Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2011-10-01
A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.
Sidelobe suppression in volume holographic optical correlators by use of speckle modulation.
Ouyang, Chuan; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Liao, Yi; Wu, Minxian; Jin, Guofan
2003-10-15
By use of speckle modulation on the object beam of a volume holographic optical correlation system, we show that the sidelobes of the correlation patterns along the vertical direction, as well as those along the horizontal direction, are well suppressed. A theoretical explanation and experimental results are presented and discussed. PMID:14587793
Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.
Volume holographic pupils in ray, wave, statistical optics, and Wigner space
Oh, Se Baek
2009-01-01
This thesis explores various aspects of the volume holographic pupils to better understand and implement multi-dimensional imaging. A full description and applications of volume holographic pupils are presented in ray, ...
Coding applications in volume holographic memory systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Wu-Chun
1999-11-01
Volume holographic memory (VHM) systems are page-oriented optical data storage systems with a relatively large storage capacity, a high aggregate data transfer rate, and a fast access time as compared with other conventional mass data storage systems. In addition to the noise sources commonly present in a conventional communication channel, the VHM systems use a two- dimensional (2-D) data format and therefore suffers from 2-D electrical/optical hybrid noises. In this dissertation, we apply digital communication coding techniques to such a page-oriented optical memory system. To establish a coding performance baseline, we take an information theoretical perspective to study the design of 4F optical imaging systems, and the storage capacity of page-wise accessed VHM systems. In addition to the information-based figure of merit, bit-error rate (BER) serves as a more practical data fidelity measure. A BER- based optical design and a constant BER recording schedule in VHM systems are shown to support the coding analyses based on the BER metric. We analyze the VHM storage capacity while applying Reed- Solomon error-correction coding (ECC) and demonstrate that the use of the 2-D interleaving together with ECC results in a significant capacity improvement in the presence of systematic errors. In addition, soft-decision iterative decoding affords us a 2-D parallel decoding scheme that unifies the 2-D page equalization and decoding. A highly parallel decoder is discussed in the context of the 2-D low-pass channel mitigation and error correction. In the last part of this dissertation, we consider hardware implementation issues in 2-D optical systems. We design two coding related components using the MOSIS Orbit 2 ?m n-well process to fabricate two CMOS VLSI chips. Power consumption and aerial scaling laws are discussed for each applications.
Holographic Correlators in a Flow to a Fixed Point
Marcus Berg; Henning Samtleben
2003-03-20
Using holographic renormalization, we study correlation functions throughout a renormalization group flow between two-dimensional superconformal field theories. The ultraviolet theory is an N=(4,4) CFT which can be thought of as a symmetric product of U(2) super WZW models. It is perturbed by a relevant operator which preserves one-quarter supersymmetry and drives the theory to an infrared fixed point. We compute correlators of the stress-energy tensor and of the relevant operators dual to supergravity scalars. Using the former, we put together Zamolodchikov's C function, and contrast it with proposals for a holographic C function. In passing, we address and resolve two puzzles also found in the case of five-dimensional bulk supergravity.
Volume Holographic Storage of Digital Data Implemented in Photorefractive Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heanue, John Frederick
A holographic data storage system is fundamentally different from conventional storage devices. Information is recorded in a volume, rather than on a two-dimensional surface. Data is transferred in parallel, on a page-by -page basis, rather than serially. These properties, combined with a limited need for mechanical motion, lead to the potential for a storage system with high capacity, fast transfer rate, and short access time. The majority of previous volume holographic storage experiments have involved direct storage and retrieval of pictorial information. Success in the development of a practical holographic storage device requires an understanding of the performance capabilities of a digital system. This thesis presents a number of contributions toward this goal. A description of light diffraction from volume gratings is given. The results are used as the basis for a theoretical and numerical analysis of interpage crosstalk in both angular and wavelength multiplexed holographic storage. An analysis of photorefractive grating formation in photovoltaic media such as lithium niobate is presented along with steady-state expressions for the space-charge field in thermal fixing. Thermal fixing by room temperature recording followed by ion compensation at elevated temperatures is compared to simultaneous recording and compensation at high temperature. In particular, the tradeoff between diffraction efficiency and incomplete Bragg matching is evaluated. An experimental investigation of orthogonal phase code multiplexing is described. Two unique capabilities, the ability to perform arithmetic operations on stored data pages optically, rather than electronically, and encrypted data storage, are demonstrated. A comparison of digital signal representations, or channel codes, is carried out. The codes are compared in terms of bit-error rate performance at constant capacity. A well-known one-dimensional digital detection technique, maximum likelihood sequence estimation, is extended for use in a two-dimensional page format memory. The effectiveness of the technique in a system corrupted by intersymbol interference is investigated both experimentally and through numerical simulations. The experimental implementation of a fully-automated multiple page digital holographic storage system is described. Finally, projections of the performance limits of holographic data storage are made taking into account typical noise sources.
Multiquark Correlations in Light Mesons and Baryons from holographic QCD
Forkel, Hilmar
2011-10-21
A hadron's multiquark content reflects itself in the quark composition of the interpolator with which it has maximal overlap. The AdS/CFT dictionary translates the anomalous dimension of this interpolator into a mass correction for the corresponding dual mode. Hence such bulk-mass corrections can carry specific information on multiquark correlations. Two prominent examples are studied by implementing this robust and universal holographic mechanism into AdS/QCD gravity duals. In the baryon sector bulk-mass corrections are used to describe systematic good (i.e. maximally attractive) diquark effects. The baryon sizes are predicted to decrease with increasing good-diquark content, and the masses of all 48 observed light-quark baryon states are reproduced with unprecedented accuracy. Our approach further provides the first holographic description of a dominant tetraquark component in the lowest-lying scalar mesons. The tetraquark ground state emerges naturally as the lightest scalar nonet whereas higher excitations become heavier than their quark--antiquark counterparts and are thus likely to dissolve into the multiparticle continuum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Owen, Harry
2007-01-01
Volume phase holographic (VPH) optical elements have made a major contribution to Raman spectroscopy by providing notch filters, and VPH gratings that provide remarkable performance advantages over previous technologies. Holographic notch filters have eliminated Rayleigh scattered laser light from single monochromators, thereby contributing to the…
Soft-decision array decoding for volume holographic memory systems.
Chou, W; Neifeld, M A
2001-01-01
We study the use of soft-decision array decoding in a volume holographic memory (VHM) system that is corrupted by interpixel interference (IPI) and detector noise. Soft-decision methods can unify equalization and error decoding. A highly parallel array decoder is presented in the context of two-dimensional low-pass channel mitigation and error correction. The new decoding algorithm is motivated by iterative turbo-decoding methods and is capable of incorporating a priori knowledge of the corrupting IPI channel during decoding. The resulting joint detection decoding algorithm is shown to offer VHM capacity and density performance superior to that of hard-decision n = 255 Reed-Solomon codes in concatenation with a Wiener filter. PMID:11151997
Angle amplifier based on multiplexed volume holographic gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Yifei; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2008-03-01
Angle amplifier of laser beam scanner is a widely used device in optical systems. Volume holographic optical elements can be applied in the angle amplifier. Compared with the traditional angle amplifier, it has the advantages of high angle resolution, high diffraction efficiency, small size, and high angle magnification and flexible design. Bragg anglewavelength- compensating recording method is introduced. Because of the Bragg compensatory relation between angle and wavelength, this device could be recorded at another wavelength. The design of the angle amplifier recording at the wavelength of 514.2nm for the working wavelength of 632.8nm is described. An optical setup for recording the angle amplifier device is designed and discussed. Experimental results in the photorefractive crystal Fe:LiNbO 3 demonstrate the feasibility of the angle amplifier scheme.
Real-time three-dimensional microscopy with volume holographic pupils
Kostuk, Raymond K.
Multiplex volume holographic pupils have been demonstrated in the capacity of imagers with optical slicing and real-time (scanning-free) three-dimensional imaging capability. We overview application to microscopy and ...
Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics
Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.
2013-01-01
We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707
Volume Holographic Reflection Endoscope for In-Vivo Ovarian Cancer Clinical Studies
Howlett, I. D.; Gordon, M.; Brownlee, J. W.; Barton, J. K.; Kostuk, R. K.
2014-01-01
We present the design for an endoscopic system capable of imaging tissues of the ovary at two selected imaging depths simultaneously. The method utilizes a multiplexed volume hologram to select wavefronts from different depths within the tissue. It is the first demonstration of an endoscopic volume holographic imaging system. The endoscope uses both gradient index (GRIN) optical components and off the shelf singlet lenses to relay an image from the distal tip to the proximal end. The endoscope has a minimum diameter of 3.75 mm. The system length is 30 cm which is connected to a handle that includes the holographic components and optics that relay the image to a camera. Preliminary evaluation of the endoscope was performed with tissue phantoms and calibrated targets, which shows lateral resolution ? 4 ?m at an operating wavelength of 660 nm. The hologram is recorded in phenanthraquinone doped poly methacrylate and is designed to produce images from two tissue depths. One image is obtained at the tissue surface and the second 70 ?m below the surface. This method requires no mechanical scanning and acquires an image at the camera frame rate. The preliminary ex-vivo results show good correlation with histology sections of the same tissue sections. PMID:25009709
Wormald, S. Andrew; Coupland, Jeremy
2009-11-20
This paper discusses the different analysis methods used in holographic particle image velocimetry to measure particle displacement and compares their relative performance. A digital holographic microscope is described and is used to record the light scattered by particles deposited on cover slides that are displaced between exposures. In this way, particle position and displacement are controlled and a numerical data set is generated. Data extraction using nearest neighbor analysis and correlation of either the reconstructed complex amplitude or intensity fields is then investigated.
Broadband behavior of transmission volume holographic optical elements for solar concentration.
Bañares-Palacios, Paula; Álvarez-Álvarez, Samuel; Marín-Sáez, Julia; Collados, María-Victoria; Chemisana, Daniel; Atencia, Jesús
2015-06-01
A ray tracing algorithm is developed to analyze the energy performance of transmission and phase volume holographic lenses that operate with broadband illumination. The agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical treatment has been tested. The model has been applied to analyze the optimum recording geometry for solar concentration applications. PMID:26072891
Holographic CFTs on maximally symmetric spaces: correlators, integral transforms and applications
Kurt Hinterbichler; James Stokes; Mark Trodden
2015-05-20
We study one and two point functions of conformal field theories on spaces of maximal symmetry with and without boundaries and investigate their spectral representations. Integral transforms are found, relating the spectral decomposition to renormalized position space correlators. Several applications are presented, including the holographic boundary CFTs as well as spacelike boundary CFTs, which provide realizations of the pseudo-conformal universe.
Astigmatism compensation in digital holographic microscopy using complex-amplitude correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamrin, Khairul Fikri; Rahmatullah, Bahbibi; Samuri, Suzani Mohamad
2015-07-01
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a promising tool for a three-dimensional imaging of microscopic particles. It offers the possibility of wavefront processing by manipulating amplitude and phase of the recorded digital holograms. With a view to compensate for aberration in the reconstructed particle images, this paper discusses a new approach of aberration compensation based on complex amplitude correlation and the use of a priori information. The approach is applied to holograms of microscopic particles flowing inside a cylindrical micro-channel recorded using an off-axis digital holographic microscope. The approach results in improvements in the image and signal qualities.
Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali
2003-02-01
We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity.
Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems.
Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali
2003-02-10
We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity. PMID:12593489
Loicq, Jérôme; Venancio, Luis Miguel; Stockman, Yvan; Georges, Marc P
2013-12-01
The special properties of volume phase holographic gratings make them promising candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low levels of straylight, and low polarization sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of volume phase holographic gratings as enabling technologies for future space missions, with demanding requirements for spectrometry. One of the main areas of research is related to grating ageing under space radiation. In the present paper, two volume grating technologies are analyzed and compared under gamma irradiation. The performances of both technologies, the photo-thermo-refractive glass and the Dichromated Gelatin, are tested on samples and assessed in the H? and near-infrared bands. The diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. PMID:24513836
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jinxin; Fujii, Ryuta; Tomita, Yasuo
2015-10-01
We report on an experimental investigation of the properties of volume holographic recording in photopolymerizable nanoparticle-polymer composites (NPCs) doped with chain transferring multifunctional di- and tri-thiols as chain transfer agents. It is shown that the incorporation of the multifunctional thiols into NPCs more strongly influences on volume holographic recording than that doped with mono-thiol since more chemical reactions involve in the polymer network formation. It is found that, as similar to the case of mono-thiol doping, there exist optimum concentrations of di- and tri-thiols for maximizing the saturated refractive index modulation. It is also seen that recording sensitivity monotonically decreases with an increase in multifunctional thiol concentration due to the partial inhibition of the photopolymerization event by excessive thiols.
Position feedback system for volume holographic storage media
Hays, Nathan J. (San Francisco, CA); Henson, James A. (Morgan Hill, CA); Carpenter, Christopher M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Akin, Jr.. William R. (Morgan Hill, CA); Ehrlich, Richard M. (Saratoga, CA); Beazley, Lance D. (San Jose, CA)
1998-07-07
A method of holographic recording in a photorefractive medium wherein stored holograms may be retrieved with maximum signal-to noise ratio (SNR) is disclosed. A plurality of servo blocks containing position feedback information is recorded in the crystal and made non-erasable by heating the crystal. The servo blocks are recorded at specific increments, either angular or frequency, depending whether wavelength or angular multiplexing is applied, and each servo block is defined by one of five patterns. Data pages are then recorded at positions or wavelengths enabling each data page to be subsequently reconstructed with servo patterns which provide position feedback information. The method of recording data pages and servo blocks is consistent with conventional practices. In addition, the recording system also includes components (e.g. voice coil motor) which respond to position feedback information and adjust the angular position of the reference angle of a reference beam to maximize SNR by reducing crosstalk, thereby improving storage capacity.
Four-point correlator of vector currents and electric current susceptibility in holographic QCD
Krikun, Alexander
2010-01-01
In this work we calculate the four-point correlation function of vector quark currents of QCD via holographic QCD model. Computing the correlator we take into account the exchange of vector and axial vector bosons and dilaton in the bulk. The result is used for calculation of the two-point correlator of electromagnetic currents in external magnetic field at zero momentum, related to RHIC experiments, chiral magnetic effect and lattice study. At zero temperature we find this quantity to be loosely connected with chiral symmetry breaking and strongly dependent on the confinement properties. Some features of the AdS/QCD models are also discussed.
Four-point correlator of vector currents and electric current susceptibility in holographic QCD
Alexander Krikun
2010-03-15
In this work we calculate the four-point correlation function of vector quark currents of QCD via holographic QCD model. Computing the correlator we take into account the exchange of vector and axial vector bosons and dilaton in the bulk. The result is used for calculation of the two-point correlator of electromagnetic currents in external magnetic field at zero momentum, related to RHIC experiments, chiral magnetic effect and lattice study. At zero temperature we find this quantity to be loosely connected with chiral symmetry breaking and strongly dependent on the confinement properties. Some features of the AdS/QCD models are also discussed.
Correlation between Voronoi volumes in disc packings
Song-Chuan Zhao; Stacy Sidle; Harry L. Swinney; Matthias Schröter
2011-12-19
We measure the two-point correlation of free Voronoi volumes in binary disc packings, where the packing fraction $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$ ranges from 0.8175 to 0.8380. We observe short-ranged correlations over the whole range of $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$ and anti-correlations for $\\phi_{\\rm avg}>0.8277$. The spatial extent of the anti-correlation increases with $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$ while the position of the maximum of the anti-correlation and the extent of the positive correlation shrink with $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$. We conjecture that the onset of anti-correlation corresponds to dilatancy onset in this system.
Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K
2008-09-15
A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously. PMID:18794943
Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings
Chen, Ray
.1117/1.1512661] Subject terms: diffraction; gratings; holograms. Paper 020007 received Jan. 9, 2002; revised manuscript gratings have been suggested for use in free space1 and substrate-guided-wave2,3 board-level optical interconnect systems. The photopolymer-based volume hologram is an attractive option for making high
Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings: results at 100 K
Naoyuki Tamura; Graham J. Murray; Peter Luke; Colin Blackburn; David J. Robertson; Nigel A. Dipper; Ray M. Sharples; Jeremy R. Allington-Smith
2006-09-04
We present results from cryogenic tests of Volume-Phase Holographic(VPH) gratings at 100 K. The aims of these tests are to see whether the diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength is significantly different at a low temperature from that at room temperature and to see how the performance of a VPH grating is affected by a number of thermal cycles. We have completed 10 cycles between room temperature and 100 $K$, and find no clear evidence that the diffraction efficiency changes with temperature or with successive thermal cycle.
Performances of new green sensitive liquid photopolymers for volume phase holographic gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Zerbi, Filippo M.
2012-03-01
Liquid photopolymers produced by Polygrama-Lynx (SM-532TR and SM-532TRF) have been studied to determine their performances in terms of refractive index modulation, transparency and overall optical quality. Volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) based on these materials have been obtained using a 532 DPSS laser and the grating efficiency has been measured at different angles and wavelengths. Using the Kogelnik model and/or the RCWA approach, the thickness and the refractive index modulation has been determined for gratings as function of light exposure, line density, etc. Index modulations up to 0.03 together with good optical quality were obtained.
Analysis of volume holographic storage allowing large-angle illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, Joseph
2005-05-01
Advanced technological developments have stimulated renewed interest in volume holography for applications such as information storage and wavelength multiplexing for communications and laser beam shaping. In these and many other applications, the information-carrying wave fronts usually possess narrow spatial-frequency bands, although they may propagate at large angles with respect to each other or a preferred optical axis. Conventional analytic methods are not capable of properly analyzing the optical architectures involved. For mitigation of the analytic difficulties, a novel approximation is introduced to treat narrow spatial-frequency band wave fronts propagating at large angles. This approximation is incorporated into the analysis of volume holography based on a plane-wave decomposition and Fourier analysis. As a result of the analysis, the recently introduced generalized Bragg selectivity is rederived for this more general case and is shown to provide enhanced performance for the above indicated applications. The power of the new theoretical description is demonstrated with the help of specific examples and computer simulations. The simulations reveal some interesting effects, such as coherent motion blur, that were predicted in an earlier publication.
Simultaneous multiplane imaging of human ovarian cancer by volume holographic imaging
Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Michael; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; de Leon, Erich E.; Brownlee, Johnathan W.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Romanowski, Marek
2014-01-01
Abstract. Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic cancer, a fact which is attributable to poor early detection and survival once the disease has reached advanced stages. Intraoperative laparoscopic volume holographic imaging has the potential to provide simultaneous visualization of surface and subsurface structures in ovarian tissues for improved assessment of developing ovarian cancer. In this ex vivo ovarian tissue study, we assembled a benchtop volume holographic imaging system (VHIS) to characterize the microarchitecture of 78 normal and 40 abnormal tissue specimens derived from ovarian, fallopian tube, uterine, and peritoneal tissues, collected from 26 patients aged 22 to 73 undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, or abdominal cytoreductive surgery. All tissues were successfully imaged with the VHIS in both reflectance- and fluorescence-modes revealing morphological features which can be used to distinguish between normal, benign abnormalities, and cancerous tissues. We present the development and successful application of VHIS for imaging human ovarian tissue. Comparison of VHIS images with corresponding histopathology allowed for qualitatively distinguishing microstructural features unique to the studied tissue type and disease state. These results motivate the development of a laparoscopic VHIS for evaluating the surface and subsurface morphological alterations in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24676382
Yan, Xiaona; Gao, Lirun; Yang, Xihua; Dai, Ye; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Guohong
2014-10-20
A scheme to generate individually modulated femtosecond pulse string by multilayer volume holographic grating (MVHG) is proposed. Based on Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory and matrix optics, temporal and spectral expressions of diffracted field are given when a femtosecond pulse is diffracted by a MVHG. It is shown that the number of diffracted sub-pulses in the pulse string equals to the number of grating layers of the MVHG, peak intensity and duration of each diffracted sub-pulse depend on thickness of the corresponding grating layer, whereas pulse interval between adjacent sub-pulses is related to thickness of the corresponding buffer layer. Thus by modulating parameters of the MVHG, individually modulated femtosecond pulse string can be acquired. Based on Bragg selectivity of the volume grating and phase shift provided by the buffer layers, we give an explanation on these phenomena. The result is useful to design MVHG-based devices employed in optical communications, pulse shaping and processing. PMID:25401645
Yan, Xiaona; Dai, Ye; Gao, Zixuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xihua; Ma, Guohong
2013-03-25
Based on the modified Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory, time- and frequency-domain diffractions of a femtosecond pulse from transmitted volume holographic gratings (VHGs) are theoretically studied. Results show that when the refractive index modulation of the VHG changes in a certain range, the number of temporal diffracted pulse will evolve from one to two, then to three, and this pulse number evolution is periodic. This particular phenomenon can be explained by diffraction intensity spectrum and the overmodulation effect of refractive index modulation of transmitted VHG. Moreover, we find centers of all temporal diffracted pulses translate along the negative time axis, and the translation is irrelevant to the refractive index modulations. We will use time delay of volume grating to give a reasonable explanation. PMID:23546138
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko
2012-10-01
Using a holographic disc memory on which a huge amount of data can be stored, we constructed an ultra-high-speed, all-optical correlation system. In this method, multiplex recording is, however, restricted to "one page" on "one spot." In addition, signal information must be normalized as data of the same size, even if the object data size is smaller. Therefore, this system is difficult to apply to part of the object data scene (i.e., partial scene searching and template matching), while maintaining high accessibility and programmability. In this paper, we develop a holographic correlation system by a time division recording method that increases the number of multiplex recordings on the same spot. Assuming that a four-channel detector is utilized, 15 parallel correlations are achieved by a time-division recording method. Preliminary correlation experiments with the holographic optical disc setup are carried out by high correlation peaks at a rotational speed of 300 rpm. We also describe the combination of an optical correlation system for copyright content management that searches the Internet and detects illegal contents on video sharing websites.
Diffracted wavefront measurement of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature
Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Habraken, Serge; Lemaire, Philippe; Jamar, Claude
2006-09-20
Flatness of the wavefront diffracted by grating can be mandatory for some applications. At ambient temperature, the wavefront diffracted by a volume phase holographic grating (VPHG) is well mastered by the manufacturing process and can be corrected or shaped by post polishing. However, to be used in cooled infrared spectrometers, VPHGs have to stand and work properly at low temperatures.We present the measurement of the wavefront diffracted by atypical VPHG at various temperatures down to 150 K and at several thermal inhomogeneity amplitudes. The particular grating observed was produced using a dichromated gelatine technique and encapsulated between two glass blanks. Diffracted wavefront measurements show that the wavefront is extremely stable according to the temperature as long as the latter is homogeneous over the grating stack volume. Increasing the thermal inhomogeneity increases the wavefront error that pinpoints the importance of the final instrument thermal design. This concludes the dichromated gelatine VPHG technology, used more and more in visible spectrometers, can be applied as it is to cooled IR spectrometers.
Local strain field measurement using phase gradient estimation from holographic speckle correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjödahl, Mikael; Li, Yiling
2015-08-01
This paper introduces a new approach to process holographic specklegrams that gives direct access to local phase gradients. For a full in-plane strain mapping at least three different sensitivity vectors have to be used, if only one principal strain component is of interest two sensitivity vectors suffices. The fields in two defocused planes are calculated by propagating the focused field a known distance numerically. Based on the fields in the three planes a correlation function is formulated that is used to estimate the local phase gradients generated by stressing the sample. The phase and phase gradients for the different sensitivity vectors are then further combined to give the in-plane deformation and strain fields, respectively. The technique was demonstrated on a plate stressed uniaxially. Two illumination directions were used symmetrically oriented in the horisontal plane in relation to the surface normal to the plate. A significant reduction in phase noise was demonstrated. In addition the in-plane strain was estimated to be 0.8 mstrain with a standard deviation of 10 ?strain using an evaluation window size of 15x15 pixels. The average speckle correlation for this case was found to be 0.92. This technique promises to be a valuable tool whenever high quality measurements of strain fields or surface tilts are of interest.
Pulse splitting by modulating the thickness of buffer layer of two-layer volume holographic grating.
Yan, Xiaona; Qian, Mengdi; Gao, Lirun; Yang, Xihua; Dai, Ye; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Guohong
2013-12-30
Based on Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory and matrix optics, generation of femtosecond double pulses by modulating thickness of the buffer layer of two-layer volume holographic grating (TL-VHG) is discussed. Expressions of diffraction field when a femtosecond pulse incidents on the TL-VHG are deduced. Simulation results show when thickness of the buffer layer increases from 6mm to 11 mm or even larger, one incident pulse splits into double femtosecond pulses with the same duration and peak intensity, and pulse interval is linearly proportional to the thickness. The reason of these phenomena is due to the interference of diffraction waves reconstructed from two gratings and phase shift resulting from the buffer layer thickness. Time-delay of diffracted double pulses is explained by group time delay of periodic media. It is shown that the slope of the pulse interval with respect to the thickness of buffer layer is 2 times of that of pulse time-delay. Furthermore, we demonstrate it is possible to control the output double pulses' duration and pulse interval by varying the grating thickness. PMID:24514781
Volume holographic gratings as optical sensor for heavy metal in bathing waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Zuppardi, F.; Roviello, A.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.
2015-05-01
Sensor holograms utilize the diffraction principle of transmitting volume holographic grating (VHG) recorded within a photopolymer appositely functionalized to detect a specific stimulus or analyte. A change in the swelling or shrinking state or cross-linking density of the polymer can be caused by the hologram interaction with an analyte. This leads to a change in the recorded hologram sensor and thus, considering an incident monochromatic light and the VHG angular selectivity, to an angle shift of the diffracted maximum intensity. In this work, two new photopolymers based on a sol-gel matrix opportunely functionalized to be sensitive to transition metals or heavy metals were used as sensitive material to record VHGs. An interferometric set up with a laser source at 532nm was used to record VHGs and gratings of 1000 lines/mm were realized. When exposed to a solution of water and lead, an angle shift of about 3° of the first order diffraction of the grating was measured, demonstrating its capability to reveal the presence of heavy metal in water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Dunlap, Bart; Lee, Hanshin
2012-09-01
The Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is an array of at least 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) to carry out the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic grating as its dispersing element that is used in first order for 350 < ?(nm) < 550. We discuss the test methods used to evaluate the performance of the prototype gratings, which have aided in modifying the fabrication prescription for achieving the specified batch diffraction efficiency required for HETDEX. In particular, we discuss tests in which we measure the diffraction efficiency at the nominal grating angle of incidence in VIRUS for all orders accessible to our test bench that are allowed by the grating equation. For select gratings, these tests have allowed us to account for < 90% of the incident light for wavelengths within the spectral coverage of VIRUS. The remaining light that is unaccounted for is likely being diffracted into reflective orders or being absorbed or scattered within the grating layer (for bluer wavelengths especially, the latter term may dominate the others). Finally, we discuss an apparatus that will be used to quickly verify the first order diffraction efficiency specification for the batch of at least 150 VIRUS production gratings.
Eric B. Burgh; Matthew A. Bershady; Kyle B. Westfall; Kenneth H. Nordsieck
2007-08-02
We report the discovery of optical ghosts generated when using Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings in spectrographs employing the Littrow configuration. The ghost is caused by light reflected off the detector surface, recollimated by the camera, recombined by, and reflected from, the grating and reimaged by the camera onto the detector. This recombination can occur in two different ways. We observe this ghost in two spectrographs being developed by the University of Wisconsin - Madison: the Robert Stobie Spectrograph for the Southern African Large Telescope and the Bench Spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The typical ratio of the brightness of the ghost relative to the integrated flux of the spectrum is of order 10^-4, implying a recombination efficiency of the VPH gratings of order 10^-3 or higher, consistent with the output of rigorous coupled wave analysis. Any spectrograph employing VPH gratings, including grisms, in Littrow configuration will suffer from this ghost, though the general effect is not intrinsic to VPH gratings themselves and has been observed in systems with conventional gratings in non-Littrow configurations. We explain the geometric configurations that can result in the ghost as well as a more general prescription for predicting its position and brightness on the detector. We make recommendations for mitigating the ghost effects for spectrographs and gratings currently built. We further suggest design modifications for future VPH gratings to eliminate the problem entirely, including tilted fringes and/or prismatic substrates. We discuss the resultant implications on the spectrograph performance metrics.
Pannopnut, Papinwit; Kitporntheranunt, Maethaphan; Paritakul, Panwara; Kongsomboon, Kittipong
2015-01-01
Objective To investigate the correlation between ultrasound measured placental volume and collected umbilical cord blood (UCB) volume in term pregnancy. Material and Methods An observational cross-sectional study of term singleton pregnant women in the labor ward at Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center was conducted. Placental thickness, height, and width were measured using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and calculated for placental volume using the volumetric mathematic model. After the delivery of the baby, UCB was collected and measured for its volume immediately. Then, birth weight, placental weight, and the actual placental volume were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the correlation between each two variables. Results A total of 35 pregnant women were eligible for the study. The mean and standard deviation of estimated placental volume and actual placental volume were 534±180 mL and 575±118 mL, respectively. The median UCB volume was 140 mL (range 98–220 mL). The UCB volume did not have a statistically significant correlation with the estimated placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.15; p=0.37). However, the UCB volume was significantly correlated with the actual placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.62; p<0.001) and birth weight (correlation coefficient 0.38; p=0.02). Conclusion The estimated placental volume by 2D ultrasound was not significantly correlated with the UCB volume. Further studies to establish the correlation between the UCB volume and the estimated placental volume using other types of placental imaging may be needed. PMID:26097385
Combined volume phase holographic gratings used as a beam splitter in near-infrared waveband
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xizhao; Mei, Qijing; Tang, Minxue
2014-11-01
With the intrinsic advantages of high diffraction efficiency, signal to noise ratio, wavelength and angle selectivity, and low scattering and absorption, volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) have been widely used for spectroscopy, telecommunications, astronomy and ultra-fast sciences. In this paper, a novel kind of beam splitter which is consisted of a transmission VPHG and a reflection VPHG as core components and used in near-infrared waveband is proposed. The design idea of the device is described in detail. Based on the Bragg condition and the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), diffraction properties in near-infrared waveband of the transmission and reflection VPHGs recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) are studied theoretically. As an example, two wavebands that need to be separated in near infrared spectrum region are taken into account. One that from 1.574?m to 1.617?m centered at 1.596?m will be diffracted by the reflection grating, and the other that from 1.636?m to 1.682?m centered at 1.659?m will be diffracted by the transmission grating. The diffraction efficiencies of the gratings are calculated and optimized by applying Kogelnik's coupled wave theory and G-solver software, respectively. The recording setup is also designed for further experiments. The effects of the recording and reconstruction setup parameters, the amplitude of the index modulation (?n) and the thickness of the gelatin layer (d), and the polarization state of reconstruction beams on the diffraction efficiency properties of the gratings are calculated and analyzed. This kind of beam splitter is prospected to be used in spectrometers for greenhouse gases monitoring.
Zhuo-Yi Huang; Bin Wang; Elcio Abdalla; Ru-Keng Su
2006-04-21
We investigate the question of the suppression of the CMB power spectrum for the lowest multipoles in closed Universes. The intrinsic reason for a lowest cutoff in closed Universes, connected with the discrete spectrum of the wavelength, is shown not to be enough to explain observations. We thus extend the holographic cosmic duality to closed universes by relating the dark energy equation of state and the power spectrum, showing a suppression behavior which describes the low l features extremely well. We also explore the possibility to disclose the nature of the dark energy from the observed small l CMB spectrum by employing the holographic idea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, John; Alexander, Stephen J.; Craig, Gary; Hendry, David C.; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Marteau, J.-M.; Nareid, Helge; Nebrensky, J. J.; Player, Michael A.; Saw, Kevin; Tipping, Keith
2002-06-01
We describe the development, construction and sea testing of An underwater holographic camera (HoloCam) for in situ recording of marine organisms and particles in large volumes of sea water. HoloCam comprises a laser, power supply, holographic recording optics, and plate holders, a water- tight housing and a support frame. Added to this are control electronics such that the entire camera is remotely operable and controllable from ship or dock-side. Uniquely the camera can simultaneously record both in-line and off-axis holograms using a pulsed frequency double Nd:YAG laser. In- line holography is capable of producing images of organisms with a resolution of better than 10 micrometers . Off-axis holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50,000 cm3 volume, have been recorded. Following initial laboratory testing, the holo-camera was evaluated in an observation tank and ultimately was tested in Loch Etive, Scotland. In-line and off-axis holograms were recorded to a depth of 100 m. We will present result on the ste dives and evaluation of the camera performance.
Optical memory development. Volume 2: Gain-assisted holographic storage media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gange, R. A.; Mezrich, R. S.
1972-01-01
Thin deformable films were investigated for use as the storage medium in a holographic optical memory. The research was directed toward solving the problems of material fatigue, selective heat addressing, electrical charging of the film surface and charge patterning by light. A number of solutions to these problems were found but the main conclusion to be drawn from the work is that deformable media which employ heat in the recording process are not satisfactory for use in a high-speed random-access read/write holographic memory. They are, however, a viable approach in applications where either high speed or random-access is not required.
High resolution MRI evaluation of meniscal volume and anthropometric correlations.
Narvy, Steven J; Asami, Danny K; Solomon, Thomas C; Burke, Wendy S; Colletti, Patrick M; Vangsness, C Thomas
2015-09-01
The purpose of this study was to digitally determine meniscal volumes, and compare them with linear and surface area anthropometric measurements to evaluate these measurements for meniscal allograft sizing. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; mean age 37.5 years) underwent 3.0 T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant leg. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: medial meniscal volume (MMV), lateral meniscal volume (LMV), tibial plateau width (TPW), width of the femoral condyles (WFC), and tibial plateau surface area (TPSA). MMV and LMV were compared to TPW, WFC, and TPSA. Meniscal volume and TPW were correlated to height and body-mass index (BMI) and stratified by gender. Statistical analysis included coefficient of determination (r(2)) between MRI-based MMV, LMV, TPW, TPSA, WFC, height, BMI, and gender. Significance was set at the P = 0.05 level. The mean MMV was 2275 mm(3) and the mean LMV was 2102 mm(3). TPW correlated well with meniscal volumes (r(2) > 0.62). WFC and TPSA correlated with meniscal volumes in the range of 0.40 < r(2) < 0.61. Height, BMI, and gender correlated poorly with total meniscal volume and TPW with values of r(2) < 0.44. Medial and lateral menisci have statistically similar volumes. TPW had the greatest utility for volumetric meniscal sizing. MRI-based TPW can be considered as a statistically accurate measurement for determining meniscal volumes and meniscal size. PMID:26118625
Ismadi, Mohd-Zulhilmi; Higgins, Simon; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Paganin, David; Hourigan, Kerry; Fouras, Andreas
2013-01-01
We describe a method for measuring three dimensional (3D) velocity fields of a fluid at high speed, by combining a correlation-based approach with in-line holography. While this method utilizes tracer particles contained within the flow, our method does not require the holographic reconstruction of 3D images. The direct flow reconstruction approach developed here allows for measurements at seeding densities in excess of the allowable levels for techniques based on image or particle reconstruction, thus making it suited for biological flow measurement, such as the flow in bioreactor. We outline the theory behind our method, which we term Holographic Correlation Velocimetry (HCV), and subsequently apply it to both synthetic and laboratory data. Moreover, because the system is based on in-line holography, it is very efficient with regard to the use of light, as it does not rely on side scattering. This efficiency could be utilized to create a very high quality system at a modest cost. Alternatively, this efficiency makes the system appropriate for high-speed flows and low exposure times, which is essential for imaging dynamic systems. PMID:23776534
Infinite Volume Limit for Correlation functions in the Dipole Gas
Tuan Minh Le
2013-07-12
We study a classical lattice dipole gas with low activity in dimension $d \\geq 3$. We investigate long distance properties by a renormalization group analysis. We prove that various correlation functions have an infinite volume limit. We also get estimates on the decay of correlation functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey
1990-01-01
Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.
Weak transition matrix elements from finite-volume correlation functions
Laurent Lellouch; Martin Lüscher
2000-03-28
The two-body decay rate of a weakly decaying particle (such as the kaon) is shown to be proportional to the square of a well-defined transition matrix element in finite volume. Contrary to the physical amplitude, the latter can be extracted from finite-volume correlation functions in euclidean space without analytic continuation. The K -> pi pi transitions and other non-leptonic decays thus become accessible to established numerical techniques in lattice QCD.
Regional white matter volumes correlate with delay discounting.
Yu, Rongjun
2012-01-01
A preference for immediate gratification is a central feature in addictive processes. However, the neural structures underlying reward delay tolerance are still unclear. Healthy participants (n?=?121) completed a delay discounting questionnaire assessing the extent to which they prefer smaller immediate rewards to larger delayed reward after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Whole brain voxel-based morphometric analysis shows that delay discounting severity was negatively correlated with right prefrontal subgyral white matter volume and positively correlated with white matter volume in parahippocampus/hippocampus, after whole brain correction. This study might better our understanding of the neural basis of impulsivity and addiction. PMID:22393420
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcheulin, A. S.; Angervaks, A. E.; Kupchikov, A. K.; Verkhovskii, E. B.; Ryskin, A. I.
2014-12-01
A holographic method for measuring linear displacements based on the use of a highly stable volume scale hologram recorded in an additively colored calcium fluoride crystal with photochromic color centers is proposed and experimentally approved. The essence of this method lies in measuring and analyzing harmonic signals formed during linear displacement of crystal with a volume hologram in an external interference field. A physical model of the formation of harmonic signals in photodetectors when measuring displacements is considered, and a mathematical method for calculating linear displacements by plotting a Lissajous figure is substantiated. A laboratory breadboard of a device for measuring linear displacements in a range of 10 mm, limited by the aperture of crystal with a recorded 8.7-mm-thick hologram, is designed. When using a scale hologram with a period of 2.18 ?m and a 632.8-nm He-Ne laser for reading this hologram, the error in measuring displacements by this method is 9 nm at a resolution of 3 nm.
