixing and Quasinormal Modes on the Brane

We provide a framework for calculating holographic Green's functions from general bilinear actions and fields obeying coupled differential equations in the bulk. The matrix-valued spectral function is shown to be independent of the radial bulk coordinate. Applying this framework we improve the analysis of fluctuations in the D3/D7 system at finite baryon density, where the longitudinal perturbations of the world-volume gauge field couple to the scalar fluctuations of the brane embedding. We compute the spectral function and show how its properties are related to the quasinormal mode spectrum. We study the crossover from the hydrodynamic diffusive to the reactive regime and the movement of quasinormal modes as functions of temperature and density. We also compute their dispersion relations and find that they asymptote to the lightcone for large momenta.

Matthias Kaminski; Karl Landsteiner; Javier Mas; Jonathan P. Shock; Javier Tarrio

2009-11-18

328

Instanton Bags, High Density Holographic QCD and Chiral Symmetry Restoration

We describe the simplest example of an instanton bag in Euclidean space. It consists of a monopole wall and a Kaluza-Klein monopole wall, lifted to one higher dimension, trapping the instanton charge in the middle. This object has finite instanton density in a three-dimensional volume. Baryon physics in holographic QCD models gets translated into a multi-instanton problem in the bulk, and a state with a high density baryonic charge consists of a non-diluted multi-instanton solution. The instanton bag is a good candidate for this high-density state. We compute its parameters via moduli stabilization. Chiral symmetry restoration is exhibited by this state, and it is a direct consequence of its non-diluted features.

S. Bolognesi

2014-10-16

329

Instanton bags, high density holographic QCD, and chiral symmetry restoration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the simplest example of an instanton bag in Euclidean space. It consists of a monopole wall and a Kaluza-Klein monopole wall, lifted to one higher dimension, trapping the instanton charge in the middle. This object has finite instanton density in a three-dimensional volume. Baryon physics in holographic QCD models gets translated into a multi-instanton problem in the bulk, and a state with a high density baryonic charge consists of a nondiluted multi-instanton solution. The instanton bag is a good candidate for this high-density state. We compute its parameters via moduli stabilization. Chiral symmetry restoration is exhibited by this state, and it is a direct consequence of its nondiluted features.

Bolognesi, S.

2014-11-01

330

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic heating created by gaps in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle. The effects of various parameters of the RSI on convective heating characteristics are described. The wind tunnel tests provided a data base for accurate assessment of gap heating. Analysis and correlation of the data provide methods for predicting heating in the RSI gaps on the space shuttle.

Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

1974-01-01

331

Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1)_R symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1)_F symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are spontaneously broken, and their lifting when the breaking is explicit. We further comment on the application of such class of backgrounds as archetypes of strongly coupled hidden sectors for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In particular, we show that it is possible to model in this way all types of hierarchies between the visible sector gaugino and sfermion masses.

Riccardo Argurio; Daniele Musso; Diego Redigolo

2014-11-10

332

Phase structures of holographic screen thermodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic screens are the generalization of the event horizon of a black hole in entropic force scheme, which are defined by setting Newton potential ? constant, i.e. e2? = c = const. We demonstrate that the integrated first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to the (r-r) component of Einstein equations, so that we strengthen the correspondence between thermodynamics and gravity. We show that there are not only the first law of thermodynamics, but also kinds of phase transitions of holographic screens. These phase transitions are characterized by the discontinuity of their heat capacities. In (n+1)-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) spacetime, we analyze three kinds of phase transitions, which are of the holographic screens with Q = 0 (charge), constant ? (electrostatic potential) and nonzero constant Q. In the Q = 0 case, only the holographic screens with 0?c<1 can undergo phase transition. In the constant ? case, the constraints become as 0<= c+16˜ {? }2? 2<1, where ˜ {? } is a dimensional-dependent parameter. By verifying the Ehrenfest equations, we show that the phase transitions in this case are all second order phase transitions. In the constant Q case, there might be two, or one, or no phase transitions of holographic screens, depending on the values of Q and c.

Jiang, Wei-Jian; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Jian-Long

2014-07-01

333

Laser holographic precise micropressure measuring system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To take a large and high-grade hologram, have been numerous scientific workers' interested topics. Since the stability of the holographic plate, objective table's stability, object's stability, optical elements' stabilities, etc, aren't easily supervised and controlled precisely, the laser holographic technique has progressed at a slow pace. Precise micropressure measuring system, an application of laser technology, is introduced as a method for monitoring holographic plates' stability. This system firstly brings the pressure sensor into the laser holographic experiments, and uses the soft Kingview to design the programs for controlling the pressure sensor, so that the system can real-time monitoring and real-time adjusting the laser holographic plates' stability. Being verified by experiments, this experiment has achieved good results, for example, making a larger hologram, saving the time taken from the original 1-2 days to present of 0.5-1.5 hours, that is to say those above-mentioned measures raise the success rate of making large holograms to some extent.

Wang, Yun-Zhi

2011-06-01

334

The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.

Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.

1993-02-01

335

From spacetime foam to holographic foam cosmology

Due to quantum fluctuations, spacetime is foamy on small scales. For maximum spatial resolution of the geometry of spacetime, the holographic model of spacetime foam stipulates that the uncertainty or fluctuation of distance $l$ is given, on the average, by $(l l_P^2)^{1/3}$ where $l_P$ is the Planck length. Applied to cosmology, it predicts that the cosmic energy is of critical density and the cosmic entropy is the maximum allowed by the holographic principle. In addition, it requires the existence of unconventional (dark) energy/matter and accelerating cosmic expansion in the present era. We will argue that a holographic foam cosmology of this type has the potential to become a full fledged competitor (with distinct testable consequences) for scalar driven inflation.

Michele Arzano; Thomas W. Kephart; Y. Jack Ng

2006-05-22

336

Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

Alex Buchel; Umut Gursoy; Elias Kiritsis

2011-04-11

337

High speed holographic cine-recorder

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air Force Research Laboratory and North Dancer Labs researchers have completed the initial development and transition to operational use of a high-speed holographic movie system. This paper documents the first fully operational use of a novel and unique experimental capability for high-speed holographic movies and high-speed cinema interferometry. In this paper we document the initial experiments that were performed with the High Speed Holographic Recorder (HSHR) at the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory Site at Eglin, AFB, Florida. These experiments were performed to assess the possibilities for high-speed cine-laser holography combined with high-speed videography to document the formation and propagation of plumes of materials created by impact of high-speed projectiles. This paper details the development of the experimental procedures and initial results of this new tool. After successful integration and testing the system was delivered to Arnold Engineering Development Center.

Snyder, Donald; Watts, David; Gordon, Joseph; Lysogorski, Charles; Powers, Aaron; Perry, John; Chenette, Eugene; Hudson, Roger; Young, Raymond

2005-08-01

338

Charged Rényi entropies and holographic superconductors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged Rényi entropies were recently introduced as a measure of entanglement between different charge sectors of a theory. We investigate the phase structure of charged Rényi entropies for CFTs with a light, charged scalar operator. The charged Rényi entropies are calculated holographically via areas of charged hyperbolic black holes. These black holes can become unstable to the formation of scalar hair at sufficiently low temperature; this is the holographic superconducting instability in hyperbolic space. This implies that the Rényi entropies can be non-analytic in the Rényi parameter n. We find the onset of this instability as a function of the charge and dimension of the scalar operator. We also comment on the relation between the phase structure of these entropies and the phase structure of a holographic superconductor in flat space.

Belin, Alexandre; Hung, Ling-Yan; Maloney, Alexander; Matsuura, Shunji

2015-01-01

339

Fourier-transform holographic microscope

We describe a holographic microscope with a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. The instrument uses a tiny drop of glycerol as a lens to create the spherically diverging reference illumination necessary for Fourier-transform holography. Measurement of the point-spread function, which is obtained by imaging a knife edge in dark-field illumination, indicates a transverse resolution of 1.4 {mu}m with wavelength {lambda} = 514.5 nm. Longitudinal resolution is obtained from the holograms by the numerical equivalent of optical sectioning. We describe the method of reconstruction and demonstrate the microscope's capability with selected biological specimens. The instrument offers two unique capabilities: (1) it can collect three-dimensional information in a single pulse of light, avoiding specimen damage and bleaching; and (2) it can record three-dimensional motion pictures from a series of light pulses. The conceptual design is applicable to a broad range of wavelengths and we discuss extension to the x-ray regime.

Haddad, W.S.; Cullen, D.; Longworth, J.W.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C.K. (MCR Technology Corporation, P.O. Box 10084, Chicago, Illinois 60610-0084 (United States)); Solem, J.C. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B210, Los Alamos, N. M. 87545 (United States))

1992-08-20

340

A holographic quantum Hall ferromagnet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed numerical study of a recent proposal for exotic states of the D3-probe D5 brane system with charge density and an external magnetic field is presented. The state has a large number of coincident D5 branes blowing up to a D7 brane in the presence of the worldvolume electric and magnetic fields which are necessary to construct the holographic state. Numerical solutions have shown that these states can compete with the the previously known chiral symmetry breaking and maximally symmetric phases of the D3-D5 system. Moreover, at integer filling fractions, they are incompressible with integer quantized Hall conductivities. In the dual superconformal defect field theory, these solutions correspond to states which break the chiral and global flavor symmetries spontaneously. The region of the temperature-density plane where the D7 brane has lower energy than the other known D5 brane solutions is identified. A hypothesis for the structure of states with filling fraction and Hall conductivity greater than one is made and tested by numerical computation. A parallel with the quantum Hall ferromagnetism or magnetic catalysis phenomenon which is observed in graphene is drawn. As well as demonstrating that the phenomenon can exist in a strongly coupled system, this work makes a number of predictions of symmetry breaking patterns and phase transitions for such systems.

Kristjansen, C.; Pourhasan, R.; Semenoff, G. W.

2014-02-01

341

The relation between the hadronic short-distance constituent quark and gluon particle limit and the long-range confining domain is yet one of the most challenging aspects of particle physics due to the strong coupling nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. The central question is how one can compute hadronic properties from first principles; i.e., directly from the QCD Lagrangian. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time. Lattice numerical results follow from computation of frame-dependent moments of distributions in Euclidean space and dynamical observables in Minkowski spacetime, such as the time-like hadronic form factors, are not amenable to Euclidean lattice computations. The Dyson-Schwinger methods have led to many important insights, such as the infrared fixed point behavior of the strong coupling constant, but in practice, the analyses are limited to ladder approximation in Landau gauge. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. New theoretical tools are thus of primary interest for the interpretation of the results expected at the new mass scale and kinematic regions accessible to the JLab 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gravity or string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and conformal field theories in physical space-time has led to a semiclassical approximation for strongly-coupled QCD, which provides physical insights into its nonperturbative dynamics. The correspondence is holographic in the sense that it determines a duality between theories in different number of space-time dimensions. This geometric approach leads in fact to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian 'Light-Front Holography'. Light-Front Holography is in fact one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The Hamiltonian equation of motion in the light-front (LF) is frame independent and has a structure similar to eigenmode equations in AdS space. This makes a direct connection of QCD with AdS/CFT methods possible. Remarkably, the AdS equations correspond to the kinetic energy terms of the partons inside a hadron, whereas the interaction terms build confinement and correspond to the truncation of AdS space in an effective dual gravity approximation. One can also study the gauge/gravity duality starting from the bound-state structure of hadrons in QCD quantized in the light-front. The LF Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian equation for the relativistic bound-state system is P{sub {mu}}P{sup {mu}}|{psi}(P)> = (P{sup +}P{sup -} - P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2})|{psi}(P)> = M{sup 2}|{psi}(P)>, P{sup {+-}} = P{sup 0} {+-} P{sup 3}, where the LF time evolution operator P{sup -} is determined canonically from the QCD Lagrangian. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this leads to a LF Hamiltonian equation which describes the bound-state dynamics of light hadrons in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the partons within the hadron at equal light-front time {tau} = x{sup 0} + x{sup 3}. This allows us to identify the holographic variable z in AdS space with an impact variable {zeta}. The resulting Lorentz-invariant Schroedinger equation for general spin incorporates color confinement and is systematically improvable. Light-front holographic methods were originally introduced by matching the electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding expression using LF theory in physical space time. It was also shown that one obtains identical holographic mapping using the matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor by perturbing the AdS metric around its static solution. A gravity dual to QCD is not known, but th

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

2012-02-16

342

Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings

The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional ``view`` windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.

Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.

1994-03-01

343

Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional `view' windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.

Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, Reto; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, Steven E.; Rubin, Michael

1994-09-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous ribbons of different thicknesses of Co64.5Fe3.5Si16B14Ni2 alloy were synthesized using the melt spinning technique by varying wheel speed. The effect of cooling rate on the ribbon thickness and their soft magnetic properties have been studied. The amorphous structure has been characterized in terms of structural free volume and medium range order (MRO) by positron annihilation spectroscopy and fluctuation electron microscopy techniques. Positron lifetime spectra of amorphous samples showed two lifetime components. The first component was found to be correlated with MRO whereas, the second lifetime component was found to be associated with nanovoid type of defects, and the second component was strongly dependent on processing conditions. It could be established that the coercivity of the amorphous samples produced by the rapid solidification technique mainly depends on the defects formed during processing rather than change induced in MRO.

Srivastava, A. P.; Srivastava, D.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Majumdar, B.; Suresh, K. G.; Dey, G. K.

2012-08-01

345

Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ?> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ? 20-40 found in the ?CDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2? CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H{sub 0} = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms{sup ?1}Mpc{sup ?1}) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between ?{sub m}h{sup 3} and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of ?{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP+HST}??{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP} is 7.8 in the ?CDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding ??{sup 2} is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison, the Union2.1 data set is consistent with these three data sets, but the combination Union2.1+BAO+HST is in tension with Plank+WP+lensing, corresponding to a large ??{sup 2} that is equal to 8.6 (1.4% probability). Thus, combining internal inconsistent data sets (SNIa+BAO+HST with Plank+WP+lensing) can lead to ambiguous results, and it is necessary to perform the HDE data analysis for each independent data sets. Our tightest self-consistent constraint is c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Plank+WP+BAO+HST+lensing.

Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Xiao-Dong [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Hoegiro 87, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Yin-Zhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z1, BC Canada (Canada); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: xiaodongli@kias.re.kr, E-mail: mayinzhe@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangzhh@itp.ac.cn [College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

2013-09-01

346

Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l gtrsim 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l simeq 20-40 found in the ?CDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2? CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H0 = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms-1Mpc-1) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between ?mh3 and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of ?2Plank+WP+HST-?2Plank+WP is 7.8 in the ?CDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding ??2 is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison, the Union2.1 data set is consistent with these three data sets, but the combination Union2.1+BAO+HST is in tension with Plank+WP+lensing, corresponding to a large ??2 that is equal to 8.6 (1.4% probability). Thus, combining internal inconsistent data sets (SNIa+BAO+HST with Plank+WP+lensing) can lead to ambiguous results, and it is necessary to perform the HDE data analysis for each independent data sets. Our tightest self-consistent constraint is c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Plank+WP+BAO+HST+lensing.

Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhenhui

2013-09-01

347

Purpose To evaluate the effects of prostatic anatomical factors on male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and the peak flow rate (Qmax) in patients with small prostate volume (PV). Materials and Methods Records were obtained from a prospectively maintained database of first-visit men with LUTS. Patients whose total PV (TPV) was greater than 30 mL were excluded; 444 patients were enrolled in the study. The TPV, transitional zone volume (TZV), transitional zone index (TZI), intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), and prostatic urethral angle (PUA) were measured by transrectal ultrasonography. LUTS were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) questionnaires. Uroflowmetric measurements were also made. Results PUA (r?=?0.269, P<0.001), TZV (r?=?0.160, P<0.001), and TZI (r?=?0.109, P?=?0.022) significantly correlated with the IPSS. Qmax (r?=??0.334, P<0.001) and OABSS (r?=?0.211, P<0.001) correlated only with PUA. In a multivariate regression analysis, PUA and age were independently associated with IPSS, OABSS, and Qmax. For IPSS of 20 or greater, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PUA was 0.667 and the cut-off value was 43.7°. When Qmax was 10 mL/s or less, the AUC of PUA was 0.664 and the cut-off value was 43.5°. Conclusions PUA has a significant association with symptom severity and Qmax among prostatic anatomical factors analyzed in men with LUTS and small PV. PUA should be considered as an important clinical factor in male LUTS management. Furthermore, the impact of PUA on response to medical treatment and disease progression needs to be investigated. PMID:25127394

Kang, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Joo Yong; Hah, Yoon Soo; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Cho, Kang Su

2014-01-01

348

Real-time holographic surveillance system

A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

1995-10-03

349

Parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy

We propose parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy (PPSDHM) which has the ability of three-dimensional (3-D) motion measurement using space-division multiplexing technique. By the PPSDHM, instantaneous information of both the 3-D structure and the phase distributions of specimens can be simultaneously acquired with a single-shot exposure. We constructed a parallel phase-shifting digital holographic microscope consisting of an optical interferometer and an image sensor on which micro polarizers are attached pixel by pixel. The validity of the PPSDHM was experimentally verified by demonstrating the single-shot 3-D imaging and phase-imaging ability of the constructed microscope. PMID:21258494

Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Kenichi; Kakue, Takashi; Fujii, Motofumi; Shimozato, Yuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

2010-01-01

350

DBI equations and holographic DC conductivity

We provide a simple method for writing the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) equations of a Dp-brane in an arbitrary static background whose metric depends only on the holographic radial coordinate z. Using this method we revisit the Karch-O'Bannon procedure to calculate the DC conductivity in the presence of constant electric and magnetic fields for backgrounds where the boundary is four or three dimensional and satisfies Galilean symmetry. We find an original expression for the conductivity tensor in 2+1 dimensions. For particular backgrounds we recover previous results on holographic metals and strange metals.

Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Otoya, Victor J Vasquez

2013-01-01

351

Holographic superconductors from the massive gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite dc conductivity, the ac conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power-law fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.