Weak correlation of starch and volume in synchronized photosynthetic cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rading, M. Michael; Sandmann, Michael; Steup, Martin; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo
2015-01-01
In cultures of unicellular algae, features of single cells, such as cellular volume and starch content, are thought to be the result of carefully balanced growth and division processes. Single-cell analyses of synchronized photoautotrophic cultures of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal, however, that the cellular volume and starch content are only weakly correlated. Likewise, other cell parameters, e.g., the chlorophyll content per cell, are only weakly correlated with cell size. We derive the cell size distributions at the beginning of each synchronization cycle considering growth, timing of cell division and daughter cell release, and the uneven division of cell volume. Furthermore, we investigate the link between cell volume growth and starch accumulation. This work presents evidence that, under the experimental conditions of light-dark synchronized cultures, the weak correlation between both cell features is a result of a cumulative process rather than due to asymmetric partition of biomolecules during cell division. This cumulative process necessarily limits cellular similarities within a synchronized cell population.
Cross-correlations between volume change and price change.
Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene
2009-12-29
In finance, one usually deals not with prices but with growth rates R, defined as the difference in logarithm between two consecutive prices. Here we consider not the trading volume, but rather the volume growth rate R, the difference in logarithm between two consecutive values of trading volume. To this end, we use several methods to analyze the properties of volume changes |R|, and their relationship to price changes |R|. We analyze 14,981 daily recordings of the Standard and Poor's (S & P) 500 Index over the 59-year period 1950-2009, and find power-law cross-correlations between |R| and |R| by using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). We introduce a joint stochastic process that models these cross-correlations. Motivated by the relationship between |R| and |R|, we estimate the tail exponent alpha of the probability density function P(|R|) approximately |R|(-1-alpha) for both the S & P 500 Index as well as the collection of 1819 constituents of the New York Stock Exchange Composite Index on 17 July 2009. As a new method to estimate alpha, we calculate the time intervals tau(q) between events where R > q. We demonstrate that tau(q), the average of tau(q), obeys tau(q) approximately q(alpha). We find alpha approximately 3. Furthermore, by aggregating all tau(q) values of 28 global financial indices, we also observe an approximate inverse cubic law. PMID:20018772
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Byung-Mok; Hwang, Yong-Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo
2015-11-01
In volume-holographic optical elements (VHOEs)-based time-sequential three-dimensional (3-D) displays, two reference beams generated from a backlight unit (BLU) illuminate VHOEs, and from which object beams satisfying the Brag condition are then diffracted. These beams form a pair of alternating light fields for stereo 3-D view. Since this system operates based on diffraction optics, its performance highly depends on the degrees of collimation and uniformity of the reference beams. Thus, a new BLU system to generate uniformly-collimated reference beams for the VHOEs-based 3-D display is proposed by combined use of a light-guide-plate (LGP) grooved with an array of angle-variant flat-top prisms, and two LED light sources attached with reflection-type beam collimators. Simulation results with LightTools 7.1 show that the average full-width at half maximum (FWHM), backshift ratio and intensity uniformity of the LGP output beam of the proposed system have been significantly reduced down to 2.8° and 0.4%, and increased up to 90.9%, respectively, from the values of 51.8°, 26.5% and 24.5% of the conventional system. They represent 18.5-, 66.3- and 3.7-fold improvements of those values in the proposed system, respectively. These successful results confirm the feasibility of the proposed system in the practical VHOEs-based 3-D display.
Evaluation of spatial-spectral filtering in non-paraxial volume holographic imaging systems
Watson, Jonathan M
2008-01-01
In this thesis, the properties of transmission-mode volume phase holograms as spatial-spectral filters in optical systems for microscopic medical imaging are evaluated. In experiment, the relationship between the angle of ...
High-speed holographic correlation system for video identification on the internet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko
2013-12-01
Automatic video identification is important for indexing, search purposes, and removing illegal material on the Internet. By combining a high-speed correlation engine and web-scanning technology, we developed the Fast Recognition Correlation system (FReCs), a video identification system for the Internet. FReCs is an application thatsearches through a number of websites with user-generated content (UGC) and detects video content that violates copyright law. In this paper, we describe the FReCs configuration and an approach to investigating UGC websites using FReCs. The paper also illustrates the combination of FReCs with an optical correlation system, which is capable of easily replacing a digital authorization sever in FReCs with optical correlation.
Adams, Allan
Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasiparticles. Two systems that have recently ...
Effects of pore volume-transmissivity correlation on transport phenomena.
Lunati, Ivan; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Ivan
2003-12-01
The relevant velocity that describes transport phenomena in a porous medium is the pore velocity. For this reason, one needs not only to describe the variability of transmissivity, which fully determines the Darcy velocity field for given source terms and boundary conditions, but also any variability of the pore volume. We demonstrate that hydraulically equivalent media with exactly the same transmissivity field can produce dramatic differences in the displacement of a solute if they have different pore volume distributions. In particular, we demonstrate that correlation between pore volume and transmissivity leads to a much smoother and more homogeneous solute distribution. This was observed in a laboratory experiment performed in artificial fractures made of two plexiglass plates into which a space-dependent aperture distribution was milled. Using visualization by a light transmission technique, we observe that the solute behaviour is much smoother and more regular after the fractures are filled with glass powder, which plays the role of a homogeneous fault gouge material. This is due to a perfect correlation between pore volume and transmissivity that causes pore velocity to be not directly dependent on the transmissivity, but only indirectly through the hydraulic gradient, which is a much smoother function due to the diffusive behaviour of the flow equation acting as a filter. This smoothing property of the pore volume-transmissivity correlation is also supported by numerical simulations of tracer tests in a dipole flow field. Three different conceptual models are used: an empty fracture, a rough-walled fracture filled with a homogeneous material and a parallel-plate fracture with a heterogeneous fault gouge. All three models are hydraulically equivalent, yet they have a different pore volume distribution. Even if piezometric heads and specific flow rates are exactly the same at any point of the domain, the transport process differs dramatically. These differences make it important to discriminate in situ among different conceptual models in order to simulate correctly the transport phenomena. For this reason, we study the solute breakthrough and recovery curves at the extraction wells. Our numerical case studies show that discrimination on the basis of such data might be impossible except under very favourable conditions, i.e. the integral scale of the transmissivity field has to be known and small compared to the dipole size. If the latter conditions are satisfied, discrimination between the rough-walled fracture filled with a homogeneous material and the other two models becomes possible, whereas the parallel-plate fracture with a heterogeneous fault gouge and the empty fracture still show identifiability problems. The latter may be solved by inspection of aperture and pressure testing. PMID:14607477
Cell volume regulation monitored with combined epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy.
Pavillon, Nicolas; Marquet, Pierre
2015-01-01
Quantitative phase imaging emerged recently as a valuable tool for cell observation, by enabling label-free imaging through the intrinsic phase-contrast provided by transparent living cells, thus greatly simplifying observation protocols. The quantitative phase signal, unlike the one provided by the widely used phase-contrast microscope, can be related to relevant biological indicators including dry mass, cell volume regulation or transmembrane water movements. Here, we present quantitative phase imaging coupled with live fluorescence, making it possible to follow the phase signal in time to monitor the cell volume regulation, an early indicator of cell viability, along with specific information such as intracellular Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2 ratiometric fluorescence. PMID:25431054
Expanded digital volume correlation for ex situ applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Keshu; Yang, Peng
2015-09-01
Full-field deformation/strain measurements are important to experimental mechanics, and the digital volume correlation (DVC) technique is one of the most important techniques for full-field measurement. However, traditional DVC has difficulty in distinguishing deformation displacements and rigid-body displacements in ex situ applications. To expand the applications of traditional DVC, two expanded DVC methods are proposed, based on outer and inner image registration respectively. These methods would remove the rigid motions in ex situ applications. Their performances are thoroughly evaluated. These methods have similar accuracy and precision to traditional DVC. One proposed method is further applied on a low-velocity impact deformation investigation, which would be impossible using traditional DVC. The high accuracy and precision of the methods demonstrate their reliability and feasibility, and the case study on low-velocity impact deformation shows their potential in ex situ applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barkhouser, Robert H.; Arns, James; Gunn, James E.
2014-08-01
The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea. Four identical, fixed spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55 m fiber optic cable feeds light into the spectrographs from a robotic fiber positioner mounted at the telescope prime focus, behind the wide field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3 degree hexagonal field of view. Each spectrograph module will be capable of simultaneously acquiring 600 spectra. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to separate the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual- corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275 mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380 nm to 1.26 µm, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.1 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and cover the bandpasses 380-650 nm (blue), 630-970 nm (red), and 0.94-1.26 µm (NIR). A mosaic of two Hamamatsu 2k×4k, 15 µm pixel CCDs records the spectra in the blue and red channels, while the NIR channel employs a 4k×4k, substrate-removed HAWAII-4RG array from Teledyne, with 15 µm pixels and a 1.7 µm wavelength cutoff. VPH gratings have become the dispersing element of choice for moderate-resolution astronomical spectro- graphs due their potential for very high diffraction efficiency, low scattered light, and the more compact instru- ment designs offered by transmissive dispersers. High quality VPH gratings are now routinely being produced in the sizes required for instruments on large telescopes. These factors made VPH gratings an obvious choice for PFS. In order to reduce risk to the project, as well as fully exploit the performance potential of this technology, a set of three prototype VPH gratings (one each of the blue, red, and NIR designs) was ordered and has been recently delivered. The goal for these prototype units, but not a requirement, was to meet the specifications for the final gratings in order to serve as spares and also as early demonstration and integration articles. In this paper we present the design and specifications for the PFS gratings, the plan and setups used for testing both the prototype and final gratings, and results from recent optical testing of the prototype grating set.
Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre
2013-03-01
A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons. PMID:23487181
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre
2013-03-01
A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons.
Haba, Kazumoto; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi
2010-09-01
Technidilaton, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of scale symmetry, was predicted long ago in the scale-invariant/walking/conformal technicolor (SWC-TC) as a remnant of the (approximate) scale symmetry associated with the conformal fixed point, based on the conformal gauge dynamics of ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation with nonrunning coupling. We study the technidilaton as a flavor-singlet bound state of technifermions by including the technigluon condensate (tGC) effect into the previous (bottom-up) holographic approach to the SWC-TC, a deformation of the holographic QCD with {gamma}{sub m{approx_equal}}0 by large anomalous dimension {gamma}{sub m{approx_equal}}1. With including a bulk scalar field corresponding to the gluon condensate, we first improve the operator product expansion of the current correlators so as to reproduce gluonic 1/Q{sup 4} term both in QCD and SWC-TC. We find in QCD about 10% (negative) contribution of gluon condensate to the {rho} meson mass. We also calculate the oblique electroweak S-parameter in the presence of the effect of the tGC and find that for the fixed value of S the tGC effects dramatically reduce the flavor-singlet scalar (technidilaton) mass M{sub TD} (in the unit of F{sub {pi}}), while the vector and axial-vector masses M{sub {rho}}and M{sub a{sub 1}} are rather insensitive to the tGC, where F{sub {pi}}is the decay constant of the technipion. If we use the range of values of tGC implied by the ladder SD analysis of the nonperturbative scale anomaly in the large N{sub f} QCD near the conformal window, the phenomenological constraint S{approx_equal}0.1 predicts the technidilaton mass M{sub TD{approx}}600 GeV which is within reach of LHC discovery.
Ra, Ho-Kyeong; Kim, Hyungseok; Yoon, Hee Jung; Son, Sang Hyuk; Park, Taejoon; Moon, Sangjun
2013-09-01
To achieve the important aims of identifying and marking disease progression, cell counting is crucial for various biological and medical procedures, especially in a Point-Of-Care (POC) setting. In contrast to the conventional manual method of counting cells, a software-based approach provides improved reliability, faster speeds, and greater ease of use. We present a novel software-based approach to count in-line holographic cell images using the calculation of a normalized 2D cross-correlation. This enables fast, computationally-efficient pattern matching between a set of cell library images and the test image. Our evaluation results show that the proposed system is capable of quickly counting cells whilst reliably and accurately following human counting capability. Our novel approach is 5760 times faster than manual counting and provides at least 68% improved accuracy compared to other image processing algorithms. PMID:23839256
Long-term correlations and multifractality in trading volumes for Chinese stocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Chen, Wei; Kertész, János
2010-08-01
We investigate the temporal correlations and multifractal nature of trading volume of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003. We find that non-universal long memory exhibits size-dependence on the trading volume, while the multifractal nature is independent of the trading volume. No crossover in the power-law dependence of the detrended fluctuation functions is observed. Our results show that the intraday pattern in the trading volume has negligible impact on the long memory and multifractality. We also find that both the long memory and probability distribution of trading volume have important influence on the multifractal nature.
Soft limits in holographic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFadden, Paul
2015-02-01
We study the soft limits of cosmological correlators from a holographic perspective, showing how the inflationary consistency relations arise from the diffeomorphism invariance of the dual quantum field theory. Starting from the corresponding Ward identity, by taking moments we derive the leading and subleading behaviour of the stress tensor 3-point function in the limit as one momentum vanishes. These results are non-perturbative and valid in quantum field theories of a very general nature. Exploiting the known mapping of correlators in the dual quantum field theory to those of the cosmology, we then obtain the leading and subleading soft behaviour of all cosmological 3-point correlators of curvature perturbations and gravitons. Our results thus provide a holographic derivation of all leading and subleading consistency relations for cosmological 3-point functions, and our method is easily generalised. We verify our results explicitly for slow-roll inflation and for strongly coupled holographic cosmologies with a perturbative dual description.
Inuwa, IM; El Mardi, AS
2005-01-01
The aim of this study was to estimate the number and volume distribution of islets of Langerhans in post-weaning young Wistar rat pancreas and their variation with age. Four groups of six normal Wistar Kyoto rats, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age, were used. The whole pancreas was weighed (W), fixed in buffered formaldehyde and embedded in JB4 resin, and 1.5-µm serial sections were obtained. A fraction of whole tissue was obtained in accordance with the multistage fractionator principle and used to estimate total number of islets (Nis). Volume fraction (Vf) of islets and volume-weighted mean volume (Vv) of islets were estimated using point-counting and point-sampled intercept methods, respectively. The numbers of islets increased steadily with age (P < 0.001), whereas the volume-weighted mean volume of individual islets was not significantly different among all age groups of rats (P > 0.05). There was a strong positive correlation between total islet number and islet mass (r = 0.96, P = 0.001), and between volume fraction and islet mass (r = 0.969, P = 0.001). However, there was a weak positive correlation between volume fraction and volume-weighted mean islet volume (r = 0.6, P = 0.002) in the age window investigated. These findings indicate that there was an increase in the number and volume fraction of islets with age in post-weaning young rats but that individual islet volume did not change significantly. It appears the mechanism of alteration in islet morphology in the rat is mainly by the formation of new islets while keeping their individual volume distribution unchanged. PMID:15730483
Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.
2008-01-01
Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…
Fast fluorescence holographic microscopy
Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Qu, Xinghua; Yao, Hai; Gao, Bruce Z.
2015-01-01
FINCHSCOPE is a new technology of fluorescence holographic microscopy. It has been successfully applied to recording high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens without the need for scanning. In this study, we revealed and analyzed an intrinsic phenomenon, called ghost lens effect, on spatial light modulator which is the core element enabling the incoherent correlation in the FINCHSCOPE. The ghost lens effect can degrade the imaging quality by introducing multiple spherical waves with different focal lengths into the correlation and thus increasing the noise in the recorded holograms. PMID:25767693
Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen
2013-01-01
Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood. PMID:24336512
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen
2013-12-01
Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whiting, N.; Nikolaou, P.; Eschmann, N. A.; Barlow, M. J.; Lammert, R.; Ungar, J.; Hu, W.; Vaissie, L.; Goodson, B. M.
2012-03-01
Next-generation laser diode arrays with integrated `on-chip' volume holographic gratings can provide high power with spectrally narrowed output that can be tuned about the rubidium D1 line—without causing significant changes to the laser's flux or spectral profile. These properties were exploited to independently evaluate the effects of varying the laser centroid wavelength and power on batch-mode Rb/129Xe spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) as functions of xenon partial pressure and cell temperature. Locally optimized SEOP was often achieved with the laser tuned to either the red or blue side of the Rb D1 line; global optimization of SEOP was observed at lower cell temperatures and followed the D1 absorption profile, which was asymmetrically broadened and red-shifted from the nominal wavelength. The complex dependence of the optimal wavelength for laser excitation on the cell temperature and Xe density appears to result from an interplay between cell illumination and the Rb/129Xe spin-exchange rate, as well as [Xe]cell-dependent changes to the Rb absorption lineshape that are in qualitative agreement with expectations based on previous work [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. A, 56:4569-4578, (1997)], but significantly greater in magnitude. These next-generation lasers provide a ˜2-3-fold improvement in 129Xe polarization compared to conventional broadband lasers.
Volume Functions of Historical Texts and the Amplitude Correlation Principle.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fomenko, Anatoliy T.; Rachev, Svetlozar T.
1990-01-01
Proposes an empirico-statistical model to differentiate dependent and independent historical texts. Formulates a regard for information principle and an amplitude correlation principle. Experimentally examines and validates the model and both principles using specific historical texts. Includes tables and graphs. Appends further discussion of the…
Intelligent holographic databases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbastathis, George
Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features of the sensory inputs, fused with relevant recollections, reminiscent of the hypothesized cognitive function of awareness. The Declarative Memory is searched both by content and address, suggesting a holographic implementation. The proposed computer architecture may lead to a novel paradigm that solves 'hard' cognitive problems at low cost.
Correlations among Brain Gray Matter Volumes, Age, Gender, and Hemisphere in Healthy Individuals
Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi
2011-01-01
To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20–69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region. PMID:21818377
Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume
Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes
2014-01-01
Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r?=?0.372, p?=?0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r?=?0.507, p?=?0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r?=?0.306, p?=?0.04 and r?=?0.459, p?=?0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to cognitive performance. PMID:24699871
Correlated volume-energy fluctuations of phospholipid membranes: a simulation study.
Pedersen, Ulf R; Peters, Günther H; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C
2010-02-18
This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes (DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH) with focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and chain order. At constant temperature and pressure, volume and energy exhibit strong correlations of their slow fluctuations (defined by averaging over 0.5 ns). These quantities, on the other hand, do not correlate significantly with area, thickness, or chain order. The correlations are mainly reported for the fluid phase, but we also give some results for the ordered (gel) phase of two membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, and showing that the slow volume-energy fluctuations derive from van der Waals interactions of the tail region; they are thus analogous to the similar strong correlations recently observed in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones and other simple van der Waals type liquids (U. R. Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 015701). The strong correlations reported here confirm one crucial assumption of a recent theory for nerve signal propagation proposed by Heimburg and Jackson (T. Heimburg and A. D. Jackson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2005, 102, 9790-9795). PMID:20095587
Correlated Volume?Energy Fluctuations of Phospholipid Membranes: A Simulation Study
2010-01-01
This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes (DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH) with focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and chain order. At constant temperature and pressure, volume and energy exhibit strong correlations of their slow fluctuations (defined by averaging over 0.5 ns). These quantities, on the other hand, do not correlate significantly with area, thickness, or chain order. The correlations are mainly reported for the fluid phase, but we also give some results for the ordered (gel) phase of two membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, and showing that the slow volume?energy fluctuations derive from van der Waals interactions of the tail region; they are thus analogous to the similar strong correlations recently observed in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones and other simple van der Waals type liquids (U. R. Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.2008, 100, 015701). The strong correlations reported here confirm one crucial assumption of a recent theory for nerve signal propagation proposed by Heimburg and Jackson (T. Heimburg and A. D. Jackson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.2005, 102, 9790?9795). PMID:20095587
Dionysios Anninos; Tarek Anous; Frederik Denef; Lucas Peeters
2013-08-31
We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas
2015-04-01
We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.
Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas
2013-01-01
We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.
Correlated Variability in the Breathing Pattern and End-Expiratory Lung Volumes in Conscious Humans
Dellaca, Raffaele L.; Aliverti, Andrea; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Lutchen, Kenneth R.; Pedotti, Antonio; Suki, Bela
2015-01-01
In order to characterize the variability and correlation properties of spontaneous breathing in humans, the breathing pattern of 16 seated healthy subjects was studied during 40 min of quiet breathing using opto-electronic plethysmography, a contactless technology that measures total and compartmental chest wall volumes without interfering with the subjects breathing. From these signals, tidal volume (VT), respiratory time (TTOT) and the other breathing pattern parameters were computed breath-by-breath together with the end-expiratory total and compartmental (pulmonary rib cage and abdomen) chest wall volume changes. The correlation properties of these variables were quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis, computing the scaling exponent?. VT, TTOT and the other breathing pattern variables showed ? values between 0.60 (for minute ventilation) to 0.71 (for respiratory rate), all significantly lower than the ones obtained for end-expiratory volumes, that ranged between 1.05 (for rib cage) and 1.13 (for abdomen) with no significant differences between compartments. The much stronger long-range correlations of the end expiratory volumes were interpreted by a neuromechanical network model consisting of five neuron groups in the brain respiratory center coupled with the mechanical properties of the respiratory system modeled as a simple Kelvin body. The model-based ? for VT is 0.57, similar to the experimental data. While the ? for TTOT was slightly lower than the experimental values, the model correctly predicted ? for end-expiratory lung volumes (1.045). In conclusion, we propose that the correlations in the timing and amplitude of the physiological variables originate from the brain with the exception of end-expiratory lung volume, which shows the strongest correlations largely due to the contribution of the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. This cycle-by-cycle variability may have a significant impact on the functioning of adherent cells in the respiratory system. PMID:25803710
Holographic Optical Data Storage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising, and security medium as well. The evolution of holographic optical memories has followed a path not altogether different from holography itself, with several cycles of alternating interest over the past four decades. P. J. van Heerden is widely credited for being the first to elucidate the principles behind holographic data storage in a 1963 paper, predicting bit storage densities on the order of 1/lambda(sup 3) with source wavelength lambda - a fantastic capacity of nearly 1 TB/cu cm for visible light! The science and engineering of such a storage paradigm was heavily pursued thereafter, resulting in many novel hologram multiplexing techniques for dense data storage, as well as important advances in holographic recording materials. Ultimately, however, the lack of such enabling technologies as compact laser sources and high performance optical data I/O devices dampened the hopes for the development of a commercial product. After a period of relative dormancy, successful applications of holography in other arenas sparked a renewed interest in holographic data storage in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Currently, with most of the critical optoelectronic device technologies in place and the quest for an ideal holographic recording medium intensified, holography is once again considered as one of several future data storage paradigms that may answer our constantly growing need for higher-capacity and faster-access memories.
P. Huang; Yong-Chang Huang
2012-12-30
We suggest a holographic energy model in which the energy coming from spatial curvature, matter and radiation can be obtained by using the particle horizon for the infrared cut-off. We show the consistency between the holographic dark-energy model and the holographic energy model proposed in this paper. Then, we give a holographic description of the universe.
Holographic enhanced remote sensing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.
1990-01-01
The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.
RELAP5/MOD3 code manual. Volume 4, Models and correlations
1995-08-01
The RELAP5 code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I presents modeling theory and associated numerical schemes; Volume II details instructions for code application and input data preparation; Volume III presents the results of developmental assessment cases that demonstrate and verify the models used in the code; Volume IV discusses in detail RELAP5 models and correlations; Volume V presents guidelines that have evolved over the past several years through the use of the RELAP5 code; Volume VI discusses the numerical scheme used in RELAP5; and Volume VII presents a collection of independent assessment calculations.
2013-01-01
Background The correlation between primary tumor volume and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) UICC 2002 T classification, N classification and distant metastasis after radiation therapy was discussed to provide further evidence for the inclusion of tumor volume into the TNM classification staging system. Methods Between February 2001 and December 2008, 666 patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. Primary gross tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning computed tomography scans. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were used for comparison of continuous variables and the chi-square test was used for categorical variables. A logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Median primary tumor volume of the 666 patients was 20.35 ml (range, 0.44???192.63 ml), and it gradually increased with T classification. Statistically significant differences in tumor volume were observed between patients with different T classifications (p?volume between patients with or without lymph node metastasis were statistically significant (p?volume (p?=?0.007) were the main factors influencing distant metastasis. Conclusion Tumor volume was correlated with T classification, cervical lymph node mestastasis and distant metastasis after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, suggesting that tumor volume should be included into the TNM staging system. PMID:23578324
Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi
2011-01-01
This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…
Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong
2014-04-18
We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028
Incidence of radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation: Dose-volume correlates
Schallenkamp, John M.; Miller, Robert C.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Foote, Tyler; Garces, Yolanda I.
2007-02-01
Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric parameters correlated with the risk of clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of consecutive patients treated with definitive thoracic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of RP of Grade 2 or greater by the Common Toxicity Criteria. Dose-volume histograms using total lung volume (TL) and TL minus gross tumor volume (TL-G) were created with and without heterogeneity corrections. Mean lung dose (MLD), effective lung volume (V{sub eff}), and percentage of TL or TL-G receiving greater than or equal to 10, 13, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (V10-V30, respectively) were analyzed by logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate RP predictive values. Results: Twelve cases of RP were identified in 92 eligible patients. Mean lung dose, V10, V13, V15, V20, and V{sub eff} were significantly correlated to RP. Combinations of MLD, V{sub eff}, V20, and V30 lost significance using TL-G and heterogeneity corrections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined V10 and V13 as the best predictors of RP risk, with a decrease in predictive value above those volumes. Conclusions: Intrathoracic radiotherapy should be planned with caution when using radiotherapy techniques delivering doses of 10 to 15 Gy to large lung volumes.
Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)
1978-01-01
An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.
Yang, Mino
2014-04-14
Förster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Förster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Mino
2014-04-01
Förster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Förster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth
1988-01-01
Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.
Holographic data processing methods for medical prognosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonov, V. A.; Grosmann, M. H.; Kartavenko, V. I.; Larkin, A. I.; Trukhanov, K. A.
2015-10-01
The various methods of laser coherent photonic implementations of multiparametric classification are discussed in this paper. The holographic and optical data processing methods for medical application are considered. Inverse two-phase coding and analysis of light distribution in the correlation plane enables us to realize a number of algorithms: search for a precedent, Hamming distance measurement, Bayes probability algorithm, deterministic and ‘correspondence’ algorithms. The experimental holographic results for medicine prognosis are shown.
Tam, Roger C; Traboulsee, Anthony; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B
2012-01-01
The change in T 1-hypointense lesion ("black hole") volume is an important marker of pathological progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Black hole boundaries often have low contrast and are difficult to determine accurately and most (semi-)automated segmentation methods first compute the T 2-hyperintense lesions, which are a superset of the black holes and are typically more distinct, to form a search space for the T 1w lesions. Two main potential sources of measurement noise in longitudinal black hole volume computation are partial volume and variability in the T 2w lesion segmentation. A paired analysis approach is proposed herein that uses registration to equalize partial volume and lesion mask processing to combine T 2w lesion segmentations across time. The scans of 247 MS patients are used to compare a selected black hole computation method with an enhanced version incorporating paired analysis, using rank correlation to a clinical variable (MS functional composite) as the primary outcome measure. The comparison is done at nine different levels of intensity as a previous study suggests that darker black holes may yield stronger correlations. The results demonstrate that paired analysis can strongly improve longitudinal correlation (from -0.148 to -0.303 in this sample) and may produce segmentations that are more sensitive to clinically relevant changes. PMID:24179734
Takeuchi, Shingo
2013-01-01
We propose a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) composed of two Josephson junctions connected each other in a circle with the magnetic flux penetrating the circuit of the SQUID and the supercurrents flowing in both Josephson junction. The gravity in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar field model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry in which one space direction is compactified into a circle, and we arrange the profile of the coefficient of the time component of the gauge field having the role for the chemical potential of the cooper pair. The magnetic flux is involved by the rewriting of the surface integral of the magnetic field to the contour integral of the gauge field.
Latorre, Jose I
2015-01-01
There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.
Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude
Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge
2014-01-01
Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. PMID:24106333
Jingfei Zhang; Xin Zhang; Hongya Liu
2007-06-19
We propose in this Letter a holographic model of tachyon dark energy. A connection between the tachyon scalar-field and the holographic dark energy is established, and accordingly, the potential of the holographic tachyon field is constructed. We show that the holographic evolution of the universe with $c\\geqslant 1$ can be described completely by the resulting tachyon model in a certain way.
Johnson, Clifford V
2014-01-01
It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Clifford V.
2014-10-01
It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.
Volume localized spin echo correlation spectroscopy with suppression of ‘diagonal' peaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Abhishek; Chandrakumar, N.
2014-02-01
Two dimensional homonuclear 1H correlation spectroscopy is of considerable interest for volume localized spectral studies, both in vivo and in vitro, of biological as well as material objects. The information principally sought from correlation spectra resides in the cross-peaks, which are often masked however by the presence of diagonal peaks in COSY, or ‘pseudo-diagonal' peaks at F1 = 0 in SECSY. It has therefore been a concern to suppress these diagonal or ‘pseudo-diagonal' peaks, in order to ensure that cross-peak information is fully discernible. We present here a report of our work on volume localized DIagonal Suppressed Spin Echo Correlation specTroscopy (LDISSECT) and demonstrate its performance in comparison to the standard volume localized SECSY experiment, employing brain metabolite phantoms in a gel. The sequence works in the inhomogeneous, multi-component environment by exploiting the short acquisition time to suppress undesired information by employing an additional rf pulse. A brief description of the pulse sequence, its theory, and simulations are also included, besides experimental benchmarking on two brain metabolite phantoms in gel phase.
Autobiographical deficits correlate with gray matter volume in depressed and high risk participants.
Young, Kymberly D; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C
2015-11-01
Autobiographical memory (AM) overgenerality is a consistent neuropsychological feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and is present in individuals at high-familial risk (HR) of developing MDD. Structural changes have been found in brain regions implicated in AM recall in MDDs and HRs. However, the relationship between selective regional gray matter volume (GMV) differences and AM recall deficits has not been examined. We examined this relationship in 27 HR, 43 unmedicated MDD and 47 low-risk healthy control participants as they completed an AM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used for automated anatomical image processing and volumetric quantification. Anatomical regions of interest for GMV analysis were selected based on regions most commonly activated in controls as they recall specific AMs according to a recent meta-analysis. Pearson correlations were calculated among volumetric and AM recall data. In HRs and MDDs, left hippocampal volume correlated positively with specific (HRs r?=?0.42; MDDs r?=?0.60) and inversely with categorical AM recall (HRs r?=?-0.51; MDDs r?=?-0.35). In MDDs, left precuneus volume also correlated positively with specific (r?=?0.49) and inversely with categorical (r?=?-0.35) AM recall. Our results suggest selective GMV alterations within the AM network may contribute to AM impairments observed in both HR and MDD individuals. PMID:25925269
Volume localized spin echo correlation spectroscopy with suppression of 'diagonal' peaks.
Banerjee, Abhishek; Chandrakumar, N
2014-02-01
Two dimensional homonuclear (1)H correlation spectroscopy is of considerable interest for volume localized spectral studies, both in vivo and in vitro, of biological as well as material objects. The information principally sought from correlation spectra resides in the cross-peaks, which are often masked however by the presence of diagonal peaks in COSY, or 'pseudo-diagonal' peaks at F1=0 in SECSY. It has therefore been a concern to suppress these diagonal or 'pseudo-diagonal' peaks, in order to ensure that cross-peak information is fully discernible. We present here a report of our work on volume localized DIagonal Suppressed Spin Echo Correlation specTroscopy (LDISSECT) and demonstrate its performance in comparison to the standard volume localized SECSY experiment, employing brain metabolite phantoms in a gel. The sequence works in the inhomogeneous, multi-component environment by exploiting the short acquisition time to suppress undesired information by employing an additional rf pulse. A brief description of the pulse sequence, its theory, and simulations are also included, besides experimental benchmarking on two brain metabolite phantoms in gel phase. PMID:24398399
Holographic lattices and metal-insulator transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Yi
2015-10-01
This paper is an extension of the talk given at the conference on Gravitation and Cosmology/The Fourth Galileo-Xu Guangqi Meeting. We intend to present a short review on recent progress on the construction of holographic lattices and its application to metal-insulator transition (MIT), which is a fundamentally important phenomenon in condensed matter physics. We will firstly implement the Peierls phase transition by constructing holographic charge density waves which are induced by the spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry. Then we turn to the holographic realization of metal-insulator transition as a quantum critical phenomenon with many strongly correlated electrons involved. The holographic entanglement entropy as a diagnostic for such quantum phase transitions will be briefly mentioned.
DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)
de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.
DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided
Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia H; Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I; Burke, Heather; Rosser, Rebecca; Mahan, Laura; Mackin, Scott; Yang, Tony; Weiner, Michael; Mueller, Susanne
2015-04-30
Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. We predicted that, to the extent peripheral and central telomerase activity are directly related, PBMC telomerase activity would be positively correlated with hippocampal volume, perhaps due to hippocampal telomerase-associated neurogenesis, neuroprotection or neurotrophic facilitation, and that this effect would be clearer in individuals with increased PBMC telomerase activity, as previously reported in un-medicated MDD. We did not have specific hypotheses regarding the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampal volume, due to conflicting reports in the published literature. We found, in 25 un-medicated MDD subjects, that PBMC telomerase activity was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume; this relationship was not observed in 18 healthy controls. Leukocyte telomere length was not significantly related to hippocampal volume in either group (19 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 healthy controls). Although the nature of the relationship between peripheral telomerase activity and telomere length and the hippocampus is unclear, these preliminary data are consistent with the possibility that PBMC telomerase activity indexes, and may provide a novel window into, hippocampal neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis in MDD. PMID:25773002
Aharony, Ofer; Kutasov, David; Lunin, Oleg; Sonnenschein, Jacob; Yankielowicz, Shimon
2010-11-15
We study a brane configuration of D4-branes and NS5-branes in weakly coupled type IIA string theory, which describes in a particular limit d=4 N=1 SU(N+p) supersymmetric QCD with 2N flavors and a quartic superpotential. We describe the geometric realization of the supersymmetric vacuum structure of this gauge theory. We focus on the confining vacua of the gauge theory, whose holographic description is given by the MQCD brane configuration in the near-horizon geometry of N D4-branes. This description, which gives an embedding of MQCD into a field theory decoupled from gravity, is valid for 1<
Profilometry with volume holographic imaging
Sun, Wenyang
2006-01-01
High resolution, non-contact object profile measurement (profilometry) at long working distance is important in a number of application areas, such as precise parts manufacturing, optical element grounding and polishing, ...
Nearshore Sediment Budget: Correlating Volume to Shoreline Change, Outer Banks, North Carolina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.
2004-12-01
Though the importance of understanding the exchange of sediment between the shoreline and the nearshore has long been recognized, data capable of addressing the three-dimensional character of the system are lacking. The response of traditional cross-shore profiles to forcing is not representative of the entire beach because of alongshore variability of the beach and nearshore sandbar. Measuring changes in shoreline position along the coast permits analysis of alongshore shoreline variability, but does not account for the actual volume of sediment lost from and restored to the beach. Temporally and spatially variable erosional hotspots identified by List and Farris (1999) along the Outer Banks, North Carolina further confound the study of coastal sediment exchange in the region of interest. A geophysical survey (from Duck to Oregon Inlet) was carried out in order to understand the role of geological characteristics in the transport of sediment between the shoreline and nearshore. Contrary to the assumptions of many shoreline and shoreface change models, the modern sand layer observed over the 40-km study area is not infinitely thick and is highly variable. Modern sediment thicknesses were calculated to a continuous seismic reflection surface that spanned the survey area, the average being 0.42m ± 0.19m. Higher standard deviations (variability) in sediment thickness seem to be loosely related to the presence of shore-oblique sandbars as described by McNinch (in press). Nearshore sediment volume was calculated and relationships to nearshore morphology were explored. Though shore-oblique bars may not represent a large percentage of the total sand regionally (7.9%), locally their influence is much greater. Of the three areas in which bars were identified, the volume of sediment contained within the bars represented 44% of the total volume in the largest bar field, and 14% and 11%, respectively, in more minor bar fields. Nearshore sediment volumes correlated well (correlation coefficient ˜0.60) with long-term shoreline change data (50 year data set, NC Division of Coastal Management) suggesting that long-term trends in shoreline change may be related to the total amount of available sediment in the nearshore. Correlation analyses with short-term shoreline change data will also be explored. These preliminary data suggest that volume calculations considering the total amount of nearshore sediment above a continuous, non-sandy seismic reflection surface may be useful in the prediction of long-term shoreline change trends. The utility of this approach in predicting changes over shorter temporal and spatial scales is the subject of current research.
Evaluation of aero-optical effects in hypersonic flow using holographic interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azzazy, M.
1991-01-01
The aerooptical performance of a generic high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) in a hypersonic tunnel is evaluated. The problem of a plane monochromatic wave incident on volume V of a turbulent medium is studied, and it is concluded that in order to evaluate the aerooptical effects on HEDI performance, it is imperative to measure phase fluctuations. A holographic optical system employed in the experiment is outlined, along with the test setup where the object beam travels through the wind-tunnel Schlieren window on the top of the tunnel, the splitter window on the bottom of the pylon, and the HEDI window before it is reflected back on itself through the same path to a steering mirror and on a holographic plate. The interferogram images are analyzed digitally to yield the fringe RMS and the phase correction function. It is noted that the fringe RMS influences the attenuation of the coherent beam, while the correlation length scale affects the circle of blur.
Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.
2002-04-01
This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.
Incorporation of excluded-volume correlations into Poisson-Boltzmann theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antypov, Dmytro; Barbosa, Marcia C.; Holm, Christian
2005-06-01
We investigate the effect of excluded-volume interactions on the electrolyte distribution around a charged macroion. First, we introduce a criterion for determining when hard-core effects should be taken into account beyond standard mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. Next, we demonstrate that several commonly proposed local-density-functional approaches for excluded-volume interactions cannot be used for this purpose. Instead, we employ a nonlocal excess free energy by using a simple constant-weight approach. We compare the ion distribution and osmotic pressure predicted by this theory with Monte Carlo simulations. They agree very well for weakly developed correlations and give the correct layering effect for stronger ones. In all investigated cases our simple weighted-density theory yields more realistic results than the standard PB approach, whereas all local density theories do not improve on the PB density profiles, but on the contrary, deviate even more from the simulation results.