Zeng, Hua Bi; Wu, Jian-Pin

2014-08-01

352

Holographic RG flows with nematic IR phases

We construct zero-temperature geometries that interpolate between a Lifshitz fixed point in the UV and an IR phase that breaks spatial rotations but preserves translations. We work with a simple holographic model describing two massive gauge fields coupled to gravity and a neutral scalar. Our construction can be used to describe RG flows in non-relativistic, strongly coupled quantum systems with nematic order in the IR. In particular, when the dynamical critical exponent of the UV fixed point is z=2 and the IR scaling exponents are chosen appropriately, our model realizes holographically the scaling properties of the bosonic modes of the quadratic band crossing model.

Cremonini, Sera; Rong, Junchen; Sun, Kai

2014-01-01

353

Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy.

Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk, E-mail: mufarooq@yahoo.com [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)

2010-03-01

354

Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

Sheen, David M. (1917 Hood, Richland, WA 99352); Collins, H. Dale (1751 Duluth, Richland, WA 99352); Hall, Thomas E. (8301 W. Entiat Pl., Kennewick, WA 99336); McMakin, Douglas L. (2173 Shasta Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Gribble, R. Parks (1215 Cottonwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Severtsen, Ronald H. (1803 Birch Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Prince, James M. (3029 W. 2nd Ave., Apt. F95, Kennewick, WA 99336); Reid, Larry D. (Rt. 1, Box 1291B, Benton City, WA 99320)

1996-01-01

355

Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide

This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.

Griggs, D.

1993-10-01

356

Holographic superconductors from the massive gravity

A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite DC conductivity, the AC conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power law-fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.

Hua Bi Zeng; Jian-Pin Wu

2014-09-24

357

Holographic cold nuclear matter and neutron star

We have previously found a new phase of cold nuclear matter based on a holographic gauge theory, where baryons are introduced as instanton gas in the probe D8/$\\overline{\\rm D8}$ branes. In our model, we could obtain the equation of state (EOS) of our nuclear matter by introducing fermi momentum. Then, here we apply this model to the neutron star and study its mass and radius by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations in terms of the EOS given here. We give some comments for our holographic model from a viewpoint of the other field theoretical approaches.

Kazuo Ghoroku; Kouki Kubo; Motoi Tachibana; Fumihiko Toyoda

2014-02-19

358

Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy

The holographic dark energy (HDE) is now an interesting candidate of dark energy, which has been studied extensively in the literature. In the derivation of HDE, the black hole entropy plays an important role. In fact, the entropy-area relation can be modified due to loop quantum gravity or other reasons. With the modified entropy-area relation, we propose the so-called ``entropy-corrected holographic dark energy'' (ECHDE) in the present work. We consider many aspects of ECHDE and find some interesting results. In addition, we briefly consider the so-called ``entropy-corrected agegraphic dark energy'' (ECADE).

Hao Wei

2009-09-07

359

On the Holographic Nature Of Rindler Energy

We show that the dimensionless Rindler energy of a black hole, $E_R$, is exactly the surface Hamiltonian obtained from the Einstein--Hilbert action evaluated on the horizon. Therefore, $E_R$ is given by a surface integral over the horizon and manifestly holographic. In the context of the AdS/CFT duality, Rindler energy corresponds, on the boundary, to a dimensionless energy given by the product of the AdS radius and the extensive part of the CFT energy. We find that, beyond General Relativity, $E_R$ is still holographic but not necessarily given by the surface Hamiltonian of the theory.

Edi Halyo

2014-06-22

360

Evolution of Holographic n-partite Information

We study various scaling behaviors of n-partite information during a process of thermalization after a global quantum quench for n disjoint system consisting of n parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. By making use of the holographic description for entanglement entropy we explore holographic description of the n-partite information by which we show that it has a definite sign: it is positive for even n and negative for odd n. This might be thought of as an intrinsic property of a field theory which has gravity dual.

Mohsen Alishahiha; M. Reza Mohammadi Mozaffar; Mohammad Reza Tanhayi

2014-07-09

361

Digital holographic printing using pulsed RGB lasers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-step digital holographic printing system based on RGB pulsed-laser technology is described. The system is capable of writing full-color composite digital reflection holograms and composite digital holographic optical elements up to a size of 1.0 m×1.5 m at hogel sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2 mm. We also show how the same pulsed-laser technology may be used to generate fast high-quality copies of such holograms. Both silver halide and photopolymer materials are used.

Brotherton-Ratcliffe, David; Zacharovas, Stanislovas J.; Bakanas, Ramunas J.; Pileckas, Julius; Nikolskij, Andrej; Kuchin, Jevgenij

2011-09-01

362

Holographic currents and Chern-Simons terms

Holographic currents and their associated Ward identities are derived in the framework of gravity/gauge duality. Holographic improvements of the energy-momentum tensor and R-symmetry current which are consistent with the Ward identities are displayed. The effects of specific string loop corrections to the bulk action are included as four derivative effective Lagrangian terms and their contributions to the trace and R-symmetry anomalies of the boundary theory are determined. As an example, the construction is applied to the N=2 conformal supergravity which is taken to be dual to a boundary SU(N)xSU(N), N=1 superconformal field theory.

Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2036 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55105-1899 (United States)

2010-11-15

363

Duplicate carefully-characterized municipal solid waste (MSW) specimens were reconstituted with waste constituents obtained from a MSW landfill and biodegraded in large-scale landfill simulators for about a year. Repeatability and relationships between changes in physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics taking place during the biodegradation process were evaluated. Parameters such as rate of change of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the leachate (rsCOD), rate of methane generation (rCH4), rate of specimen volume reduction (rVt), DNA concentration in the leachate, and archaeal community structures in the leachate and solid waste were monitored during operation. The DNA concentration in the leachate was correlated to rCH4 and rVt. The rCH4 was related to rsCOD and rVt when waste biodegradation was intensive. The structures of archaeal communities in the leachate and solid waste of both simulators were very similar and Methanobacteriaceae were the dominant archaeal family throughout the testing period. Monitoring the chemical and microbial characteristics of the leachate was informative of the biodegradation process and volume reduction in the simulators, suggesting that leachate monitoring could be informative of the extent of biodegradation in a full-scale landfill. PMID:25481695

Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

2014-12-01

364

Design of computer-generated holographic diffraction optics element used for holographic sight

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to computer-generate holographic theory, a diffraction optics element used for holographic sight is designed by modified off-axis reference beam coding method. This diffraction optical element is composed by an off-axis Fresnel holographic lens. The spherical wave light from LD is parallel by this element. The light filter and compensation function of diffraction grating can also be replaced by this element. The fabrication of this diffraction optics element is not limited by the recording optic system. Mirrors and lenses are replaced by this element so that the reproducing optical path is simplified and the stability of the device is improved. A matlab program is used to simulate the hologram. Theoretical simulation results show that the precision of sight can be improved with the virtue of low aberration and high matching to holographic sighting window.

Liu, Ying; Li, Zhuan; Li, Hua; Li, Ping-ping; Ding, Yan-song

2012-10-01

365

Meson wave function from holographic models

We consider the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence, as has been suggested by Brodsky and Teramond. Two kinds of wave functions, obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall models, are discussed.

Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2009-09-01

366

Stroboscopic holographic interferometry - Application of digital techniques

Stroboscopic holographic interferometry is a very powerful tool for study of vibrating objects. It is shown how its capabilities can be extended by applying digital techniques to make real-time measurements of the optical path differences at a uniformly spaced array of points covering the interference pattern. Areas vibrating in antiphase can be identified clearly, and a three-dimensional displacement map of

P. Hariharan; B. F. Oreb

1986-01-01

367

CCMR: Holographic Lithography for Tissue Engineering Applications

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Present methods and materials for scaffold fabrication are good on many counts, but are often slow, and no present method results in very fine control of scaffold structure. With those shortcomings in mind, I investigated the applicability of holographic lithography, a laser interference patterning technique previously used predominantly to fabricate photonic crystals, for making tissue engineering scaffolds.

Odlyzko, Michael

2007-08-29

368

Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

Erf, R. K.

1974-01-01

369

The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain…

Jones, James R.

370

Absorption lengths in the holographic plasma

We consider the effect of a periodic perturbation with frequency omega on the holographic Script N = 4 plasma represented by the planar AdS black hole. The response of the system is given by exponentially decaying waves. The corresponding complex wave numbers can be found by solving wave equations in the AdS black hole background with infalling boundary conditions on

Irene Amado; Carlos Hoyos; Karl Landsteiner; Sergio Montero

2007-01-01

371

Creating a three dimensional holographic movie

An experimental study was carried out on the ability to create a three-dimensional holographic movie. Holograms were written on VRP-M emulsion film with the green line of an Argon-Ion laser. The type of hologram write setup ...

Guerra, Marvin J

2008-01-01

372

Holographic superconductors in a rotating spacetime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider holographic superconductors in a rotating black string spacetime. In view of the mandatory introduction of the $A_\\varphi$ component of the vector potential we are left with three equations to be solved. Their solutions show that the effect of the rotating parameter $a$ influences the critical temperature $T_c$ and the conductivity $\\sigma$ in a simple but not trivial way.

Lin, Kai; Abdalla, E.