Finite volume corrections and decay of correlations in the canonical ensemble
Elena Pulvirenti; Dimitrios Tsagkarogiannis
2015-02-16
We consider a classical system of $N$ particles confined in a box $\\Lambda\\subset\\mathbb{R}^d$ interacting via a finite range pair potential. Given the validity of the cluster expansion in the canonical ensemble we compute the error between the finite and the infinite volume free energy and estimate it to be bounded by the area of the surface of the box's boundary over its volume. We also compute the truncated two-point correlation function and find that the contribution from the ideal gas case is of the order $1/N$ while the contribution of the interactions is of the order $1/|\\Lambda|$ plus an exponentially small error with the distance.
Intracranial pressure pulse waveform correlates with aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid stroke volume
Hamilton, Robert; Baldwin, Kevin; Fuller, Jennifer; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao
2012-01-01
This study identifies a novel relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume through the cerebral aqueduct and the characteristic peaks of the intracranial pulse (ICP) waveform. ICP waveform analysis has become much more advanced in recent years; however, clinical practice remains restricted to mean ICP, mainly due to the lack of physiological understanding of the ICP waveform. Therefore, the present study set out to shed some light on the physiological meaning of ICP morphological metrics derived by the morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm by investigating their relationships with a well defined physiological variable, i.e., the stroke volume of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct. Seven patients received both overnight ICP monitoring along with a phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) of the cerebral aqueduct to quantify aqueductal stroke volume (ASV). Waveform morphological analysis of the ICP signal was performed by the MOCAIP algorithm. Following extraction of morphological metrics from the ICP signal, nine temporal ICP metrics and two amplitude-based metrics were compared with the ASV via Spearman's rank correlation. Of the nine temporal metrics correlated with the ASV, only the width of the P2 region (ICP-Wi2) reached significance. Furthermore, both ICP pulse pressure amplitude and mean ICP did not reach significance. In this study, we showed the width of the second peak (ICP-Wi2) of an ICP pulse wave is positively related to the volume of CSF movement through the cerebral aqueduct. This finding is an initial step in bridging the gap between ICP waveform morphology research and clinical practice. PMID:22995390
Bernasconi, Raffaele; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Raschle, Nora Maria; Lenz, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Simon, Andor; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan J.
2015-01-01
Background Individuals with at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) often suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms, which are clinically similar to the negative symptomatology described for psychosis. Thus, many ARMS individuals are already being treated with antidepressant medication. Objectives To investigate clinical and structural differences between psychosis high-risk individuals with or without antidepressants. Methods We compared ARMS individuals currently receiving antidepressants (ARMS-AD; n = 18), ARMS individuals not receiving antidepressants (ARMS-nonAD; n = 31) and healthy subjects (HC; n = 24), in terms of brain structure abnormalities, using voxel-based morphometry. We also performed region of interest analysis for the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and precuneus. Results The ARMS-AD had higher ‘depression’ and lower ‘motor hyperactivity’ scores than the ARMS-nonAD. Compared to HC, there was significantly less GMV in the middle frontal gyrus in the whole ARMS cohort and in the superior frontal gyrus in the ARMS-AD subgroup. Compared to ARMS-nonAD, the ARMS-AD group showed more gray matter volume (GMV) in the left superior parietal lobe, but less GMV in the left hippocampus and the right precuneus. We found a significant negative correlation between attenuated negative symptoms and hippocampal volume in the whole ARMS cohort. Conclusion Reduced GMV in the hippocampus and precuneus is associated with short-term antidepressant medication and more severe depressive symptoms. Hippocampal volume is further negatively correlated with attenuated negative psychotic symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to distinguish whether hippocampal volume deficits in the ARMS are related to attenuated negative psychotic symptoms or to antidepressant action. PMID:26110110
Holographic Chern-Simons Defects
Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Meyer, Rene; Sugimoto, Shigeki
2016-01-01
We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7-branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for two-dimensional QCD.
Fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges in an excluded-volume hadron resonance gas model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Das, Supriya; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Ray, Rajarshi; Samanta, Subhasis
2014-09-01
We present temperature and baryonic chemical potential dependence of higher-order fluctuations and the correlation between conserved charges in an excluded-volume hadron resonance gas model. Products of moments, such as the ratio of variance to mean, product of skewness and standard deviation, product of kurtosis and variance, for the net proton, net kaon, and net charge have been evaluated on the phenomenologically determined freeze-out curve. Further, products of moments for net proton and net charge have been compared with the experimental data measured by the STAR experiment. The dependence of the model result on the hadronic radius parameter has also been discussed.
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2015-01-01
We study power-law correlations properties of the Google search queries for Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) component stocks. Examining the daily data of the searched terms with a combination of the rescaled range and rescaled variance tests together with the detrended fluctuation analysis, we show that the searches are in fact power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.8 and 1.1. The general interest in the DJIA stocks is thus strongly persistent. We further reinvestigate the cross-correlation structure between the searches, traded volume and volatility of the component stocks using the detrended cross-correlation and detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficients. Contrary to the universal power-law correlations structure of the related Google searches, the results suggest that there is no universal relationship between the online search queries and the analyzed financial measures. Even though we confirm positive correlation for a majority of pairs, there are several pairs with insign...
Hoyos, C; Montero, S; Hoyos, Carlos; Landsteiner, Karl; Montero, Sergio
2007-01-01
The plasma phase at high temperatures of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an AdS black hole. Matter in the fundamental representation and in the quenched approximation is introduced through embedding D7-branes in the AdS-Schwarzschild background. Low spin mesons correspond to the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume. As is well known by now, there are two different kinds of embeddings, either reaching down to the black hole horizon or staying outside of it. In the latter case the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume represent stable low spin mesons. In the plasma phase we do not expect mesons to be stable but to melt at sufficiently high temperature. We model this meson melting by the quasinormal modes of D7-brane fluctuations for the embeddings that do reach down to the horizon. The inverse of the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequency gives the lifetime of the meson in the hot plasma. We briefly comment on the possible application of our model to quarkonium s...
Carlos Hoyos; Karl Landsteiner; Sergio Montero
2007-07-11
The plasma phase at high temperatures of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an AdS black hole. Matter in the fundamental representation and in the quenched approximation is introduced through embedding D7-branes in the AdS-Schwarzschild background. Low spin mesons correspond to the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume. As is well known by now, there are two different kinds of embeddings, either reaching down to the black hole horizon or staying outside of it. In the latter case the fluctuations of the D7-brane world volume represent stable low spin mesons. In the plasma phase we do not expect mesons to be stable but to melt at sufficiently high temperature. We model the late stages of this meson melting by the quasinormal modes of D7-brane fluctuations for the embeddings that do reach down to the horizon. The inverse of the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequency gives the typical relaxation time back to equilibrium of the meson perturbation in the hot plasma. We briefly comment on the possible application of our model to quarkonium suppression.
Vijay Balasubramanian; Alice Bernamonti; Jan de Boer; Neil B. Copland; Ben Craps; Esko Keski-Vakkuri; Berndt Müller; Andreas Schäfer; Masaki Shigemori; Wieland Staessens
2011-03-14
Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space in terms of invariant geometric objects - geodesics, minimal surfaces and minimal volumes. Our calculations for two-dimensional field theories are analytical. In our strongly coupled setting, all probes in all dimensions share certain universal features in their thermalization: (1) a slight delay in the onset of thermalization, (2) an apparent non-analyticity at the endpoint of thermalization, (3) top-down thermalization where the UV thermalizes first. For homogeneous initial conditions the entanglement entropy thermalizes slowest, and sets a timescale for equilibration that saturates a causality bound over the range of scales studied. The growth rate of entanglement entropy density is nearly volume-independent for small volumes, but slows for larger volumes.
Dynamical holographic QCD model
Danning Li; Mei Huang
2014-09-30
We develop a dynamical holographic QCD model, which resembles the renormalization group from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR). The dynamical holographic model is constructed in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework with the dilaton background field $\\Phi$ and scalar field $X$ responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. We summarize our results on hadron spectra, QCD phase transition and transport properties including the jet quenching parameter and the shear/bulk viscosity in the framework of the dynamical holographic QCD model.
Focal volume optics and experimental artifacts in confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
Hess, Samuel T; Webb, Watt W
2002-01-01
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can provide a wealth of information about biological and chemical systems on a broad range of time scales (<1 micros to >1 s). Numerical modeling of the FCS observation volume combined with measurements has revealed, however, that the standard assumption of a three-dimensional Gaussian FCS observation volume is not a valid approximation under many common measurement conditions. As a result, the FCS autocorrelation will contain significant, systematic artifacts that are most severe with confocal optics when using a large detector aperture and aperture-limited illumination. These optical artifacts manifest themselves in the fluorescence correlation as an apparent additional exponential component or diffusing species with significant (>30%) amplitude that can imply extraneous kinetics, shift the measured diffusion time by as much as approximately 80%, and cause the axial ratio to diverge. Artifacts can be minimized or virtually eliminated by using a small confocal detector aperture, underfilled objective back-aperture, or two-photon excitation. However, using a detector aperture that is smaller or larger than the optimal value (approximately 4.5 optical units) greatly reduces both the count rate per molecule and the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, there is a tradeoff between optimizing signal-to-noise and reducing experimental artifacts in one-photon FCS. PMID:12324447
Beam shaping for holographic techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei
2014-09-01
Uniform intensity of laser radiation is very important in holographic and interferometry technologies, therefore transformation of typical Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat) is an actual technical task, it is solved by applying beam shaping optics. Holography and interferometry have specific requirements to a uniform laser beam, most important of them are flatness of phase front and extended depth of field. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. We suggest applying refractive field mapping beam shapers piShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. This approach is used in SLM-based technologies of Computer Generated Holography, Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms, holographic data storage, holographic projection, lithography, interferometric recording of Volume Bragg Gratings. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to vary beam size and shape, thus adapting an optical system to requirements of a particular application. This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.
Inci, Mehmet Fatih; Ozkan, Fuat; Bozkurt, Selim; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Altunoluk, Bulent; Okumus, Mehmet
2013-01-01
Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hematuria and volume, position of stone, and hydronephrosis in patients with a solitary stone, using unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Material/Methods This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and radiological records of 83 patients undergoing MDCT for the evaluation of acute flank pain and suspected renal colic, who also underwent a microscopic urinalysis at the emergency department of our hospital during a 1-year period. Inclusion criteria of the MDCT study were solitary urolithiasis and cumulative stone diameter under 1 cm. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 42.1±14.4 years; 48 (57.8%) were females and 35 (42.2%) were males. Detection of 5 or more red cells on urinalysis was regarded as microscopic hematuria, and was positive in 46 patients (55.4%). There was a positive correlation between the position of the stone (especially upper two-thirds ureteral stones) and microhematuria rate (r: 0.28, p=0.009). There was a statistically significant difference in presence of hydronephrosis between the microhematuria (36 patients, 78%) and non-microhematuria (12 patients, 32%) groups (p<0.001). The median stone volume between the microhematuria and non-microhematuria groups were not statistically different, 37.5 mm3 (range 5–425) and 28 mm3 (range 4–412), respectively (p=0.39). Conclusions Although stone volume is one of the best indicators of stone burden, it was not correlated with microhematuria. However, in patients with renal colic, microhematuria requires ultrasound examination whether hydronephrosis and ureteral stones are present or not. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:23612123
Pauletzki, J; Cicala, M; Holl, J; Sauerbruch, T; Schafmayer, A; Paumgartner, G
1993-01-01
To evaluate whether the extent of postprandial gall bladder emptying is correlated with gall bladder fasting volume, gall bladder motility was studied in 56 patients with cholesterol gall stone and 19 control patients. Gall bladder volumes were determined sonographically, while cholecystokinin plasma values were measured radioimmunologically. Twenty three per cent of gall stone patients were classified as pathological contractors (residual fraction > mean +2SD of controls) and 77% as normal contractors. Normal but not pathological contractor patients exhibited larger gall bladder fasting volumes (mean (SEM)) (24.7 (1.7) ml) than controls (15.3 (1.2) ml, p < 0.001). In normal contractor patients and controls fasting volume was closely related with ejection volume (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and residual volume (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Although ejection volume was enlarged in normal contractor patients it did not compensate the increase in fasting volume. Thus, residual volumes were considerably increased not only in pathological contractors (12.7 (2.5) ml, p < 0.001) but also in normal contractor patients (7.0 (0.5) v 4.6 (0.6) ml, p < 0.001). Postprandial cholecystokinin secretion did not differ between patients and controls. It is concluded, that in normal contractor patients gall bladder fasting volume is closely correlated with ejection and residual volume. Thus, fasting volume may be an essential factor affecting postprandial gall bladder emptying. Large fasting volumes in cholesterol gall stone disease could thereby contribute to bile retention, which facilitates gall stone growth. PMID:8244118
Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
2015-12-16
The aim of this study was to evaluate the white matter (WM) volume change and its correlation with symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. A total of 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. MR image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. The patients with schizophrenia showed significant decreases (P=0.042) in the WM volumes of the temporal lobe and superior frontal gyrus compared with the healthy controls. The WM volumes of the middle temporal gyrus were negatively correlated with the scores of both the Positive Subscale (Pearson's ?=-0.68, P=0.001) and the Negative Subscale (?=-0.71, P=0.0005) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. In addition, the scores of the General Psychopathology Subscale were negatively correlated with the WM volumes of the superior frontal gyrus (?=-0.68, P=0.0009). This study evaluated the WM volume of patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls using DARTEI-based voxel-based morphometry and also assessed the correlation of the localized WM volume changes with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. These findings will be useful to understand the neuropathology associated with WM abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:26485094
Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure.
Coppola, G; Di Caprio, G; Wilding, M; Ferraro, P; Esposito, G; Di Matteo, L; Dale, R; Coppola, G; Dale, B
2014-11-01
The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization, and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection. In this paper, we have studied whether digital holographic microscopy (DHM) may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique with high-power digitally enhanced Nomarski optics. The main advantage of digital holography is that high-resolution three-dimensional quantitative sample imaging may be automatically produced by numerical refocusing of a two-dimensional image at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DHM generates useful information on the dimensions and structure of human sperm, not revealed by conventional phase-contrast microscopy, in particular the volume of vacuoles, and suggest its use as an additional prognostic tool in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:23469807
Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure
Coppola, Gianluca; Wilding, Martin; Ferraro, Pietro; Esposito, Giusy; Di Matteo, Loredana; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dale, Brian
2013-01-01
The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). In this paper, we have studied whether Digital Holographic (DH) microscopy may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique to high power digitally enhanced Nomarski microscope. The main advantage of DH is that a high resolution 3-D quantitative sample imaging may be obtained thorugh numerical refocusing at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DH can furnish useful information on the dimensions and structure of human spermatozoo, that cannot be revealed by conventional phase contrast microscopy. In fact, in this paper DH has been used to evaluate volume and indicate precise location of vacuoles, thus suggesting its use as ...
Holographic Geometries for Condensed Matter Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keränen, V.; Thorlacius, L.
2015-01-01
Holographic modeling of strongly correlated many-body systems motivates the study of novel spacetime geometries where the scaling behavior of quantum critical systems is encoded into spacetime symmetries. Einstein-Dilaton-Maxwell theory has planar black brane solutions that exhibit Lifshitz scaling and in some cases hyperscaling violation. Entanglement entropy and Wilson loops in the dual field theory are studied by inserting simple geometric probes involving minimal surfaces into the black brane geometry. Coupling to background matter fields leads to interesting low-energy behavior in holographic models, such as U(1) symmetry breaking and emergent Lifshitz scaling.
Measurement of Interfacial Area per Volume on Spatially Correlated and Uncorrelated Micro-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, J.; Giordano, N.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2002-12-01
Recent theoretical developments suggest that interfacial area per volume (IAV) plays an important role in scaling theories for the flow of multiple fluid phases in a porous medium. Many investigations have shown that the values of capillary pressure (Pcap) and saturation (S) do not uniquely specify the state of the system. A single value of relative volume saturation can correspond to infinitely different distributions of two phases within the volume. IAV provides a natural yard-stick for defining the role of scale in multiphase fluid properties. The dimensional units of interfacial area per volume is a spatial frequency (inverse length) that breaks scale invariance. In this study, we investigate whether or not IAV provides a state-function-like description of the flow properties, and if so, what does this function look like. Measurements of interfacial area per volume as a function of capillary pressure and saturation were made on micro-models of pore structures. Photo-projection lithography was used to make transparent micro-models that were 600 x 600 microns with an aperture of 1.08 microns. Two phase flow measurements were performed on the micro-models using nitrogen gas and decane for a series of drainage and imbibition cycles. The initially decane-saturated micro-models were invaded with nitrogen by the application of pressure in increments. At each pressure increment, the system was allowed to equilibrate, and the saturation and distribution of each phase was digitally imaged and analyzed. We observed that the Pcap - S - IAV surface appears to be a smooth, single valued surface. Several measurements were made for the same, or nearly the same, values of Pcap and S, and it was observed that the geometrical arrangement of the two phases was visually quite different. However, the value of the IAV in such cases was the same, to within a typical 5% experimental error in analyzing the digital photo-micrographs. We also observed that the magnitude of IAV was significantly different between the two types of models. Correlated micro-models exhibited values of IAV that were smaller by about a factor of 2, than that found for the uncorrelated micro-model. Acknowledgments: DOE-FE contract DE-AC26-99BC15207. LJPN wishes to acknowledge Purdue University Faculty Scholar.
Dynamic volume vs respiratory correlated 4DCT for motion assessment in radiation therapy simulation
Coolens, Catherine; Bracken, John; Driscoll, Brandon; Hope, Andrew; Jaffray, David
2012-05-15
Purpose: Conventional (i.e., respiratory-correlated) 4DCT exploits the repetitive nature of breathing to provide an estimate of motion; however, it has limitations due to binning artifacts and irregular breathing in actual patient breathing patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and image quality of a dynamic volume, CT approach (4D{sub vol}) using a 320-slice CT scanner to minimize these limitations, wherein entire image volumes are acquired dynamically without couch movement. This will be compared to the conventional respiratory-correlated 4DCT approach (RCCT). Methods: 4D{sub vol} CT was performed and characterized on an in-house, programmable respiratory motion phantom containing multiple geometric and morphological ''tumor'' objects over a range of regular and irregular patient breathing traces obtained from 3D fluoroscopy and compared to RCCT. The accuracy of volumetric capture and breathing displacement were evaluated and compared with the ground truth values and with the results reported using RCCT. A motion model was investigated to validate the number of motion samples needed to obtain accurate motion probability density functions (PDF). The impact of 4D image quality on this accuracy was then investigated. Dose measurements using volumetric and conventional scan techniques were also performed and compared. Results: Both conventional and dynamic volume 4DCT methods were capable of estimating the programmed displacement of sinusoidal motion, but patient breathing is known to not be regular, and obvious differences were seen for realistic, irregular motion. The mean RCCT amplitude error averaged at 4 mm (max. 7.8 mm) whereas the 4D{sub vol} CT error stayed below 0.5 mm. Similarly, the average absolute volume error was lower with 4D{sub vol} CT. Under irregular breathing, the 4D{sub vol} CT method provides a close description of the motion PDF (cross-correlation 0.99) and is able to track each object, whereas the RCCT method results in a significantly different PDF from the ground truth, especially for smaller tumors (cross-correlation ranging between 0.04 and 0.69). For the protocols studied, the dose measurements were higher in the 4D{sub vol} CT method (40%), but it was shown that significant mAs reductions can be achieved by a factor of 4-5 while maintaining image quality and accuracy. Conclusions: 4D{sub vol} CT using a scanner with a large cone-angle is a promising alternative for improving the accuracy with which respiration-induced motion can be characterized, particularly for patients with irregular breathing motion. This approach also generates 4DCT image data with a reduced total scan time compared to a RCCT scan, without the need for image binning or external respiration signals within the 16 cm scan length. Scan dose can be made comparable to RCCT by optimization of the scan parameters. In addition, it provides the possibility of measuring breathing motion for more than one breathing cycle to assess stability and obtain a more accurate motion PDF, which is currently not feasible with the conventional RCCT approach.
Full Color Holographic Endoscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.
2013-02-01
The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.
Che, XianWei; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, QingLin; Liu, YiJun
2014-01-01
Social support refers to interpersonal exchanges that include the combinations of aid, affirmation and affection. Perceived social support is a kind of subjective judgment of one's availability of social support. In spite of the importance of perceived social support to health, however, its neural substrate remains unknown. To address this question, voxel-based morphometry was employed to investigate the neural bases of individual differences in responses to the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) in healthy volunteers (144 men and 203 women; mean age = 19.9; SD = 1.33, age range : 17-27). As a result, multiple regression analysis revealed that the PSSS scores were significantly and positively correlated with gray matter volume in a cluster that mainly included areas in posterior parts of posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lingual cortex, left occipital lobe and cuneus. Highly-supported individuals had larger gray matter volume in these brain regions, implying a relatively high level of ability to engage in self-referential processes and social cognition. Our results provide a biological basis for exploring perceived social support particularly in relationship to various health parameters and outcomes. PMID:24397344
Holographic Thermalization with Weyl Corrections
Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2015-01-01
We consider holographic thermalization in the presence of a Weyl correction in five dimensional AdS space. We numerically analyze the time dependence of the two point correlation functions and the expectation values of rectangular Wilson loops in the boundary field theory. The subtle interplay between the Weyl coupling constant and the chemical potential is studied in detail. An outcome of our analysis is the appearance of a swallow tail behaviour in the thermalization curve, and we give evidence that this might indicate distinct physical situations relating to different length scales in the problem.
Holographic Thermalization with Weyl Corrections
Anshuman Dey; Subhash Mahapatra; Tapobrata Sarkar
2015-10-15
We consider holographic thermalization in the presence of a Weyl correction in five dimensional AdS space. We numerically analyze the time dependence of the two point correlation functions and the expectation values of rectangular Wilson loops in the boundary field theory. The subtle interplay between the Weyl coupling constant and the chemical potential is studied in detail. An outcome of our analysis is the appearance of a swallow tail behaviour in the thermalization curve, and we give evidence that this might indicate distinct physical situations relating to different length scales in the problem.
Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M
2015-10-01
In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p??200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample. PMID:25908528
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2015-06-01
We study power-law correlations properties of the Google search queries for Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) component stocks. Examining the daily data of the searched terms with a combination of the rescaled range and rescaled variance tests together with the detrended fluctuation analysis, we show that the searches are in fact power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.8 and 1.1. The general interest in the DJIA stocks is thus strongly persistent. We further reinvestigate the cross-correlation structure between the searches, traded volume and volatility of the component stocks using the detrended cross-correlation and detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficients. Contrary to the universal power-law correlations structure of the related Google searches, the results suggest that there is no universal relationship between the online search queries and the analyzed financial measures. Even though we confirm positive correlation for a majority of pairs, there are several pairs with insignificant or even negative correlations. In addition, the correlations vary quite strongly across scales.
Holographic particle image velocimetry measurements in a four-valve combustion engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Overbrüggen, Timo; Dannemann, Jan; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
This is a feasibility study to show that the nonreacting three-dimensional flow in the cylinder of a four-valve internal combustion engine at 160° after top dead center (atdc) at 1,500 rpm can be accurately measured by holographic particle image velocimetry. The results evidence the quality of holographic PIV measurements in engine flows and the capability of the holographic method to instantaneously capture the complete three-dimensional flow field in a large area of the highly intricate cylinder flow. The resolved measurement volume has a diameter of about 60 mm and a height of 80 mm with a vector spacing of 0.75 mm per vector. To validate the measurements, the flow structure as well as the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow field is compared with planar two-component/two-dimensional (2C/2D-PIV) measurements performed in the same engine (Dannemann et al., in Exp Fluids 2010). Furthermore, the spatial propagation of the flow field as well as the vortical structures is visualized by 3D streamlines and ? 2-contours. The current results confirm the existence of several large-scale flow structures, such as a counter-rotating ring-vortex pair below the inlet valve and the tumble vortex. The latter possesses a U-shaped propagation of the vortex core. The analysis of the two-point correlation shows the integral length scale to be in the range 2.5-6.1 mm, which is in agreement with literature data.
Towards Holographic Spintronics
Koji Hashimoto; Norihiro Iizuka; Taro Kimura
2015-04-07
We study transport phenomena of total angular momentum in holography, as a first step toward holographic understanding of spin transport phenomena. Spin current, which has both the local Lorentz index for spins and the space-time vector index for current, couples naturally to the bulk spin connection. Therefore the bulk spin connection becomes the source for the boundary spin current. This allows us to evaluate the spin current holographically, with a relation to the stress tensor and metric fluctuations in the bulk. We examine the spin transport coefficients and the thermal spin Hall conductivity in a simple holographic setup.
Towards Holographic Spintronics
Hashimoto, Koji; Kimura, Taro
2013-01-01
We study transport phenomena of total angular momentum in holography, as a first step toward holographic understanding of spin transport phenomena. Spin current, which has both the local Lorentz index for spins and the space-time vector index for current, couples naturally to the bulk spin connection. Therefore the bulk spin connection becomes the source for the boundary spin current. This allows us to evaluate the spin current holographically, with a relation to the stress tensor and metric fluctuations in the bulk. We examine the spin transport coefficients and the thermal spin Hall conductivity in a simple holographic setup.
Bao, Ning; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-01-01
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, w...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac
1979-01-01
Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)
Resolution limits in holographic display with LED illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chlipa?a, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz
2015-06-01
In presented paper we study the influence of spatial and temporal coherence of light source on resolution and depth of focus of holographic reconstructions. Presented holographic display setup uses phase - only spatial light modulator and realizes complex coding shame which allows to reconstruct objects in volume centered around plane of the modulator. In simulations we implement partially coherent reconstructions of complex hologram theory. It allows to investigate quality of holographic reconstructions for various degree of illuminating light coherence. During experimental tests we validate simulation results. We show that the influence of spatial coherence effect of light source on resolution of reconstructed objects is stronger than that of temporal coherence. Moreover we prove that it is possible to obtain high quality holographic reconstructions for large size source and wide spectrum for objects having large depths.
SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes
Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P
2014-06-01
Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity.
Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Gewnhi; Song, Myeong Ju; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan
2016-01-01
Patients with schizophrenia present with dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway, which might impair their early visual processing. We explored the relationship between functional abnormality of early visual processing and brain volumetric changes in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients and 16 healthy controls underwent electroencephalographic recordings and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. During electroencephalographic recordings, participants passively viewed neutral or fearful faces with broad, high, or low spatial frequency characteristics. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate brain volume correlates of visual processing deficits. Event related potential analysis suggested that patients with schizophrenia had relatively impaired P100 processing of low spatial frequency fearful face stimuli compared with healthy controls; patients' gray-matter volumes in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices positively correlated with this amplitude. In addition, patients' gray-matter volume in the right cuneus positively correlated with the P100 amplitude in the left hemisphere for the high spatial frequency neutral face condition and that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex negatively correlated with the negative score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No significant correlations were observed in healthy controls. This study suggests that the cuneus and prefrontal cortex are significantly involved with the early visual processing of magnocellular input in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26730192
Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Gewnhi; Song, Myeong Ju; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan
2016-01-01
Patients with schizophrenia present with dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway, which might impair their early visual processing. We explored the relationship between functional abnormality of early visual processing and brain volumetric changes in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients and 16 healthy controls underwent electroencephalographic recordings and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. During electroencephalographic recordings, participants passively viewed neutral or fearful faces with broad, high, or low spatial frequency characteristics. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate brain volume correlates of visual processing deficits. Event related potential analysis suggested that patients with schizophrenia had relatively impaired P100 processing of low spatial frequency fearful face stimuli compared with healthy controls; patients’ gray-matter volumes in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices positively correlated with this amplitude. In addition, patients’ gray-matter volume in the right cuneus positively correlated with the P100 amplitude in the left hemisphere for the high spatial frequency neutral face condition and that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex negatively correlated with the negative score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No significant correlations were observed in healthy controls. This study suggests that the cuneus and prefrontal cortex are significantly involved with the early visual processing of magnocellular input in patients with schizophrenia.
Optical scanning holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, Kyu B.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Wu, Ming H.; Shinoda, Kazunori K.; Suzuki, Yoshiji
1995-03-01
We first review a newly developed 3D imaging technique called optical scanning holography (OSH), and discuss recording and reconstruction of a point object using the principle of OSH. We then derive 3D holographic magnification, using three points configured as a 3D object. Finally, we demonstrated 3D imaging capability of OSH by holographically recording two planar objects at different depths and reconstructing the hologram digitally.
Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data
C.A. Ciarcia; D.E. Johnson; D.S. Sorenson; R.H. Frederickson, A.D. Delanoy; R.M. Malone; T.W. Tunnel
1997-08-01
Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.
Deriving particle distributions from in-line Fraunhofer holographic data
Tunnell, T.W.; Malone, R.M.; Fredericson, R.H.; DeLanoy, A.D.; Johnson, D.E.; Ciarcia, C.A.; Sorenson, D.S.
1997-07-01
Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.
Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta
2015-10-01
A belief that effort is rewarded can develop incentive, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy. Individuals with such a belief attribute causes of events to themselves, not to external, uncontrollable factors, and are thus said to have an internal locus of control. An internal locus of control is a positive personality trait and has been thoroughly studied in applied psychology, but has not been widely examined in neuroscience. In the present study, correlations between locus of control assessment scores and brain volumes were examined in 777 healthy young adults using magnetic resonance imaging. A whole-brain multiple regression analysis with corrections for the effects of age, gender, and intelligence was conducted. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and anterior insula positively correlated with higher scores, which indicate an internal LOC. In addition, white matter volumes in the striatum showed significant correlations with an internal locus of control. These results suggest that cognitive, socioemotional, self-regulatory, and reward systems might be associated with internal control orientation. The finding of greater volumes in several brain regions in individuals with a stronger internal locus of control indicates that there is a neuroanatomical basis for the belief that one's efforts are rewarded. PMID:26123375
Cosmological 3-point correlators from holography
McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl
2011-06-01
We investigate the non-Gaussianity of primordial cosmological perturbations using holographic methods. In particular, we derive holographic formulae that relate all cosmological 3-point correlation functions, including both scalar and tensor perturbations, to stress-energy correlation functions of a holographically dual three-dimensional quantum field theory. These results apply to general single scalar inflationary universes that at late times approach either de Sitter spacetime or accelerating power-law cosmologies. We further show that in Einstein gravity all 3-point functions involving tensors may be obtained from correlators containing only positive helicity gravitons, with the ratios of these to the correlators involving one negative helicity graviton being given by universal functions of momenta, irrespectively of the potential of the scalar field. As a by-product of this investigation, we obtain holographic formulae for the full 3-point function of the stress-energy tensor along general holographic RG flows. These results should have applications in a wider holographic context.
Ultra-High Density Holographic Memory Module with Solid-State Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markov, Vladimir B.
2000-01-01
NASA's terrestrial. space, and deep-space missions require technology that allows storing. retrieving, and processing a large volume of information. Holographic memory offers high-density data storage with parallel access and high throughput. Several methods exist for data multiplexing based on the fundamental principles of volume hologram selectivity. We recently demonstrated that a spatial (amplitude-phase) encoding of the reference wave (SERW) looks promising as a way to increase the storage density. The SERW hologram offers a method other than traditional methods of selectivity, such as spatial de-correlation between recorded and reconstruction fields, In this report we present the experimental results of the SERW-hologram memory module with solid-state architecture, which is of particular interest for space operations.
Holographic non-Fermi-liquid fixed points.
Faulkner, Tom; Iqbal, Nabil; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David
2011-04-28
Techniques arising from string theory can be used to study assemblies of strongly interacting fermions. Via this 'holographic duality', various strongly coupled many-body systems are solved using an auxiliary theory of gravity. Simple holographic realizations of finite density exhibit single-particle spectral functions with sharp Fermi surfaces, of a form distinct from those of the Landau theory. The self-energy is given by a correlation function in an infrared (IR) fixed-point theory that is represented by a two-dimensional anti de Sitter space (AdS(2)) region in the dual gravitational description. Here, we describe in detail the gravity calculation of this IR correlation function. PMID:21422019
Full-color holographic 3D printer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio
2003-05-01
A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (?=633nm), green (?=533nm), and blue (?=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.
Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule
Casini, Horacio; Torroba, Gonzalo
2015-01-01
We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d=2 and in d>2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun
2015-12-01
In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.
Wigner distribution function of volume holograms
Barbastathis, George
Based on a linear systems approach, we derive the Wigner distribution function (WDF) of a 4f imager with a volume holographic three-dimensional pupil; then we obtain the WDF of the volume hologram itself by using the ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri
2015-03-01
Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.
Glazner, A.F.; Nielson, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Miller, D.M.
1986-01-01
The Peach Springs Tuff is a distinctive early Miocene ignimbrite deposit that was first recognized in western Arizona. Recent field studies and phenocryst analyses indicate that adjacent outcrops of similar tuff in the central and eastern Mojave Desert may be correlative. This proposed correlation implies that outcrops of the tuff are scattered over an area of at least 35 000 km2 from the western Colorado Plateau to Barstow, California, and that the erupted volume, allowing for posteruption crustal extension, was at least several hundred cubic kilometres. Thus, the Peach Springs Tuff may be a regional stratigraphic marker, useful for determining regional paleogeography and the time and extent of Tertiary crustal extension. -Authors
Computer generated holographic microtags
Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)
1998-01-01
A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them.
Computer generated holographic microtags
Sweatt, W.C.
1998-03-17
A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.
Correcting Correlations When Predicting Success in College. IR Applications. Volume 31
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saupe, Joe L.; Eimers, Mardy T.
2011-01-01
Critics of testing for admission purposes cite the moderate correlations of admissions test scores with success in college. In response, this study applies formulas from classical measurement theory to observed correlations to correct for restricted variances in predictor and success variables. Estimates of the correlations in the population of…
Emergent Spacetime and Holographic CFTs
Sheer El-Showk; Kyriakos Papadodimas
2012-11-16
We discuss universal properties of conformal field theories with holographic duals. A central feature of these theories is the existence of a low-lying sector of operators whose correlators factorize. We demonstrate that factorization can only hold in the large central charge limit. Using conformal invariance and factorization we argue that these operators are naturally represented as fields in AdS as this makes the underlying linearity of the system manifest. In this class of CFTs the solution of the conformal bootstrap conditions can be naturally organized in structures which coincide with Witten diagrams in the bulk. The large value of the central charge suggests that the theory must include a large number of new operators not captured by the factorized sector. Consequently we may think of the AdS hologram as an effective representation of a small sector of the CFT, which is embedded inside a much larger Hilbert space corresponding to the black hole microstates.
Emergent Spacetime and Holographic CFTs
El-Showk, Sheer
2012-01-01
We discuss universal properties of conformal field theories with holographic duals. A central feature of these theories is the existence of a low-lying sector of operators whose correlators factorize. We demonstrate that factorization can only hold in the large central charge limit. Using conformal invariance and factorization we argue that these operators are naturally represented as fields in AdS as this makes the underlying linearity of the system manifest. In this class of CFTs the solution of the conformal bootstrap conditions can be naturally organized in structures which coincide with Witten diagrams in the bulk. The large value of the central charge suggests that the theory must include a large number of new operators not captured by the factorized sector. Consequently we may think of the AdS hologram as an effective representation of a small sector of the CFT, which is embedded inside a much larger Hilbert space corresponding to the black hole microstates.
Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-09-21
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.
Chidi holographic video system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Benton, Stephen A.
2000-03-01
Holo-Chidi is a holographic video processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time computation of Computer Generated Holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. It's processing engine is adapted from Chidi which is reconfigurable multimedia processing system used for real-time synthesis and analysis of digital video frames. Holo-Chidi is made of two main components: the sets of Chidi processor cards and the display video concentrator card. The processor cards are used for hologram computation while the display video concentrator card acts as frame buffer for the system. The display video concentrator also formats the computed holographic data and converts them to analog form for feeding the acousto-optic modulators of the Media Lab's Mark-II holographic display system. The display video concentrator card can display the computed holograms from the Chidi cards loaded from its high-speed I/O interface port or precomputed holograms loaded from a PC through the United Serial Bus port of its communications processor at above video refresh rates. This paper discusses the design of the display video concentrator used to display holographic video in the Mark-II system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-09-01
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.
Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael
2015-09-21
We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phasemore »space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.« less
Holographic quantum criticality and strange metal transport
Bom Soo Kim; Elias Kiritsis; Christos Panagopoulos
2012-02-17
A holographic model of a quantum critical theory at a finite but low temperature, and finite density is studied. The model exhibits non-relativistic z=2 Schr\\"odinger symmetry and is realized by the Anti-de-Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole in light-cone coordinates. Our approach addresses the electrical conductivities in the presence or absence of an applied magnetic field and contains a control parameter that can be associated to quantum tuning via charge carrier doping or an external field in correlated electron systems. The Ohmic resistivity, the inverse Hall angle, the Hall coefficient and the magnetoresistance are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results of strange metals at very low temperature. The holographic model also predicts new scaling relations in the presence of a magnetic field.