2014-11-01

373

Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

1976-01-01

374

Industrial Use Of Holographic Nondestructive Testing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic interferometry is more and more used in industry as a nondestructive testing method. It is competing with conventional testing methods, which are limited in use, especially when dealing with composites and reinforced materials. One has to refuse the opinion, that the application of holographic interferometry demands specially qualified personnel with long-time training. "Press button"-apparatus are proving, that serial testing can be performed by semiskilled operators even today. The examples, presented in the following text, are mainly suitable for three important fields of application: 1. The best known application of holographic interferometry is the nondestructive testing. For some tasks testing automata are constructed, that only for operation and interpretation of the interferogram need semiskilled operators. The examples shown here mainly relate to adhesive joints and reinforced plastics. 2. An important field of application of holographic interferometry is the optimization during the construction process, which is done to a great extent in the development laboratories of great companies. 3. Another wide field of application is the vibration analysis as a tool for noise reduction at motor vehicles and machines or for (preventive) damage analysis at turbine blades.

Rottenkolber, H.; Schorner, J.; Juptner, W.

1983-12-01

375

On the origin of the holographic principle

It was recently suggested that quantum mechanics and gravity are not fundamental but emerge from information loss at causal horizons. On the basis of the formalism the holographic principle is also shown to arise naturally from the loss of information about bulk fields observed by an outside observer. As an application, Witten's prescription is derived.

Jae-Weon Lee

2011-07-18

376

Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas

A microwave holographic technique for the determination of amplitude and phase of the principal and cross-polarized aperture fields of large reflector antennas is described. The hologram formation process utilizes the elevation over azimuth scanning system normally associated with these antennas, and, in this respect, appears to be unique among other proposed methods of field probing. The present work describes the

J. Bennett; A. Anderson; P. McInnes; A. Whitaker

1976-01-01

377

Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for determining temperature and concentration in crystal growth experiments designed for space. The method measures refractive index changes within the fluid of an experimental test cell resulting from temperature and/or concentration changes. When the refractive index changes are caused by simultaneous temperature and concentration changes, the contributions of the two effects cannot be separated by single wavelength interferometry. By using two wavelengths, however, two independent interferograms can provide the additional independent equation required to determine the two unknowns. There is no other technique available that provides this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort were to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry (TCHI) and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. In the foregoing study, the theory of TCHI has been tested experimentally over a range of interest for materials processing in space where measurements of temperature and concentration in a solution are required. New techniques were developed and applied to stretch the limits beyond what could be done with existing procedures. The study resulted in the production of one of the most advanced, enhanced sensitivity holographic interferometers in existence. The interferometric measurements made at MSFC represent what is believed to be the most accurate holographic interferometric measurements made in a fluid to date. The tests have provided an understanding of the limitations of the technique in practical use.

Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.

1995-01-01

378

The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings

We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study,

K. Papamichael; L. Beltran; R. Furler; E. S. Lee; S. Selkowitz; M. Rubin

1993-01-01

379

, with applications ranging from optical manipulation9Â13 to adaptive optics14. Here we extend their use to produce the excitation volume shape to be tailored precisely, the holographic microscope provides an extremely flexible, these new optical methods have had a notable impact in neuroscience. A commonly used approach

Cai, Long

380

Pattern Classification Using Correlation with Random Mask

An optical apparatus for the pattern classification consisting of two steps of training and classification was made. Holographic cross-correlation of training patterns with a random mask was used to make the filters for classification. Although the error of classification was 13% in this experiment, a computer simulation of the optical method which gave a completely correct classification showed the effectiveness

Toyohiko Yatagai; Satoshi Ishihara; Hisatoyo Kato; Shun-ichi Tanaka

1972-01-01

381

Cooling a Band Insulator with a Metal: Fermionic Superfluid in a Dimerized Holographic Lattice

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold atomic realization of a quantum correlated state of many fermions on a lattice, eg. superfluid, has eluded experimental realization due to the entropy problem. Here we propose a route to realize such a state using holographic lattice and confining potentials. The potentials are designed to produces a band insulating state (low heat capacity) at the trap center, and a metallic state (high heat capacity) at the periphery. The metal ``cools'' the central band insulator by extracting out the excess entropy. The central band insulator can be turned into a superfluid by tuning an attractive interaction between the fermions. Crucially, the holographic lattice allows the emergent superfluid to have a high transition temperature - even twice that of the effective trap temperature. The scheme provides a promising route to a laboratory realization of a fermionic lattice superfluid, even while being adaptable to simulate other many body states.

Haldar, Arijit; Shenoy, Vijay B.

2014-10-01

382

Three dimensional imaging of translucent objects using volume holographic techniques

Plankton is a primitive form of one or several-celled organism that lives in the sea. Its behavior, its formation, and the various life patterns, when monitored, reveals a wealth of information about the sea. Three dimensional ...

Shih, Tina, 1982-

2004-01-01

383

A 6-beam combiner using superimposed volume index holographic gratings

&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Philip Hemmer (Chair of Committee) Henry F. Taylor (Member) Prasad Enjeti (Member) Gerard... and concerns of my committee: Dr. Henry F. Taylor, Dr. Prasad Enjeti, Dr. Gerard Cote. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT???????..?????...?????????????.???iii DEDICATION??????????....???????..????????.??v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

Yum, HoNam

2005-11-01

384

Holographic optical elements and grazing incidence mirrors in XUV region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to X-ray optics has been proposed, based on single-step holographic fabrication of highly-efficient X-ray diffraction elements. These elements include holographic gratings and mirrors, slanted (non-Snellian) mirrors, uniform and chirped gratings, holographic optical elements (HOE's), lenses, and beam splitters which effectively demonstrated the proof of concept of POC's holographic technologies. In our approach, the holographic recording of the interference patterns produced by two (or more) coherent electromagnetic waves are used to create the desired transmission and reflection Bragg holographic structures which can perform various non-conventional operations in the XUV region (soft X-ray and EUV, from 1 to 100nm).

Jannson, Tomasz P.

385

The Holographic Dual of AdS3 x S3 x S3 x S1

We construct the two dimensional N=(0,4) gauge theory that lives on the world volume of D1-branes and intersecting D5-branes. We conjecture that this theory flows in the infra-red to a fixed point with large N=(4,4) superconformal symmetry. The central charge of the conformal field theory is shown to coincide with the holographic dual of string theory compactified on AdS3 x S3 x S3 x S1.

David Tong

2014-02-20

386

Chemical potential in the first law for holographic entanglement entropy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement entropy in conformal field theories is known to satisfy a first law. For spherical entangling surfaces, this has been shown to follow via the AdS/CFT correspondence and the holographic prescription for entanglement entropy from the bulk first law for Killing horizons. The bulk first law can be extended to include variations in the cosmological constant ?, which we established in earlier work. Here we show that this implies an extension of the boundary first law to include varying the number of degrees of freedom of the boundary CFT. The thermodynamic potential conjugate to ? in the bulk is called the thermodynamic volume and has a simple geometric formula. In the boundary first law it plays the role of a chemical potential. For the bulk minimal surface ? corresponding to a boundary sphere, the thermodynamic volume is found to be proportional to the area of ?, in agreement with the variation of the known result for entanglement entropy of spheres. The dependence of the CFT chemical potential on the entanglement entropy and number of degrees of freedom is similar to how the thermodynamic chemical potential of an ideal gas depends on entropy and particle number.

Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

2014-11-01

387

Chemical Potential in the First Law for Holographic Entanglement Entropy

Entanglement entropy in conformal field theories is known to satisfy a first law. For spherical entangling surfaces, this has been shown to follow via the AdS/CFT correspondence and the holographic prescription for entanglement entropy from the bulk first law for Killing horizons. The bulk first law can be extended to include variations in the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, which we established in earlier work. Here we show that this implies an extension of the boundary first law to include varying the number of degrees of freedom of the boundary CFT. The thermodynamic potential conjugate to $\\Lambda$ in the bulk is called the thermodynamic volume and has a simple geometric formula. In the boundary first law it plays the role of a chemical potential. For the bulk minimal surface $\\Sigma$ corresponding to a boundary sphere, the thermodynamic volume is found to be proportional to the area of $\\Sigma$, in agreement with the variation of the known result for entanglement entropy of spheres. The dependence of the CFT chemical potential on the entanglement entropy and number of degrees of freedom is similar to how the thermodynamic chemical potential of an ideal gas depends on entropy and particle number.

David Kastor; Sourya Ray; Jennie Traschen

2014-09-11

388

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of crucial cellular functions as migration, intracellular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis and force generation. The highly dynamic actin fibers are therefore targets for several drugs and toxins. However the study of actin interfering processes by standard microscopy techniques fails in the detailed resolution of dynamic spatial alterations required for a deeper understanding of toxic effects. Here we applied digital holographic microscopy in the online functional analysis of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting marine toxin Latrunculin B. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed rapid Latrunculin B induced alterations in cell morphology and actin fiber degradation in pancreas tumor cells. The dynamic digital holographic in vivo analysis of the drug dependent cellular processes demonstrated differences in the actin cytoskeleton stability of highly differentiated and dedifferentiated pancreas tumor cell lines. The spatial resolution of the morphological alterations revealed unequal changes in cell morphology. While cells with a low metastatic potential showed Latrunculin B induced cell collapse within 4 h the metastatic tumor cells were increased in cell volume indicating Latrunculin B effects also on cell water content. These data demonstrate that marker free, non-destructive online analysis of cellular morphology and dynamic spatial processes in living cells by digital holography offers new insights in actin dependent cellular mechanisms. Digital holographic microscopy was shown to be a versatile tool in the screening of toxic drug effects and cancer cell biology.