Anes, Mauricio; Kohmann, Andre de Moura; Souza, Ana Claudia Mércio Loredo; Brun, Juliana Basso; Peters, Roberta; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Kapczinski, Flavio; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Zeni, Cristian Patrick
2015-01-01
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder). We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96?mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD. PMID:26075097
Meier, U; Paris, S; Gräwe, A; Stockheim, D; Hajdukova, A; Mutze, S
2003-01-01
It is well known that in patients with communicating hydrocephalus or normal pressure hydrocephalus, ventricular volume decreases following implantation of differential pressure valved shunts. Hydrostatic valves (Miethke dual-switch valves) were implanted in 60 normal pressure hydrocephalus patients at Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin between September 1997 and September 2001. One year postoperatively, these patients underwent CT scan, and their ventricular size was ascertained using the Evans index. Although 77% of these patients showed no postoperative change in ventricular volume, 65% nonetheless showed good to excellent clinical improvement, 13% satisfactory improvement and 22% no improvement. A moderate reduction in ventricular size was observed in 17% of the patients in our cohort. 40% of these patients showed good to excellent clinical improvement, 20% satisfactory improvement, and 40% unsatisfactory improvement. A marked reduction in ventricular size was observed in 6% of our patients. Of these latter patients, 50% showed good to excellent outcomes, while 50% had unsatisfactory outcomes. The favorable outcomes following implantation of a hydrostatic shunt in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus did not correlate with decreased ventricular volume one year after operation. Better clinical outcomes were observed in patients with little or no alteration in ventricular size than in patients with a marked decrease in ventricular size. Postoperative change in ventricular volume should be assessed differently for patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus than in patients with hypertensive hydrocephalus. PMID:14753501
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Laurie, Steven S.
2014-01-01
Orthostatic intolerance affects 60-80% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions, representing a significant risk to completing mission-critical tasks. While likely multifactorial, a reduction in stroke volume (SV) represents one factor contributing to orthostatic intolerance during stand and head up tilt (HUT) tests. Current measures of SV during stand or HUT tests use Doppler ultrasound and require a trained operator and specialized equipment, restricting its use in the field. BeatScope (Finapres Medical Systems BV, The Netherlands) uses a modelflow algorithm to estimate SV from continuous blood pressure waveforms in supine subjects; however, evidence supporting the use of Modelflow to estimate SV in subjects completing stand or HUT tests remain scarce. Furthermore, because the blood pressure device is held extended at heart level during HUT tests, but allowed to rest at the side during stand tests, changes in the finger arterial pressure waveform resulting from arm positioning could alter modelflow estimated SV. The purpose of this project was to compare Doppler ultrasound and BeatScope estimations of SV to determine if BeatScope can be used during stand or HUT tests. Finger photoplethysmography was used to acquire arterial pressure waveforms corrected for hydrostatic finger-to-heart height using the Finometer (FM) and Portapres (PP) arterial pressure devices in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) during a stand test while simultaneous estimates of SV were collected using Doppler ultrasound. Measures were made after 5 minutes of supine rest and while subjects stood for 5 minutes. Next, SV estimates were reacquired while each arm was independently raised to heart level, a position similar to tilt testing. Supine SV estimates were not significantly different between all three devices (FM: 68+/-20, PP: 71+/-21, US: 73+/-21 ml/beat). Upon standing, the change in SV estimated by FM (-18+/-8 ml) was not different from PP (-21+/-12), but both were significantly less than US (-37+/-16 ml, p<.05). Raising finger BP devices to heart level caused no significant change in SV measured with any of the devices (FM: 1.5+/-19, PP: 1.7+/-26, US: 0.5+/-6), although variability was 3-6x greater as assessed by both blood pressure devices compared to US. Retrospective analysis of blood pressure data to assess SV in 11 supine subjects revealed significantly different estimates between methods (FM: 95+/-17, US: 75+/-32, p<.05), but the change in SV resulting from HUT was similar between methods (FM: -37+/-9, US: -40+/-18 ml). However, the correlation coefficient determined from pairs of SV estimated by US and FM was weak (r2=0.03). These data suggest Modelflow cannot be used in lieu of Doppler ultrasound to estimate SV during stand or HUT tests. Further investigation should focus on identifying factors contributing to differences between these measurement techniques in order to make use of a simple method for assessing beat-by-beat changes in SV during postural changes, especially during field testing.
Neuropathologic correlates of regional brain volumes in a community cohort of older adults.
Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Leurgans, Sue E; Dawe, Robert J; Boyle, Patricia A; Golak, Tom; Arfanakis, Konstantinos
2015-10-01
The objective of this work was 2-fold: to generate macrostructural brain signatures of age-related neuropathologies in a community cohort of older adults and to determine the contribution of brain macrostructure to the variation in antemortem cognition after accounting for the contributions of neuropathologies and demographics. Cerebral hemispheres from 165 participants of 2 cohort studies of aging were imaged with magnetic resonance imaging ex vivo (mean age at death = 90 years; standard deviation = 6 years). The volumes of white matter and 42 gray matter regions were measured. The same hemispheres also underwent neuropathologic examination. Alzheimer's disease pathology was negatively associated with volumes of mainly temporal, frontal, and parietal gray matter regions, and with total white matter volume (p < 0.05, false discovery rate-corrected). A negative association was also detected between hippocampal sclerosis and volumes of the hippocampus, as well as other temporal and frontal gray matter regions (p < 0.05, false discovery rate-corrected). The volume of mainly medial temporal lobe regions explained an additional 5%-6% of the variation in antemortem cognition, above and beyond what was explained by neuropathologies and demographics. PMID:26195068
Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo
2015-10-01
Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.
Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary K.
1998-01-01
Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.
2012-01-01
In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…
Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guerra, David V.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wooten, Albert D., Jr.; Chaudhuri, Sandipan S.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.
1995-01-01
A ground-based atmospheric lidar system that utilizes a Holographic Optical Telescope and Scanner has been developed and successfully operated to obtain atmospheric backscatter profiles. The Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing is built around a volume phase reflection Holographic Optical Element. This single optical element both directs and collimates the outgoing laser beam as well as collects, focuses, and filters the atmospheric laser backscatter, while offering significant weight savings over existing telescope mirror technology. Conical scanning is accomplished as the HOE rotates on a turntable sweeping the 1.2 mrad field of view around a 42deg cone. During this technology demonstration, atmospheric aerosol and cloud return signals have been received in both stationary and scanning modes. The success of this program has led to the further development of this technology for integration into airborne and eventually satellite earth observing scanning lidar telescopes.
Digital holographic video for studies of plankton dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyomin, V. V.; Olshukov, A. S.; Dzyuba, E. V.
2011-01-01
The procedure, capabilities, and applicability limits of digital holographic video for the determination of the velocity and reconstruction of the trajectory of motion of plankton species in the habitat are considered. Results of experimental investigations of zooplankton in laboratory conditions are presented. Two species that differ by the morphology and sizes are examined, including Epischura baicalensis for the trajectory construction and Daphnia magna for an experiment on dual-view hologram recording. The position of a plankton species in the examined volume is suggested to be determined based on the coordinates of the center of gravity of its holographic image. Preliminary results of recording of a dual-view digital holographic video of plankton species are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Young Ki; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong
2014-12-01
The local shear stress of non-Brownian suspensions was investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method coupled with the smoothed profile method. Previous studies have only focused on the bulk rheology of complex fluids because the local rheology of complex fluids was not accessible due to technical limitations. In this study, the local shear stress of two-dimensional solid particle suspensions in Couette flow was investigated with the method of planes to correlate non-Newtonian fluid behavior with the structural evolution of concentrated particle suspensions. Shear thickening was successfully captured for highly concentrated suspensions at high particle Reynolds number, and both the local rheology and local structure of the suspensions were analyzed. It was also found that the linear correlation between the local particle stress and local particle volume fraction was dramatically reduced during shear thickening. These results clearly show how the change in local structure of suspensions influences the local and bulk rheology of the suspensions.
Lee, Young Ki; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong
2014-12-01
The local shear stress of non-Brownian suspensions was investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method coupled with the smoothed profile method. Previous studies have only focused on the bulk rheology of complex fluids because the local rheology of complex fluids was not accessible due to technical limitations. In this study, the local shear stress of two-dimensional solid particle suspensions in Couette flow was investigated with the method of planes to correlate non-Newtonian fluid behavior with the structural evolution of concentrated particle suspensions. Shear thickening was successfully captured for highly concentrated suspensions at high particle Reynolds number, and both the local rheology and local structure of the suspensions were analyzed. It was also found that the linear correlation between the local particle stress and local particle volume fraction was dramatically reduced during shear thickening. These results clearly show how the change in local structure of suspensions influences the local and bulk rheology of the suspensions. PMID:25615103
Holographic laser protection device
Moss, G.E.; Chern, M.J.; Dobbs, T.L.
1987-01-20
A holographic reflector is described for reflecting laser radiation at a predetermined wavelength which is incident over a predetermined angular range, the reflector comprising: holograms conterminously and adjacently disposed on at least one substrate, each of the holograms having holographic fringes with predetermined spacing which make a predetermined angle with respect to the normal to the surface of the substrate. Each of the holograms has fringe spacings which are different from the fringe spacing of a hologram adapted to optimally reflect the predetermined wavelength. Each hologram has fringe spacings and predetermined angles which are adapted to reflect the predetermined wavelength over separate angular ranges which are different from an angular range associated with a hologram adapted to optimally reflect the predetermined wavelength. The fringe spacings and predetermined angles are such that each of the holograms reflects the predetermined wavelength within the predetermined angular ranges which together comprise the predetermined angular range.
Holographic insights and puzzles
Veronika E. Hubeny
2011-03-10
The talk is composed of two parts, both set within the AdS/CFT context. In the first part, I discuss holographic insight into strongly coupled field theory in a black hole background. I conjecture two new gravitational solutions, dubbed black funnels and black droplets, which describe two distinct deconfined phases in the field theory at finite temperature. I also briefly mention puzzles associated with an analogous set-up in a rotating black hole background. In the second part of the talk, I discuss time-dependent states in a CFT on flat spacetime background, exemplified by the conformal soliton flow. Here I focus on puzzles regarding the nature of entropy in time-evolving states and its holographic dual.
Assembling a holographic scene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrongovius, Martina
2013-03-01
A series of art projects that use multiplex holography as a medium to combine and spatially animate multiple photographic perspectives are presented. Through the process of image collection and compilation into holograms, several concepts are explored. The animate spatial qualities of multiplex holograms are used to express an urban gaze of moving through cites and the multiplicity of perceptual experience. A question of how we understand ourselves to be located and the complexity of this sense is also addressed. The ability to assemble multiple photographic views together into a scene is considered as a method to document the collective experience of event. How these holographic scenes are viewed is compared to the compositional activity, showing both how the holographic medium inspired the compositions and is used as a means of expression.
Holographic Plossl Retroreflectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene
2006-01-01
Holographic retroreflectors that function equivalently to Plossl eyepieces have been developed and used in free-space optical communication systems that utilize laser beams. Plossl eyepieces are well known among telescope designers. They have been adopted for use a retroreflectors and as focusing elements (for reception) and collimating elements (for transmission) in optical communication systems. A retro-reflector that incorporates a Plossl eyepiece is termed a cat's-eye retroreflector.
Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru
2007-04-15
We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8 holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and {rho} mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large N{sub c}, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and {rho}-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the {rho}-meson profile G-tilde(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without {rho} mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and {rho} mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant {rho}-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boer, Jan; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Verlinde, Erik
2010-10-01
We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the ”Chandrasekhar limit” beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.
Jan de Boer; Kyriakos Papadodimas; Erik Verlinde
2009-07-23
We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the "Chandrasekhar limit" beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.
Interactive Holographic Cinema
Portales, Christopher
2012-07-16
?holographic? projection at the 2005 MTV Awards .................. 5 3 Gorillaz?s picture stills from pre-rendered stage performance video ......... 6 4 Stereoscopic (red-cyan) rendering from the ?House of Cards? dataset ...... 7 5 Four scenes... and camera views from the ?Look Around? music video ...... 8 6 Structured light setup ................................................................................. 13 7 16-bit and 12-bit comparison of a pixel for frame based IHC dataset...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basu, A.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.
2003-01-01
Impacts on lunar soils produce melt and vapor in an approximate proportion of 7:1. The melt scavenges soil grains of diverse size, quenches and forms agglutinates, thereby converting surface correlated components of soil grains as volume correlated components; simultaneously, parts of the vapor may condense or escape. Cumulative small impacts increase the maturity of the soils, increase the abundance of agglutinates, and increase the concentration of vapor condensated material. Since the discovery of vapor deposited crystalline Fe-0 in vugs of regolith breccias and the theoretical anticipation of amorphous vapor deposits of diverse composition coating lunar soils grains, empirical evidence is gathering in support of such deposits, now commonly called vapor deposited patina (VDP). In addition, submicron globules of Fe-0 are seen to be ubiquitous in VDP. The amorphous VDP lowers the albedo of lunar soils, affects magnetic properties of soils, changes the slopes of uv-vis-ir reflectance spectra, and potentially also alters the gamma and x-ray spectra of lunar soils, compromising compositional inferences from remote sensing.
Hydrodynamics of Holographic Superconductors
Amado, Irene; Landsteiner, Karl
2009-01-01
We study the poles of the retarded Green functions of a holographic superconductor. The model shows a second order phase transition where a charged scalar operator condenses and a U(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken. The poles of the holographic Green functions are the quasinormal modes in an AdS black hole background. We study the spectrum of quasinormal frequencies in the broken phase, where we establish the appearance of a massless or hydrodynamic mode at the critical temperature as expected for a second order phase transition. In the broken phase we find the pole representing second sound. We compute the speed of second sound and its attenuation length as function of the temperature. In addition we find a pseudo diffusion mode, whose frequencies are purely imaginary but with a non-zero gap at zero momentum. This gap goes to zero at the critical temperature. As a technical side result we explain how to calculate holographic Green functions and their quasinormal modes for a set of operators that mix under...
Hydrodynamics of Holographic Superconductors
Irene Amado; Matthias Kaminski; Karl Landsteiner
2009-06-17
We study the poles of the retarded Green functions of a holographic superconductor. The model shows a second order phase transition where a charged scalar operator condenses and a U(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken. The poles of the holographic Green functions are the quasinormal modes in an AdS black hole background. We study the spectrum of quasinormal frequencies in the broken phase, where we establish the appearance of a massless or hydrodynamic mode at the critical temperature as expected for a second order phase transition. In the broken phase we find the pole representing second sound. We compute the speed of second sound and its attenuation length as function of the temperature. In addition we find a pseudo diffusion mode, whose frequencies are purely imaginary but with a non-zero gap at zero momentum. This gap goes to zero at the critical temperature. As a technical side result we explain how to calculate holographic Green functions and their quasinormal modes for a set of operators that mix under the RG flow.
Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.
Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro
2012-07-01
We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ?E=13.19 is fairly small. PMID:22772106
Antisymmetric tensors in holographic approaches to QCD
Cappiello, Luigi; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo
2010-01-01
We study real (massive) antisymmetric tensors of rank two in holographic models of QCD based on the gauge/string duality. Our aim is to understand in detail how the AdS/CFT correspondence describes correlators with tensor currents in QCD. To this end we study a set of bootstrapped correlators with spin-1 vector and tensor currents, imposing matching to QCD at the partonic level. We show that a consistent description of this set of correlators requires a modification of the conventional AdS/CFT prescription, it imposes strong constraints on infrared boundary conditions and precludes the introduction of dilatonic backgrounds as a possible mechanism to achieve linear confinement. Additionally, correlators with tensor currents turn out to be especially sensitive to chiral symmetry breaking, thus offering an ideal testing ground for genuine QCD effects. Several phenomenological consequences are explored, such as the nontrivial interplay between $1^{+-}$ states and conventional $1^{--}$ vector mesons.
Antisymmetric tensors in holographic approaches to QCD
Luigi Cappiello; Oscar Cata; Giancarlo D'Ambrosio
2010-12-08
We study real (massive) antisymmetric tensors of rank two in holographic models of QCD based on the gauge/string duality. Our aim is to understand in detail how the AdS/CFT correspondence describes correlators with tensor currents in QCD. To this end we study a set of bootstrapped correlators with spin-1 vector and tensor currents, imposing matching to QCD at the partonic level. We show that a consistent description of this set of correlators yields a very predictive picture. For instance, it imposes strong constraints on infrared boundary conditions and precludes the introduction of dilatonic backgrounds as a mechanism to achieve linear confinement. Additionally, correlators with tensor currents turn out to be especially sensitive to chiral symmetry breaking, thus offering an ideal testing ground for genuine QCD effects. Several phenomenological consequences are explored, such as the nontrivial interplay between $1^{+-}$ states and conventional $1^{--}$ vector mesons.
Antisymmetric tensors in holographic approaches to QCD
Cappiello, Luigi; Cata, Oscar; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo
2010-11-01
We study real (massive) antisymmetric tensors of rank two in holographic models of QCD based on the gauge/string duality. Our aim is to understand in detail how the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence describes correlators with tensor currents in QCD. To this end we study a set of bootstrapped correlators with spin-1 vector and tensor currents, imposing matching to QCD at the partonic level. We show that a consistent description of this set of correlators yields a very predictive picture. For instance, it imposes strong constraints on infrared boundary conditions and precludes the introduction of dilatonic backgrounds as a mechanism to achieve linear confinement. Additionally, correlators with tensor currents turn out to be especially sensitive to chiral symmetry breaking, thus offering an ideal testing ground for genuine QCD effects. Several phenomenological consequences are explored, such as the nontrivial interplay between 1{sup +-} states and conventional 1{sup --} vector mesons.
Two-step phase-shifting fluorescence incoherent holographic microscopy.
Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Yao, Hai; Qu, Xinghua; Gao, Bruce Z
2014-06-01
Fluorescence holographic microscope (FINCHSCOPE) is a motionless fluorescence holographic imaging technique based on Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) that shows promise in reconstructing three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens with three holograms. We report a developing two-step phase-shifting method that reduces the required number of holograms from three to two. Using this method, we resolved microscopic fluorescent beads that were three-dimensionally distributed at different depths with two interferograms captured by a CCD camera. The method enables the FINCHSCOPE to work in conjunction with the frame-straddling technique and significantly enhance imaging speed. PMID:24972355
Two-step phase-shifting fluorescence incoherent holographic microscopy
Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Yao, Hai; Qu, Xinghua; Gao, Bruce Z.
2014-01-01
Abstract. Fluorescence holographic microscope (FINCHSCOPE) is a motionless fluorescence holographic imaging technique based on Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) that shows promise in reconstructing three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens with three holograms. We report a developing two-step phase-shifting method that reduces the required number of holograms from three to two. Using this method, we resolved microscopic fluorescent beads that were three-dimensionally distributed at different depths with two interferograms captured by a CCD camera. The method enables the FINCHSCOPE to work in conjunction with the frame-straddling technique and significantly enhance imaging speed. PMID:24972355
Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics
Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)
1995-01-01
A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.
Entanglement entropy at holographic interfaces
Gutperle, Michael
2015-01-01
In this note we calculate the holographic entanglement entropy in the presence of a conformal interface for a geometric configuration in which the entangling region ${\\cal A}$ lies on one side of the interface. For the supersymmetric Janus solution we find exact agreement between the holographic and CFT calculation of the entanglement entropy.
Entanglement entropy at holographic interfaces
Michael Gutperle; John D. Miller
2015-11-29
In this note we calculate the holographic entanglement entropy in the presence of a conformal interface for a geometric configuration in which the entangling region ${\\cal A}$ lies on one side of the interface. For the supersymmetric Janus solution we find exact agreement between the holographic and CFT calculation of the entanglement entropy.
Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif
2011-01-01
Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Methods Data from 193 representative 6–18 year-old healthy children were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control (1). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site and total brain volume. ‘Gender by AGG’ interactions were analyzed. Results There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r=0.238, p=0.001; left: r=0.188, p=0.01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p<0.05, corrected). High AGG scores were associated with a relatively thin right ACC cortex. An ‘AGG by gender’ interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. Conclusion This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC grey matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. PMID:21531391
Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong
2010-09-01
Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% {+-} 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p <.05). When the TVRR was categorized into three groups (<60%, 60-80%, and >80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of {>=}60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Holographic Labeling And Reading Machine For Authentication And Security Appications
Weber, David C. (Rancho Santa Margarita, CA); Trolinger, James D. (Costa Mesa, CA)
1999-07-06
A holographic security label and automated reading machine for marking and subsequently authenticating any object such as an identification badge, a pass, a ticket, a manufactured part, or a package is described. The security label is extremely difficult to copy or even to read by unauthorized persons. The system comprises a holographic security label that has been created with a coded reference wave, whose specification can be kept secret. The label contains information that can be extracted only with the coded reference wave, which is derived from a holographic key, which restricts access of the information to only the possessor of the key. A reading machine accesses the information contained in the label and compares it with data stored in the machine through the application of a joint transform correlator, which is also equipped with a reference hologram that adds additional security to the procedure.
Holographic models for undoped Weyl semimetals
Umut Gursoy; Vivian Jacobs; Erik Plauschinn; Henk Stoof; Stefan Vandoren
2013-04-03
We continue our recently proposed holographic description of single-particle correlation functions for four-dimensional chiral fermions with Lifshitz scaling at zero chemical potential, paying particular attention to the dynamical exponent z = 2. We present new results for the spectral densities and dispersion relations at non-zero momenta and temperature. In contrast to the relativistic case with z = 1, we find the existence of a quantum phase transition from a non-Fermi liquid into a Fermi liquid in which two Fermi surfaces spontaneously form, even at zero chemical potential. Our findings show that the boundary system behaves like an undoped Weyl semimetal.
Holographic movie: the first step to holographic video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo
1992-05-01
Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. With this in mind, we have developed an experimental holographic movie system and produced a short duration 3D movie. A number of dolls and moving objects were positioned within a background and illuminated with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). Conventional film-making techniques were used during holographic recording to create a more attractive sequence. The techniques included stop-motion, tracking, enhanced depth perception, up-shots, and overlaps. A series of 300 Fresnel type holograms was recorded on standard holographic films. An interesting technical point is that the film was 10 mm high by 200 mm wide. After developing, the films were sandwiched between two rigid acrylic drums (about 1 m in diameter). The drum is rotated and the films illuminated with the He-Ne laser. The display speed can be varied from 6 to 24 frames per second. The films are viewed through a window. Even though this prototype is relatively primitive the resulting holographic movie is quite effective. Several interesting effects were noted. For example, it was found that objects in the movie must not rapidly shift their depth because the human eye cannot track them is they do.
Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms
D'Mello, Anila M.; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Stoodley, Catherine J.
2015-01-01
Neuroanatomical differences in the cerebellum are among the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and core ASD symptoms. The newly-emerging existence of cerebellar sensorimotor and cognitive subregions provides a new framework for interpreting the functional significance of cerebellar findings in ASD. Here we use two complementary analyses — whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the SUIT cerebellar atlas — to investigate cerebellar regional gray matter (GM) and volumetric lobular measurements in 35 children with ASD and 35 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6 years; range 8–13 years). To examine the relationships between cerebellar structure and core ASD symptoms, correlations were calculated between scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the VBM and volumetric data. Both VBM and the SUIT analyses revealed reduced GM in ASD children in cerebellar lobule VII (Crus I/II). The degree of regional and lobular gray matter reductions in different cerebellar subregions correlated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Structural differences and behavioral correlations converged on right cerebellar Crus I/II, a region which shows structural and functional connectivity with fronto-parietal and default mode networks. These results emphasize the importance of the location within the cerebellum to the potential functional impact of structural differences in ASD, and suggest that GM differences in cerebellar right Crus I/II are associated with the core ASD profile. PMID:25844317
Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri
2015-05-15
We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160
Holographic Black Hole Chemistry
Karch, Andreas
2015-01-01
Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.
Introduction to Holographic Superconductors
Gary T. Horowitz
2010-02-17
These lectures give an introduction to the theory of holographic superconductors. These are superconductors that have a dual gravitational description using gauge/gravity duality. After introducing a suitable gravitational theory, we discuss its properties in various regimes: the probe limit, the effects of backreaction, the zero temperature limit, and the addition of magnetic fields. Using the gauge/gravity dictionary, these properties reproduce many of the standard features of superconductors. Some familiarity with gauge/gravity duality is assumed. A list of open problems is included at the end.
Biopolymer holographic diffraction gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savi? Ševi?, Svetlana; Panteli?, Dejan
2008-03-01
Surface-relief diffraction gratings are holographically recorded in dextran sensitized with ammonium dichromate (DCD). DCD was exposed with single-frequency 200 mW diode pumped ND-YAG laser, at 532 nm. The diffraction grating profiles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that different surface profiles could be obtained. Gratings with 330 lines/mm spatial frequencies were made. Existence of higher harmonics in Fourier Transform of non-sinusoidal profiles shows that DCD is capable of recording spatial frequencies up to 1320 lines/mm (four times fundamental frequency). The measured maximum relief depth of the DCD grating is 402 nm.
Holographic Black Hole Chemistry
Andreas Karch; Brandon Robinson
2015-11-02
Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.
Digital holographic confocal microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goy, Alexandre S.; Psaltis, Demetri
2013-02-01
We demonstrate experimentally a scanning confocal microscopy technique based on digital holographic recording of the scanned spot. The data collected in this way contains all the information to produce three-dimensional images. Several methods to treat the data are presented, such as the dynamic placement of the pinhole. Examples of reflection and transmission images of epithelial cells and mouse brain tissue are shown. The computations can be performed in real time, the speed being limited only by the frame rate of the camera. This method enables a convenient implementation of confocal microscopy, especially in transmission as no de-scan device is required.
Electromagnetically induced holographic imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Tianhui; Xia, Lixin; Ma, Hongyang; Zheng, Chunhong; Chen, Libo
2016-01-01
The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect offers a nondestructive and lensless way to image ultracold atoms or molecules (Wen et al., 2011 [12]). In this paper, we propose another atomic imaging scheme based on the holographic imaging principle, in which three types of light source are employed as the imaging light to perform spatial interference. Compared to the previous self-imaging scheme, in the present one both the amplitude and phase information of the object can be imaged with the characteristic of arbitrarily controllable image variation in size, and the object to be imaged is no longer subject to the periodic structure.
Holographic model of hadronization.
Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew
2008-04-25
We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well. PMID:18518189
Holographic Model of Hadronization
Evans, Nick; Tedder, Andrew
2008-04-25
We study hadronization of the final state in a particle-antiparticle annihilation using a holographic gravity dual description of QCD. At the point of hadronization we match the events to a simple (Gaussian) energy distribution in the five dimensional theory. The final state multiplicities are then modeled by calculating the overlap between the Gaussian and a set of functions in the fifth dimension which represent each hadron. We compare our results to those measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. Hadron production numbers over a range of 4 orders of magnitude are reproduced well.
Ovanesyan, Zaven; Aljzmi, Amal; Almusaynid, Manal; Khan, Asrar; Valderrama, Esteban; Nash, Kelly L; Marucho, Marcelo
2016-01-15
One major source of complexity in the implementation of nanoparticles in aqueous electrolytes arises from the strong influence that biological environments has on their physicochemical properties. A key parameter for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles is the formation of the surface charge density. In this article, we present an efficient and accurate approach that combines a recently introduced classical solvation density functional theory for spherical electrical double layers with a surface complexation model to account for ion-ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical nanoparticles. We apply the proposed computational approach to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms on the surface chemistry of spherical silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, as well as pH level and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge density and Zeta potential. We validate our predictions for 580Å and 200Å nanoparticles immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline mono-valent aqueous electrolyte solutions against experimental data. Our results on mono-valent electrolyte show that the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations contribute significantly to the surface charge density and Zeta potential of the nanoparticle at high electrolyte concentration and pH levels, where the solvent crowding effects and electrostatic screening have shown a profound influence on the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the liquid/solute interface. The success of this approach in describing physicochemical properties of silica nanoparticles supports its broader application to study other spherical metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:26476201
Park, Hyun Young; Jun, Chang-Duk; Jeon, Se-Jeong; Choi, See-Sung; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Choi, Dan-Bee; Kwak, Seongae; Lee, Hak-Seung; Cheong, Jin Sung; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Jin; Park, Do-Sim
2012-01-01
Background and Purpose YKL-40 is associated with various neurological disorders. However, circulatory YKL-40 levels early after onset of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to identify the temporal changes and clinical usefulness of measuring serum YKL-40 immediately following AIS. Methods Serum YKL-40 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were monitored over time in AIS patients (n?=?105) and compared with those of stroke-free controls (n?=?34). Infarct volume and stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; NIHSS) were measured within 48 hours of symptom onset, and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale; mRS) was measured 3 months after AIS. Results Within 12 hours of symptom onset, levels of YKL-40 (251 vs. 41 ng/mL) and CRP (1.50 vs. 0.96 µg/mL) were elevated in AIS patients compared to controls. The power of YKL-40 for discriminating AIS patients from controls was superior to that of CRP (area under the curve 0.84 vs. 0.64) and YKL-40 (r?=?0.26, P<0.001) but not CRP levels were correlated with mRS. On day 2 of admission (D2), YKL-40 levels correlated with infarct volume and NIHSS. High YKL-40 levels predicted poor functional outcome (odds ratio 5.73, P?=?0.03). YKL-40 levels peaked on D2 and declined on D3, whereas CRP levels were highest on D3. Conclusions Our results demonstrate serial changes in serum YKL-40 levels immediately following AIS and provide the first evidence that it is a valid indicator of AIS extent and an early predictor of functional outcome. PMID:23272150
Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 5; Analytical and Experimental Data Correlation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chien, W. E.; Kraft, R. E.; Syed, A. A.
1999-01-01
The primary purpose of the study presented in this volume is to present the results and data analysis of in-duct transmission loss measurements. Transmission loss testing was performed on full-scale, 1/2-scale, and 115-scale treatment panel samples. The objective of the study was to compare predicted and measured transmission loss for full-scale and subscale panels in an attempt to evaluate the variations in suppression between full- and subscale panels which were ostensibly of equivalent design. Generally, the results indicated an unsatisfactory agreement between measurement and prediction, even for full-scale. This was attributable to difficulties encountered in obtaining sufficiently accurate test results, even with extraordinary care in calibrating the instrumentation and performing the test. Test difficulties precluded the ability to make measurements at frequencies high enough to be representative of subscale liners. It is concluded that transmission loss measurements without ducts and data acquisition facilities specifically designed to operate with the precision and complexity required for high subscale frequency ranges are inadequate for evaluation of subscale treatment effects.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang
2015-01-01
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculate the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy$-$temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy$-$temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Engineering holographic graphene
Semenoff, Gordon W.
2012-09-24
We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.
Holographic Solar Photon Thrusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg
2006-01-01
A document discusses a proposal to incorporate holographic optical elements into solar photon thrusters (SPTs). First suggested in 1990, SPTs would be systems of multiple reflective, emissive, and absorptive surfaces (solar sails) that would be attached to spacecraft orbiting the Earth to derive small propulsive forces from radiation pressures. An SPT according to the proposal would include, among other things, a main sail. One side of the sail would be highly emissive and would normally face away from the Earth. The other side would be reflective and would be covered by white-light holographic images that would alternately become reflective, transmissive, and absorptive with small changes in the viewing angle. When the spacecraft was at a favorable orbital position, the main sail would be oriented to reflect sunlight in a direction to maximize the solar thrust; when not in a favorable position, the main sail would be oriented to present a substantially absorptive/emissive aspect to minimize the solar drag. By turning the main sail slightly to alternate between the reflective and absorptive/ emissive extremes, one could achieve nearly a doubling or halving of the radiational momentum transfer and, hence, of the solar thrust.
Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.
2014-10-28
We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to ?40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.
2014-10-01
We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to ˜40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.
El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette
2015-03-01
We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. PMID:25637284
Adventures in holographic dimer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho
2011-03-01
We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.
Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models
Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2011-08-12
We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.
Holographic microscopy studies of emulsions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witherow, W. K.
1981-01-01
A holographic microscopy system that records and observes the dynamic properties of separation of dispersed immiscible fluids is described. The holographic construction system and reconstruction system that were used to obtain particle size and distribution information from the holograms are discussed. The holographic microscopy system is used to observed the phase separating processes in immiscible fluids that were isothermally cooled into the two phase region. Nucleation, growth rates, coalescence, and particle motion are successfully demonstrated with this system. Thus a holographic particle sizing system with a resolution of 2 micrometers and a field of view of 100 cu cm was developed that provides the capability of testing the theories of separating immiscible fluids for particle number densities in the range of 10 to 10 to the 7th power particles.
Hyperspectral holographic Fourier-microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalenkov, G. S.; Kalenkov, S. G.; Shtan'ko, A. E.
2015-04-01
A detailed theory of the method of holographic recording of hyperspectral wave fields is developed. New experimentally obtained hyperspectral holographic images of microscopic objects are presented. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally using the examples of urgent microscopy problems: speckle noise suppression, obtaining hyperspectral image of a microscopic object, as well as synthesis of a colour image and obtaining an optical profile of a phase object.
A holographic charged preon model
T. R. Mongan
2013-04-20
The Standard Model (SM) is a successful approach to particle physics calculations. However, there are indications that the SM is only a good approximation to an underlying non-local reality involving fundamental entities (preons) that are not point particles. Furthermore, our universe seems to be dominated by a vacuum energy/cosmological constant. The holographic principle then indicates only a finite number of bits of information will ever be available to describe the observable universe, and that requires a holographic preon model linking the (0,1) holographic bits to SM particles. All SM particles have charges 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1 in units of the electron charge, so the bits in a holographic preon model must be identified with fractional electric charge. Such holographic charged preon models require baryon asymmetry and also suggest a mechanism for stationary action. This paper outlines a holographic charged preon model where preons are strands with finite energy density specified by bits of information identifying the charge on each end. In the model, SM particles consist of three strands with spin states corresponding to wrapped states of the strands. SM particles in this wrapped preon model can be approximated by preon bound states in non-local dynamics based on three-preon Bethe-Salpeter equations with instantaneous three-preon interactions. The model can be falsified by data from the Large Hadron Collider because it generates baryon asymmetry without axions, and does not allow more than three generations of SM fermions.
Holographic Vortex Coronagraph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palacios, David
2010-01-01
A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.
Causality & holographic entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Lawrence, Albion; Rangamani, Mukund
2014-12-01
We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.
Stability of holographic superconductors
Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro
2010-10-15
We study the dynamical stability of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the stability of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the stabilization of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the stability of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the stability of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the stability continues away from the critical point.
Dissecting holographic conductivities
Richard A. Davison; Blaise Goutéraux
2015-09-15
The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.
Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik
2009-10-15
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
Holographic Recording Materials Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.
1976-01-01
Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.
Dissecting holographic conductivities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davison, Richard A.; Goutéraux, Blaise
2015-09-01
The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.
on the spacings of the energy levels, and the form of the wavefunctions for the ID and 3D mTHE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 47, NUMBER 9 1 NOVEMBER 1967 Correlation Effects in Complex Transition Probabilities," NSRDS-NBS 4 (U.S. Govern- ment Printing Olflce, Washington, D.C., 1966), Vo!' 1. 2
Sabry, Mohamed; Halder, Sunil K; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Al-Hendy, Ayman
2013-01-01
Purpose Currently there is no effective medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids (UFs), a common health disorder that affects women of reproductive age. Identification of modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency could help develop novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of UFs. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum Vit D3 levels correlate with increased risk of UFs. Methods A total of 154 premenopausal women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The control group comprised 50 subjects with a normal, fibroid-free uterine structure, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The 104 case subjects had at least one fibroid lesion that was 2 cm3 in volume or larger, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. For each case subject, total uterine volume and total volume of all existing fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes, with volume determined according to the prolate ellipse formula (a × b × c × 0.523), where a is height, b is width, and c is depth. Serum Vit D [25(OH) D3] levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The independent t-test was used to compare serum Vit D levels across groups. Correlations were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results Lower serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of UFs (P = 0.01). A statistically significant inverse correlation was also observed between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total UF volume (r = ?0.31; P = 0.002) within the case cohort. Subjects with larger fibroid volumes had lower serum Vit D levels and vice versa. Data stratified for ethnicity showed a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total fibroid volume in black subjects (r = ?0.42; P = 0.001). An inverse correlation was also evident in white subjects (r = ?0.86; P = 0.58) but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Lower serum Vit D levels are inversely correlated with UF burden in different ethnic groups. Vit D deficiency is a possible risk factor for the occurrence of UFs. PMID:23467803
Interactive Holographic Stereograms with Accommodation Cues
Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.
Image-based holographic stereogram rendering methods for holographic video have the attractive properties of moderate computational cost and correct handling of occlusions and translucent objects. These methods are also ...
Some issues concerning holographic dark energy
Li, Miao; Lin, Chunshan; Wang, Yi E-mail: lics@mail.ustc.edu.cn
2008-05-15
We study the perturbation of holographic dark energy and find it to be stable. We study the fate of the universe when interacting holographic dark energy is present, and discuss a simple phenomenological classification of the interacting holographic dark energy models. We also discuss the cosmic coincidence problem in the context of holographic dark energy. We find that the coincidence problem cannot be completely solved by adding an interacting term. Inflation may provide a better solution of the coincidence problem.
Microwave holographic imaging of aircraft with spaceborne illuminating source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berkowitz, R. S.; Dzekov, T. A.
1976-01-01
The conceptual development of a method for the high angular resolution and accurate angular position estimates for the surveillance and traffic control of aircraft is considered. A target volume several hundred kilometers in diameter is illuminated by a CW microwave source located on a satellite in geosynchronous orbit. Signals are received by a large array of random, conformally located receiving elements. Each element receives the direct signal from the satellite plus signals reflected from aircraft in the illuminated volume. Coherent combination of the signals received from the individual elements permits the equivalent of holographic imaging or multiple beam formation from which the useful target data can be obtained.
Ovanesyan, Zaven; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica
2014-01-01
The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models. PMID:25494770
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willert, Christian; Wereley, Steve
2010-11-01
The recent uncontrolled release of oil and gas from a failed well into the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of the Deep Water Horizons accident illustrated that the actual release rates are difficult to assess with established surface observation methods. To a large extent this has to with the great depth (˜1500m) at which the oil was released and its subsequent dispersal throughout the vertical water column. Streaming video of the failure site was provided by subsea remotely operated vehicles (ROV) and allow, in principle, the quantification of the release rate on the basis of motion analysis image processing methods. Several correlation based approaches, commonly used in particle image velocimetry (PIV), are investigated with regard to estimating the propagation velocity of large scale features in the visible interface between sea water and oil plume. Together with time scale (video frame rate) and length scale (pipe diameter) the interface velocity of the plume can be estimated. Assuming the plume to be a turbulent free jet the actual volume flow rate of the oil/gas mixture can be then be recovered with reasonable accuracy.
Ovanesyan, Zaven; Marucho, Marcelo; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica
2014-12-14
The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovanesyan, Zaven; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica; Marucho, Marcelo
2014-12-01
The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.
Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zepp, Andreas; G?adysz, Szymon; Stein, Karin
2013-12-01
Atmospheric effects significantly influence the propagation of light. Conventional adaptive optics systems, based on Shack-Hartmann sensors (SHS), work well for vertical-path propagation. However, for more challenging scenarios like horizontal-path imaging or free-space laser communications through extended-volume turbulence and strong scintillation, the bandwidth of SHS is insufficient. A promising alternative is the holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS). Our paper deals with some dependencies and limitations of the HWFS. First, we show that the sensitivity of the HWFS is highly dependent on the detector size. The smaller the detector, the more sensitive is the sensor. This has consequences in the photon-starved regime, which would naturally occur when the sensor is operated at the intended MHz speed. Second, we show that uncorrected (or residual) tip/tilt has a large impact on the accuracy of the measurement. We present experimental results of measuring an important and also easily correctable aberration, defocus, with the HWFS.
Gong, Nan-Jie; Wong, Chun-Sing; Chu, Yiu-Ching; Guo, Hua; Huang, Bingsheng; Chan, Queenie
2013-10-01
Purpose: To improve the accuracy of volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we proposed a method based on thresholding both the b0 images and the ADC maps. Methods and Materials: In 21 heterogeneous lesions from patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), gross lesion were manually contoured, and corresponding volumes and ADCs were denoted as gross tumor volume (GTV) and gross ADC (ADC{sub g}), respectively. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, the probable high-cellularity tumor tissues were selected based on b0 images and ADC maps. ADC and volume of the tissues selected using the proposed method were denoted as thresholded ADC (ADC{sub thr}) and high-cellularity tumor volume (HCTV), respectively. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was measured using 40% maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) as the lower threshold, and corresponding mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) was also measured. Results: HCTV had excellent concordance with MTV according to Pearson's correlation (r=0.984, P<.001) and linear regression (slope = 1.085, intercept = ?4.731). In contrast, GTV overestimated the volume and differed significantly from MTV (P=.005). ADC{sub thr} correlated significantly and strongly with SUV{sub mean} (r=?0.807, P<.001) and SUV{sub max} (r=?0.843, P<.001); both were stronger than those of ADC{sub g}. Conclusions: The proposed lesion-adaptive semiautomatic method can help segment high-cellularity tissues that match hypermetabolic tissues in PET/CT and enables more accurate volume and ADC delineation on diffusion-weighted MR images of GIST.
Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.
1974-01-01
The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.
Chiral Ground States in a Frustrated Holographic Superconductor
Mitsuhiro Nishida
2015-09-01
Frustration is an important phenomenon in condensed matter physics because it can introduce a new order parameter such as chirality. Towards understanding a mechanism of the frustration in strongly correlated systems, we study a holographic superconductor model with three scalar fields and an interband Josephson coupling, which is important for the frustration. We analyze free energy of solutions of the model to determine ground states. We find chiral ground states, which have nonzero chirality.
Holographic framework for eternal inflation
Freivogel, Ben; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard; Yeh, Chen-Pin
2006-10-15
In this paper we provide some circumstantial evidence for a holographic duality between bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating universe and a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT). The holographic correspondence (which is different than Strominger's de Sitter (dS)/CFT duality) relates the decay of (3+1)-dimensional de Sitter space to a two-dimensional CFT. It is not associated with pure de Sitter space, but rather with Coleman-De Luccia bubble nucleation. Alternatively, it can be thought of as a holographic description of the open, infinite, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology that results from such a bubble. The conjectured holographic representation is of a new type that combines holography with the Wheeler-DeWitt formalism to produce a Wheeler-DeWitt theory that lives on the spatial boundary of a k=-1 FRW cosmology. We also argue for a more ambitious interpretation of the Wheeler-DeWitt CFT as a holographic dual of the entire Landscape.
Holographic lithography for biomedical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.
2012-06-01
Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Martínez-Matos, O.; Izquierdo, J. G.; Calvo, M. L.; Cheben, P.; Bañares, L.
2011-09-01
We present the capability of the holographic gratings implemented in photopolymerizable glasses to be applied in spatial and spectral manipulation of femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose we used volume phase holographic gratings recorded by the interference of two monochromatic and coherent beams coming from a Nd-YAG continuous laser. We carried out experiments to determine the main features of the diffracted beams originated by the interaction of volume holographic phase grating structures with femtosecond pulses arising from the fundamental emission of an amplified Ti: sapphire laser system and its second harmonic. Meanwhile we have performed experiments to determine its damage threshold indicating that this material is an excellent candidate for intense-fields and ultrashort laser pulse applications.
Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay
2001-01-01
We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.
Maciejewski, Bogus?aw; Ko?osza, Zofia; Wygoda, Andrzej; Sk?adowski, Krzysztof; Hejduk, Beata; Rutkowski, Roman
2014-01-01
The retrospective chart review of 110 patients with T2 supraglottic cancer who underwent radiotherapy was performed to correlate tumor volume with other prognostic factors and to analyze its impact on treatment results. Patients with involved nodes, poor histopathological tumor differentiation, or hemoglobin concentration ? 14.3 g/dl had significantly larger tumors. Patients with large tumors had significantly lower 5-year local control rate, overall survival rate and presented significantly higher risk of nodal involvement and the ratio of poor histopathological differentiation of the tumor. Tumor volume significantly impacts radiotherapy outcome and should be considered to optimize treatment strategy for patients with T2 supraglottic cancer. PMID:25784843
Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E
2015-01-01
Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 ?M. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 ?M: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 ?M: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 ?M induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 ?M r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 ?M; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477
Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E
2015-01-01
Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5??M. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5??M: r=?0.90; P=0.001; STS 0.25??M: r=?0.73; P=0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5??M induction r=?0.76; P=0.002; STS 0.25??M r=?0.62; P=0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5??M; P<0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Derrick M.; Cheng, Shan; Wang, Wenda; Bunning, Timothy J.; Li, Christopher Y.
2014-12-01
Polymer electrolyte membranes using an ionic liquid as electrolyte with an ionic conductivity anisotropy of ?5000 have been fabricated using a holographic polymerization nanomanufacturing technique. The resultant structure is referred to as holographic polymer electrolyte membranes (hPEMs), which are comprised of alternating nanolayers of a room temperature ionic liquid and crosslinked polymer resin, confirmed under TEM imaging. These hPEMs also show no reduction in room temperature conductivity with respect to the loaded ionic liquid when characterized in the plane of ionic liquid nanolayers. At elevated temperatures with the optimal electrolyte volume loading, calculation shows that the free ion concentration is higher than the pure ionic liquid, suggesting that the photopolymer dual-functionalizes as a loadbearing scaffold and an ion-complexing agent, allowing for more ions to participate in charge transfer. These hPEMs provide a promising solution to decoupling mechanical enhancement and ion transport in polymer electrolyte membranes.
Sohns, Jan M; Rosenberg, Christina; Zapf, Antonia; Unterberg-Buchwald, Christina; Staab, Wieland; Schuster, Andreas; Kowallick, Johannes T; Hösch, Olga; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Fasshauer, Martin; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael
2015-08-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate right atrial (RA) volume in corrected Tetralogy of Fallot (cTOF) and assess its correlation with the occurrence of supraventricular (SV) arrhythmia. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and 24-h Holter were performed in n = 67 consecutive cTOF patients (age 30 ± 11.3 years). The CMR protocol included standard HASTE, SSFP cine, and blood flow measurements. Correlations between arrhythmia in ECG, heart volume, and functional parameters were investigated by negative binominal regression. Patients' characteristics (mean ± SD) included mean RA volume of 49 ± 19 ml/m(2) (HASTE sequence), mean right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume of 98 ± 27 ml/m(2), mean pulmonary valve regurgitation fraction (PR) of 21 ± 19 %, BMI of 25 kg/m(2), and heart rate of 75/min. Twenty-eight out of 67 patients experienced SV arrhythmia including SV couplets or bigeminus or longer non-sustained SV tachycardia (SVT) episodes. RA volume index was identified as an independent risk factor for different degrees of SV arrhythmia (SV couplets/bigeminus p < 0.001, SVT p < 0.001). Further risk factors for SV arrhythmia were male gender (p = 0.023) and decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (LV EF p < 0.001). RA volume is increased in adult patients with cTOF with larger RA volumes relating to higher incidence of SV arrhythmia. SV arrhythmia also appeared more often in male patients and those with decreased LV EF. Risk stratification according to these parameters could help to optimize early prevention and adjusted individual therapy to improve patient outcome and quality of life. PMID:25862665
Holographic films from carotenoid pigments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.
2014-02-01
Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.
Gauge invariance and holographic renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Seo, Yunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin
2015-10-01
We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalization: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. There is a mismatch in the degrees of freedom between the bulk theory and the boundary one. We resolve this problem by noticing that there is a residual gauge symmetry (RGS). By extending the RGS such that it satisfies infalling boundary condition at the horizon, we can understand the problem in the context of general holographic embedding of a global symmetry at the boundary into the local gauge symmetry in the bulk.
Hard-gapped Holographic Superconductors
Pallab Basu; Jianyang He; Anindya Mukherjee; Hsien-Hang Shieh
2009-12-05
In this work we discuss the zero temperature limit of a "p-wave" holographic superconductor. The bulk description consists of a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge fields minimally coupled to gravity. We numerically construct the zero temperature solution which is the gravity dual of the superconducting ground state of the "p-wave" holographic superconductors. The solution is a smooth soliton with zero horizon size and shows an emergent conformal symmetry in the IR. We found the expected superconducting behavior. Using the near horizon analysis we show that the system has a "hard gap" for the relevant gauge field fluctuations. At zero temperature the real part of the conductivity is zero for an excitation frequency less than the gap frequency. This is in contrast with what has been observed in similar scalar- gravity-gauge systems (holographic superconductors). We also discuss the low but finite temperature behavior of our solution.
Holographic indeterminacy and neutron stars
Scott Funkhouser
2009-02-16
The holographic indeterminacy resulting from the quantization of spacetime leads to an inherent uncertainty (lpL)1/2 in the relative positions of two events, separated by a distance L, in a direction transverse to a null ray connecting the events, where lP is the Planck length. The new indeterminacy principle leads to a critical condition in which the holographic uncertainty in the relative transverse positions of two diametrically opposed particles on the surface a body becomes greater than the average distance between particles in the body. The Chandrasekhar mass and the characteristic nuclear density emerge as the minimum mass and density of a baryonic body that could meet the critical criteria. Neutron stars are therefore identified as a class of bodies in which holographic indeterminacy may have physical consequences.
Holographic anatomy of fuzzballs
I. Kanitscheider; K. Skenderis; M. Taylor
2007-09-12
We present a comprehensive analysis of 2-charge fuzzball solutions, that is, horizon-free non-singular solutions of IIB supergravity characterized by a curve on R^4. We propose a precise map that relates any given curve to a specific superposition of R ground states of the D1-D5 system. To test this proposal we compute the holographic 1-point functions associated with these solutions, namely the conserved charges and the vacuum expectation values of chiral primary operators of the boundary theory, and find perfect agreement within the approximations used. In particular, all kinematical constraints are satisfied and the proposal is compatible with dynamical constraints although detailed quantitative tests would require going beyond the leading supergravity approximation. We also discuss which geometries may be dual to a given R ground state. We present the general asymptotic form that such solutions must have and present exact solutions which have such asymptotics and therefore pass all kinematical constraints. Dynamical constraints would again require going beyond the leading supergravity approximation.
Perturbatively charged holographic disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Keeffe, Daniel K.; Peet, Amanda W.
2015-08-01
Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D =4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS4 , a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parametrized by a disorder strength V ¯ and a characteristic scale k0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged dc conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k0 . We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged dc conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for holographic lattices.
The Holographic Principle in a Cosmological Setting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savonije, Ivo Lothar
2003-04-01
We study the holographic principle in a cosmological context. First, entropy bounds are derived from the holographic principle and applied within a Anti-de Sitter spacetime. Next, the compatibility of the holographic principle and de Sitter spacetime is considered. The holographic principle is a general feature of any theory of quantum gravity. Hence, it should be compatible with any cosmological model that strives to describe our universe. By studying this compatibility, the feasibility of different cosmological models can thus be assesed. For Anti-de Sitter spacetime a satisfactory implementation of the holographic principle has been obtained in the AdS/CFT correspondence. Also, there has been significant progress recently in describing the holographic principle in a flat background. A logical next step would then be to consider positively curved space, or de Sitter space. After reviewing recent work we propose a novel perspective on de Sitter space which may facilitate implementing the holographic principle in de Sitter spacetime.
Dynamic holographic imaging of the beating human heart
Hunziker; Smith; Scherrer-Crosbie; Liel-Cohen; Levine; Nesbitt; Benton; Picard
1999-02-01
Background--Currently, the reporting and archiving of echocardiographic data suffer from the difficulty of representing heart motion on printable 2-dimensional (2D) media. Methods and Results--We studied the capability of holography to integrate motion into 2D echocardiographic prints. Images of normal human hearts and of a variety of mitral valve function abnormalities (mitral valve prolapse, systolic anterior motion of the mitral leaflets, and obstruction of the mitral valve by a myxoma) were acquired digitally on standard echocardiographic machines. Images were processed into a data format suitable for holographic printing. Angularly multiplexed holograms were then printed on a prototype holographic "laser" printer, with integration of time in vertical parallax, so that heart motion became visible when the hologram was tilted up and down. The resulting holograms displayed the anatomy with the same resolution as the original acquisition and allowed detailed study of valve motion with side-by-side comparison of normal and abnormal findings. Comparison of standard echocardiographic measurements in original echo frames and corresponding hologram views showed an excellent correlation of both methods (P<0.0001, r2=0.979, mean bias=2.76 mm). In this feasibility study, both 2D and 3D holographic images were produced. The equipment needed to view these holograms consists of only a simple point-light source. Conclusions--Holographic representation of myocardial and valve motion from echocardiographic data is feasible and allows the printing on a 2D medium of the complete heart cycle. Combined with the recent development of online holographic printing, this novel technique has the potential to improve reporting, visualization, and archiving of echocardiographic imaging. PMID:9950651
Universal properties of cold holographic matter
Jokela, Niko
2015-01-01
We study the collective excitations of holographic quantum liquids formed in the low energy theory living at the intersection of two sets of D-branes. The corresponding field theory dual is a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with massless matter hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which generically live on a defect of the unflavored theory. Working in the quenched (probe) approximation, we focus on determining the universal properties of these systems. We analyze their thermodynamics, the speed of first sound, the diffusion constant, and the speed of zero sound. We study the influence of temperature, chemical potential, and magnetic field on these quantities, as well as on the corresponding collisionless/hydrodynamic crossover. We also generalize the alternative quantization for all conformally $AdS_4$ backgrounds and study the anyonic correlators.
Universal properties of cold holographic matter
Niko Jokela; Alfonso V. Ramallo
2015-06-21
We study the collective excitations of holographic quantum liquids formed in the low energy theory living at the intersection of two sets of D-branes. The corresponding field theory dual is a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with massless matter hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which generically live on a defect of the unflavored theory. Working in the quenched (probe) approximation, we focus on determining the universal properties of these systems. We analyze their thermodynamics, the speed of first sound, the diffusion constant, and the speed of zero sound. We study the influence of temperature, chemical potential, and magnetic field on these quantities, as well as on the corresponding collisionless/hydrodynamic crossover. We also generalize the alternative quantization for all conformally $AdS_4$ cases and study the anyonic correlators.
Universal properties of cold holographic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2015-07-01
We study the collective excitations of holographic quantum liquids formed in the low energy theory living at the intersection of two sets of D-branes. The corresponding field theory dual is a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with massless matter hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which generically live on a defect of the unflavored theory. Working in the quenched (probe) approximation, we focus on determining the universal properties of these systems. We analyze their thermodynamics, the speed of first sound, the diffusion constant, and the speed of zero sound. We study the influence of temperature, chemical potential, and magnetic field on these quantities, as well as on the corresponding collisionless/hydrodynamic crossover. We also generalize the alternative quantization for all conformally AdS4 cases and study the anyonic correlators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knopp, Jerome
1996-01-01
Astronauts are required to interface with complex systems that require sophisticated displays to communicate effectively. Lightweight, head-mounted real-time displays that present holographic images for comfortable viewing may be the ideal solution. We describe an implementation of a liquid crystal television (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the display of holograms. The implementation required the solution of a complex set of problems. These include field calculations, determination of the LCTV-SLM complex transmittance characteristics and a precise knowledge of the signal mapping between the LCTV and frame grabbing board that controls it. Realizing the hologram is further complicated by the coupling that occurs between the phase and amplitude in the LCTV transmittance. A single drive signal (a gray level signal from a framegrabber) determines both amplitude and phase. Since they are not independently controllable (as is true in the ideal SLM) one must deal with the problem of optimizing (in some sense) the hologram based on this constraint. Solutions for the above problems have been found. An algorithm has been for field calculations that uses an efficient outer product formulation. Juday's MEDOF 7 (Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter) algorithm used for originally for filter calculations has been successfully adapted to handle metrics appropriate for holography. This has solved the problem of optimizing the hologram to the constraints imposed by coupling. Two laboratory methods have been developed for determining an accurate mapping of framegrabber pixels to LCTV pixels. A friendly software system has been developed that integrates the hologram calculation and realization process using a simple set of instructions. The computer code and all the laboratory measurement techniques determining SLM parameters have been proven with the production of a high quality test image.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Perna, Lucia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro; Fiorino, Claudio
2013-04-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose-wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose-volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose-volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80-0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66-0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001).
Computational Complexity Theory Holographic Algorithms
Cai, Jin-Yi
× 93461639715357977769163558199606896584051237541638188580280321 11 #12;RSA Crypto System Based on the presumed computational complexity of factoring, Rivest, Shamir and Adleman proposed a public-key crypto system. 12 #12;Is factoring intrinsically hard? The best computations can be done in polynomial time. 27 #12;Sample Problems Solved by Holographic Algorithms #PL-3-NAE
Music holographic physiotherapy by laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Changhuan
1996-09-01
Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.
Automating Digital Holographic Spray Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olinger, David; Sallam, Khaled
2007-11-01
The physics of the breakup of liquid jets are of interest in many disciplines. Primary breakup along the liquid jet surface and the secondary breakup in the dense spray region drive the droplets' size and velocity distributions. Experimental techniques, such as shadowgraphy and Phase Doppler Interferometry, can be inadequate due to the limited depth of field or the restriction to spherical droplets. Holographic diagnostics have been successful in probing this dense region, providing 3D size and velocity measurements. Current digital holographic reconstruction has solved most of the problems associated with chemical development of holographic plates; however, the current methods of holographic data reduction using visual focusing is time consuming and subject to human error. The objective of the present research is to automate the process of identifying, locating, and measuring liquid droplets in the dense spray region near the liquid core. Edge detection and dynamic filtering are tested on droplets in ``cluttered'' holograms in the near injector region of an aerated liquid jet in subsonic crossflow. The results include automatic identification of the droplets' locations and velocities using particle tracking techniques.
Holographic nanointerferometer with digital magnification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulkin, S. A.; Venediktov, V. Yu.; Ivanov, V.; Korotkov, V. I.; Matveyeva, N. I.; Panova, A. V.; Pasechnik, I. M.; Sevrygin, A. A.; Solov'ev, M. A.
2013-05-01
The method of holographic interferometry with the increased sensitivity was applied for measurements of height of nano-steps (from 10 nm and higher) with standard uncertainty about 0.5 nm. The increasing of sensitivity is obtained by interference of waves with mutually complex conjugated phases.
Holographic Principle and Quantum Cosmology
Qing-Guo Huang
2005-12-15
Using the holographic entropy proposal for a closed universe by Verlinde, a bound on equations of state for different stages of the universe is obtained. Further exploring this bound, we find that an inflationary universe naturally emerges in the early universe and today's dark energy is also needed in the quantum cosmological scenario.
Holographic superconductivity in M theory.
Gauntlett, Jerome P; Sonner, Julian; Wiseman, Toby
2009-10-01
Using seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces we construct solutions of D=11 supergravity that are holographically dual to superconductors in three spacetime dimensions. Our numerical results indicate a new zero temperature solution dual to a quantum critical point. PMID:19905619
Holographic nondestructive testing of laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuckenberg, F. H.
1973-01-01
Very small differences in laminate thickness result in interference fringes in holograph image. These indicate presence of unbonded area. Theoretical knowledge of membrane deflection may be used in conjunction with reduced number of pretest experiments to determine number of optical fringes that should appear for given laminate.
Holographic interaction effects on transport in Dirac semimetals
V. P. J. Jacobs; S. J. G. Vandoren; H. T. C. Stoof
2014-07-10
Strongly interacting Dirac semimetals are investigated using a holographic model especially geared to compute the single-particle correlation function for this case, including both interaction effects and nonzero temperature. We calculate the (homogeneous) electrical conductivity at zero chemical potential, and show that it consists of two contributions. The interband contribution scales as a power law either in frequency or in temperature for low frequency. The precise power is related to a critical exponent of the dual holographic theory, which is a parameter in the model. On top of that we find for nonzero temperatures a Drude peak corresponding to intraband transitions. A behavior similar to Coulomb interactions is recovered as a special limiting case.
Dynamics of Holographic Entanglement Entropy Following a Local Quench
Rangamani, Mukund; Vincart-Emard, Alexandre
2015-01-01
We discuss the behaviour of holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench in 2+1 dimensional strongly coupled CFTs. The entanglement generated by the quench propagates along an emergent light-cone, reminiscent of the Lieb-Robinson light-cone propagation of correlations in non-relativistic systems. We find the the speed of propagation is bounded from below by the entanglement tsunami velocity obtained earlier for global quenches in holographic systems, and from above by the speed of light. The former is realized for sufficiently broad quenches, while the latter pertains for well localized quenches. The non-universal behavior in the intermediate regime appears to stem from finite-size effects. We also note that the entanglement entropy of subsystems reverts to the equilibrium value exponentially fast, in contrast to a much slower equilibration seen in certain spin models.
Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows
Argurio, Riccardo; Redigolo, Diego
2014-01-01
We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1)_R symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1)_F symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are sponta...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-Dong; Park, Changbom; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Kim, Juhan
2015-06-01
We propose a method using the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test and volume effect to measure the cosmic expansion history. The galaxy two-point correlation function as a function of angle, ?(?), is measured at different redshifts. Assuming an incorrect cosmological model to convert galaxy redshifts to distances, the shape of ?(?) appears anisotropic due to the AP effect, and the amplitude is shifted by the change in comoving volume. Due to the redshift dependence of the AP and volume effect, both the shape and amplitude of ?(?) exhibit redshift dependence. Similar to Li et al. (2014), we find that the redshift-space distortions (RSD) caused by galaxy peculiar velocities, although significantly distorting ?(?), exhibit much less redshift evolution compared to the AP and volume effects. By focusing on the redshift dependence of ?(?), we can correctly recover the cosmological parameters despite the contamination of RSD. The method is tested by using the Horizon Run 3 N-body simulation, from which we made a series of 1/8-sky mock surveys having eight million physically self-bound haloes and sampled to have roughly a uniform number density in z = 0-1.5. We find the AP effect results in tight, unbiased constraints on the density parameter and dark energy equation of state, with 68.3% CL intervals ??m ˜ 0.03 and ?w ˜ 0.1, and the volume effect leads to much tighter constraints of ??m ˜ 0.007 and ?w ˜ 0.035.
Pattern-Recognition Processor Using Holographic Photopolymer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Cammack, Kevin
2006-01-01
proposed joint-transform optical correlator (JTOC) would be capable of operating as a real-time pattern-recognition processor. The key correlation-filter reading/writing medium of this JTOC would be an updateable holographic photopolymer. The high-resolution, high-speed characteristics of this photopolymer would enable pattern-recognition processing to occur at a speed three orders of magnitude greater than that of state-of-the-art digital pattern-recognition processors. There are many potential applications in biometric personal identification (e.g., using images of fingerprints and faces) and nondestructive industrial inspection. In order to appreciate the advantages of the proposed JTOC, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of a conventional JTOC. In a conventional JTOC (shown in the upper part of the figure), a collimated laser beam passes through two side-by-side spatial light modulators (SLMs). One SLM displays a real-time input image to be recognized. The other SLM displays a reference image from a digital memory. A Fourier-transform lens is placed at its focal distance from the SLM plane, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector is placed at the back focal plane of the lens for use as a square-law recorder. Processing takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the CCD records the interference pattern between the Fourier transforms of the input and reference images, and the pattern is then digitized and saved in a buffer memory. In the second stage, the reference SLM is turned off and the interference pattern is fed back to the input SLM. The interference pattern thus becomes Fourier-transformed, yielding at the CCD an image representing the joint-transform correlation between the input and reference images. This image contains a sharp correlation peak when the input and reference images are matched. The drawbacks of a conventional JTOC are the following: The CCD has low spatial resolution and is not an ideal square-law detector for the purpose of holographic recording of interference fringes. A typical state-of-the-art CCD has a pixel-pitch limited resolution of about 100 lines/mm. In contrast, the holographic photopolymer to be used in the proposed JTOC offers a resolution > 2,000 lines/mm. In addition to being disadvantageous in itself, the low resolution of the CCD causes overlap of a DC term and the desired correlation term in the output image. This overlap severely limits the correlation signal-to-noise ratio. The two-stage nature of the process limits the achievable throughput rate. A further limit is imposed by the low frame rate (typical video rates) of low- and medium-cost commercial CCDs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra
2015-10-01
Digital speckle pattern lateral shear interferometry (DSPSI) based on volume phase holographic grating for the measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in candle flames is presented. The DSPSI setup uses the volume phase holographic grating combined with ground glass to shear the wavefronts. The shear of the two wavefronts is controlled by the distance between volume phase holographic grating and the ground glass. The sheared wavefronts on the ground glass are imaged onto the CMOS detector by an imaging lens. Two specklegrams are recorded corresponding to the absence of the flame and the presence of the flame. The fringe pattern is observed by subtracting these two specklegrams. A single fringe pattern was used to extract phase by the application of Riesz transform and the monogenic signal. The measured values of the temperature of the candle flame by DSPSI is compared with that of R-type Platinum-Platinum Rhodium thermocouple and the results are well within experimental limits.
Entanglement Entropy in a Holographic Kondo Model
Erdmenger, Johanna; Hoyos, Carlos; Newrzella, Max-Niklas; Wu, Jackson M S
2015-01-01
We calculate entanglement and impurity entropies in a recent holographic model of a magnetic impurity interacting with a strongly coupled system. There is an RG flow to an IR fixed point where the impurity is screened, leading to a decrease in impurity degrees of freedom. This information loss corresponds to a volume decrease in our dual gravity model, which consists of a codimension one hypersurface embedded in a BTZ black hole background in three dimensions. There are matter fields defined on this hypersurface which are dual to Kondo field theory operators. In the large N limit, the formation of the Kondo cloud corresponds to the condensation of a scalar field. The entropy is calculated according to the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription. This requires to determine the backreaction of the hypersurface on the BTZ geometry, which is achieved by solving the Israel junction conditions. We find that the larger the scalar condensate gets, the more the volume of constant time slices in the bulk is reduced, shortening the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.
2010-11-01
The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.
Holographic kinetic k-essence model
Norman Cruz; Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz; Alberto Rozas-Fernandez; Guillermo Sanchez
2009-08-23
We consider a connection between the holographic dark energy density and the kinetic k-essence energy density in a flat FRW universe. With the choice $c\\geq1$, the holographic dark energy can be described by a kinetic k-essence scalar field in a certain way. In this paper we show this kinetic k-essential description of the holographic dark energy with $c\\geq1$ and reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojha, Prasanta K.; Rath, Sangram K.; Sharma, Sandeep K.; Sudarshan, Kathi; Pujari, Pradeep K.; Chongdar, Tapas K.; Gokhale, Nitin M.
2015-01-01
The role of La+3/Sr+2 ratios, which is varied from 0.08 to 5.09, on density, molar volume, packing fraction, free volume, thermal and electrical properties in strontium lanthanum aluminoborosilicate based glass sealants intended for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications is evaluated. The studies reveal expansion of the glass network evident from increasing molar volume and decreasing packing fraction of glasses with progressive La+3 substitutions. The molecular origin of these macroscopic structural features can be accounted for by the free volume parameters measured from positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The La+3 induced expanded glass networks show increased number of subnanoscopic voids with larger sizes, as revealed from the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity. A remarkably direct correspondence between the molar volume and fractional free volume trend is established with progressive La2O3 substitution in the glasses. The effect of these structural changes on the glass transition temperature, softening temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stability as well as electrical conductivity has been studied.
Compact holographic printer using RGB waveguide holographic optical elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyun, Kyungsuk P.; Choi, Chilsung; Morozov, Alexander V.; Kim, Sunil; An, Jungkwuen
2013-03-01
We propose compact holographic printer using RGB waveguide hologram while reducing overall device size and quantity of elements with integrated functionality of each optical element. For glasses-free 3D experience anywhere anytime, it is critical to make holography device that can be as compact and integrated as possible. Compared to the conventional optics-based structure, our RGB WGH-based one reduces the overall size by 20 times, the number of components by 10 times, and improves the optical efficiency by 3 times, with comparable holographic quality to the conventional optics-based approaches. Proposed research can be useful for both general consumers and professionals like 3D photography and medical 3D image printing applications.
Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.
1973-01-01
The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.
Frame-independent holographic conserved charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon
2015-03-01
We propose the modified form of the conventional holographic conserved charges which provides us the frame-independent expressions for charges. This form is also shown to be independent of the holographic renormalization scheme. We show the frame and scheme independence through the matching of our holographic expression to the covariant bulk expression of conserved charges. As an explicit example, we consider five-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes and show that our form of holographic conserved charges gives us the identical expressions in the rotating and nonrotating frames.
Progress in the printing techniques of the holographic stereogram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Changqing; Yan, Xingpeng; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Zhiqiang
2015-10-01
Holographic stereogram display technology is one of the research focuses in three-dimensional (3D) holographic display. Holographic stereogram is essentially to infinitely approach the true 3D object using a sequence of 2D perspective images. In this paper, several holographic printing methods are summarized firstly, including two-steps transfer hologram printing technique, horizontal parallax only (HPO) stereogram with laser direct writing and holographic elements based full-parallax holographic stereogram method. Also the principles of printing, method of recording, and the various factors that affect the printing quality of the holographic stereogram are discussed and analyzed in detail. Then, after designing the matching relationship between full-parallax holographic stereogram and holographic elements, a new method to print holographic stereogram is proposed. With this method, image distortions can be decreased to improve the printing quality because this method has less impact factors and easier operations in experiment. Finally, it points out the recent development state of holographic stereogram.
Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles
2012-01-01
We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition. PMID:22815986
Holographic Mott-like insulator
Yi Ling; Peng Liu; Jian-Pin Wu
2015-10-19
In this paper we show that a gravity dual model with Q-lattice structure can provide a holographic description of a Mott-like insulator, which is an extension of our previous work in arXiv:1507.02514. We construct the bulk geometry with two gauge fields and introduce a coupling between the lattice and the Maxwell field. It turns out that an insulating ground state with hard gap as well as vanishing DC conductivity can be achieved in the zero temperature limit, which can be viewed as a substantial progress towards the holographic construction of Mott-like insulator. The non-Drude behavior in optical conductivity is also discussed.
Holographic Mott-like insulator
Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin
2015-01-01
In this paper we show that a gravity dual model with Q-lattice structure can provide a holographic description of a Mott-like insulator, which is an extension of our previous work in arXiv:1507.02514. We construct the bulk geometry with two gauge fields and introduce a coupling between the lattice and the Maxwell field. It turns out that an insulating ground state with hard gap as well as vanishing DC conductivity can be achieved in the zero temperature limit, which can be viewed as a substantial progress towards the holographic construction of Mott-like insulator. The non-Drude behavior in optical conductivity is also discussed.
Holographic Calculations of Renyi Entropy
Hung, Janet; Smolkin, Michael; Yale, Alexandre
2011-01-01
We extend the approach of Casini, Huerta and Myers to a new calculation of the Renyi entropy of a general CFT in d dimensions with a spherical entangling surface, in terms of certain thermal partition functions. We apply this approach to calculate the Renyi entropy in various holographic models. Our results indicate that in general, the Renyi entropy will be a complicated nonlinear function of the central charges and other parameters which characterize the CFT. We also exhibit the relation between this new thermal calculation and a conventional calculation of the Renyi entropy where a twist operator is inserted on the spherical entangling surface. The latter insight also allows us to calculate the scaling dimension of the twist operators in the holographic models.
Entropy balance in holographic superconductors
Sean A. Hartnoll; Razieh Pourhasan
2012-05-07
In systems undergoing second order phase transitions, the temperature integral of the specific heat over temperature from zero to the critical temperature is the same in both the normal and ordered phases. This entropy balance relates the critical temperature to the distribution of degrees of freedom in the normal and ordered states. Quantum criticality and fractionalization can imply an increased number of low energy degrees of freedom in both the normal and ordered states. We explore the role of entropy balance in holographic models of superconductivity, focussing on the interplay between quantum criticality and superconductivity. We consider models with and without a ground state entropy density in the normal phase; the latter models are a new class of holographic superconductors. We explain how a normal phase entropy density manifests itself in the stable superconducting phase.
Holographic Type II Goldstone bosons
Irene Amado; Daniel Arean; Amadeo Jimenez-Alba; Karl Landsteiner; Luis Melgar; Ignacio Salazar Landea
2013-03-20
The Goldstone theorem implies the appearance of an ungapped mode whenever a continuous global symmetry is spontaneously broken. In general it does not say anything about the precise form of the dispersion relation nor does it imply that there is one massless mode for each broken symmetry generator. It is a well-established fact that even for relativistic field theories in the presence of a chemical potential Goldstone modes with quadratic dispersion relation, the type II Goldstone bosons, appear in the spectrum. We develop two holographic models that feature type II Goldstone modes as part of the quasinormal mode spectrum. The models are based on simple generalizations with U(2) symmetry of the well-studied holographic s-wave superfluid. Our results include Goldstone modes without broken generators but with unusual realization of symmetries and a frequency dependent conductivity of striking resemblance to the one of Graphene.
Holographic Type II Goldstone bosons
Amado, Irene; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Landea, Ignacio Salazar
2013-01-01
The Goldstone theorem implies the appearance of an ungapped mode whenever a continuous global symmetry is spontaneously broken. In general it does not say anything about the precise form of the dispersion relation nor does it imply that there is one massless mode for each broken symmetry generator. It is a well-established fact that even for relativistic field theories in the presence of a chemical potential Goldstone modes with quadratic dispersion relation, the type II Goldstone bosons, appear in the spectrum. We develop two holographic models that feature type II Goldstone modes as part of the quasinormal mode spectrum. The models are based on simple generalizations with U(2) symmetry of the well-studied holographic s-wave superfluid. Our results include Goldstone modes without broken generators but with unusual realization of symmetries and a frequency dependent conductivity of striking resemblance to the one of Graphene.
Holographic bound and protein linguistics
Dirson Jian Li; Shengli Zhang
2007-04-10
The holographic bound in physics constrains the complexity of life. The finite storage capability of information in the observable universe requires the protein linguistics in the evolution of life. We find that the evolution of genetic code determines the variance of amino acid frequencies and genomic GC content among species. The elegant linguistic mechanism is confirmed by the experimental observations based on all known entire proteomes.
Sound modes in holographic superfluids
Christopher P. Herzog; Amos Yarom
2009-06-26
Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a non-relativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the non-relativistic, incompressible case.
Holographic recording materials - A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.
1975-01-01
Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.
Optical Conductivity with Holographic Lattices
Gary T. Horowitz; Jorge E. Santos; David Tong
2012-08-03
We add a gravitational background lattice to the simplest holographic model of matter at finite density and calculate the optical conductivity. With the lattice, the zero frequency delta function found in previous calculations (resulting from translation invariance) is broadened and the DC conductivity is finite. The optical conductivity exhibits a Drude peak with a cross-over to power-law behavior at higher frequencies. Surprisingly, these results bear a strong resemblance to the properties of some of the cuprates.
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2009-11-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Jaume Garriga; Alexander Vilenkin
2009-10-15
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Sound modes in holographic superfluids
Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos
2009-11-15
Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.
Membrane Paradigm and Holographic Hydrodynamics
Christopher Eling; Yasha Neiman; Yaron Oz
2010-12-12
We discuss recent work showing that in certain cases the membrane paradigm equations governing the dynamics of black hole horizons can be recast as relativistic conservation law equations. In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, these equations are interpreted as defining the viscous hydrodynamics of a holographically dual relativistic field theory. Using this approach, one can derive the viscous transport coefficients and the form of the entropy current for field theories dual to gravity plus matter fields.
Pion condensation in holographic QCD
Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua
2010-11-01
We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.
Holographic system for nondestructive testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, R. L. (inventor)
1975-01-01
A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.
RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2013-11-01
The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2?m size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Min; Chen, Ligong; Guo, Yongkang; Guo, Lurong
2005-09-01
A high-quality single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material is achieved successfully by employing new types of multi-color photosensitizers and photochemical promoters to conventional photo-crosslinking gelatin system. Its holographic recording characteristics such as spectral response, the photosensitivity of three primary colors, spectral selectivity of volume reflection hologram, angular and wavelength selectivity of volume transmission hologram, are studied in detail. Using red, green and blue lasers, namely three primary colors, the bright volume transmission and reflection holograms can be recorded on the panchromatic material at the exposure level of 30 mJ/cm2. Some preliminary results of space, angle and wavelength multiplexing holographic storage for storing multiple binary and grey-tone optical images, are also reported in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu
2015-10-01
Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.