Schnekenburger, Juergen; Bredebusch, Ilona; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Domschke, Wolfram; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn

2007-07-01

389

Holographic and mathematical modeling methods for biomechanical stomatological investigation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the mathematical calculations for the tooth bridge prostheses are discussed. Holographic interferometry with double exposition is used for verification of the model calculation results.

Vorobyev, Victor A.; Vitrik, Oleg B.; Gusev, Mikhail E.; Bukayev, Murat F.; Malov, Alexander N.; Alexeenko, Igor V.; Kuzmina, Elena V.; Soboleva, Nataly N.; Vitrik, Yana I.; Vigovsky, Yury N.; Levit, Vasily V.; Qutyakova, Nataly V.; Malov, Sergey N.; Antonyuk, Serge V.

2003-06-01

390

Resonant holographic interferometry with ZnTe:V:Mn

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photorefractive semiconductor ZnTe:V:Mn is investigated for use in real-time resonant holographic interferometry applications. Experimental results of two-wave and four-wave mixing with pulsed dye and cw diode lasers are presented; in addition holographic image transfer, as well as two-wavelength resonant holographic interferometry, are demonstrated. Species-specific interferograms of potassium seeded into various combustion environments are captured at video-frame rates. Calculations of the species measurement sensitivity and dynamic range are presented, and design considerations for resonant holographic interferometry systems employing photorefractive materials are outlined.

Millerd, James E.; Brock, Neal J.; Brown, Michael S.; Debarber, Peter A.; Trivedi, Sudhir

1996-09-01

391

Holographic Dual of a Boundary Conformal Field Theory

We propose a holographic dual of a conformal field theory defined on a manifold with boundaries, i.e., boundary conformal field theory (BCFT). Our new holography, which may be called anti-de Sitter BCFT, successfully calculates the boundary entropy or g function in two-dimensional BCFTs and it agrees with the finite part of the holographic entanglement entropy. Moreover, we can naturally derive a holographic g theorem. We also analyze the holographic dual of an interval at finite temperature and show that there is a first order phase transition.

Takayanagi, Tadashi [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-09-02

392

Experimental studies of wide-angle eye holographic recording

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eye holographic recording method with wide-angle illumination of fundus without using cornea contact lens and optical fibers is presented in this paper. A clear holographic eye image in full depth, keeping the original refraction state and illuminating a large area of fundus, was reconstructed from the hologram. In order to avoid problems in arranging and adjusting the optical components, a special-purpose holographic optical element was developed which allowed the eye holographic recording to be implemented with only one collimated beam.

Xu, Shuxiang; Luo, Zhenkun; Xie, Zhongming; Li, Weining; Ma, Ping

1992-04-01

393

Research activities on digital holographic displays in Japan

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, researches on digital holographic 3D display are getting very active as well as the digital holography for 3D image acquisition. This paper reviews recent research activities in Japan, including digital holographic 3D video displays, digital holographic fringe printers and computer-generated holograms. The holographic video display includes 100 megapixel full-color full-parallax display, horizontal scanning display, enlarged viewing angle display. For the fringe printer, laser plotter and tiling systems are introduced. For the computer-generated hologram, various kinds of hologram types are described as well as fast computation methods.

Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

2011-06-01

394

Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope.

An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope. PMID:22191921

Ryle, James P; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T

2011-12-01

395

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Airbus aircraft, spherical plain bearings are used on many components; in particular to link engine to pylon or pylon to wing. Design of bearings is based on contact pressure distribution on spherical surfaces. To determine this distribution, a 3D analysis of the mechanical behaviour of aeronautical plain bearing is presented in this paper. A numerical model has been built and validated from a comparison with 3D experimental measurements of kinematic components. For that, digital volume correlation (DVC) coupled with optical scanning tomography (OST) is employed to study the mechanical response of a plain bearing model made in epoxy resin. Experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained from the simulated model. This comparison enables us to study the influence of various boundary conditions to build the FE model. Some factors have been highlighted like the fitting behaviour which can radically change contact pressure distribution. This work shows the contribution of a representative mechanical environment to study precisely mechanical response of aeronautical plain bearings.

Germaneau, A.; Peyruseigt, F.; Mistou, S.; Doumalin, P.; Dupré, J.-C.

2010-06-01

396

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on transition metal doped ZnO nanoparticles and compares the effects doping with different transition metal ions has on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties. Zn1-xMxO (M=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical process for x=0.02 and 0.05 in powder form. The powders where characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, and magnetometry. The Zn1-xMxO samples showed a strong correlation between changes in the lattice parameters, bandgap energy, and the ferromagnetic saturation magnetization. Unit cell volume and bandgap, determined from XRD and spectrophotometry respectively, were maximized with Fe doping and decreased as the atomic number of the dopant moved away from Fe. Bandgap was generally lower at x=0.05 than x=0.02 for all dopants. The saturation magnetization reached a maximum of 6.38 memu/g for Zn0.95Fe0.05O.

Anghel, J.; Thurber, A.; Tenne, D. A.; Hanna, C. B.; Punnoose, A.

2010-05-01

397

Short-coherence off-axis holographic phase microscopy of live cell dynamics

We demonstrate a single-shot holographic phase microscope that combines short-coherence laser pulses with an off-axis geometry. By introducing a controlled pulse front tilt, ultrashort pulses are made to interfere over a large field-of-view without loss of fringe contrast. With this microscope, quantitative phase images of live cells can be recorded in a full-field geometry without moving parts. We perform phase imaging of HEK293 cells, to study the dynamics of cell volume regulation in response to an osmotic shock. PMID:23024912

Witte, Stefan; Plau?ka, Andrius; Ridder, Margreet C.; van Berge, Laura; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Groot, Marie Louise

2012-01-01

398

Short-coherence off-axis holographic phase microscopy of live cell dynamics.

We demonstrate a single-shot holographic phase microscope that combines short-coherence laser pulses with an off-axis geometry. By introducing a controlled pulse front tilt, ultrashort pulses are made to interfere over a large field-of-view without loss of fringe contrast. With this microscope, quantitative phase images of live cells can be recorded in a full-field geometry without moving parts. We perform phase imaging of HEK293 cells, to study the dynamics of cell volume regulation in response to an osmotic shock. PMID:23024912

Witte, Stefan; Plau?ka, Andrius; Ridder, Margreet C; van Berge, Laura; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Groot, Marie Louise

2012-09-01

399

Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holo- graphic dark energy is included, taken the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated universe flat (de Sitter like expansion) for the two branch: {\\ko} = \\pm1 of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. Manuscript

Norman Cruz; Samuel Lepe; Francisco Peña

2011-09-09

400

Real time 3D holographic display

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article is described a Real Time 3D video display of holographic images based on the principle of sequential scanning of holograms with HPO (horizontal parallax only) generated by a high speed computer and sent at high frame rate to DMD, and visualized by an anamorphic optical group. The device displays binary amplitude and phase modulated images opportunely synchronized and scanned by a galvanometric mirror or polygonal mirror driven by the control electronic circuitry. The elementary holograms are generated by a resident hardware which, through interpolation, generates single elementary holograms starting from images and depth map. The device operates with incoherent light (integral images) or with coherent light (holographic display) by changing the optical visualization group.

Loreti, Luigi; Ceccarelli, R.; Loreti, A.; Borro, A.

2012-03-01

401

Advanced Compact Holographic Data Storage System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Advanced Holographic Memory (AHM) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electro-optic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and highspeed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology to enhance mission capabilities for all NASA's Earth Science Mission. In this paper, recent technology progress in developing this CHDS at JPL will be presented.

Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George

2000-01-01

402

More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions

We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.

Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2010-08-15

403

Transonic flow visualization using holographic interferometry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is made of some of the applications of holographic interferometry to the visualization of transonic flows. In the case of the compressor shock visualization, the method is used regularly and has moved from being a research department invention to a design test tool. With the implementation of automatic processing and simple digitization systems, holographic vibrational analysis has also moved into routine nondestructive testing. The code verification interferograms were instructive, but the main turbomachinery interest is now in 3 dimensional flows. A major data interpretation effort will be required to compute tomographically the 3 dimensional flow around the leading or the trailing edges of a rotating blade row. The bolt on approach shows the potential application to current unsteady flows of interest. In particular that of the rotor passing and vortex interaction effects is experienced by the new generation of unducted fans. The turbocharger tests presents a new area for the application of holography.

Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.

1987-01-01

404

Holographic Optical Storage Using Photorefractive Polymers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task for this report is to perform the basic research and develop a prototype benchtop holographic optical storage system based on photochromic and/or photorefractive polymers so that both permanent and erasable images may be stored and retrieved in the same mixed polymer medium. The task consist of: assembly and setup of the benchtop holographic storage system, including lasers, optics, and other ancillary equipment in a laboratory setting; and research and development of a suitable polymer matrix that will allow practical storage and retrieval of digital data. This will necessitate molecular design of the matrices involved and subsequent physics test to verify the characteristics of the matrices provide practical storage and retrieval.

Hayden, L. Michael; Strutz, Shane J.; Harris, Kristi; Ayachitula, Rajani

2000-01-01

405

Accommodation measurements of horizontally scanning holographic display.