2015-01-01
In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…
Time-dependent speckle in holographic optical coherence imaging and the health of tumor tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, P.; Peng, L.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.
2004-01-01
Holographic optical coherence imaging acquires en face images from successive depths inside scattering tissue. In a study of multicellular tumor spheroids the holographic features recorded from a fixed depth are observed to be time dependent, and they may be classified as variable or persistent. The ratio of variable to persistent features, as well as speckle correlation times, provides quantitative measures of the health of the tissue. Studies of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids that have been subjected to metabolic and cross-polymerizing poisons provide quantitative differentiation among healthy, necrotic, and poisoned tissue. Organelle motility in healthy tissue appears as super-Brownian laser speckle, whereas chemically fixed tissue exhibits static speckle.
Monitoring by holographic radar systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco
2013-04-01
Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to Commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the Invention of Holography, Springfield, Massachusetts USA, October 27-29, pp. 183-197, 2008. [2] I. Catapano, L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, "Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci bridge investigation", Nondestructive testing and evaluation, vol. 27, pp. 229-237, 2012.
Real-time preprocessing of holographic information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Bradley W.; Poon, Ting-Chung
1995-11-01
Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a holographic recording technique that uses active optical heterodyne scanning to generate holographic information pertaining to an object. The holographic information manifests itself as an electrical signal suitable for real-time image reconstruction using a spatial light modulator. The electrical signal that carries the holographic information can also be digitized for computer storage and processing, allowing the image reconstruction to be performed numerically. In previous experiments with this technique, holographic information has been recorded using the interference pattern of a plane wave and a spherical wave of different temporal frequencies to scan an object. However, the proper manipulation of the pupil functions in the recording stage can result in real-time processing of the holographic edge extraction technique as an important example of real-time preprocessing of holographic information that utilizes alternate pupils in the OSH recording stage. We investigate the theory of holographic preprocessing using a spatial frequency-domain analysis based on the recording system's optical transfer function. The theory is reinforced through computer simulation.
Holographic Estimate of Muon g-2
Deog Ki Hong
2010-04-05
I present recent calculations of the hadronic contributions to muon anomalous magnetic moment in holographic QCD, based on gauge/gravity duality. The holographic estimates are compared well with the analysis based on recently revised BaBar measurements of e+ e- -> pi+ pi- cross-sections and also with other model calculations for the light-by-light scattering contributions.
Universal Resistivity from Holographic Massive Gravity
Mike Blake; David Tong
2013-12-09
Massive gravity provides a holographic model for theories exhibiting momentum dissipation. We provide an analytic expression for the DC conductivity. The result is universal, depending only on properties of the infra-red horizon, and holds at finite temperature and charge density. In addition, we provide a derivation of black hole thermodynamics in holographic massive gravity and show that the resulting physics is sensible.
Computer-originated planar holographic optical elements
Friesem, Asher A.
Computer-originated planar holographic optical elements Silviu Reinhorn, Yaakov Amitai, and Albert of planar holo- graphic optical elements in thick materials. The recording of each planar holographic element is done by interference of two aspherical waves that are derived from appropriately designed
Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Finizio, Andrea; Netti, Paolo A; Ferraro, Pietro
2014-05-01
We propose here a new three-dimensional (3D) holographic tracking method capable to track, simultaneously and in a single step, all the spatial coordinates of micro-objects. The approach is based on the enhanced correlation coefficient (ECC) maximization method but applied, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, directly on the holographic reconstructed complex wave fields. The key novelty of the proposed strategy is its ability to calculate simultaneously the 3D coordinates of cells, without decoupling the contribution of amplitude and phase. The proposed strategy is tested on living cells (i.e., NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast) flowing into a microfluidic channel and compared with classical holographic tracking approach. Theoretical description and experimental validation of the proposed strategy are reported. PMID:24784096
Sharma, S K; Prakash, J; Sudarshan, K; Maheshwari, P; Sathiyamoorthy, D; Pujari, P K
2012-08-21
The phenol-formaldehyde-carbon nanotube composites were characterized for their free volume properties and interfacial interactions between nanotubes and the polymer matrix. The base polymeric material was a novolac type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) condensation resin cross-linked with para-toluene sulfonic acid. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a catalytical chemical vapor deposition method and characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The PF resin-carbon nanotubes composites having 2, 5, 10 and 20% (w/w%) MWCNTs were prepared. The crystallinity and morphology of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The free volume size in the polymer nanocomposites was observed to increase with the increase in nanotube content. Positron age momentum correlation (AMOC) studies revealed the electronic environment around different positron annihilation sites. The studies showed that ortho-positronium principally annihilates from interfacial regions of polymer and nanotubes in the nanocomposite. The positron lifetime studies together with AMOC measurements indicate an increase in the free volumes at the interface of polymer and MWCNTs in the composite. The free positron intensities showed that the polymer and nanotubes are weakly interacting in this system. PMID:22688656
Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Takeshita, Akira; Miura, Daishu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro
2015-09-01
There are few reports on parathyroid ultrasonography of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This study investigated the ultrasonographic features of parathyroid glands in 10 patients with MEN1 who underwent preoperative neck ultrasonography and parathyroidectomy between 2006 and 2010 at Toranomon Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, laboratory and ultrasonographic data, and pathological diagnosis. A total of 38 parathyroid glands were surgically removed (three to five glands from each patient). All removed parathyroids were pathologically diagnosed as hyperplasia. Seven cases (70.0 %) had adenomatous thyroid nodules. Twenty-five enlarged parathyroid glands (65.8 %) were detected by preoperative ultrasonography with a detection rate of 81.8 % (9/11) and 59.3 % (16/27) for patients without and with adenomatous nodules, respectively. Total parathyroid gland weight and potentially predictable total parathyroid volume by preoperative ultrasonography were significantly correlated with preoperative serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentration (R = 0.97, P < 0.001 and R = 0.96, P < 0.001, respectively). The equation used for prediction of the total volume by ultrasonography was 15 × iPTH (pg/ml) - 1,000 and that for total weight was 20 × iPTH (pg/ml) - 1,400. Although adenomatous nodules often coexisted with MEN1 and made identification of enlarged parathyroid glands by ultrasonography difficult, the positive correlation between the predictable parathyroid volume by ultrasonography and serum iPTH suggests that their measurement is useful in the preoperative detection and localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with MEN1. Furthermore, the presence of parathyroid glands that should be resected can be predicted before surgery using the equation proposed here. PMID:25227285
Shusharina, Nadya; Cho, Joseph; Sharp, Gregory C.; Choi, Noah C.
2014-01-01
Purpose To investigate the spatial correlation between high uptake regions of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) before and after therapy in recurrent lung cancer. Methods and Materials We enrolled 106 patients with inoperable lung cancer into a prospective study whose primary objectives were to determine first, the earliest time point when the maximum decrease in FDG uptake representing the maximum metabolic response (MMR) is attainable and second, the optimum cutoff value of MMR based on its predicted tumor control probability, sensitivity, and specificity. Of those patients, 61 completed the required 4 serial 18F-FDG PET examinations after therapy. Nineteen of 61 patients experienced local recurrence at the primary tumor and underwent analysis. The volumes of interest (VOI) on pretherapy FDG-PET were defined by use of an isocontour at ?50% of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) (?50% of SUVmax) with correction for heterogeneity. The VOI on posttherapy images were defined at ?80% of SUVmax. The VOI of pretherapy and posttherapy 18F-FDG PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. Results The size of VOI at pretherapy images was on average 25.7% (range, 8.8%-56.3%) of the pretherapy primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and their overlap fractions were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-0.9), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.77), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19-0.57) of VOI of posttherapy FDG PET images at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The residual uptake originated from the pretherapy VOI in 15 of 17 cases. Conclusions VOI defined by the SUVmax- ?50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose. PMID:24725696
Gaser, Christian
The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Larger hippocampal and frontal: Thalamus Orbital Hippocampus MRI Plasticity VBM Although the systematic study of meditation is still in its infancy, research has provided evidence for meditation-induced improvements in psychological
California at San Diego, University of
, usually taking on an fcc- like symmetry. This state is similar to the lattice observed in recent computer no and temperature T of this cloud of ions are such that the correlation parameter I =e /awskT is much larger than collection of ions. For instance, computer simulations of such systems pre- dict a phase transition to a body
Holographic Viscosity of Fundamental Matter
David Mateos; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson
2006-10-16
A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(N_c) gauge theory with a small number of flavours N_f viscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s >= 1/4\\pi. The contribution of the fundamental matter eta_fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta_fund ~ lambda N_c N_f T^3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential.
Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Hai-Qing
2013-01-01
We construct a holographic model of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar theory with a negative cosmological constant. The SQUID ring consists of two Josephson junctions which sit on two sides of a compactified spatial direction of a Schwarzschild-AdS black brane. These two junctions interfere with each other and then result in a total current depending on the magnetic flux, which can be deduced from the phase differences of the two Josephson junctions. The relation between the total current and the magnetic flux is obtained numerically.
Rong-Gen Cai; Yong-Qiang Wang; Hai-Qing Zhang
2013-12-16
We construct a holographic model of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar theory with a negative cosmological constant. The SQUID ring consists of two Josephson junctions which sit on two sides of a compactified spatial direction of a Schwarzschild-AdS black brane. These two junctions interfere with each other and then result in a total current depending on the magnetic flux, which can be deduced from the phase differences of the two Josephson junctions. The relation between the total current and the magnetic flux is obtained numerically.
Holographic Storage of Biphoton Entanglement
Han-Ning Dai; Han Zhang; Sheng-Jun Yang; Tian-Ming Zhao; Jun Rui; You-Jin Deng; Li Li; Nai-Le Liu; Shuai Chen; Xiao-Hui Bao; Xian-Min Jin; Bo Zhao; Jian-Wei Pan
2012-04-06
Coherent and reversible storage of multi-photon entanglement with a multimode quantum memory is essential for scalable all-optical quantum information processing. Although single photon has been successfully stored in different quantum systems, storage of multi-photon entanglement remains challenging because of the critical requirement for coherent control of photonic entanglement source, multimode quantum memory, and quantum interface between them. Here we demonstrate a coherent and reversible storage of biphoton Bell-type entanglement with a holographic multimode atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory. The retrieved biphoton entanglement violates Bell's inequality for 1 microsecond storage time and a memory-process fidelity of 98% is demonstrated by quantum state tomography.
Holographic Storage of Biphoton Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Han-Ning; Zhang, Han; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Rui, Jun; Deng, You-Jin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Shuai; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Jin, Xian-Min; Zhao, Bo; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-05-01
Coherent and reversible storage of multiphoton entanglement with a multimode quantum memory is essential for scalable all-optical quantum information processing. Although a single photon has been successfully stored in different quantum systems, storage of multiphoton entanglement remains challenging because of the critical requirement for coherent control of the photonic entanglement source, multimode quantum memory, and quantum interface between them. Here we demonstrate a coherent and reversible storage of biphoton Bell-type entanglement with a holographic multimode atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory. The retrieved biphoton entanglement violates the Bell inequality for 1?s storage time and a memory-process fidelity of 98% is demonstrated by quantum state tomography.
Holographic bounds and finite inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Daniel; Scacco, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas
2015-02-01
We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.
Fourth sound of holographic superfluids
Amos Yarom
2009-05-08
We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS_4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.
On holographic insulators and supersolids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiritsis, Elias; Ren, Jie
2015-09-01
We obtain holographic realizations for systems that have strong similarities to Mott insulators and supersolids, after examining the ground states of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar systems. The real part of the AC conductivity has a hard gap and a discrete spectrum only. We add momentum dissipation to resolve the ?-function in the conductivity due to translational invariance. We develop tools to directly calculate the Drude weight for a large class of solutions and to support our claims. Numerical RG flows are also constructed to verify that such saddle points are IR fixed points of asymptotically AdS4 geometries.
Universality of abrupt holographic quenches.
Buchel, Alex; Myers, Robert C; van Niekerk, Anton
2013-11-15
We make an analytic investigation of rapid quenches of relevant operators in d-dimensional holographic conformal field theories, which admit a dual gravity description. We uncover a universal scaling behavior in the response of the system, which depends only on the conformal dimension of the quenched operator in the vicinity of the ultraviolet fixed point of the theory. Unless the amplitude of the quench is scaled appropriately, the work done on a system during the quench diverges in the limit of abrupt quenches for operators with dimension (d/2)??
Artist Projects at Holographics North
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry, John, Dr
2013-02-01
The New York Times has declared the concept of holography in art as "laughably dated". And yet fine art remains one of the most durable applications of the medium. Holographics North Inc. has produced work for over 50 artists in 28 years. In many cases, new techniques and systems were required in order to implement the client's vision. The technical and conceptual challenges involved in several of these projects will be discussed, including photos of the work and the systems built to produce it. Among the artists addressed will be James Turrell, Michael Snow, Frank Stella, Michael Hayden, Harriet Casdin-Silver and Chris Levine.
Real-time coherent optical correlator for machine vision systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nekrasov, Victor V.; Zborovsky, Alexander A.; Ivanov, B. B.; Tzukerman, Evgeny V.; Shlyak, F. D.
1992-04-01
The problems of using optical coherent information processing techniques for the design of machine vision systems for updatable robotic complexes are studied. The construction of holographic correlators insensitive to distortions of the input image with respect to a reference one is analyzed, and a holographic on-line correlator is presented that performs image input, holographic matched filter synthesis, and real-time image processing. The choice of the optical processors' basic components--the pulsed solid state laser, the image input device based on photoconductor-liquid crystal structure, and the reversible recording medium FTIROS based on vanadium dioxide film is validated. The problems of holographic filter synthesis are also analyzed. The correlator prototype is described and the results of its experimental study for image input by means both of the optical system and the CRT are discussed.
A Mach-Zender Holographic Microscope for Quantifying Bacterial Motility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niraula, B.; Nadeau, J. L.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.; Graff, E.; Lindensmith, C.
2014-12-01
New microscopic techniques have revolutionized cell biology over the past two decades. However, there are still biological processes whose details elude us, especially those involving motility: e.g. feeding behavior of microorganisms in the ocean, or migration of cancer cells to form metastases. Imaging prokaryotes, which range in size from several hundred nm to a few microns, is especially challenging. An emerging technique to address these issues is Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). DHM is an imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional magnified images of objects. This approach has several advantages over ordinary brightfield microscopy for fieldwork: a larger depth of field, hands-off operation, robustness regarding environmental conditions, and large sampling volumes with quantitative 3D records of motility behavior. Despite these promising features, real-time DHM was thought to be impractical for technological and computational reasons until recently, and there has so far been very limited application of DHM to biology. Most existing instruments are limited in performance by their particular (e.g. in-line, lens-less, phase-shifting) approach to holography. These limitations can be mitigated with an off-axis dual-path configuration. Here we describe the design and implementation of a design for a Mach-Zehnder-type holographic microscope with diffraction-limited lateral resolution, with intended applications in environmental microbiology. We have achieved sub-micron resolution and three-dimensional tracking of prokaryotic and eukaryotic test strains designed to represent different modes and speeds of microbial motility. Prokaryotes are Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis. Each shows a characteristic motility pattern, as we illustrate in holographic videos in sample chambers 0.6 mm in depth. The ability to establish gradients of attractants with bacterial taxis towards the attractant is also established. The eukaryotic strains are Euglena gracilis, which demonstrates both phototaxis and geotaxis, and Paramecium micromultinucleatum. The challenges of optimizing resolution vs. field of view, and of handling the large volumes of data generated during holographic imaging, are discussed.
Holographic calculation for large interval Rényi entropy at high temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-qiang
2015-11-01
In this paper, we study the holographic Rényi entropy of a large interval on a circle at high temperature for the two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) dual to pure AdS3 gravity. In the field theory, the Rényi entropy is encoded in the CFT partition function on n -sheeted torus connected with each other by a large branch cut. As proposed by Chen and Wu [Large interval limit of Rényi entropy at high temperature,
Moving through a multiplex holographic scene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrongovius, Martina
2013-02-01
This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.
1974-01-01
Heat transfer data measured in gaps typical of those under consideration for joints in space shuttle reusable surface insulation protection systems have been assimilated, analyzed and correlated. The data were obtained in four NASA facilities. Several types of gaps were investigated with emphasis on simple butt joints. Gap widths ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 cm and depths ranged from 1 to 6 cm. Laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layer flows over the gap opening were investigated. Three-dimensional heating variations were observed within gaps in the absence of external flow pressure gradients. Heat transfer correlation equations were obtained for several of the tests. Thermal protection system performance with and without gaps was compared for a representative shuttle entry trajectory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleckner, R. J.; Rosenlieb, J. W.; Dyba, G.
1980-01-01
The results of a series of full scale hardware tests comparing predictions of the SPHERBEAN computer program with measured data are presented. The SPHERBEAN program predicts the thermomechanical performance characteristics of high speed lubricated double row spherical roller bearings. The degree of correlation between performance predicted by SPHERBEAN and measured data is demonstrated. Experimental and calculated performance data is compared over a range in speed up to 19,400 rpm (0.8 MDN) under pure radial, pure axial, and combined loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.
1974-01-01
Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic heating created by gaps in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle. The effects of various parameters of the RSI on convective heating characteristics are described. The wind tunnel tests provided a data base for accurate assessment of gap heating. Analysis and correlation of the data provide methods for predicting heating in the RSI gaps on the space shuttle.
Walking Technipions in a Holographic Model
Masafumi Kurachi; Shinya Matsuzaki; Koichi Yamawaki
2014-10-22
We calculate masses of the technipions in the walking technicolor model with the anomalous dimension gamma_m =1, based on a holographic model which has a naturally light technidilaton phi as a composite Higgs with mass m_phi simeq 125 GeV. The one-family model (with 4 weak-doublets) is taken as a concrete example in such a framework, with the inputs being F_pi=v/2 simeq 123 GeV and m_phi simeq 125 GeV as well as gamma_m=1. It is shown that technipion masses are enhanced by the large anomalous dimension to typically O(1) TeV. We find a correlation between the technipion masses and S^{(TC)}, the S parameter arising only from the technicolor sector. The current LHC data on the technipion mass limit thus constrains S^{(TC)} to be not as large as O(1), giving a direct constraint on the technicolor model building. This is a new constraint on the technicolor sector alone quite independent of other sector connected by the extended-technicolor-type interactions, in sharp contrast to the conventional S parameter constraint from the precision electroweak measurements.
Walking technipions in a holographic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurachi, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi
2014-11-01
We calculate masses of the technipions in the walking technicolor model with the anomalous dimension ?m=1 , based on a holographic model which has a naturally light technidilaton ? as a composite Higgs with mass m??125 GeV . The one-family model (with four weak doublets) is taken as a concrete example in such a framework, with the inputs being F?=v /2 ?123 GeV and m??125 GeV as well as ?m=1 . It is shown that technipion masses are enhanced by the large anomalous dimension to typically O (1 ) TeV . We find a correlation between the technipion masses and S(TC ) , the S parameter arising only from the technicolor sector. The current LHC data on the technipion mass limit thus constrains S(TC ) to be not as large as O (1 ), giving a direct constraint on the technicolor model building. This is a new constraint on the technicolor sector alone, quite independent of other sectors connected by the extended-technicolor-type interactions—in sharp contrast to the conventional S parameter constraint from the precision electroweak measurements.
Unitarity and the Holographic S-Matrix
Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC
2012-08-28
The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary O{sub {Delta},{ell}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.
Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix
Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC
2012-04-03
We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.
Biomedical applications of holographic microspectroscopy [invited].
Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Kyoohyun; Yu, HyeonSeung; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, SeoEun; Nahm, SeungHoon; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun
2014-09-20
The identification and quantification of specific molecules are crucial for studying the pathophysiology of cells, tissues, and organs as well as diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Recent advances in holographic microspectroscopy, based on quantitative phase imaging or optical coherence tomography techniques, show promise for label-free noninvasive optical detection and quantification of specific molecules in living cells and tissues (e.g., hemoglobin protein). To provide important insight into the potential employment of holographic spectroscopy techniques in biological research and for related practical applications, we review the principles of holographic microspectroscopy techniques and highlight recent studies. PMID:25322118
Holographic Monopole Catalysis of Baryon Decay
Deog Ki Hong; Ki-Myeong Lee; Cheonsoo Park; Ho-Ung Yee
2008-04-22
We study how monopole catalysis of baryon decay is realized in holographic QCD. Physics of monopole catalysis becomes much simpler in holographic description as it occurs due to the violation of the Bianchi identity for the 5D gauge symmetry when magnetic monopole is present. In holographic QCD we find a unified picture of the baryon number violation under magnetic monopole or electroweak sphaleron, giving a new mechanism of baryon number violation. We also embed our set-up in the string theory model by Sakai and Sugimoto.
The holographic Weyl semi-metal
Landsteiner, Karl
2015-01-01
We present a holographic model of a Weyl semi-metal. We show that upon varying a mass parameter the model undergoes a quantum phase transition from a topologically non-trivial state to a trivial one. The order parameter for this phase transition is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We give an interpretation of the results in terms of a holographic RG flow and compare to a weakly coupled field theoretical model. Since there are no quasiparticle excitations in the strongly coupled holographic model the topological phase can not be bound to notions of topology in momentum space.
Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1995-07-28
The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more »we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less
The holographic Weyl semi-metal
Karl Landsteiner; Yan Liu
2015-05-18
We present a holographic model of a Weyl semi-metal. We show that upon varying a mass parameter the model undergoes a quantum phase transition from a topologically non-trivial state to a trivial one. The order parameter for this phase transition is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We give an interpretation of the results in terms of a holographic RG flow and compare to a weakly coupled field theoretical model. Since there are no quasiparticle excitations in the strongly coupled holographic model the topological phase can not be bound to notions of topology in momentum space.
Holographic QCD with Dynamical Flavors
Francesco Bigazzi; Aldo L. Cotrone
2015-01-22
Gravity solutions describing the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD with dynamical flavors are presented. The field theory is studied in the Veneziano limit, at first order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors. The gravity solutions are analytic and dual to the field theory either in the confined, low temperature phase or in the deconfined, high temperature phase with small baryonic charge density. The phase diagram and the flavor contributions to vacuum (e.g. string tension and hadron masses) and thermodynamical properties of the dual field theory are then deduced. The phase diagram of the model at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential, as well as that of the unflavored theory at finite theta angle are also discussed in turn, showing qualitative similarities with recent lattice studies. Interesting degrees of freedom in each phase are discussed. Covariant counterterms for the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model are provided both in the probe approximation and in the backreacted case, allowing for a standard holographic renormalization of the theory.
Unbalanced Holographic Superconductors and Spintronics
Bigazzi, Francesco; Musso, Daniele; Fokeeva, Natalia Pinzani; Seminara, Domenico
2011-01-01
We present a minimal holographic model for s-wave superconductivity with unbalanced Fermi mixtures, in 2+1 dimensions at strong coupling. The breaking of a U(1)_A "charge" symmetry is driven by a non-trivial profile for a charged scalar field in a charged asymptotically AdS_4 black hole. The chemical potential imbalance is implemented by turning on the temporal component of a U(1)_B "spin" field under which the scalar field is uncharged. We study the phase diagram of the model and comment on the eventual (non) occurrence of LOFF-like inhomogeneous superconducting phases. Moreover, we study "charge" and "spin" transport, implementing a holographic realization (and a generalization thereof to superconducting setups) of Mott's two-current model which provides the theoretical basis of modern spintronics. Finally we comment on possible string or M-theory embeddings of our model and its higher dimensional generalizations, within consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations and brane-anti brane setups.
Unbalanced Holographic Superconductors and Spintronics
Francesco Bigazzi; Aldo L. Cotrone; Daniele Musso; Natalia Pinzani Fokeeva; Domenico Seminara
2012-03-09
We present a minimal holographic model for s-wave superconductivity with unbalanced Fermi mixtures, in 2+1 dimensions at strong coupling. The breaking of a U(1)_A "charge" symmetry is driven by a non-trivial profile for a charged scalar field in a charged asymptotically AdS_4 black hole. The chemical potential imbalance is implemented by turning on the temporal component of a U(1)_B "spin" field under which the scalar field is uncharged. We study the phase diagram of the model and comment on the eventual (non) occurrence of LOFF-like inhomogeneous superconducting phases. Moreover, we study "charge" and "spin" transport, implementing a holographic realization (and a generalization thereof to superconducting setups) of Mott's two-current model which provides the theoretical basis of modern spintronics. Finally we comment on possible string or M-theory embeddings of our model and its higher dimensional generalizations, within consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations and brane-anti brane setups.
Holographic duals of boundary CFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiodaroli, Marco; D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael
2012-07-01
New families of regular half-BPS solutions to 6-dimensional Type 4b supergravity with m tensor multiplets are constructed exactly. Their space-time consists of AdS 2 × S 2 warped over a Riemann surface with an arbitrary number of boundary components, and arbitrary genus. The solutions have an arbitrary number of asymptotic AdS 3 × S 3 regions. In addition to strictly single-valued solutions to the supergravity equations whose scalars live in the coset SO(5 , m) /SO(5) × SO( m), we also construct stringy solutions whose scalar fields are single-valued up to transformations under the U -duality group SO(5 , m; Z), and live in the coset SO(5 , m; Z)SO(5 , m) /SO(5) × SO( m). We argue that these Type 4b solutions are holographically dual to general classes of interface and boundary CFTs arising at the juncture of the end-points of 1+1-dimensional bulk CFTs. We evaluate their corresponding holographic entanglement and boundary entropy, and discuss their brane interpretation. We conjecture that the solutions for which ? has handles and multiple boundaries correspond to the near-horizon limit of half-BPS webs of dyonic strings and three-branes.
Holographic Holes and Differential Entropy
Matthew Headrick; Robert C. Myers; Jason Wien
2014-11-11
Recently, it has been shown by Balasubramanian et al. and Myers et al. that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula evaluated on certain closed surfaces in the bulk of a holographic spacetime has an interpretation as the differential entropy of a particular family of intervals (or strips) in the boundary theory. We first extend this construction to bulk surfaces which vary in time. We then give a general proof of the equality between the gravitational entropy and the differential entropy. This proof applies to a broad class of holographic backgrounds possessing a generalized planar symmetry and to certain classes of higher-curvature theories of gravity. To apply this theorem, one can begin with a bulk surface and determine the appropriate family of boundary intervals by considering extremal surfaces tangent to the given surface in the bulk. Alternatively, one can begin with a family of boundary intervals; as we show, the differential entropy then equals the gravitational entropy of a bulk surface that emerges from the intersection of the neighboring entanglement wedges, in a continuum limit.
Baryon Transition in Holographic QCD
Li, Siwen
2015-01-01
We propose a mechanism of holographic baryon transition in the Sakai-Sugimoto (SS) model: baryons in this model can jump to different states under the mediated effect of gravitons (or glueballs by holography). We consider a time-dependent gravitational perturbation from M5-brane solution of D=11 supergravity and by employing the relations between 11D M-theory and IIA string theory, we get its 10 dimensional counterpart in the SS model. Such a perturbation is received by the D4-branes wrapped on the $S^{4}$ part of the 10D background, namely the baryon vertex. Technically, baryons in the SS model are described by BPST instanton ansatz and their dynamics can be analyzed using the quantum mechanical system in the instanton's moduli space. In this way, different baryonic states are marked by quantum numbers of moduli space quantum mechanics. By holographic spirit, the gravitational perturbation enters the Hamiltonian as a time-dependent perturbation and it is this time-dependent perturbative Hamiltonian produces ...
Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enik?; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Horváth, Réka; Schwarcz, Attila; Kovács, Norbert; Altbäcker, Anna; Janszky, József; Clemens, Zsófia
2015-11-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between habitual milk and dairy consumption and brain morphology as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations in 119 young healthy university students. MRI measurements were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Trio Tim (3T) system while FreeSurfer software suite was used for volumetric segmentation. Dietary habits related to milk and dairy consumption were assessed by a structured questionnaire. Total cerebral cortex, total cerebral white matter, and total cerebral parenchyma were significantly related with cottage cheese and total protein intake from milk and dairy also when controlled for age and gender in the multivariate model. Our results indicate that dietary habits related with milk and dairy are proportionally associated with volumes of both cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter. PMID:26436708
Güne?, Ali; Ece, Ayd?n; ?en, Velat; Uluca, Ünal; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, ?lhan; Yel, Servet; Yolba?, ?lyas
2015-01-01
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis characterized by periods of remission and relapse. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of systemic inflammation. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet distribution width (PDW) and clinical measures of diseases activity in children with JIA. The study included 115 patients with JIA (64 with active disease and 51 with inactive disease) and 64 age-gender matched healthy control subjects. Routine laboratory methods were used to measure white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), MPV, PDW, NLR, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in all subjects of both the patient and control groups. Active disease was associated with significantly increased MPV (8.23 ± 1.16 fl) compared with inactive disease (7.00 ± 1. 08 fl) and control subjects (6.77 ± 1.08 fl) P<0.001, P<0.001, P=NS, respectively). NLR was significantly higher in patients with active (2.11 ± 1.19) and inactive (2.03 ± 1.51) disease relative to the control subjects (1.33 ± 0.66) (P<0.001, P=0.017, respectively). Mean PDW was significantly higher in patients with active disease (17.84 ± 1.06) compared with the control group (17.19 ± 0.93) (P=0.01). Our results suggest that MPV may be a useful marker of disease activity in patients with JIA. Regular treatment may decrease platelet activation in JIA patients. However, NLR was not a predictive marker of disease activity in patients with JIA. PMID:26379946
Humidity and temperature response of photopolymer-based holographic gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikulchyk, Tatsiana; Walshe, James; Cody, Dervil; Martin, Suzanne; Naydenova, Izabela
2015-05-01
Holographic sensors have significant potential in various applications ranging from in vitro diagnostics to optical security. They are capable of providing fast, real-time, reversible or irreversible, visual colorimetric or optical readouts. The main challenge in the development of holographic sensors is to improve their selectivity by functionalizing the holographic recording material and achieve a response to a specific analyte. This material should be permeable to the analyte and its properties should change under exposure to the analyte. This work explores the humidity and temperature response of volume phase gratings recorded in photopolymers containing acrylamide and diacetone acrylamide as monomers, and triethanolamine and N-phenylglycine as photoinitiators. Characterization of the humidity response of photopolymer-based gratings in the relative humidity (RH) range of 20-90 % was carried out by measuring the diffraction efficiency of slanted transmission gratings and the position of the maximum intensity in the spectral response of reflection gratings. A strong humidity dependence of the diffraction efficiency of diacetone acrylamide-based transmission gratings was observed at RH=20-90%. The humidity dependence of the spectral response of the reflection gratings showed that photopolymers containing triethanolamine are more hydrophilic than photopolymers containing N-phenylglycine. The temperature response of slanted transmission gratings was investigated in the temperature (T) range of 20-60 °C. Exposure of the photopolymer layers containing triethanolamine to elevated temperature showed that the observed Bragg angle shift was caused by layer shrinkage due to water evaporation. The application of a sealing technique allowed for the observation of the photopolymer layer swelling due to the layer's thermal expansion. The results demonstrate an effective approach to obtaining photopolymer-based gratings with tuneable temperature and humidity sensitivity.
Position, scale, and rotation invariant holographic associative memory
Fielding, K.H.; Rogers, S.K.; Kabrisky, M.; Mills, J.P. )
1989-08-01
An all-optical holographic memory was recently proposed. This paper details the investigation into the characteristics of that system and an extension to a position, scale, and rotation invariant (PSR) holographic associative memory. The PSRI feature space is the {ell}n-polar representation of the square magnitude of the Fourier transform, {vert bar}F(f{sub {ital l}nr}, f{sub {theta}}){vert bar}{sup 2}, of the objects. This representation is generated optically using a coordinate transform computer-generated hologram. Angularly multiplexed, diffuse Fourier transform holograms of the PSRI feature space are characterized as the memory unit. Distorted input objects are correlated with the hologram, and a nonlinear phase conjugate mirror, self-pumped BaTiO{sub 3}, reduces cross-correlation noise and provides object discrimination. The self-pumped phase conjugate mirror is characterized, and high diffraction efficiency bleached holograms are used in the place of thermoplastic film. Applications of the memory are also presented.
Ramírez-Montoya, Luis A; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A; Cervantes, Francisco J
2015-10-01
Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor was carried out using carbon supports prepared from different lignocellulosic wastes. Enzymes were immobilized by physical adsorption. Taguchi methodology was selected for the design of experiments regarding the preparation of the carbon materials, which included the use of activating agents for the promotion of mesoporosity. A good correlation between the mesopore volumes of the carbon supports and the corresponding laccase loadings attained was observed. Specifically, the chemical activation of pecan nut shell with FeCl3 led to a highly mesoporous material that also behaved as the most efficient support for the immobilization of laccase. This particular laccase/carbon support system was used as biocatalyst for the decolorization of aqueous solutions containing Acid Orange 7. Mass spectrometry coupled to a liquid chromatograph allowed us to identify the products of the dye degradation. PMID:26241936
Charge transport by holographic Fermi surfaces
Faulkner, Thomas
We compute the contribution to the conductivity from holographic Fermi surfaces obtained from probe fermions in an AdS charged black hole. This requires calculating a certain part of the one-loop correction to a vector ...
Holographic tachyon model of dark energy
M R Setare
2007-09-11
In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and tachyon energy density in FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the tachyon field which describe tachyon cosmology.
G-corrected holographic dark energy model
M. Malekjani; M. Honari-Jafarpour
2013-05-01
Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant,$G$, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of $G$, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of $G$. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of $G$- corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of $G$ on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for $G$- corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in $s-r$ plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.
Digital holographic imaging of aquatic species
Domínguez-Caballero, José Antonio
2006-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to design, develop and implement a digital holographic imaging (DHI) system, capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) images of aquatic species. The images produced by this system are used in ...
Holographic Interferometry--A Laboratory Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Frutos, A. M.; de la Rosa, M. I.
1988-01-01
Explains the problem of analyzing a phase object, separating the contribution due to thickness variations and that due to refractive index variations. Discusses the design of an interferometer and some applications. Provides diagrams and pictures of holographic images. (YP)
Entanglement Tsunami: Universal Scaling in Holographic Thermalization
Liu, Hong
We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin ...
Holographic deconvolution microscopy for highresolution particle tracking
Grier, David
Holographic deconvolution microscopy for highresolution particle tracking Lisa Dixon, Fook Chiong reconstructions by threedimensional deconvolution,'' Opt. Express 21, 22,527--22,544 (2010). 13. Y. Cotte, M. F
Noncontact dimensional measurement system using holographic scanning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagan, Stephen F.; Rosso, Robert S.; Rowe, David M.
1997-07-01
Holographic scanning systems have been used for years in point-of-sale bar code scanners and other low resolution applications. These simple scanning systems could not successfully provide the accuracy and precision required to measure, inspect and control the production of today's high tech optical fibers, medical extrusions and electrical cables. A new class of instruments for the precision measurement of industrial processes has been created by the development of systems with a unique combination of holographic optical elements that can compensate for the wavelength drift in laser diodes, the application of proprietary post-processing algorithms, and the advancements in replication methods to fabricate low cost holographic scanning discs. These systems have improved upon the performance of traditional polygon mirror scanners. This paper presents the optical configuration and design features that have been incorporated into a holographic scanning inspection system that provides higher productivity, increased product quality and lower production costs for many manufacturers.
Micro-Optics In Holographic Endoscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Bally, G.; Dirksen, D.; Zou, Y.; Kraetzig, E.
1989-10-01
The combination of holographic metrology with endoscopic imaging allows the development of a new class of minute instruments for high-resolving, non-contactive, non-destructive intra-cavity measurements. New developments in micro-optics give main impulses to actual progress in holographic endoscopy: - Assembled gradient-index rod lenses are used for small submillimeter needle diameter rigid endoscopic instruments. - The use of (single-mode) optical fibers offers easy handling and flexibility. Especially, new single-mode imaging fiber bundles show improved performance data (high lateral resolution) at very small diameters. - The use of electro-optical crystals opens the possibility of developing a minute holographic storage device for an easy-to-handle, small holographic endoscopic camera system for in-situ recording, reconstruction and erasure with fast repetition rate.
Meson wave function from holographic approaches
Alfredo Vega; Ivan Schmidt; Tanja Branz; Thomas Gutsche; Valery E. Lyubovitskij
2010-02-08
We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches
G-corrected holographic dark energy model
Malekjani, M
2013-01-01
Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant,$G$, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of $G$, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of $G$. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of $G$- corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of $G$ on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for $G$- corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in $s-r$ plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.
A holographic realization of light dilatons
Megias, Eugenio
2015-01-01
We study a realization of light dilatons by considering Conformal Field Theories deformed by a nearly marginal operator ${\\cal O}$. This is discussed in the holographic setup consisting of Renormalization Group flows that end on a soft wall. We obtain a mass formula for the dilaton as an average along the flow. Finally we discuss the holographic method to compute the condensate $\\langle {\\cal O} \\rangle$.
Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.
2003-01-01
We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.
Holographic Mutual Information at small separations
Cesar A. Agon; Howard J. Schnitzer
2015-02-10
The holographic mutual information for the small separation of two circles and two strips in 2+1 dimensional space-time is considered based on the known exact minimal surfaces spanning the boundaries on AdS4. The results suggest a universality for the leading term in the short-distance expansion of holographic mutual information. A conjecture for a similar result for d > 2 is also presented, as well as comments about the analogous expansion in conformal field theory.
Dell'Italia, L.J.; Starling, M.R.; Crawford, M.H.; Boros, B.L.; Chaudhuri, T.K.; O'Rourke, R.A.