Eye accommodation is considered to function properly for three-dimensional (3D) images generated by holography. We developed a horizontally scanning holographic display technique that enlarges both the screen size and viewing zone angle. A 3D image generated by this technique can be easily seen by both eyes. In this study, we measured the accommodation responses to a 3D image generated by the horizontally scanning holographic display technique that has a horizontal viewing zone angle of 14.6° and screen size of 4.3 in. We found that the accommodation responses to a 3D image displayed within 400 mm from the display screen were similar to those of a real object. PMID:22418148

Takaki, Yasuhiro; Yokouchi, Masahito

2012-02-13

406

Properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures

Experimental results and analysis of properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures formed in photopolymer materials are presented. The theoretical hypotheses is proved that the characteristics of angular selectivity for the considered structures have a set of local maxima, whose number and width are determined by the thicknesses of intermediate layers and deep holograms and that the envelope of the maxima coincides with the selectivity contour of a single holographic array. It is also experimentally shown that hologram nonuniformities substantially distort shapes of selectivity characteristics: they become asymmetric, the local maxima differ in size and the depths of local minima reduce. The modelling results are made similar to experimental data by appropriately choosing the nonuniformity parameters. (imaging and image processing. holography)

Pen, E F; Rodionov, Mikhail Yu [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2010-12-09

407

Holographic entanglement entropy in the nonconformal medium

We investigate holographically the entanglement entropy of a nonconformal medium whose dual geometry is described by an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Due to an additional conserved charge corresponding to the number operator in the dual field theory, its thermodynamics is governed by either a grand canonical or canonical ensemble. We calculate thermodynamic quantities of them by using the holographic renormalization. In addition, we study the entanglement entropy of a nonconformal medium. After defining the entanglement chemical potential analogous to the entanglement temperature, we find that the entanglement entropy of a small subsystem satisfies the relation resembling the first law of thermodynamics for the canonical ensemble. We further show that the entanglement chemical potential, unlike the entanglement temperature, is not universal.

Park, Chanyong

2015-01-01

408

Holographic entanglement entropy in the nonconformal medium

We investigate holographically the entanglement entropy of a nonconformal medium whose dual geometry is described by an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Due to an additional conserved charge corresponding to the number operator in the dual field theory, its thermodynamics is governed by either a grand canonical or canonical ensemble. We calculate thermodynamic quantities of them by using the holographic renormalization. In addition, we study the entanglement entropy of a nonconformal medium. After defining the entanglement chemical potential analogous to the entanglement temperature, we find that the entanglement entropy of a small subsystem satisfies the relation resembling the first law of thermodynamics for the canonical ensemble. We further show that the entanglement chemical potential, unlike the entanglement temperature, is not universal.

Chanyong Park

2015-01-13

409

Very general holographic superconductors and entanglement thermodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct and analyze holographic superconductors with generalized higher derivative couplings, in single R-charged black hole backgrounds in four and five dimensions. These systems, which we call very general holographic superconductors, have multiple tuning parameters and are shown to exhibit a rich phase structure. We establish the phase diagram numerically as well as by computing the free energy, and then validated the results by calculating the entanglement entropy for these systems. The entanglement entropy is shown to be a perfect indicator of the phase diagram. The differences in the nature of the entanglement entropy in R-charged backgrounds compared to the AdS-Schwarzschild cases are pointed out. We also compute the analogue of the entangling temperature for a subclass of these systems and compare the results with non-hairy backgrounds.

Dey, Anshuman; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata

2014-12-01

410

Ginzburg-Landau Approach to Holographic Superconductivity

We construct a family of minimal phenomenological models for holographic superconductors in d=4+1 AdS spacetime and study the effect of scalar and gauge field fluctuations. By making a Ginzburg-Landau interpretation of the dual field theory, we determine through holographic techniques a phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian and the temperature dependence of physical quantities in the superconducting phase. We obtain insight on the behaviour of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter and whether the systems behaves as a Type I or Type II superconductor. Finally, we apply a constant external magnetic field in a perturbative approach following previous work by D'Hoker and Kraus, and obtain droplet solutions which signal the appearance of the Meissner effect.

Aldo Dector

2014-12-01

411

Synfograms: a new generation of holographic applications

The new synthetic Four-dimensional printing technique (Syn4D) Synfogram is introducing time (animation) into spatial configuration of the imprinted three-dimensional shapes. While lenticular solutions offer 2 to 9 stereoscopic images Syn4D offers large format, full colors true 3D visualization printing of 300 to 2500 frames imprinted as holographic dots. This past 2 years Syn4D high-resolution displays proved to be extremely efficient

Odile Meulien Öhlmann; Dietmar Öhlmann; Stanislovas J. Zacharovas

2008-01-01

412

Holographic renormalization of new massive gravity

We study holographic renormalization for three-dimensional new massive gravity. By studying the general falloff conditions for the metric allowed by the model at infinity, we show that at the critical point where the central charges of the dual conformal field theory (CFT) are zero, it contains a leading logarithmic behavior. In the context of AdS\\/CFT correspondence it can be identified

Mohsen Alishahiha; Ali Naseh

2010-01-01

413

A model of holographic dark energy

A model for holographic dark energy is proposed, following the idea that the short distance cut-off is related to the infrared cut-off. We assume that the infrared cut-off relevant to the dark energy is the size of the event horizon. With the input ??=0.73, we predict the equation of state of the dark energy at the present time be characterized

Miao Li

2004-01-01

414

Interacting holographic generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and interacting generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas energy density in flat FRW universe. Then, we reconstruct the potential of the scalar field which describe the generalized cosmic Chaplygin cosmology. In the special case we obtain time-dependent energy density and study cosmological parameters. We find stability condition of this model which is depend on cosmic parameter.

Naji, Jalil

2014-03-01

415

Holographic Superconductivity with Gauss-Bonnet gravity

I review recent work on holographic superconductivity with Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and show how the critical temperature of the superconductor depends on both gravitational backreaction and the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, using both analytic and numerical arguments. I also review computations of the conductivity, finding the energy gap, and demonstrating that there is no universal gap ratio, $\\omega_g/T_c$, for these superconductors.

Ruth Gregory

2010-12-07

416

Holographic Flow of Anomalous Transport Coefficients

We study the holographic flow of anomalous conductivities induced by gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. We find that the contribution from the gauge Chern-Simons term gives rise to a flow that can be interpreted in terms of an effective, cutoff dependent chemical potential. In contrast the contribution of the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term is just the temperature squared and does not flow.

Landsteiner, Karl

2012-01-01

417

Holographic Flow of Anomalous Transport Coefficients

We study the holographic flow of anomalous conductivities induced by gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. We find that the contribution from the gauge Chern-Simons term gives rise to a flow that can be interpreted in terms of an effective, cutoff dependent chemical potential. In contrast the contribution of the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term is just the temperature squared and does not flow.

Karl Landsteiner; Luis Melgar

2012-06-20

418

Holographic quantum criticality and strange metal transport

A holographic model of a quantum critical theory at a finite but low temperature and a finite density is studied. The model exhibits non-relativistic z = 2 Schrödinger symmetry and is realized by the anti-de-Sitter–Schwarzschild black hole in light-cone coordinates. Our approach addresses the electrical conductivities in the presence or absence of an applied magnetic field and contains a control

Bom Soo Kim; Elias Kiritsis; Christos Panagopoulos

2012-01-01

419

Diffraction correction of holographic interferometric images

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourier optics technique was used to study the effects of diffraction in the NAVSWC dual-plate holographic system. The images were those of a sphere-cone in supersonic Mach 2.5 flow. The short study demonstrated that a theoretically predicted phase distributions, when corrected for diffraction, provided excellent agreement with experimental data. The results clearly indicated a significant amount of diffraction inherent in interferograms.

Lopez, Carlos A.

1991-01-01

420

Holographic Wavelength Demultiplexer For Optical Fiber Communications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper optimized parameters of optical configuration of Holographic Wavelength Demultiplexer(HWD) has been obtained with aberration balancing. The wavefront aberration caused by wavelength shift has been minimized. The image size of a point source formed by HWD was found with ray tracing. For reducing the size of the image, we proposed a phase compensation function and calculated the image size. The phase compensation could be achieved by Computer-Generated Hologram(CGH).

Zuo, Xu; Ben, Wang; Zhi-ping, Fu; Da-hsiung, Hsu

1986-08-01

421

High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed holographic memory system would be capable of storing data at unprecedentedly high density, and its data transfer performance in both reading and writing would be characterized by exceptionally high bandwidth. The capabilities of the proposed system would greatly exceed even those of a state-of-the art memory system, based on binary holograms (in which each pixel value represents 0 or 1), that can hold .1 terabyte of data and can support a reading or writing rate as high as 1 Gb/s. The storage capacity of the state-of-theart system cannot be increased without also increasing the volume and mass of the system. However, in principle, the storage capacity could be increased greatly, without significantly increasing the volume and mass, if multilevel holograms were used instead of binary holograms. For example, a 3-bit (8-level) hologram could store 8 terabytes, or an 8-bit (256-level) hologram could store 256 terabytes, in a system having little or no more size and mass than does the state-of-the-art 1-terabyte binary holographic memory. The proposed system would utilize multilevel holograms. The system would include lasers, imaging lenses and other beam-forming optics, a block photorefractive crystal wherein the holograms would be formed, and two multilevel spatial light modulators in the form of commercially available deformable-mirror-device spatial light modulators (DMDSLMs) made for use in high speed input conversion of data up to 12 bits. For readout, the system would also include two arrays of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors matching the spatial light modulators. The system would further include a reference-beam sterring device (equivalent of a scanning mirror), containing no sliding parts, that could be either a liquid-crystal phased-array device or a microscopic mirror actuated by a high-speed microelectromechanical system. Time-multiplexing and the multilevel nature of the DMDSLM would be exploited to enable writing and reading of multilevel holograms. The DMDSLM would also enable transfer of data at a rate of 7.6 Gb/s or perhaps somewhat higher.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

2008-01-01

422

Gluonic effects on g-2: Holographic view

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study “gluonic effects” (gluon condensation effects) on the hadronic leading order (HLO) contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of leptons, based on a holographic model having explicit gluonic mode introduced for consistency with the operator product expansion of QCD. We find gluonic enhancement of HLO contributions to the muon g-2 by about 6%, which nicely fills in the gap between the holographic estimate without gluonic effects and the phenomenological one using the experimental data as inputs. Similar calculations including the gluonic effects for the electron and the tau lepton g-2 are also carried out in good agreement with the phenomenological estimates. We then apply our holographic estimate to the walking technicolor (WTC) where large technigluonic effects were shown to be vital for the technidilaton, (pseudo)Nambu-Goldstone boson of the (approximate) scale symmetry of WTC, to be naturally as light as 125 GeV. It is shown that the value of the techni-HLO contributions to the muon g-2 is 10-100 times enhanced by inclusion of the same amount of the gluonic effects as that realizing the 125 GeV technidilaton, although such an enhanced techni-HLO contribution is still negligibly small compared with the current deviation of the standard model prediction of the muon g-2 from the experiments. The techni-HLO contributions to the tau lepton g-2 is also discussed, suggesting a possible phenomenological relevance to be tested by the future experiments.

Kurachi, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi

2013-09-01

423

Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components

The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L{sup -1}). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Kraiskii, A V; Suitanov, T T [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Postnikov, V A; Khamidulin, A V [Research Institute of Physicochemical Medicine, Federal Agency of Public Health and Social Development, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-02-28

424

Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. For example, rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

2005-01-01

425

Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter

A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time.

Adrian, Ronald J. (Champaign, IL); Barnhart, Donald H. (Urbana, IL); Papen, George A. (Urbana, IL)

1996-01-01

426

Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter

A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time. 13 figs.

Adrian, R.J.; Barnhart, D.H.; Papen, G.A.

1996-08-20

427

A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a bottom-up argument to derive some known results from holographic renormalization using the classical bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics, a theory with spatial conformal (Weyl) invariance. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to advertise the simple classical mechanism, trading off gauge symmetries, that underlies the bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics to readers interested in dualities of the type of AdS/conformal field theory (CFT); and (2) to highlight that this mechanism can be used to explain certain results of holographic renormalization, providing an alternative to the AdS/CFT conjecture for these cases. To make contact with the usual semiclassical AdS/CFT correspondence, we provide, in addition, a heuristic argument that makes it plausible that the classical equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics turns into a duality between radial evolution in gravity and the renormalization group flow of a CFT. We believe that Shape Dynamics provides a new perspective on gravity by giving conformal structure a primary role within the theory. It is hoped that this work provides the first steps toward understanding what this new perspective may be able to teach us about holographic dualities.

Gomes, Henrique; Gryb, Sean; Koslowski, Tim; Mercati, Flavio; Smolin, Lee

2015-01-01

428

Holographic Gravitational Anomaly and Chiral Vortical Effect

We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to cancel contributions from the extrinsic curvature at a boundary at finite distance a new type of counterterm has to be added however. This counterterm can also serve to make the Dirichlet problem well defined in case the gauge field strength vanishes on the boundary. A charged asymptotically AdS black hole is a solution to the theory and as an application we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities via Kubo formulas. We find that the characteristic term proportional to T^2 is present also at strong coupling and that its numerical value is not renormalized compared to the wea...

Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

429

Holographic Gravitational Anomaly and Chiral Vortical Effect

We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to cancel contributions from the extrinsic curvature at a boundary at finite distance a new type of counterterm has to be added however. This counterterm can also serve to make the Dirichlet problem well defined in case the gauge field strength vanishes on the boundary. A charged asymptotically AdS black hole is a solution to the theory and as an application we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities via Kubo formulas. We find that the characteristic term proportional to T^2 is present also at strong coupling and that its numerical value is not renormalized compared to the weak coupling result.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Luis Melgar; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-07-02

430

Holographic display with tilted spatial light modulator.

In this paper, we analyze a holographic display system utilizing a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS). An LCoS SLM works in reflection, and, in some applications, it is convenient to use with an inclined illumination. Even with a highly inclined illumination, the holographic display is capable of good-quality image generation. We show that the key to obtain high-quality reconstructions is the tilt-dependent calibration and algorithms. Typically, an LCoS SLM is illuminated with a plane wave with normal wave vector. We use inclined illumination, which requires development of new algorithms and display characterization. In this paper we introduce two algorithms. The first one is designed to process a digital hologram captured in CCD normal configuration, so it can be displayed in SLM tilted geometry, while the second one is capable of synthetic hologram generation for tilted SLM configuration. The inclined geometry asymmetrically changes the field of view of a holographic display. The presented theoretical analysis of the aliasing effect provides a formula for the field of view as a function of SLM tilt. The incidence angle affects SLM performance. Both elements of SLM calibration, i.e., pixel phase response and wavefront aberrations, strongly depend on SLM tilt angle. The effect is discussed in this paper. All of the discussions are accompanied with experimental results. PMID:21743569

Kozacki, Tomasz

2011-07-10

431

Drawing Lines with Light in Holographic Space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.

Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

2013-02-01

432

Positional stability of holographic optical traps.

The potential of digital holography for complex manipulation of micron-sized particles with optical tweezers has been clearly demonstrated. By contrast, its use in quantitative experiments has been rather limited, partly due to fluctuations introduced by the spatial light modulator (SLM) that displays the kinoforms. This is an important issue when high temporal or spatial stability is a concern. We have investigated the performance of both an analog-addressed and a digitally-addressed SLM, measuring the phase fluctuations of the modulated beam and evaluating the resulting positional stability of a holographic trap. We show that, despite imparting a more unstable modulation to the wavefront, our digitally-addressed SLM generates optical traps in the sample plane stable enough for most applications. We further show that traps produced by the analog-addressed SLM exhibit a superior pointing stability, better than 1 nm, which is comparable to that of non-holographic tweezers. These results suggest a means to implement precision force measurement experiments with holographic optical tweezers (HOTs). PMID:22108987

Farré, Arnau; Shayegan, Marjan; López-Quesada, Carol; Blab, Gerhard A; Montes-Usategui, Mario; Forde, Nancy R; Martín-Badosa, Estela

2011-10-24

433

Holographic Flow Visualization at NASA Langley

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadow-graph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.

Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

2005-01-01

434

Holographic Lighting For Energy Efficient Greenhouses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of greenhouse produce in the northern regions of the country is not economical because large amounts of heat are required during the cold season. It has long been recognized that one solution would be to heavily insulate large areas of a greenhouse to prevent heat loss and then use optical devices on the remaining glazing to distribute the incident light throughout the greenhouse (Figure 1). The design, fabrication and installation of holographic optical elements for this purpose is reported here. The ultimate goal is not necessarily increased yields or an economic superiority over imported produce. Since locally grown produce can be marketed rapidly and since varieties can be chosen which do not sacrifice quality for durability, local produce from holographically illuminated greenhouses will be economically viable so long as there are reasonable yields even if the technique does not result in prices competitive with produce grown in warmer climates and shipped to northern markets. There are varieties of effects here on growing plants that are unique to holographic lighting. For example, different portions of the spectrum are delivered to the plants at different times of the day and diffracted light often arrives at the plant from unusual directions.

Bradbury, Rudolph; Ludman, Jacques E.; Caulfield, H. John; White, John W.

1987-02-01

435

Holographic Lighting For Energy Efficient Greenhouses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of greenhouse produce in the northern regions of the country is not economical because large amounts of heat are required during the cold season. It has long been recognized that one solution would be to heavily insulate large areas of a greenhouse to prevent heat loss and then use optical devices on the remaining glazing to distribute the incident light throughout the greenhouse (Figure 1). The design, fabrication and installation of holographic optical elements for this purpose is reported here. The ultimate goal is not necessarily increased yields or an economic superiority over imported produce. Since locally grown produce can be marketed rapidly and since varieties can be chosen which do not sacrifice quality for durability, local produce from holographically illuminated greenhouses will be economically viable so long as there are reasonable yields even if the technique does not result in prices competitive with produce grown in warmer climates and shipped to northern markets. There are varieties of effects here on growing plants that are unique to holographic lighting. For example, different portions of the spectrum are delivered to the plants at different times of the day and diffracted light often arrives at the plant from unusual directions.

Bradbury, Rudolph; Ludman, Jacques E.; White, John W.