1984-11-01
To evaluate the potential occurrence of right ventricular infarction, 53 patients with acute inferior transmural myocardial infarction were studied within 36 hours of symptoms by right heart catheterization, equilibrium radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy was performed 3 days after the onset of symptoms. The hemodynamic standard for right ventricular infarction was defined as both a right atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and a right atrial/pulmonary artery wedge pressure ratio of 0.8 or more. Eight (15%) of the 53 patients had hemodynamic measurements at rest characteristic of right ventricular infarction, and 6 (11%) additional patients met these criteria after volume loading. Nineteen (37%) of the 51 patients who had radionuclide angiography had right ventricular dysfunction manifested by both a reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and right ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (akinesia or dyskinesia). An abnormal radionuclide angiogram was observed in 12 of 13 patients with hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction. In 12 patients with an abnormal radionuclide angiographic study, right ventricular ejection fraction improved 6 to 12 weeks after infarction. Twenty-two (49%) of the 45 patients with adequate two-dimensional echocardiograms had a right ventricular regional wall motion abnormality. An abnormal two-dimensional echocardiogram was seen in 9 of 11 patients with hemodynamic measurements characteristic of right ventricular infarction. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was positive for right ventricular infarction in 3 of 12 patients who had hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction.
Influence of TFT-LCD pixel structure on holographic representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhao; Tian, Ailing; Liu, Bingcai
2008-09-01
As a new holographic display device, TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays) is key technical component of holographic representation for easy controlled by computer. With the development of exquisite processing technology, that it instead of the traditional holographic plate become historical necessity and would be the development direction of holographic optics. Based on principles of holography and display character of LCD, the property which the LCD was used as a holographic plate was analyzed. The emphasis on discuss influence of LCD black matrix on holographic representation. First, analyzed on LCD pixel structure, the LCD pixel structure mathematical model was established. LCD was character representation by pixel structure parameters. Then, the influence of LCD pixels structure on holographic representation was analyzed by computer simulation. Meanwhile, the SONY LCX023 was chosen for holographic plate, the He-Ne laser which the wavelength is 0.6328um was holographic representation light source. The holographic representation system was established for test influence of LCD on holographic representation. Final, compared between computer simulations and optical experimental results, the mathematical model of LCD was proved to be true. When aperture ratio is 0.625, the holographic representation wouldn't be distinguished between representation images. At the same time, some useful results was acquired for improve application effects of LCD in holographic representation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepop, R.; Agatova, A.
2009-04-01
The evolution of paleoseismological studies clearly demonstrates that in order to properly understand the seismic potential of a region, and to assess the associated topography changes, extensive studies are necessary to take full advantage from the geological evidence of past earthquakes. A major line of paleoseismic investigation is detailed study of coseismic effects in the natural environment and quantitative assessment of the topography changes depending on earthquake magnitude. So far most of research has focused on coseismic fault motion. The seismically induced landslides have been used mainly for establishing epicentral zones and the timing of old earthquakes. But earthquake triggered landslides are one of the major contributors to the damage and causalities associated with earthquakes. Seismically induced landslides are especially important agents of denudation in tectonically active zones. They are also great sources of information about seismic event. On the other hand earthquakes are one of the major causes of landslides. So it is desirable to quantify the landslide-earthquake association. A first step in this way was taken by Keefer (1994) who obtained an empirical relationship between earthquake magnitude and the total volume landslides triggered by this earthquake. Next significant contribution was done by Malamud et al. (2004) who extended Keefer's quantification on the basis of analyzing of the complete landslide inventories. They suggested the general frequency-area probability distribution function which allows to calculate some dependences on earthquake magnitude of landslide parameters (such as total area and volume of triggered landslides, area and volume of the largest landslide). Largest earthquake induced landslides are the most interesting target for paleoseismisity study in mountain provinces. In this paper we report empirical correlation between earthquake magnitude and the volume of the largest landslide. So the empirical and theoretically calculated relationships can be compared. It shows a good correspondence and can be practically used after regional verification (which is necessary for each particular active area). It should be noted that different parameters of earthquake triggered landslides are not simply a functions of magnitude. There are additional factors related both to geomorphic and earthquake mechanism considerations such as roughness of topography, rock type, hydrological conditions, earthquake type and depth, direction of energy focusing, regional morphotectonic structure and so on. But in spite of the fact that all of them play important role in seismic triggering of landslides as soon as landslide event has occurred the statistical approach appears to be the most promising tool. It gives universal laws for landslide events and allows correlating different parameters irrespective of their functional links. Using parameters of the largest seismically induced landslides we have estimated magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes, calculated the total volume of earthquake triggered landslides, the contribution of landslides caused by aftershocks and erosion rate due to seismically induced landslides. We tested this approach for the mountainous, seismically active SE part of Russian Altai where there are many large Holocene seismically induced landslides and the 2003 Chuya earthquake (MS = 7.3) took place. This research was supported by RFBR (grant # 09-05-00932).
Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD
de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins
2011-11-08
The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.
Holographic Estimate of Electromagnetic Mass
Deog Ki Hong
2015-08-14
Using the gauge/gravity duality, we calculate the electromagnetic contributions to hadron masses, where mass generates dynamically by strong QCD interactions. Based on the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD we find that the electromagnetic mass of proton is $0.48~{\\rm MeV}$ larger than that of neutron, which is in agreement with recent lattice results. Similarly for pions we obtain $m_{\\pi^{\\pm}}-m_{\\pi^0}=1.8~{\\rm MeV}$, roughly half of the experimental value. The electromagnetic mass of pions is found to be independent of $N_c$ and 't Hooft coupling and its scale is set only by the Kaluza-Klein scale of the model, $M_{\\rm KK}=949~{\\rm MeV}$.
Fractionalization of holographic Fermi surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Huijse, Liza
2012-10-01
Zero temperature states of matter at finite charge density are holographically described by a spacetime with an asymptotic electric flux. This flux can be sourced either by explicit charged matter fields in the bulk, by an extremal black hole horizon, or by a combination of the two. We refer to these as mesonic, fully fractionalized and partially fractionalized phases of matter, respectively. By coupling a charged fluid of fermions to an asymptotically AdS4 Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory, we exhibit quantum phase transitions between all three of these phases. The onset of fractionalization can be either a first order or continuous phase transition. In the latter case, at the quantum critical point the theory displays an emergent Lifshitz scaling symmetry in the IR.
Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse
Fiol, Bartomeu
2010-07-01
We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.
Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse
Bartomeu Fiol
2010-04-09
We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS_4x S^7, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.
Sukjamsri, Chamaiporn; Geraldes, Diogo M; Gregory, Thomas; Ahmed, Farah; Hollis, David; Schenk, Samuel; Amis, Andrew; Emery, Roger; Hansen, Ulrich
2015-09-18
Micromotion around implants is commonly measured using displacement-sensor techniques. Due to the limitations of these techniques, an alternative approach (DVC-?CT) using digital volume correlation (DVC) and micro-CT (?CT) was developed in this study. The validation consisted of evaluating DVC-?CT based micromotion against known micromotions (40, 100 and 150?m) in a simplified experiment. Subsequently, a more clinically realistic experiment in which a glenoid component was implanted into a porcine scapula was carried out and the DVC-?CT measurements during a single load cycle (duration 20min due to scanning time) was correlated with the manual tracking of micromotion at 12 discrete points across the implant interface. In this same experiment the full-field DVC-?CT micromotion was compared to the full-field micromotion predicted by a parallel finite element analysis (FEA). It was found that DVC-?CT micromotion matched the known micromotion of the simplified experiment (average/peak error=1.4/1.7?m, regression line slope=0.999) and correlated with the micromotion at the 12 points tracked manually during the realistic experiment (R(2)=0.96). The DVC-?CT full-field micromotion matched the pattern of the full-field FEA predicted micromotion. This study showed that the DVC-?CT technique provides sensible estimates of micromotion. The main advantages of this technique are that it does not damage important parts of the specimen to gain access to the bone-implant interface, and it provides a full-field evaluation of micromotion as opposed to the micromotion at just a few discrete points. In conclusion the DVC-?CT technique provides a useful tool for investigations of micromotion around plastic implants. PMID:26113290
Stability of the holographic description of the Universe
Peng Huang; Yong-chang Huang
2013-04-01
We investigate the stability of the holographic description of the universe. By treating the perturbation globally, we discover that this description is stable, which is support for the holographic description of the universe.
Holographic deconvolution microscopy for high-resolution particle tracking
Grier, David
Holographic deconvolution microscopy for high-resolution particle tracking Lisa Dixon, Fook Chiong.-W. Fink, "Depth-resolved holographic reconstructions by three-dimensional deconvolution," Opt. Express 21
Likelihood-based error correction for holographic storage systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neifeld, Mark A.; Chou, Wu-Chun
1999-11-01
We consider a volume holographic memory (VHM) system that is corrupted by interpixel interference (IPI) and detector noise. We compare hard-decision Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding with both hard- and soft-decision algorithms for 2D array decoding. RS codes are shown to provide larger VHM storage capacity and density as compared with array codes when hard-decision methods are employed. A new likelihood-based soft-decision algorithm for 2D array decoding is described. The new decoding algorithm is motivated by iterative turbo-decoding methods and is capable of incorporating a priori knowledge of the corrupting IPI channel during decoding. The new algorithm is shown to offer VHM capacity and density performance superior to hard-decision RS methods.
Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput
Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.
2000-06-04
High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.
Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.
1985-01-01
An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.
Multiplexed holographic memory by use of fiber bundle referencing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiasen; Aruga, Tadashi
2005-04-01
We propose a volume holographic storage technique, in which a fiber bundle is used to guide the reference beam. Multiplexing is implemented by changing the incident direction of the laser beam upon the fiber bundle in the reference arm. In the technique, we make the system more compact by using a wedge prism to change the direction of the laser beam. This method has a large accessible angular scanning range and a large geometric storage bandwidth. Multiple images are stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with an angular separation of 0.05° between successive holograms using a wedge prism with a deviation angle of 8°. This method is useful as a new image storage technique because of its compactness and simplicity.
Holographic Operator Mixing and Quasinormal Modes on the Brane
Matthias Kaminski; Karl Landsteiner; Javier Mas; Jonathan P. Shock; Javier Tarrio
2009-11-18
We provide a framework for calculating holographic Green's functions from general bilinear actions and fields obeying coupled differential equations in the bulk. The matrix-valued spectral function is shown to be independent of the radial bulk coordinate. Applying this framework we improve the analysis of fluctuations in the D3/D7 system at finite baryon density, where the longitudinal perturbations of the world-volume gauge field couple to the scalar fluctuations of the brane embedding. We compute the spectral function and show how its properties are related to the quasinormal mode spectrum. We study the crossover from the hydrodynamic diffusive to the reactive regime and the movement of quasinormal modes as functions of temperature and density. We also compute their dispersion relations and find that they asymptote to the lightcone for large momenta.
Holographic Operator Mixing and Quasinormal Modes on the Brane
Kaminski, Matthias; Mas, Javier; Shock, Jonathan P; Tarrio, Javier
2009-01-01
We provide a framework for calculating holographic Green's functions from general bilinear actions and fields obeying coupled differential equations in the bulk. The matrix-valued spectral function is shown to be independent of the radial bulk coordinate. Applying this framework we improve the analysis of fluctuations in the D3/D7 system at finite baryon density, where the longitudinal perturbations of the world-volume gauge field couple to the scalar fluctuations of the brane embedding. We compute the spectral function and show how its properties are related to the quasinormal mode spectrum. We study the crossover from the hydrodynamic diffusive to the reactive regime and the movement of quasinormal modes as functions of temperature and density. We also compute their dispersion relations and find that they asymptote to the lightcone for large momenta.
The Compact and Inexpensive "Arrowhead" Setup for Holographic Interferometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo
2011-01-01
Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascual, Inmaculada V.; Marquez, Andres; Belendez, Augusto; Fimia, Antonio; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria J.
1999-06-01
Photopolymers are studied as holographic recording material for computer-generated phase filters for pattern recognition by optical correlation. The analysis was performed using a copying process with a computer-generated filter, which is produced by means of a high resolution graphic device, as a master. In this work the low spatial frequency response of the photopolymer as holographic material is studied. The copying process used in this work consists of storing the pattern contained in the master in a photopolymer used as a holographic recording material. This photopolymer does not work in real-time, it is possible to store the holographic optical element for a long time because the dye is finished during exposition and the chemical process is not necessary after exposition. We used partially coherent light, from a high pressure mercury lamp. The photopolymer used in these experiments was composed of acrylamide and triethanolamine as the coinitiator, photoinitiated with a dye, yellow eoxine. Components were supported by a film of poly(vinylalcohol). The resulting thickness of the film was approximately 70 micrometers . Diffraction gratings and Fresnel lenses were obtained as phase holograms by index and thickness modulation, monitored with an electron microscope. First order diffraction efficiency achieved was 30%.
Kovács, Attila; Oláh, Attila; Lux, Árpád; Mátyás, Csaba; Németh, Balázs Tamás; Kellermayer, Dalma; Ruppert, Mihály; Török, Marianna; Szabó, Lilla; Meltzer, Anna; Assabiny, Alexandra; Birtalan, Ede; Merkely, Béla; Radovits, Tamás
2015-04-01
Contractile function is considered to be precisely measurable only by invasive hemodynamics. We aimed to correlate strain values measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) with sensitive contractility parameters of pressure-volume (P-V) analysis in a rat model of exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy was induced in rats by swim training and was compared with untrained controls. Echocardiography was performed using a 13-MHz linear transducer to obtain LV long- and short-axis recordings for STE analysis (GE EchoPAC). Global longitudinal (GLS) and circumferential strain (GCS) and longitudinal (LSr) and circumferential systolic strain rate (CSr) were measured. LV P-V analysis was performed using a pressure-conductance microcatheter, and load-independent contractility indices [slope of the end-systolic P-V relationship (ESPVR), preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), and maximal dP/dt-end-diastolic volume relationship (dP/dtmax-EDV)] were calculated. Trained rats had increased LV mass index (trained vs. control; 2.76 ± 0.07 vs. 2.14 ± 0.05 g/kg, P < 0.001). P-V loop-derived contractility parameters were significantly improved in the trained group (ESPVR: 3.58 ± 0.22 vs. 2.51 ± 0.11 mmHg/?l; PRSW: 131 ± 4 vs. 104 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Strain and strain rate parameters were also supernormal in trained rats (GLS: -18.8 ± 0.3 vs. -15.8 ± 0.4%; LSr: -5.0 ± 0.2 vs. -4.1 ± 0.1 Hz; GCS: -18.9 ± 0.8 vs. -14.9 ± 0.6%; CSr: -4.9 ± 0.2 vs. -3.8 ± 0.2 Hz, P < 0.01). ESPVR correlated with GLS (r = -0.71) and LSr (r = -0.53) and robustly with GCS (r = -0.83) and CSr (r = -0.75, all P < 0.05). PRSW was strongly related to GLS (r = -0.64) and LSr (r = -0.71, both P < 0.01). STE can be a feasible and useful method for animal experiments. In our rat model, strain and strain rate parameters closely reflected the improvement in intrinsic contractile function induced by exercise training. PMID:25617359
Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.
2008-04-01
Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.
Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.
Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K
2015-11-01
Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media. PMID:26146767
The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.
1993-02-01
We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.
Holographic Geometry and Noise in Matrix Theory
Craig J. Hogan; Mark G. Jackson
2009-06-02
Using Matrix Theory as a concrete example of a fundamental holographic theory, we show that the emergent macroscopic spacetime displays a new macroscopic quantum structure, holographic geometry, and a new observable phenomenon, holographic noise, with phenomenology similar to that previously derived on the basis of a quasi-monochromatic wave theory. Traces of matrix operators on a light sheet with a compact dimension of size $R$ are interpreted as transverse position operators for macroscopic bodies. An effective quantum wave equation for spacetime is derived from the Matrix Hamiltonian. Its solutions display eigenmodes that connect longitudinal separation and transverse position operators on macroscopic scales. Measurements of transverse relative positions of macroscopically separated bodies, such as signals in Michelson interferometers, are shown to display holographic nonlocality, indeterminacy and noise, whose properties can be predicted with no parameters except $R$. Similar results are derived using a detailed scattering calculation of the matrix wavefunction. Current experimental technology will allow a definitive and precise test or validation of this interpretation of holographic fundamental theories. In the latter case, they will yield a direct measurement of $R$ independent of the gravitational definition of the Planck length, and a direct measurement of the total number of degrees of freedom.
Corner contributions to holographic entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bueno, Pablo; Myers, Robert C.
2015-08-01
The entanglement entropy of three-dimensional conformal field theories contains a universal contribution coming from corners in the entangling surface. We study these contributions in a holographic framework and, in particular, we consider the effects of higher curvature interactions in the bulk gravity theory. We find that for all of our holographic models, the corner contribution is only modified by an overall factor but the functional dependence on the opening angle is not modified by the new gravitational interactions. We also compare the dependence of the corner term on the new gravitational couplings to that for a number of other physical quantities, and we show that the ratio of the corner contribution over the central charge appearing in the two-point function of the stress tensor is a universal function for all of the holographic theories studied here. Comparing this holographic result to the analogous functions for free CFT's, we find fairly good agreement across the full range of the opening angle. However, there is a precise match in the limit where the entangling surface becomes smooth, i.e., the angle approaches ?, and we conjecture the corresponding ratio is a universal constant for all three-dimensional conformal field theories. In this paper, we expand on the holographic calculations in our previous letter arXiv:1505.04804, where this conjecture was first introduced.
Phase structures of holographic screen thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Wei-Jian; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Jian-Long
2014-07-01
Holographic screens are the generalization of the event horizon of a black hole in entropic force scheme, which are defined by setting Newton potential ? constant, i.e. e2? = c = const. We demonstrate that the integrated first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to the (r-r) component of Einstein equations, so that we strengthen the correspondence between thermodynamics and gravity. We show that there are not only the first law of thermodynamics, but also kinds of phase transitions of holographic screens. These phase transitions are characterized by the discontinuity of their heat capacities. In (n+1)-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) spacetime, we analyze three kinds of phase transitions, which are of the holographic screens with Q = 0 (charge), constant ? (electrostatic potential) and nonzero constant Q. In the Q = 0 case, only the holographic screens with 0?c<1 can undergo phase transition. In the constant ? case, the constraints become as 0<= c+16˜ {? }2? 2<1, where ˜ {? } is a dimensional-dependent parameter. By verifying the Ehrenfest equations, we show that the phase transitions in this case are all second order phase transitions. In the constant Q case, there might be two, or one, or no phase transitions of holographic screens, depending on the values of Q and c.
Color correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1 in seawater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue
1999-07-01
Application of color correlation optical systems for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae 01 in seawater samples with matched filters and phase only filters recorded in holographic plates in three channels (RGB).
Corvaro, F.; Paroncini, M.
2007-07-15
A numerical and experimental analysis was performed to study the natural convection heat transfer in a square cavity heated from below and cooled by the sidewalls. The enclosure was filled with air (Pr = 0.71) and a discrete heater was mounted on its lower surface; the effect of three different positions was evaluated. The air temperature distribution and the Nusselt numbers at different Rayleigh numbers on the heated strip were measured by an holographic interferometry thanks to the real-time and the double-exposure technique. The double-exposure technique was performed at steady-state and it was used to obtain the isothermal lines in the cavity at different Rayleigh numbers; while the real-time technique was used to control the presence of the plume oscillations and to determinate the achievement of the steady-state. A 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to measure the velocity fields at the same Rayleigh numbers. In particular we analysed the distribution of the velocity vectors and their modulus inside the cavity. The convective phenomenon was studied and the Nusselt numbers were presented as well as the Rayleigh numbers analysed. Moreover experimental and numerical correlations were determined for each position analysed to connect the Rayleigh numbers with the Nusselt numbers. Measured quantities were compared with the numerical results which were obtained with the finite volume code Fluent 6.2.16. (author)
Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Lannto, O.; Pui, D.; Yeh, R.
1985-12-01
A single-staged, fixed-bed, Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas Group (MIFGa). This report is the eighteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report summarizes the results of eighteen different gasification tests in which fourteen different fuels were gasified from August 1982 to August 1985. The summaries and analyses reported here include correlations of product yields and compositions with coal analyses and gasifier operating conditions. Also included here are discussions of limitations to throughput, transient response of the gasifier, the grate performance model, and a discussion of electrostatic precipitation in coal gas medium. 25 refs., 41 figs., 6 tabs.
A holographic improvement to traditional Optical Array Probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fugal, Jacob; Borrmann, Stephan
2015-04-01
Optical Array Probes have been used to measure cloud droplets and ice crystals in the size range of ~10 µm up to ~1 cm for about the last four decades. In this type of instrument, particles are swept past a focused laser sheet imaged onto a linear diode array. The resulting image has a single spatial axis and a time axis and thereby has shadowgraphs of the particles swept through and can then infer their size and shape, and therefrom size distributions, liquid water content, ice water content, and so on. One weakness inherent in the method is the difficulty in measuring small particles (~10 to 200µm in size) which appear out of focus or are not detected at all, depending on how far from the focus of the laser sheet they appear in the sensitive region. Out-of-focus small particles appear as a diffraction rings or doughnuts making the particles appear large than they actually are. Also the region in which the instrument is sensitive to small particles or depth-of-focus region is difficult to estimate making number concentrations and size distributions difficult to measure. On the other hand, holographic sample volumes are well defined as the sensitive region spans the entire area in which particles appear and the particles appearing in the holograms are reconstructed to their focus position. I.e. there is no depth-of-focus problem and the particles are sized in their focus position. Current holographic cloud particle probes use two-dimensional cameras that take snapshots of cloud particles having two spatial dimensions. These probes have also been high-resolution which requires high-performance servers to do the reconstruction and particle finding meaning the results of the measurements come long after the holograms are made. Of great advantage might be a low-resolution holographic probe with a spatial axis and a time axis with real-time results. Shown is that simple modifications to existing optical array probes such as a collimated laser sheet and a grayscale sensor, and a simple low-resolution holographic reconstruction technique can be used to remove the depth of focus and the over-sizing problem from an optical array probe of similar configuration. It is hypothesised that for low enough resolution and flight speeds, the hologram reconstruction and particle finding algorithm could be implemented realtime on an FPGA. It is shown that only a few grayscales are necessary to make holograms of sufficient quality. Discussed is the sensitivity of smallest detectable particle size and sample volume depth are to the detector size. Also discussed is that one would obtain a rough estimate of the third spatial position of small particles in the sample volume resulting in a better resolved view of the structure of the cloud.
Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group
Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Zhu, Yechao
2015-01-01
The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.
Collapse and Revival in Holographic Quenches
Emilia da Silva; Esperanza Lopez; Javier Mas; Alexandre Serantes
2014-12-18
We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.
Electromagnetic baryon form factors from holographic QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Keun-Young; Zahed, Ismail
2008-09-01
In the holographic model of QCD suggested by Sakai and Sugimoto, baryons are chiral solitons sourced by D4 instantons in bulk of size 1/(?)1/2 with ? = g2Nc. We quantize the D4 instanton semiclassically using hbar = 1/(Nc?) and non-rigid constraints on the vector mesons. The holographic baryon is a small chiral bag in the holographic direction with a Cheshire cat smile. The vector-baryon interactions occur at the core boundary of the instanton in D4. They are strong and of order 1/(hbar)1/2. To order hbar0 the electromagnetic current is entirely encoded on the core boundary and vector-meson dominated. To this order, the electromagnetic charge radius is of order ?0. The meson contribution to the baryon magnetic moments sums identically to the core contribution. The proton and neutron magnetic moment are tied by a model independent relation similar to the one observed in the Skyrme model.
Stereogram implemented with a holographic image splitter.
Su, Wei-Chia; Chen, Chien-Yue; Wang, Yi-Fan
2011-05-01
A special holographic optical element (HOE) which is used as an image splitter is developed to generate a stereogram on a 2.2-in. liquid crystal display panel. The special designed holographic optical element can be attached on the conventional panel directly to replace the traditional image splitter in a stereoscopic display panel. Experimental results show that two images corresponding to slightly different viewing angles displayed on a panel can be separated effectively and can be delivered to the right eye and left eye of an observer individually. The diffraction efficiency for individual right and left image in this developed holographic optical element is about 43%, and the contrast ratio of the diffracted images induced by cross talk is larger than 60%. Theoretical analyses show the proposed technique generates good contrast ratio and brightness performance for stereogram application. PMID:21643250
Exact holographic mapping in free fermion systems
Ching Hua Lee; Xiao-Liang Qi
2015-12-03
In this paper, we shall perform a detailed analysis of the Exact Holographic Mapping first introduced in arXiv:1309.6282, which was proposed as an explicit example of holographic duality between quantum many-body systems and gravitational theories. We obtain analytic results for free-fermion systems that not only confirm previous numerical results, but also elucidate the exact relationships between the various physical properties of the bulk and boundary systems. Our analytic results allow us to study the asymptotic properties that are difficult to probe numerically, such as the near horizon regime of the black hole geometry. We shall also explore a few interesting but hitherto unexplored bulk geometries, such as that corresponding to a boundary critical fermion with nontrivial dynamic critical exponent. Our analytic framework also allows us to study the holographic mapping of some of these boundary theories in dimensions 2+1 or higher.
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.
2012-02-16
The relation between the hadronic short-distance constituent quark and gluon particle limit and the long-range confining domain is yet one of the most challenging aspects of particle physics due to the strong coupling nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. The central question is how one can compute hadronic properties from first principles; i.e., directly from the QCD Lagrangian. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time. Lattice numerical results follow from computation of frame-dependent moments of distributions in Euclidean space and dynamical observables in Minkowski spacetime, such as the time-like hadronic form factors, are not amenable to Euclidean lattice computations. The Dyson-Schwinger methods have led to many important insights, such as the infrared fixed point behavior of the strong coupling constant, but in practice, the analyses are limited to ladder approximation in Landau gauge. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. New theoretical tools are thus of primary interest for the interpretation of the results expected at the new mass scale and kinematic regions accessible to the JLab 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gravity or string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and conformal field theories in physical space-time has led to a semiclassical approximation for strongly-coupled QCD, which provides physical insights into its nonperturbative dynamics. The correspondence is holographic in the sense that it determines a duality between theories in different number of space-time dimensions. This geometric approach leads in fact to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian 'Light-Front Holography'. Light-Front Holography is in fact one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The Hamiltonian equation of motion in the light-front (LF) is frame independent and has a structure similar to eigenmode equations in AdS space. This makes a direct connection of QCD with AdS/CFT methods possible. Remarkably, the AdS equations correspond to the kinetic energy terms of the partons inside a hadron, whereas the interaction terms build confinement and correspond to the truncation of AdS space in an effective dual gravity approximation. One can also study the gauge/gravity duality starting from the bound-state structure of hadrons in QCD quantized in the light-front. The LF Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian equation for the relativistic bound-state system is P{sub {mu}}P{sup {mu}}|{psi}(P)> = (P{sup +}P{sup -} - P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2})|{psi}(P)> = M{sup 2}|{psi}(P)>, P{sup {+-}} = P{sup 0} {+-} P{sup 3}, where the LF time evolution operator P{sup -} is determined canonically from the QCD Lagrangian. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this leads to a LF Hamiltonian equation which describes the bound-state dynamics of light hadrons in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the partons within the hadron at equal light-front time {tau} = x{sup 0} + x{sup 3}. This allows us to identify the holographic variable z in AdS space with an impact variable {zeta}. The resulting Lorentz-invariant Schroedinger equation for general spin incorporates color confinement and is systematically improvable. Light-front holographic methods were originally introduced by matching the electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding expression using LF theory in physical space time. It was also shown that one obtains identical holographic mapping using the matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor by perturbing the AdS metric around its static solution. A gravity dual to QCD is not known, but th
Planck constraints on holographic dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhenhui
2013-09-01
We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l gtrsim 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l simeq 20-40 found in the ?CDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2? CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H0 = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms-1Mpc-1) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between ?mh3 and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of ?2Plank+WP+HST-?2Plank+WP is 7.8 in the ?CDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding ??2 is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison, the Union2.1 data set is consistent with these three data sets, but the combination Union2.1+BAO+HST is in tension with Plank+WP+lensing, corresponding to a large ??2 that is equal to 8.6 (1.4% probability). Thus, combining internal inconsistent data sets (SNIa+BAO+HST with Plank+WP+lensing) can lead to ambiguous results, and it is necessary to perform the HDE data analysis for each independent data sets. Our tightest self-consistent constraint is c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Plank+WP+BAO+HST+lensing.
Planck constraints on holographic dark energy
Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin E-mail: xiaodongli@kias.re.kr E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn
2013-09-01
We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ?> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ? 20-40 found in the ?CDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2? CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H{sub 0} = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms{sup ?1}Mpc{sup ?1}) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between ?{sub m}h{sup 3} and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of ?{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP+HST}??{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP} is 7.8 in the ?CDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding ??{sup 2} is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison, the Union2.1 data set is consistent with these three data sets, but the combination Union2.1+BAO+HST is in tension with Plank+WP+lensing, corresponding to a large ??{sup 2} that is equal to 8.6 (1.4% probability). Thus, combining internal inconsistent data sets (SNIa+BAO+HST with Plank+WP+lensing) can lead to ambiguous results, and it is necessary to perform the HDE data analysis for each independent data sets. Our tightest self-consistent constraint is c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Plank+WP+BAO+HST+lensing.
Holographic stereogram movie system for practical 3D display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakamoto, Kunio; Takahashi, Hideya; Shimizu, Eiji; Yamasaki, Koji; Ando, Takahisa; Okamoto, Masaaki
1998-03-01
A display system requiring no special glasses is a useful technology for 3D images. The authors have researched real- time holographic stereogram displays using a holographic screen. In June 1995, we presented the stereoscopic 3D display system with viewing apertures such as conventional two-step holographic stereogram. In 1996, we introduced the stereoscopic 3D color display system using a holographic pseudo-color technique. Last year at the 1997 conference on Practical Holography, the authors presented the stereoscopic 3D display system based on a reconstruction of parallax- rays. These systems consist of a liquid crystal device and a holographic screen formed of holographic optical elements. These systems can construct animated 3D images in real-time by updating LCD pixels. In this paper, the latest result of our study about a stereoscopic 3D display system is proposed. In addition, this paper presents the result of a holographic stereogram movie system as a future 3D display.
Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, Reto; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, Steven E.; Rubin, Michael
1994-09-01
The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional `view' windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.
Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system
Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.
1996-09-17
A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.
Real-time holographic surveillance system
Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.
1995-10-03
A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.
Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system
Sheen, David M. (1917 Hood, Richland, WA 99352); Collins, H. Dale (1751 Duluth, Richland, WA 99352); Hall, Thomas E. (8301 W. Entiat Pl., Kennewick, WA 99336); McMakin, Douglas L. (2173 Shasta Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Gribble, R. Parks (1215 Cottonwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Severtsen, Ronald H. (1803 Birch Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Prince, James M. (3029 W. 2nd Ave., Apt. F95, Kennewick, WA 99336); Reid, Larry D. (Rt. 1, Box 1291B, Benton City, WA 99320)
1996-01-01
A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.
Digital holographic printing using pulsed RGB lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brotherton-Ratcliffe, David; Zacharovas, Stanislovas J.; Bakanas, Ramunas J.; Pileckas, Julius; Nikolskij, Andrej; Kuchin, Jevgenij
2011-09-01
A one-step digital holographic printing system based on RGB pulsed-laser technology is described. The system is capable of writing full-color composite digital reflection holograms and composite digital holographic optical elements up to a size of 1.0 m×1.5 m at hogel sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2 mm. We also show how the same pulsed-laser technology may be used to generate fast high-quality copies of such holograms. Both silver halide and photopolymer materials are used.
Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.
2015-09-01
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.
Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide
Griggs, D.
1993-10-01
This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.
Registering functional defects into periodic holographic structures.
Lutkenhaus, Jeff; George, David; Lowell, David; Arigong, Bayaner; Zhang, Hualiang; Lin, Yuankun
2015-08-10
In this paper, we present two methods for registering desired defect lattices within background periodic lattices through spatial light-modulator-based holographic lithography. In the first method, the diffraction efficiency from the engineered phase pattern was used to locally modify the fill fraction of polymerized materials in holographic structures, and, at the same time, we achieved the lattice matching between modified and background regions. In the second method, we registered spatially variant lattices for a 90 deg bend within the background periodic lattices through two steps of phase engineering of the laser beam. PMID:26368368
Real-time holographic surveillance system
Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); McMakin, Douglas L. (Richland, WA); Hall, Thomas E. (Kennewick, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA)
1995-01-01
A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.
Holographic currents and Chern-Simons terms
Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter
2010-11-15
Holographic currents and their associated Ward identities are derived in the framework of gravity/gauge duality. Holographic improvements of the energy-momentum tensor and R-symmetry current which are consistent with the Ward identities are displayed. The effects of specific string loop corrections to the bulk action are included as four derivative effective Lagrangian terms and their contributions to the trace and R-symmetry anomalies of the boundary theory are determined. As an example, the construction is applied to the N=2 conformal supergravity which is taken to be dual to a boundary SU(N)xSU(N), N=1 superconformal field theory.
Holographic Dark Energy Model: State Finder Parameters
Nairwita Mazumder; Ritabrata Biswas; Subenoy Chakraborty
2011-10-30
In this work, we have studied interacting holographic dark energy model in the background of FRW model of the universe. The interaction is chosen either in linear combination or in product form of the matter densities for dark matter and dark energy. The IR cut off for holographic dark energy is chosen as Ricci's length scale or radius of the future event horizon. The analysis is done using the state finder parameter and coincidence problem has been graphically presented. Finally, universal thermodynamics has been studied using state finder parameters.
DBI equations and holographic DC conductivity
Alfonso Ballon-Bayona; Cristine N. Ferreira; Victor J. Vasquez Otoya
2013-02-11
We provide a simple method for writing the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) equations of a Dp-brane in an arbitrary static background whose metric depends only on the holographic radial coordinate z. Using this method we revisit the Karch-O'Bannon's procedure to calculate the DC conductivity in the presence of constant electric and magnetic fields for backgrounds where the boundary is four or three dimensional and satisfies homogeneity and isotropy. We find a frame-independent expression for the DC conductivity tensor. For particular backgrounds we recover previous results on holographic metals and strange metals.
Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, P.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; French, P. M. W.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.
2003-07-01
We present depth-resolved coherence-domain images of living tissue using a dynamic holographic semiconductor film. An AlGaAs photorefractive quantum-well device is used in an adaptive interferometer that records coherent backscattered (image-bearing) light from inside rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids up to 1 mm in diameter in vitro. The data consist of sequential holographic image frames at successive depths through the tumor represented as a visual video "fly-through." The images from the tumor spheroids reveal heterogeneous structures presumably caused by necrosis and microcalcifications characteristic of human tumors in their early avascular growth.
Shape of mesons in holographic QCD
Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung
2009-10-15
Based on the expectation that the constituent quark model may capture the right physics in the large N limit, we point out that the orbital angular momentum of the quark-antiquark pair inside light mesons of low spins in the constituent quark model may provide a clue for the holographic dual string model of large N QCD. Our discussion, relying on a few suggestive assumptions, leads to a necessity of world-sheet fermions in the bulk of dual strings that can incorporate intrinsic spins of fundamental QCD degrees of freedom. We also comment on the interesting issue of the size of mesons in holographic QCD.
Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.
2015-03-01
Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, e.g., lenslet arrays for sensing or multi-acuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach to adaptive optics based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile is possible not only with the conventional coherent type of digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates complex - i.e. amplitude plus phase - hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using a guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. The adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.
Real-Time Correlators and Non-Relativistic Holography
Robert G. Leigh; Nam Nguyen Hoang
2009-09-02
We consider Lorentzian correlation functions in theories with non-relativistic Schrodinger symmetry. We employ the method developed by Skenderis and van Rees in which the contour in complex time defining a given correlation function is associated holographically with the gluing together of Euclidean and Lorentzian patches of spacetimes. This formalism extends appropriately to geometries with Schrodinger isometry.
Experimental holographic movie to estimate picture quality for holographic television (III)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo
1994-05-01
Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. The authors have previously developed two versions of an experimental holographic movie system, and this paper is a report on an improved version 3 of the system. The new version features a newly-developed recording system which utilizes a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with an injection seeder, and an automatic film driver unit which moves perforated 35 mm holographic film intermittently. The system is mounted on a dolly to which a hydraulic lifter is attached. A twin diamond-shaped hologram format, developed for an earlier version of the system, is adopted for the films. After the films are developed, they are driven intermittently with a shutter, illuminated by the LD pumped CW Nd:YAG laser, and viewed through twin diamond-shaped windows. This version 3 system makes it possible to record live scenes, including those of the human body, flowing liquids, smoke, etc., which was impossible in the version 1 and version 3 systems. As a consequence, the characteristics of holographic 3D images with motion can be studied over an area covered by both eyes, and the labor required of animators in taking holograms is greatly reduced.
Gunther, Sophie; Ostheimer, Christian; Stangl, Stefan; Specht, Hanno M.; Mozes, Petra; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Vordermark, Dirk; Combs, Stephanie E.; Peltz, Friedhelm; Jung, Max P.; Multhoff, Gabriele
2015-01-01
Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently found on the plasma membrane of a large number of malignant tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gets released into the blood circulation in lipid vesicles. On the one hand, a membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype correlates with a high aggressiveness of the tumor; on the other hand, mHsp70 serves as a target for natural killer (NK) cells that had been pre-stimulated with Hsp70-peptide TKD plus low-dose interleukin-2 (TKD/IL-2). Following activation, NK cells show an up-regulated expression of activatory C-type lectin receptors, such as CD94/NKG2C, NKG2D, and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs; NKp44, NKp46, and NKp30) and thereby gain the capacity to kill mHsp70-positive tumor cells. With respect to these results, the efficacy of ex vivo TKD/IL-2 stimulated, autologous NK cells is currently tested in a proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial in patients with squamous cell NSCLC after radiochemotherapy (RCT) at the TUM. Inclusion criteria are histological proven, non-resectable NSCLC in stage IIIA/IIIB, clinical responses to RCT and a mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype. The mHsp70 status is determined in the serum of patients using the lipHsp70 ELISA test, which enables the quantification of liposomal and free Hsp70. Squamous cell and adeno NSCLC patients had significantly higher serum Hsp70 levels than healthy controls. A significant correlation of serum Hsp70 levels with the gross tumor volume was shown for adeno and squamous cell NSCLC. However, significantly elevated ratios of activated CD69+/CD94+ NK cells that are associated with low serum Hsp70 levels were observed only in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. These data might provide a first hint that squamous cell NSCLC is more immunogenic than adeno NSCLC. PMID:26579130
A 6-beam combiner using superimposed volume index holographic gratings
Yum, HoNam
2005-11-01
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Philip Hemmer (Chair of Committee) Henry F. Taylor (Member) Prasad Enjeti (Member) Gerard Cote (Member.... Taylor, Dr. Prasad Enjeti, Dr. Gerard Cote. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT???????..?????...?????????????.???iii DEDICATION??????????....???????..????????.??v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS?????????????...???????.??..vi TABLE OF CONTENTS...