1986-08-01

436

Holographic Signatures of Cosmological Singularities

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To gain insight into the quantum nature of cosmological singularities, we study anisotropic Kasner solutions in gauge-gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution towards the singularity involves N =4 super Yang-Mills theory on the expanding branch of deformed de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlators show a strong signature of the singularity around horizon scales and decay at large boundary separation at different rates in different directions. More generally, the boundary evolution exhibits a process of particle creation similar to that in inflation. This leads us to conjecture that information on the quantum nature of cosmological singularities is encoded in long-wavelength features of the boundary wave function.

Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.

2014-09-01

437

Holographic signatures of cosmological singularities.

To gain insight into the quantum nature of cosmological singularities, we study anisotropic Kasner solutions in gauge-gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution towards the singularity involves N=4 super Yang-Mills theory on the expanding branch of deformed de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlators show a strong signature of the singularity around horizon scales and decay at large boundary separation at different rates in different directions. More generally, the boundary evolution exhibits a process of particle creation similar to that in inflation. This leads us to conjecture that information on the quantum nature of cosmological singularities is encoded in long-wavelength features of the boundary wave function. PMID:25279620

Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T

2014-09-19

438

Holographic Signatures of Cosmological Singularities

To gain insight in the quantum nature of cosmological singularities, we study anisotropic Kasner solutions in gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution towards the singularity involves N = 4 super Yang-Mills on the expanding branch of deformed de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlators show a strong signature of the singularity around horizon scales and decay at large boundary separation at different rates in different directions. More generally, the boundary evolution exhibits a process of particle creation similar to that in inflation. This leads us to conjecture that information on the quantum nature of cosmological singularities is encoded in long-wavelength features of the boundary wave function.

Engelhardt, Netta; Horowitz, Gary T

2014-01-01

439

Holographic Signatures of Cosmological Singularities

To gain insight in the quantum nature of cosmological singularities, we study anisotropic Kasner solutions in gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution towards the singularity involves N = 4 super Yang-Mills on the expanding branch of deformed de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlators show a strong signature of the singularity around horizon scales and decay at large boundary separation at different rates in different directions. More generally, the boundary evolution exhibits a process of particle creation similar to that in inflation. This leads us to conjecture that information on the quantum nature of cosmological singularities is encoded in long-wavelength features of the boundary wave function.

Netta Engelhardt; Thomas Hertog; Gary T. Horowitz

2014-11-19

440

Quantum critical transport and the Hall angle in holographic models.

We study the Hall conductivity in holographic models where translational invariance is broken by a lattice. We show that generic holographic theories will display a different temperature dependence in the Hall angle as to the dc conductivity. Our results suggest a general mechanism for obtaining an anomalous scaling of the Hall angle in strongly interacting quantum critical systems. PMID:25635540

Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

2015-01-16

441

Quantum Critical Transport and the Hall Angle in Holographic Models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Hall conductivity in holographic models where translational invariance is broken by a lattice. We show that generic holographic theories will display a different temperature dependence in the Hall angle as to the dc conductivity. Our results suggest a general mechanism for obtaining an anomalous scaling of the Hall angle in strongly interacting quantum critical systems.

Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

2015-01-01

442

Demonstration of Dense Mesoscopic Atomic Clouds in a Holographic Atom

Demonstration of Dense Mesoscopic Atomic Clouds in a Holographic Atom Trap by Jennifer S. Sebby Reserved #12;i 0.1 Abstract This dissertation describes experiments involving the Holographic Atom Trap. The purpose of this work is the development of high density, mesoscopic atomic samples for use in studying

Walker, Thad G.

443

Kaluza-Klein Cosmology With Modified Holographic Dark Energy

We investigate the compact Kaluza-Klein cosmology in which modified holographic dark energy is interacting with dark matter. Using this scenario, we evaluate equation of state parameter as well as equation of evolution of the modified holographic dark energy. Further, it is shown that the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds without any constraint.

M. Sharif; Farida Khanum

2011-06-13

444

Holographic dark energy with non-minimal coupling

We study a scalar field non-minimally coupled to the curvature, in the framework of holographic dark energy. We obtain a relation between the coupling of the scalar field and the holographic DE parameters. In the model without potential we found the EOS parameter in different regions of the parameters, giving rise to accelerated expansion. For some restrictions on the parameters,

L. N. Granda; L. D. Escobar

2009-01-01

445

Application of light emitting diodes in digital holographic microscopy

Digital holographic microscopy permits quantitative phase contrast imaging of reflective and (partially) transparent samples. The utilization of low coherent light sources opens up prospects for a reduced phase noise by avoiding multiple reflections in the experimental setup. Thus, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated for applicability as low cost light sources in digital holographic microscopy. The LEDs were characterized

Stephan Stürwald; Björn Kemper; Christian Remmersmann; Patrik Langehanenberg; Gert von Bally

2008-01-01

446

Erythrocytes three-dimensional morphology by digital holographic interference microscopy

We have developed the digital holographic interference microscope (DHIM) for real time three - dimensional (3-D) imaging and quantitative study of phase microscopic objects (MOs). The instrument integrates holographic interference microscope with digital processing of interferograms. The experimental procedure, allowing calculating microscopic objects thickness and 3-D imaging from the measured phase shift, is presented. The method has been applied to

T. V. Tishko; V. P. Titar; D. N. Tishko

2008-01-01

447

Integrated Optics for Holographic Video Daniel E. Smalley

Integrated Optics for Holographic Video by Daniel E. Smalley Submitted to the Department for Holographic Video by Daniel E. Smalley Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer and valuable fabrication advice. Neil Gershenfeld, Scott Manalis and their respective graduate students

Bove Jr., V. Michael

448

Rosin with bromophenol blue ® dye as holographic material

Bromophenol blue® (BPB) dyed with the rosin and isopropyl alcohol produces a film with a uniform yellow appearance, which can be deposited on glass plates by simple technique. This mixture shows good photosensitivity in the blue light (?=457 nm line) employing argon-ion laser and presents high resolution for holographic application. Consequently, it is possible to obtain holographic elements, e.g., gratings.

J. Ibarra-Torres; A. Olivares-Perez; T. J Ibarra; D. Luna-Moreno

2001-01-01

449

Rosin with bromophenol blue ® dye as holographic material

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bromophenol blue ® (BPB) dyed with the rosin and isopropyl alcohol produces a film with a uniform yellow appearance, which can be deposited on glass plates by simple technique. This mixture shows good photosensitivity in the blue light ( ?=457 nm line) employing argon-ion laser and presents high resolution for holographic application. Consequently, it is possible to obtain holographic elements, e.g., gratings.

Ibarra-Torres, J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ibarra, T. J.; Luna-Moreno, D.

2001-04-01

450

Aberrations of holographic lenses in image quality evaluation

The imaging quality of holographic lenses depends on parameters that include the shape of a holographic lens surface or an input pupil position. Based on the formulas for third-order aberration coefficients derived for such cases, conditions that ensure the correction of aperture and field aberrations are given. The possibility of joint correction of spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism is discussed.

Boguslawa Dubik; Jan Masajada; Jerzy Nowak; Marek Zajac

1992-01-01

451

Manipulation and assembly of nanowires with holographic optical traps

We demonstrate that semiconductor nanowires measuring just a few nanometers in diameter can be translated, rotated, cut, fused and organized into nontrivial structures using holographic optical traps. The holographic approach to nano-assembly allows for simultaneous independent manipulation of multiple nanowires, including relative translation and relative rotation.

Ritesh Agarwal; Kosta Ladavac; Yael Roichman; Guiha Yu; Charles M. Lieber; David G. Grier

2005-09-12

452

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a holographic/photographic camera to be used with the zero-g or low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The flight prototype holocamera is intended to record particles from 0.01 to 5 microns for an optimum two-dimensional plane only in the microscopic photography mode, particles on a volume basis in the in-line holography mode from 5 microns up, and all particle sizes possible on a volume basis in the acute sideband holography mode.

Moore, W. W., Jr.; Kurtz, R. L.; Lemons, J. F.

1976-01-01

453

The authors have developed a live-cell multimodality microscope combining epifluorescence with digital holographic microscopy; it has been implemented with a decoupling procedure allowing to separately measure from the quantitative phase important cell parameters including absolute volume, shape and integral intracellular refractive index. In combination with the numerous different specific fluorescent cellular probes, this multimodality microscopy can address important issues in cell biology. This is demonstrated by the study of intracellular calcium homeostasis associated with the change in cell volume, which play a critical role in the excitotoxicity-induced neuronal death. PMID:20306502

Pavillon, Nicolas; Benke, Alexander; Boss, Daniel; Moratal, Corinne; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

2010-07-01

454

Depth perception and user interface in digital holographic television

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic television system, featuring realtime incoherent 3D capture and live holographic display is used for experiments in depth perception. Holographic television has the potential to provide more complete visual representations, including latency-free motion parallax and more natural affordances for accommodation. Although this technology has potential to improve realism in many display applications, we investigate benefits in uses where direct vision of a workspace is not possible. Applications of this nature include work with hazardous materials, teleoperation over distance, and laparoscopic surgery. In this study, subjects perform manual 3D object manipulation tasks where they can only see the workspace through holographic closed-circuit television. This study is designed to compare performance at manual tasks using