Three dimensional imaging of translucent objects using volume holographic techniques
Shih, Tina, 1982-
2004-01-01
Plankton is a primitive form of one or several-celled organism that lives in the sea. Its behavior, its formation, and the various life patterns, when monitored, reveals a wealth of information about the sea. Three dimensional ...
Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona; Mombaerts, Peter
2016-01-01
Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ?1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ?3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene-targeted strains of the OR-IRES-marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, "count every cell" strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain-specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17-fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene-targeted strains. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:199-209, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26100963
Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erf, R. K.
1974-01-01
Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.
Photorefractive phase-conjugation digital holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Huang-Tian; Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun
2015-05-01
In this work, we propose an innovative method for digital holographic microscopy named as photorefractive phaseconjugation digital holographic microscopy (PPCDHM) technique based on the phase conjugation dynamic holographic process in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal and the retrieval of phase and amplitude of the object wave were performed by a reflection-type digital holographic method. Both amplitude and phase reconstruction benefit from the prior amplification by self-pumped conjugation (SPPC) as they have an increased SNR. The interest of the PPCDHM is great, because its hologram is created by interfered the amplified phase-conjugate wave field generated from a photorefractive phase conjugator (PPC) correcting the phase aberration of the imaging system and the reference wave onto the digital CCD camera. Therefore, a precise three-dimensional description of the object with high SNR can be obtained digitally with only one hologram acquisition. The method requires the acquisition of a single hologram from which the phase distribution can be obtained simultaneously with distribution of intensity at the surface of the object.
Holographic cosmological models on the braneworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepe, Samuel; Saavedra, Joel; Peña, Francisco
2009-01-01
In this Letter we have studied a closed universe which a holographic energy on the brane whose energy density is described by ?(H)=3cH and we obtain an equation for the Hubble parameter. This equation gave us different physical behavior depending if c>1 or c<1 against of the sign of the brane tension.
Sensitive holographic detection of small aerodynamic perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heflinger, L. O.
1972-01-01
Phase modulations enhance the sensitivity of holographic techniques for detecting disturbances which are caused by variations in gas density of the order of 1/10 wavelength or less. In the readout, subject perturbations show up as brightenings on a dark background.
The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, James R.
Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain…
Two color holographic interferometry for microgravity application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.
1995-01-01
Holographic interferometry is a primary candidate for determining temperature and concentration in crystal growth experiments designed for space. The method measures refractive index changes within the fluid of an experimental test cell resulting from temperature and/or concentration changes. When the refractive index changes are caused by simultaneous temperature and concentration changes, the contributions of the two effects cannot be separated by single wavelength interferometry. By using two wavelengths, however, two independent interferograms can provide the additional independent equation required to determine the two unknowns. There is no other technique available that provides this type of information. The primary objectives of this effort were to experimentally verify the mathematical theory of two color holographic interferometry (TCHI) and to determine the practical value of this technique for space application. In the foregoing study, the theory of TCHI has been tested experimentally over a range of interest for materials processing in space where measurements of temperature and concentration in a solution are required. New techniques were developed and applied to stretch the limits beyond what could be done with existing procedures. The study resulted in the production of one of the most advanced, enhanced sensitivity holographic interferometers in existence. The interferometric measurements made at MSFC represent what is believed to be the most accurate holographic interferometric measurements made in a fluid to date. The tests have provided an understanding of the limitations of the technique in practical use.
High sensitive materials in medical holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osanlou, A.; Snashall, E.; Osanlou, O.; Osanlou, R.; Mirlis, E.; Shi, Lishen; Bjelkhagen, H.
2015-02-01
High sensitivity is defined in relation to the energy required to perform holographic recording. High sensitivity in silver halide materials is their main advantage over other similarly high resolving power holographic recording materials. This work reports progress on the development of silver halide based 'true colour holographic imaging', under a microscope. A thin layer of ultrafine grains of silver halide crystals of around 10 nm average diameter, dispersed in a colloid and coated on a substrate is used as the recording media. The significance of this method so far, is in its ability to produce 'true colour' three-dimensional images of specimen. The recordings have an appreciable depth, permitting the observer to scan through the image under a microscope, as one might with a real specimen sample. Current methods could perform ' True colour holographic imaging' directly under a microscope. The recording methodology has the potential for deeper complex and scattering media imaging, using very small pulses of appropriate laser wavelengths. The methodology, using novel nanosize panchromatic recording media consisting of dispersed fine nano grain crystals, could potentially revolutionise related medical imaging techniques. Future development of digital media will allow it to be utilized in this manner.
Meson wave function from holographic models
Alfredo Vega; Ivan Schmidt; Tanja Branz; Thomas Gutsche; Valery Lyubovitskij
2009-06-05
We consider the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence, as has been suggested by Brodsky and Teramond. Two kinds of wave functions, obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall models, are discussed.
Cooling a Band Insulator with a Metal: Fermionic Superfluid in a Dimerized Holographic Lattice
Haldar, Arijit; Shenoy, Vijay B.
2014-01-01
A cold atomic realization of a quantum correlated state of many fermions on a lattice, eg. superfluid, has eluded experimental realization due to the entropy problem. Here we propose a route to realize such a state using holographic lattice and confining potentials. The potentials are designed to produces a band insulating state (low heat capacity) at the trap center, and a metallic state (high heat capacity) at the periphery. The metal “cools” the central band insulator by extracting out the excess entropy. The central band insulator can be turned into a superfluid by tuning an attractive interaction between the fermions. Crucially, the holographic lattice allows the emergent superfluid to have a high transition temperature – even twice that of the effective trap temperature. The scheme provides a promising route to a laboratory realization of a fermionic lattice superfluid, even while being adaptable to simulate other many body states. PMID:25324029
A holographic proof of the universality of corner entanglement for CFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Rong-Xin
2015-10-01
There appears a universal logarithmic term of entanglement entropy, i.e., - a(?)log( H/?), for 3d CFTs when the entangling surface has a sharp corner. a(?) is a function of the corner opening angle and behaves as a(? ? ?) ? ?( ? - ?)2 and a(? ? 0) ? ?/?, respectively. Recently, it is conjectured that ?/C T = ? 2 /24, where C T is central charge in the stress tensor correlator, is universal for general CFTs in three dimensions. In this paper, by applying the general higher curvature gravity, we give a holographic proof of this conjecture. We also clarify some interesting problems. Firstly, we find that, in contrast to ?/C T , ?/C T is not universal. Secondly, the lower bound a E (?) /C T associated to Einstein gravity can be violated by higher curvature gravity. Last but not least, we find that there are similar universal laws for CFTs in higher dimensions. We give some holographic tests of these new conjectures.
Birnkrant,M.; Li, C.; Natarajan, L.; Tondiglia, V.; Sutherland, R.; Lloyd, P.; Bunning, T.
2007-01-01
We report the combination of top-down and bottom-up nanomanufacturing techniques to fabricate active, hierarchically structured volume reflection gratings. Holographic polymerization (H-P) formed lamellar structures of {approx}200 nm in thickness, confining a block copolymer (BCP) to {approx}100 nm domains. Subsequently, the BCP self-assembles into nanolayers with a period of {approx}21 nm. We envisage that this approach opens a gateway to fabricating hierarchical nanostructures at different length scales.
Digital inline holographic microscopy (DIHM) of weakly-scattering subjects.
Giuliano, Camila B; Zhang, Rongjing; Wilson, Laurence G
2014-01-01
Weakly-scattering objects, such as small colloidal particles and most biological cells, are frequently encountered in microscopy. Indeed, a range of techniques have been developed to better visualize these phase objects; phase contrast and DIC are among the most popular methods for enhancing contrast. However, recording position and shape in the out-of-imaging-plane direction remains challenging. This report introduces a simple experimental method to accurately determine the location and geometry of objects in three dimensions, using digital inline holographic microscopy (DIHM). Broadly speaking, the accessible sample volume is defined by the camera sensor size in the lateral direction, and the illumination coherence in the axial direction. Typical sample volumes range from 200 µm x 200 µm x 200 µm using LED illumination, to 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm or larger using laser illumination. This illumination light is configured so that plane waves are incident on the sample. Objects in the sample volume then scatter light, which interferes with the unscattered light to form interference patterns perpendicular to the illumination direction. This image (the hologram) contains the depth information required for three-dimensional reconstruction, and can be captured on a standard imaging device such as a CMOS or CCD camera. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld back propagation method is employed to numerically refocus microscope images, and a simple imaging heuristic based on the Gouy phase anomaly is used to identify scattering objects within the reconstructed volume. This simple but robust method results in an unambiguous, model-free measurement of the location and shape of objects in microscopic samples. PMID:24561665
Three-dimensional display based on refreshable volume holograms in photochromic diarylethene polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Liangcai; Wang, Zheng; Li, Chengmingyue; Li, Cunpu; Zhang, Fushi; Jin, Guofan
2015-03-01
Holographic display is a promising technique for three-dimensional (3D) display because it has the ability to reconstruct both the intensity and wavefront of a 3D object. Real-time holographic display has been demonstrated in photorefractive polymers. It is expected to carry out dynamic 3D display by recording holograms into a volume holographic polymer due to its high-density storage capacity, good multiplexing property. In this work an updatable 3D display based on volume holographic polymer of photochromic diarylethene is proposed. The photochromic diarylethene polymer is a promising rewritable recording material for holograms with high resolution, fatigue resistance and quick responding of erasure. The computer-generated holograms carrying with wavefronts of 3D objects are written to the diarylethene polymer, and the recorded holograms in the polymer can be easily erased when exposed in ultraviolet light. The 3D scenes can be reconstructed for the write/erase cycles.
Marzban, Caren
884 VOLUME 129M O N T H L Y W E A T H E R R E V I E W The Correlation between U.S. Tornadoes is examined. Tornadic activity is gauged with two mostly independent measures: the number of tornadoes per the number of days with strong and violent (F2 and greater) tornadoes in an area that runs from Illinois
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnekenburger, Juergen; Bredebusch, Ilona; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Domschke, Wolfram; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn
2007-07-01
The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of crucial cellular functions as migration, intracellular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis and force generation. The highly dynamic actin fibers are therefore targets for several drugs and toxins. However the study of actin interfering processes by standard microscopy techniques fails in the detailed resolution of dynamic spatial alterations required for a deeper understanding of toxic effects. Here we applied digital holographic microscopy in the online functional analysis of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting marine toxin Latrunculin B. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed rapid Latrunculin B induced alterations in cell morphology and actin fiber degradation in pancreas tumor cells. The dynamic digital holographic in vivo analysis of the drug dependent cellular processes demonstrated differences in the actin cytoskeleton stability of highly differentiated and dedifferentiated pancreas tumor cell lines. The spatial resolution of the morphological alterations revealed unequal changes in cell morphology. While cells with a low metastatic potential showed Latrunculin B induced cell collapse within 4 h the metastatic tumor cells were increased in cell volume indicating Latrunculin B effects also on cell water content. These data demonstrate that marker free, non-destructive online analysis of cellular morphology and dynamic spatial processes in living cells by digital holography offers new insights in actin dependent cellular mechanisms. Digital holographic microscopy was shown to be a versatile tool in the screening of toxic drug effects and cancer cell biology.
Volume holography with Bessel-like reference beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, Raphael A.; Manigo, Jonathan P.
2015-08-01
We report volume holographic recording and reconstruction of plane waves using Bessel-like reference beams. A photorefractive lithium niobate crystal (0.05% Fe:LiNbO3) is employed as the holographic medium in a two-wave mixing set-up. The reconstructed plane wave has the same appearance as a Bessel beam, displaying a central maximum and concentric rings. Over a propagation range of 10 to 50 cm, the central intensity is observed to oscillate between maximum and zero intensity. The holographic reconstruction is capable of self-healing and propagation properties are preserved even with the use of a partially blocked readout beam. A theoretical framework based on the interference of a plane wave and a Bessel beam simultaneously reconstructed from a volume hologram is able to describe our experimental results.
Space-variant image processing with volume holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquez, Andres; Neipp, Cristian; Gallego, Sergi; Ortuno, Manuel; Belendez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada V.
2004-09-01
In this work we explore the application of volume effects given by holographic optical elements (HOEs) to image processing operations. Bragg diffraction, exhibited by HOEs, modifies the impulse response of an imaging system, facilitating spatial filtering operations with no need for a physical Fourier plane. Both the holographic recording material we use and the specific HOE we design are important parameters. In the present communication we report our last results using a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) photopolymer. This compound combines good optical properties, ease of fabrication, and self-development capability. We are able to produce layers as thick as 1 millimeter (mm) with a diffraction efficiency higher than 80%. Using layers with a thickness of 0.1 mm and 1 mm we have recorded both holographic diffraction gratings and holographic lenses. When using the holographic gratings we can obtain image edge enhancement as demonstrated in previous works. As a novelty, in this work we show that when using the holographic lenses we obtain a space-variant image edge enhancement. We analyse the properties of this space-variant operation in terms of the reconstruction geometry and the local grating structure exhibited by the lens across its aperture.
Limits of bootstrapping in a weak-signal holographic conjugator.
Watnik, Abbie T; Lebow, Paul S
2014-06-20
We explore the effect of noise on the energy convergence for extremely weak signals in the object field of a holographic experiment. The impact of noise for the energy-on-target in the iterative, bootstrapping process of a holographic phase conjugator system is theoretically derived to obtain a recursive analytical solution. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations for a weak-signal holographic conjugator. PMID:24979413
Stars and the holographic upper bound on gravitational action
Scott Funkhouser
2008-12-22
The holographic upper bound on entropy is applied to the gravitational action associated with the non-relativistic contraction of a nebula. A critical radius is identified, as a function of the initial radius and mass, for which the number of bits associated with the action would equal the maximum number of bits allowed to the body. The gravitational action of a typical star approximately saturates the holographic bound, perhaps suggesting a physical link between holographic principles and astrophysical processes.
Violation of the Holographic Principle in the Loop Quantum Gravity
Ozan Sarg?n; Mir Faizal
2015-09-01
In this paper, we analyze the holographic principle using loop quantum gravity (LQG). This will be done by analysing a simple quantum mechanical system using polymeric quantization. As the polymeric quantization is the characteristic feature of loop quantum gravity, we will argue that this calculation will indicate the effect on the holographic principle from the loop quantum gravity. Thus, we will be able to explicitly demonstrate the violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity.
Holographic dual of a boundary conformal field theory.
Takayanagi, Tadashi
2011-09-01
We propose a holographic dual of a conformal field theory defined on a manifold with boundaries, i.e., boundary conformal field theory (BCFT). Our new holography, which may be called anti-de Sitter BCFT, successfully calculates the boundary entropy or g function in two-dimensional BCFTs and it agrees with the finite part of the holographic entanglement entropy. Moreover, we can naturally derive a holographic g theorem. We also analyze the holographic dual of an interval at finite temperature and show that there is a first order phase transition. PMID:21981491
Holographic Dual of a Boundary Conformal Field Theory
Takayanagi, Tadashi
2011-09-02
We propose a holographic dual of a conformal field theory defined on a manifold with boundaries, i.e., boundary conformal field theory (BCFT). Our new holography, which may be called anti-de Sitter BCFT, successfully calculates the boundary entropy or g function in two-dimensional BCFTs and it agrees with the finite part of the holographic entanglement entropy. Moreover, we can naturally derive a holographic g theorem. We also analyze the holographic dual of an interval at finite temperature and show that there is a first order phase transition.
Tunable liquid crystal lens for a holographic projection system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collings, Neil; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Hung-Chun; Chen, Ming-Syuan
2013-09-01
The tunable liquid crystal (LC) lens designed for a holographic projection system is demonstrated. By using a single patterned electrode LC lens, a solid lens and an encoded Fresnel lens on the LCoS panel, we can maintain the image size of the holographic projector with different wavelengths (?674nm, 532nm and 445nm) . The zoom ratio of the holographic projection system depends on the lens power of the solid lens and the tunable lens power of the LC lens. The optical zoom function can help to solve the image size mismatching problem of the holographic projection system.
Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope.
Ryle, James P; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T
2011-12-01
An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope. PMID:22191921
Research activities on digital holographic displays in Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshikawa, Hiroshi
2011-06-01
Recently, researches on digital holographic 3D display are getting very active as well as the digital holography for 3D image acquisition. This paper reviews recent research activities in Japan, including digital holographic 3D video displays, digital holographic fringe printers and computer-generated holograms. The holographic video display includes 100 megapixel full-color full-parallax display, horizontal scanning display, enlarged viewing angle display. For the fringe printer, laser plotter and tiling systems are introduced. For the computer-generated hologram, various kinds of hologram types are described as well as fast computation methods.
Holographic optical elements and devices based on polyfunctional photo-thermo-refractive glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikonorov, Nikolay; Aseev, Vladimir
2009-11-01
A new polyfunctional photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass doped with erbium and ytterbium has been developed for the first time. The glass combines itself three opportunities: fabrication of lasers or amplifiers, recording of volume Bragg gratings (VBG) or holographic optical elements (HOE), fabrication of planar waveguides or fiber. The glass can be classified as optical polyfunctional material. The polyfunctional PTR glass exhibits good spectral, luminescent, and lasing characteristics, as well as photorefractive and ion exchangeable properties. Different HOE and devices on the base of the polyfunctional PTR glass have been demonstrated for photonic applications.
High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin
2008-01-01
A proposed holographic memory system would be capable of storing data at unprecedentedly high density, and its data transfer performance in both reading and writing would be characterized by exceptionally high bandwidth. The capabilities of the proposed system would greatly exceed even those of a state-of-the art memory system, based on binary holograms (in which each pixel value represents 0 or 1), that can hold .1 terabyte of data and can support a reading or writing rate as high as 1 Gb/s. The storage capacity of the state-of-theart system cannot be increased without also increasing the volume and mass of the system. However, in principle, the storage capacity could be increased greatly, without significantly increasing the volume and mass, if multilevel holograms were used instead of binary holograms. For example, a 3-bit (8-level) hologram could store 8 terabytes, or an 8-bit (256-level) hologram could store 256 terabytes, in a system having little or no more size and mass than does the state-of-the-art 1-terabyte binary holographic memory. The proposed system would utilize multilevel holograms. The system would include lasers, imaging lenses and other beam-forming optics, a block photorefractive crystal wherein the holograms would be formed, and two multilevel spatial light modulators in the form of commercially available deformable-mirror-device spatial light modulators (DMDSLMs) made for use in high speed input conversion of data up to 12 bits. For readout, the system would also include two arrays of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors matching the spatial light modulators. The system would further include a reference-beam sterring device (equivalent of a scanning mirror), containing no sliding parts, that could be either a liquid-crystal phased-array device or a microscopic mirror actuated by a high-speed microelectromechanical system. Time-multiplexing and the multilevel nature of the DMDSLM would be exploited to enable writing and reading of multilevel holograms. The DMDSLM would also enable transfer of data at a rate of 7.6 Gb/s or perhaps somewhat higher.
Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch
Itsios, Georgios; Ramallo, Alfonso V
2015-01-01
We study collective excitations of cold (2+1)-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3-D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.
Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch
Georgios Itsios; Niko Jokela; Alfonso V. Ramallo
2015-06-21
We study collective excitations of cold (2+1)-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3-D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.
Biometric Identification Using Holographic Radar Imaging Techniques
McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlan P.
2007-04-01
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first “biometric” application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.
Towards a Holographic Bose-Hubbard Model
Mitsutoshi Fujita; Sarah Harrison; Andreas Karch; Rene Meyer; Natalie M. Paquette
2015-03-25
We present a holographic construction of the large-N Bose-Hubbard model. The model is based on Maxwell fields coupled to charged scalar fields on the AdS2 hard wall. We realize the lobe-shaped phase structure of the Bose-Hubbard model and find that the model admits Mott insulator ground states in the limit of large Coulomb repulsion. In the Mott insulator phases, the bosons are localized on each site. At zero hopping we find that the transitions between Mott insulating phases with different fillings correspond to first order level-crossing phase transitions. At finite hopping we find a holographic phase transition between the Mott phase and a non-homogeneous phase. We then analyze the perturbations of fields around both the Mott insulator phase and inhomogeneous phase. We find almost zero modes in the non-homogeneous phase.
Holographic vortex liquids and superfluid turbulence.
Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong; Adams, Allan
2013-07-26
Superfluid turbulence is a fascinating phenomenon for which a satisfactory theoretical framework is lacking. Holographic duality provides a systematic approach to studying such quantum turbulence by mapping the dynamics of a strongly interacting quantum liquid into the dynamics of classical gravity. We use this gravitational description to numerically construct turbulent flows in a holographic superfluid in two spatial dimensions. We find that the superfluid kinetic energy spectrum obeys the Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling law, with energy injected at long wavelengths undergoing a direct cascade to short wavelengths where dissipation by vortex annihilation and vortex drag becomes efficient. This dissipation has a simple gravitational interpretation as energy flux across a black hole event horizon. PMID:23888034
More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions
Jensen, Kristan
2010-08-15
We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.
Monitoring colloidal growth with holographic particle characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chen; Shpaisman, Hagay; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Grier, David
2015-03-01
The holographic video microscopy measurements of the size and refractive index of individual colloidal particles in the dispersion are precise enough to track subtle changes in particles' properties and rapid enough for real-time process control. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to the synthesis of monodisperse samples of crosslinked polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) spheres. The measured time dependence of these spheres' most probable radius and distribution width thereof are consistent with a modified LaMer model for colloidal growth. The joint distribution of size and refractive index, however, also reveals a small proportion of undersize, lower-density spheres. Applied over longer time periods, holographic characterization also tracks how the newly-synthesized spheres age, and illuminates the aging mechanism.
Viewing conditions of multiplexed holographic images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Jung-Young; Kim, Jin-Woong; Moon, Kyung-Ae; Kim, Jae-Han; Chernyshov, Oleksii
2015-08-01
The time and spatial multiplexing which are frequently employed in holographic displays based on display chips of the same characteristics, to increase reconstructed image size and resolution can hardly improve the viewing condition such as viewing zone and viewing angles more than what a chip can offer. This is demonstrated optically and experimentally with the holographic displays built with an array of 2×10 DMDs which is formed both by time and spatial multiplexing. It is considered that the viewing condition of the spatial multiplexing is somewhat worse than that obtained by time multiplexing because the reconstructed image size of each chip cannot be smaller than the hologram size. Furthermore, the spatially multiplexed image can be noisier than that obtained from time multiplexing but it shows better light efficiency. Added on this, it does not introduce a distortion in the image as in the time multiplexing.
Holographic movies projected onto nematic LC cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutkowski, Marek; Grudniewski, Tomasz; Parka, Janusz; Miniewicz, Andrzej
2002-06-01
The possibility of diffraction pattern generation in LC (Liquid Crystal) cells working as a dynamic write-read media was proven. Recording of holographic gratings formed by interfered He-Ne laser beams onto LC-cells with pure and dye-doped mixture have been investigated. The possibility of optoelectronic reconstruction of digitally stored microinterferograms allow us to adopt them in multimedia application. The hologram of virtual or real object was reconstructed by coherent illumination of optically addressed spatial light modulator (OASLM) containing holographic grating. The results obtained from LC cells of standard twisted nematic type were examined. As a result of examination of physical properties of nematic-type liquid crystal mixtures, new method of realization of LC cells were proposed. The experimental results of replacing TN cells with polivinylcarbazole (PVK) photosensitive layer cells have been discussed.
Holographic Optical Storage Using Photorefractive Polymers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayden, L. Michael; Strutz, Shane J.; Harris, Kristi; Ayachitula, Rajani
2000-01-01
The task for this report is to perform the basic research and develop a prototype benchtop holographic optical storage system based on photochromic and/or photorefractive polymers so that both permanent and erasable images may be stored and retrieved in the same mixed polymer medium. The task consist of: assembly and setup of the benchtop holographic storage system, including lasers, optics, and other ancillary equipment in a laboratory setting; and research and development of a suitable polymer matrix that will allow practical storage and retrieval of digital data. This will necessitate molecular design of the matrices involved and subsequent physics test to verify the characteristics of the matrices provide practical storage and retrieval.
Holographic Hall conductivities from dyonic backgrounds
Lindgren, Jonathan; Taliotis, Anastasios; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-01-01
We develop a general framework for computing the holographic 2-point functions and the corresponding conductivities in asymptotically locally AdS backgrounds with an electric charge density, a constant magentic field, and possibly non-trivial scalar profiles, for a broad class of Einstein-Maxwell-Axion-Dilaton theories, including certain Chern-Simons terms. Holographic renormalization is carried out for any theory in this class and the computation of the renormalized AC conductivities at zero spatial momentum is reduced to solving a single decoupled first order Riccati equation. Moreover, we develop a first order fake supergravity formulalism for dyonic renormalization group flows in four dimensions, allowing us to construct analytically infinite families of such backgrounds by specifying a superpotential at will. These RG flows interpolate between AdS$_4$ in the UV and a hyperscaling violating Lifshitz geometry in the IR with exponents $1
Transonic flow visualization using holographic interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.
1987-05-01
An account is made of some of the applications of holographic interferometry to the visualization of transonic flows. In the case of the compressor shock visualization, the method is used regularly and has moved from being a research department invention to a design test tool. With the implementation of automatic processing and simple digitization systems, holographic vibrational analysis has also moved into routine nondestructive testing. The code verification interferograms were instructive, but the main turbomachinery interest is now in 3 dimensional flows. A major data interpretation effort will be required to compute tomographically the 3 dimensional flow around the leading or the trailing edges of a rotating blade row. The bolt on approach shows the potential application to current unsteady flows of interest. In particular that of the rotor passing and vortex interaction effects is experienced by the new generation of unducted fans. The turbocharger tests presents a new area for the application of holography.
Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly
Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero
2012-08-01
Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.
Fluorescence digital holographic adaptive optics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Tianlong; Wan, Yuhong; Wang, Dayong
2015-05-01
Fluorescence microscopy is widely used in various of practical applications now. High resolution optical sectional microscopic imaging utilized by confocal two- or multi-photon fluorescence microscopy has became an essential tool in biological researches. However, optical aberrations introduced by nonhomogeneity refractive index of tissues degraded the resolution and brightness of the images. Here we present the implementation of self-interference digital holographic adaptive optics in fluorescence microscopy. Wavefront sensing and correction is achieved by holographic recording and numerical processing approach, dispenses with Shack-Hartmann sensor and deformable mirror-based complicated system. The operation speed of the system is enhanced using off-axis Fourier triangular holography. Both the influence of the size and axial position of the guide star on the quality of the corrected images are investigated.
Multidimensional optical fractionation with holographic verification
Ke Xiao; David G. Grier
2009-12-23
The trajectories of colloidal particles driven through a periodic potential energy landscape can become kinetically locked in to directions dictated by the landscape's symmetries. When the landscape is realized with forces exerted by a structured light field, the path a given particle follows has been predicted to depend exquisitely sensitively on such properties as the particle's size and refractive index These predictions, however, have not been tested experimentally. Here, we describe measurements of colloidal silica spheres' transport through arrays of holographic optical traps that use holographic video microscopy to track individual spheres' motions in three dimensions and simultaneously to measure each sphere's radius and refractive index with part-per-thousand resolution. These measurements confirm previously untested predictions for the threshold of kinetically locked-in transport, and demonstrate the ability of optical fractionation to sort colloidal spheres with part-per-thousand resolution on multiple characteristics simultaneously.
Holographic Representation of Higher Spin Gauge Fields
Debajyoti Sarkar; Xiao Xiao
2015-04-28
Extending the results of \\cite{Heem}, \\cite{KLRS} on the holographic representation of local gauge field operators in anti de Sitter space, here we construct the bulk operators for higher spin gauge fields in the leading order of $\\frac{1}{N}$ expansion. Working in holographic gauge for higher spin gauge fields, we show that gauge field operators with integer spin $s>1$ can be represented by an integration over a ball region, which is the interior region of the spacelike bulk lightcone on the boundary. The construction is shown to be AdS-covariant up to gauge transformations, and the two-point function between higher spin gauge fields and boundary higher spin current exhibit singularities on both bulk and boundary lightcones. We also comment on possible extension to the level of three-point functions and carry out a causal construction for higher spin fields in de Sitter spacetime.
Holographic Mutual Information for Singular Surfaces
Mozaffar, M Reza Mohammadi; Omidi, Farzad
2015-01-01
We study corner contributions to holographic mutual information for entangling regions composed of a set of disjoint sectors of a single infinite circle in three-dimensional conformal field theories. In spite of the UV divergence of holographic mutual information, it exhibits a first order phase transition. We show that tripartite information is also divergent for disjoint sectors, which is in contrast with the well-known feature of tripartite information being finite even when entangling regions share boundaries. We also verify the locality of corner effects by studying mutual information between regions separated by a sharp annular region. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and hyperscaling violating geometries is also considered for disjoint sectors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.
1997-01-01
The specific volumes and viscosities of the Ni-Zr liquid alloys as a function of temperature are determined by employing a digitizing technique and numeric analysis methods applied to the optical images of the electrostatically levitated liquid alloys.
Ex-vivo holographic microscopy and spectroscopic analysis of head and neck cancer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holler, Stephen; Wurtz, Robert; Auyeung, Kelsey; Auyeung, Kris; Paspaley-Grbavac, Milan; Mulroe, Brigid; Sobrero, Maximiliano; Miles, Brett
2015-03-01
Optical probes to identify tumor margins in vivo would greatly reduce the time, effort and complexity in the surgical removal of malignant tissue in head and neck cancers. Current approaches involve visual microscopy of stained tissue samples to determine cancer margins, which results in the excision of excess of tissue to assure complete removal of the cancer. Such surgical procedures and follow-on chemotherapy can adversely affect the patient's recovery and subsequent quality of life. In order to reduce the complexity of the process and minimize adverse effects on the patient, we investigate ex vivo tissue samples (stained and unstained) using digital holographic microscopy in conjunction with spectroscopic analyses (reflectance and transmission spectroscopy) in order to determine label-free, optically identifiable characteristic features that may ultimately be used for in vivo processing of cancerous tissues. The tissue samples studied were squamous cell carcinomas and associated controls from patients of varying age, gender and race. Holographic microscopic imaging scans across both cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samples yielded amplitude and phase reconstructions that were correlated with spectral signatures. Though the holographic reconstructions and measured spectra indicate variations even among the same class of tissue, preliminary results indicate the existence of some discriminating features. Further analyses are presently underway to further this work and extract additional information from the imaging and spectral data that may prove useful for in vivo surgical identification.
Computation Of Some Zamolodchikov Volumes, With An Application
Gregory W. Moore
2015-08-23
We compute the Zamolodchikov volumes of some moduli spaces of conformal field theories with target spaces K3, T4, and their symmetric products. As an application we argue that sequences of conformal field theories, built from products of such symmetric products, almost never have a holographic dual with weakly coupled gravity.
Optical studies in the holographic ground station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Workman, Gary L.
1991-01-01
The Holographic Group System (HGS) Facility in rooms 22 & 123, Building 4708 has been developed to provide for ground based research in determining pre-flight parameters and analyzing the results from space experiments. The University of Alabama, Huntsville (UAH) has researched the analysis aspects of the HGS and reports their findings here. Some of the results presented here also occur in the Facility Operating Procedure (FOP), which contains instructions for power up, operation, and powerdown of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) Holographic Ground System (HGS) Test Facility for the purpose of optically recording fluid and/or crystal behavior in a test article during ground based testing through the construction of holograms and recording of videotape. The alignment of the optical bench components, holographic reconstruction and and microscopy alignment sections were also included in the document for continuity even though they are not used until after optical recording of the test article) setup of support subsystems and the Automated Holography System (AHS) computer. The HGS provides optical recording and monitoring during GCEL runs or development testing of potential FES flight hardware or software. This recording/monitoring can be via 70mm holographic film, standard videotape, or digitized images on computer disk. All optical bench functions necessary to construct holograms will be under the control of the AHS personal computer (PC). These include type of exposure, time intervals between exposures, exposure length, film frame identification, film advancement, film platen evacuation and repressurization, light source diffuser introduction, and control of realtime video monitoring. The completed sequence of hologram types (single exposure, diffuse double exposure, etc.) and their time of occurrence can be displayed, printed, or stored on floppy disk posttest for the user.
Properties of holographic mesons on dense medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Nam, Siyoung
2015-05-01
We study the energy dispersions of holographic light mesons and their decay constants on dense nuclear medium. As the spatial momenta of mesons along the boundary direction increase, both observables of the mesons not only increase but also split according to the isospin charges. The decay constant of the negative meson is more large than that of the positive meson of the same type due to the chemical potentials of the background nucleons.
Some aspects of holographic W-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Theisen, Stefan
2015-08-01
We use the Chern-Simons formulation of higher spin theories in three dimensions to study aspects of holographic W-gravity. Concepts which were useful in studies of pure bulk gravity theories, such as the Fefferman-Graham gauge and the residual gauge transformations, which induce Weyl transformations in the boundary theory and their higher spin generalizations, are reformulated in the Chern-Simons language. Flat connections that correspond to conformal and lightcone gauges in the boundary theory are considered.
Holographic interferometric tomography for reconstructing flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cha, Soyoung S.
1994-01-01
Holographic interferometric tomography is a technique for instantaneously capturing and quantitatively reconstructing three-dimensional flow fields. It has a very useful application potential for high-speed aerodynamics. However, three major challenging tasks need to be accomplished before its practical applications. First, fluid flows are mostly unsteady or at least non repeatable. Consequently, a means for Instantaneously recording three-dimensional flow fields, that is, a simple holographic technique for simultaneously recording multi-directional projections, needs to be developed. Second, while holographic interferometry provides enormous data storage capabilities, expeditious data extraction from complicated interferograms is very important for timely near real-time applications. Third, unlike medical applications, flow tomography does not provide complete data sets but instead involves ill-posed reconstruction problems of incomplete projection and limited angular scanning. During this summer research period, new experimental techniques and corresponding hardware were developed and tested to address the above mentioned tasks. The first task was achieved by diffuser illumination. This concept allows instantaneous capture of many projections with a conventional setup for single-projection recording. For the second task, a phase-shifting technique was incorporated. This technique allows one to acquire multiple phase-stepped interferograms for a single projection and thus to extract phase information from intensity data almost at real-time. For the third task, the research that has been extensively conducted previously was utilized. In this research period, a complete experimental setup that provides the above three major capabilities was designed, built, and tested by integrating all the techniques. A simple laboratory experiment for simulating wind-tunnel testing was then conducted. A test flow was produced by employing a relatively simple device that generated a gravity-driven flow. The flow was then experimentally investigated to check the viability of the holographic interferometric tomographic technique before wind-tunnel application.
Holographic Flow of Anomalous Transport Coefficients
Landsteiner, Karl
2012-01-01
We study the holographic flow of anomalous conductivities induced by gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. We find that the contribution from the gauge Chern-Simons term gives rise to a flow that can be interpreted in terms of an effective, cutoff dependent chemical potential. In contrast the contribution of the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term is just the temperature squared and does not flow.
Holographic Flow of Anomalous Transport Coefficients
Karl Landsteiner; Luis Melgar
2012-06-20
We study the holographic flow of anomalous conductivities induced by gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. We find that the contribution from the gauge Chern-Simons term gives rise to a flow that can be interpreted in terms of an effective, cutoff dependent chemical potential. In contrast the contribution of the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term is just the temperature squared and does not flow.
Holographic dark energy from minimal supergravity
Ricardo C. G. Landim
2015-10-13
We embed models of holographic dark energy coupled to dark matter in minimal supergravity plus matter, with one chiral superfield. We analyze two cases. The first one has the Hubble radius as the infrared cutoff and the interaction between the two fluids is proportional to the energy density of the dark energy. The second case has the future event horizon as infrared cutoff while the interaction is proportional to the energy density of both components of the dark sector.
Holographic interferogram analysis from a single view.
Hansche, B D; Murphy, C G
1974-03-01
Quantitative analysis of a holographic interferogram requires either multiple interferograms and hence a great deal of data or strict a priori assumptions. This work presents a class of assumptions that reduces to one the number of views necessary for three-dimensional motion. The method involves relating points on the body via rigid-body theory and calculating deviations from this ideal deformation. It requires knowledge of the expected deformation. An example is given using internally pressurized spherical shells. PMID:20126035
A Stringy (Holographic) Pomeron with Extrinsic Curvature
Qian, Yachao
2014-01-01
We model the soft pomeron in QCD using a scalar Polyakov string with extrinsic curvature in the bottom-up approach of holographic QCD. The overall dipole-dipole scattering amplitude in the soft pomeron kinematics is shown to be sensitive to the extrinsic curvature of the string for finite momentum transfer. The characteristics of the diffractive peak in the differential elastic $pp$ scattering are affected by a small extrinsic curvature of the string.
Holographic Competition of Phases and Superconductivity
Kiritsis, Elias
2015-01-01
We use a holographic theory to model and study the competition of four phases: an antiferromagnetic phase, a superconducting phase, a metallic phase and a striped phase, using as control parameters temperature and a doping-like parameter. We analyse the various instabilities and determine the possible phases. One class of phase diagrams, that we analyse in detail, is similar to that of high-temperature superconductors as well as other strange metal materials.